Science.gov

Sample records for a b c

  1. The A-B-C of Desalting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Office of Water Research and Technology.

    This publication provides a simple explanation of how various processes convert sea or brackish water to fresh water. Included are descriptions of the membrane processes (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, transport depletion, and piezodialysis); the distillation processes (multistage flash distillation, vertical tube distillation, multieffect…

  2. A Revised Mechanism for the Activation of Complement C3 to C3b

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg102. In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg102-Glu1032 salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg102) and disease-linked C3F (Gly102) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. PMID:25488663

  3. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    PubMed Central

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  4. 76 FR 39254 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1, and TH-55... reviewed Schweizer Service Bulletins No. B-295 for Model 269A, A-1, B, and C helicopters, and No. C1B-032... citation for Part 39 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44701. Sec. 39.13...

  5. ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111681. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G: an update.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gairy F

    2007-01-01

    Acute and chronic liver diseases are an assortment of disorders brought to the clinician's attention by abnormal liver function tests or specific signs and symptoms. The differential diagnosis includes disorders that have primary or secondary liver involvement. This paper will be limited to the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the different viral liver diseases: A, B, C, D, E and G.

  7. Clinical features of patients with homozygous complement C4A or C4B deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liesmaa, Inka; Paakkanen, Riitta; Järvinen, Asko; Valtonen, Ville; Lokki, Marja-Liisa

    2018-01-01

    Homozygous deficiencies of complement C4A or C4B are detected in 1-10% of populations. In genome-wide association studies C4 deficiencies are missed because the genetic variation of C4 is complex. There are no studies where the clinical presentation of these patients is analyzed. This study was aimed to characterize the clinical features of patients with homozygous C4A or C4B deficiency. Thirty-two patients with no functional C4A, 87 patients with no C4B and 120 with normal amount of C4 genes were included. C4A and C4B numbers were assessed with genomic quantitative real-time PCR. Medical history was studied retrospectively from patients' files. Novel associations between homozygous C4A deficiency and lymphoma, coeliac disease and sarcoidosis were detected. These conditions were present in 12.5%, (4/32 in patients vs. 0.8%, 1/120, in controls, OR = 17.00, 95%CI = 1.83-158.04, p = 0.007), 12.5% (4/32 in patients vs. 0%, 0/120 in controls, OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.00-1.30, p = 0.002) and 12.5%, respectively (4/32 in patients vs. 2.5%, 3/120 in controls, OR = 5.571, 95%CI = 1.79-2.32, p = 0.036). In addition, C4A and C4B deficiencies were both associated with adverse drug reactions leading to drug discontinuation (34.4%, 11/32 in C4A-deficient patients vs. 14.2%, 17/120 in controls, OR = 3.174, 95%CI = 1.30-7.74, p = 0.009 and 28.7%, 25/87 in C4B-deficient patients, OR = 2.44, 95%CI = 1.22-4.88, p = 0.010). This reported cohort of homozygous deficiencies of C4A or C4B suggests that C4 deficiencies may have various unrecorded disease associations. C4 gene should be considered as a candidate gene in studying these selected disease associations.

  8. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    PubMed

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  9. Callipeltosides A, B and C: Total Syntheses and Structural Confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James R; Pearson, Colin M; Snaddon, Thomas N; Booth, Richard A; Turner, Richard M; Gold, Johan; Shaw, David M; Gaunt, Matthew J; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Since their isolation almost 20 years ago, the callipeltosides have been of long standing interest to the synthetic community owing to their unique structural features and inherent biological activity. Herein we present our full research effort that has led to the synthesis of these molecules. Key aspects of our final strategy include 1) synthesis of the C1–C9 pyran core (5) using an AuCl3-catalysed cyclisation; 2) formation of C10–C22 vinyl iodide (55) by sequential bidirectional Stille reactions and 3) diastereoselective union of these advanced fragments by means of an alkenylzinc addition (d.r.=91:9 at C9). The common callipeltoside aglycon (4) was completed in a further five steps. Following this, all three sugar fragments were appended to provide the entire callipeltoside family. In addition to this, D-configured callipeltose B was synthesised and appended to the callipeltoside aglycon. The 1H NMR spectrum of this molecule was found to be significantly different to the natural isolate, further supporting our assignment of callipeltoside B (2). PMID:26230615

  10. 75 FR 68970 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...-1071; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-28] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D; NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... restricted areas R-5301 Albemarle Sound, NC; R-5302A, B and C, Harvey Point, NC; and R-5313A, B, C and D...

  11. Total Synthesis of Gramistilbenoids A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Harmalkar, Dipesh S; Lu, Qili; Lee, Kyeong

    2018-04-27

    Stilbenes are biologically active metabolites of plants that have the potential to attenuate a broad range of human diseases. Gramistilbenoids are a class of natural products with a stilbene skeleton, isolated from the bamboo orchid ( Arundina graminifolia), and with significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines (NB4, A549, SHSY5Y, PC3, and MCF7). These are the first identified naturally occurring diphenylethylenes to possess a hydroxyethyl unit. However, some of these compounds are not abundant in nature, and thus, their synthesis is advantageous. This paper reports the first synthesis of gramistilbenoids A (1), B (2), and C (3), with overall yields of 10, 2, and 8% respectively. These natural products were synthesized using key reactions, such as Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination, Stille coupling, and hydroboration-oxidation.

  12. Hepatitis B & C among farmers - a seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravinder; Kaur, Shaminder; Aseri, Rakesh; Aggarwal, Simmi; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Mann, Simarpreet; Kumar, Sumit; Kaur, Sarabjot

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis B & C are the two major causes of chronic liver disease, having the similar parenteral route of transmission, thereby responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Agriculture being the backbone of this part of country, the present study was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of these diseases among the farmers which form the major occupation class in the Malwa belt of Punjab, India. Screening camp was organized at Kisan Mela at the regional station of Punjab Agriculture University at Faridkot, Punjab. Blood samples were collected, and tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Total of 1219 subjects, 63% being in the age group of 30-50 years, were screened of which the seroprevalence of HCV & HBV was 5% and 0.32% respectively, and 72% of HCV positive cases were between 30-50 years of age. The study stresses on the need of safe injection practices especially in villages and control on addiction, a more effective vaccination program for HBV, strict check on commercial blood banks, and community education regarding tattooing and sexual behaviour.

  13. Mean-field theory on mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic compounds with (A aB bC c) yD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guo-Zhu; Xin, Zihua; Liang, Yaqiu; Zhang, Qi

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the mixed ferro-ferrimagnetic compounds with (A aB bC c) yD, in which A, B, C and D are four different magnetic ions and form four different sublattices, are studied by using the Ising model. And the Ising model was dealt with standard mean-field approximation. The regions of concentration in which two compensation points or one compensation point exit are given in c- a, b- c and a- b planes. The phase diagrams of the transition temperature Tc and compensation temperature Tcomp are obtained. The temperature dependences of the magnetization are also investigated. Some of the result can be used to explain the experimental work of the molecule-based ferro-ferrimagnet (Ni IIaMn IIbFe IIc) 1.5[Cr III(CN) 6]· zH 2O.

  14. Hepatitis A and B immunity and vaccination in chronic hepatitis B and C patients in a large United States cohort.

    PubMed

    Henkle, Emily; Lu, Mei; Rupp, Lora B; Boscarino, Joseph A; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Schmidt, Mark A; Gordon, Stuart C

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis A and B vaccines are effective in preventing superinfection and sequelae in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. We describe immunity and vaccination against hepatitis A and B in chronic hepatitis patients from the US Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study. We identified chronic hepatitis B and C patients with healthcare utilization during 2006-2008 and 12 months of enrollment. We used electronic laboratory records to determine immunity and medical and billing records for vaccination history. Immunity against hepatitis A was defined by positive hepatitis A antibody or documented vaccination. Immunity against hepatitis B was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥10 mIU/mL or core antibody positive, or by documented vaccination. Among 1635 chronic hepatitis B patients, 978 (59.8%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 122 (7.5%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 535 (32.7%) had no testing or vaccination record. Among 5328 chronic hepatitis C patients, 2998 (56.3%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 659 (12.4%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 1671 (31.4%) had no testing or vaccination record. Additionally, 3150 (59.1%) chronic hepatitis C patients were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis B, 1003 (18.8%) had a negative test result, and 1175 (22.1%) were neither tested for nor vaccinated against hepatitis B. Approximately 40% of chronic hepatitis B and C patients are susceptible to or have no documented immunity or vaccination against hepatitis A or hepatitis B. Clinicians should consider antibody testing and vaccination for this vulnerable population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis Testing Day ... Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People with HIV infection in the ...

  16. 75 FR 23572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... cycles 6,700 flight 80A3 or Pratt & Whitney engines. flight cycles \\1\\. flight cycles or \\2\\. cycles or...-200 airplanes with GE CF6- 18,000 total 19,500 total 250 flight cycles 5,800 flight 80C2 engines... flight cycles 6,700 flight Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines. flight cycles \\1\\. flight cycles or \\2\\. cycles...

  17. Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with clotting factor disorders (e.g., hemophilia) Hepatitis B caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBV is found in blood and ... users • Travelers to regions of the world where hepatitis B is common (Asia, Africa, the Amazon Basin in ...

  18. C-431 B -- Scope document

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, H.L.

    1951-06-01

    This document describes the scope of the C-431-B Reactor Production Facility. In dealing with the broad phases of the project, it includes the Sections ``A`` (Scope Modifications) of the approved Design Criteria, modified to ensure correctness to date. Location of the facility has been set as shown on the site map in HDC-2101, designated site number one. Included in Project C-431-B are the 105-C Building, including within that building facilities previously located in the 1608 Building, a contaminated effluent crib adjacent to 105-C, and gas facilities using the 115-B Building interconnected with 105-C. Also included are an oil shed, amore » thimble storage cave, a badge house, and an exclusion fence. Building services and process lines will be considered part of the project to a location nominally five feet outside of 105-C.« less

  19. "Send & hold" clinical decision support rules improvement to reduce unnecessary testing of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Borja, Enrique; Corchon-Peyrallo, Africa; Barba-Serrano, Esther; Villalba Martínez, Celia; Carratala Calvo, Arturo

    2018-06-27

    We assessed the impact of several "send & hold" clinical decision support rules (CDSRs) within the electronical request system for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for all outpatients at a large health department. When ordered through electronical request, providers (except for all our primary care physicians who worked as a non-intervention control group) were always asked to answer several compulsory questions regarding main indication, symptomatology, suspected diagnosis, vitamin active treatments, etc., for each vitamin test using a drop-down list format. After samples arrival, tests were later put on hold internally by our laboratory information system (LIS) until review for their appropriateness was made by two staff pathologists according to the provided answers and LIS records (i.e. "send & hold"). The number of tests for each analyte was compared between the 10-month period before and after CDSRs implementation in both groups. After implementation, vitamins test volumes decreased by 40% for vitamin A, 29% for vitamin E, 42% for vitamin K, 37% for vitamin B1, 85% for vitamin B2, 68% for vitamin B3, 65% for vitamin B6 and 59% for vitamin C (all p values 0.03 or lower except for vitamin B3), whereas in control group, the majority increased or remained stable. In patients with rejected vitamins, no new requests and/or adverse clinical outcome comments due to this fact were identified. "Send & hold" CDSRs are a promising informatics tool that can support in utilization management and enhance the pathologist's leadership role as tests specialist.

  20. 76 FR 63177 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, A300 B2-203, A300 B2K-3C, A300-B4-103, A300 B4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011... B4-2C Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT...

  1. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial effect of vitamins (A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and K) with antibiotics against resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Shakeel; Ashraf, M Adnan; Sajid, M; Shahzad, Aqeel; Rafique, Azhar; Mahmood, M Shahid

    2018-02-02

    Multiple drug resistant super bugs of Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are becoming challenge for healthcare professionals. In this study, vitamins were evaluated for synergistic activity with the antibiotics. Synergistic effect between antibiotic and stock solutions of vitamins is evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Distilled water and propylene glycol were used as solvent for water soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins respectively. The final concentration of 10mg/ml of each water-soluble vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B6 (Pyridoxine) B12 (Methylcobalamin), C (Ascorbic acid) and 0.1mg/ml of each fat soluble vitamin A (retinol), D (cholecalciferol) E (αTocopherol) K (Menadione) were used with the antibiotics. The results depicted that vitamin K and E have better synergistic activity with piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem and doripenem antibiotics against A. baumannii. While vitamin B1, B2 and B12 showed remarkable synergistic activity with linezolid against MRSA. Vitamin B1 was further tested to have better synergism with antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, rifampicin and linezolid against MRSA. The fat-soluble vitamins E and K were good in synergism against Gram negative A. baumannii while water soluble vitamins as B1, B2 and B12 were effective against MRSA but not against A. baumannii. This synergistic action of vitamins with the antibiotics can be used as a tool to treat multiple drug resistant super bugs with further evaluation at molecular level. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Novel Role for C5a in B-1 Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Katharina; Figge, Julia; Magnusen, Albert F.; Manz, Rudolf A.; Köhl, Jörg; Karsten, Christian M.

    2018-01-01

    B-1 cells constitute a unique subpopulation of lymphocytes residing mainly in body cavities like the peritoneal cavity (PerC) but are also found in spleen and bone marrow (BM). As innate-like B cells, they mediate first line immune defense through low-affinity natural IgM (nIgM) antibodies. PerC B-1 cells can egress to the spleen and differentiate into nIgM antibody-secreting plasma cells that recognize conserved exogenous and endogenous cellular structures. Homing to and homeostasis within the PerC are regulated by the chemokine CXCL13 released by PerC macrophages and stroma cells. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the regulation of CXCL13 and B-1 homeostasis are not fully explored. B-1 cells play important roles in the inflammatory response to infection, autoimmunity, ischemia/reperfusion injury, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Remarkably, this list of inflammatory entities has a strong overlap with diseases that are regulated by complement suggesting a link between B-1 cells and the complement system. Interestingly, up to now, no data exist regarding the role of complement in B-1 cell biology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates B-1 cell steady-state dynamics within the peritoneum, the spleen, and the BM. We found decreased B-1a cell numbers in the peritoneum and the spleen of C5aR1−/− mice associated with increased B1-a and B1-b numbers in the spleen and high serum titers of nIgM antibodies directed against phosphorylcholine and several pneumococcal polysaccharides. Similarly, peritoneal B-1a cells were decreased in the peritoneum and splenic B-1a and B-1b cells were increased in C5aR2−/− mice. The decrease in peritoneal B-1 cell numbers was associated with decreased peritoneal CXCL13 levels in C5aR1−/− and C5aR2−/− mice. In search for mechanisms, we found that combined TLR2 and IL-10 receptor activation in PerC macrophages induced strong CXCL13 production, which was significantly reduced in cells from C5aR1- and C5a

  3. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest. ...

  4. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest. ...

  5. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest. ...

  6. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  7. Cardiolipin deficiency causes a dissociation of the b 6 c:caa 3 megacomplex in B. subtilis membranes.

    PubMed

    García Montes de Oca, Led Yered Jafet; Cabellos Avelar, Tecilli; Picón Garrido, Gerardo Ignacio; Chagoya-López, Alicia; González de la Vara, Luis; Delgado Buenrostro, Norma Laura; Chirino-López, Yolanda Irasema; Gómez-Lojero, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma Berta

    2016-08-01

    The associations among respiratory complexes in energy-transducing membranes have been established. In fact, it is known that the Gram-negative bacteria Paracoccus denitrificans and Escherichia coli have respiratory supercomplexes in their membranes. These supercomplexes are important for channeling substrates between enzymes in a metabolic pathway, and the assembly of these supercomplexes depends on the protein subunits and membrane lipids, mainly cardiolipin, which is present in both the mitochondrial inner membrane and bacterial membranes. The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has a branched respiratory chain, in which some complexes generate proton motive force whereas others constitute an escape valve of excess reducing power. Some peculiarities of this respiratory chain are the following: a type II NADH dehydrogenase, a unique b 6 c complex that has a b 6 type cytochrome with a covalently bound heme, and a c-type heme attached to the third subunit, which is similar to subunit IV of the photosynthetic b 6 f complex. Cytochrome c oxygen reductase (caa 3 ) contains a c-type cytochrome on subunit I. We previously showed that the b 6 c and the caa 3 complexes form a supercomplex. Both the b 6 c and the caa 3 together with the quinol oxygen reductase aa 3 generate the proton motive force in B. subtilis. In order to seek proof that this supercomplex is important for bacterial growth in aerobic conditions we compared the b 6 c: caa 3 supercomplex from wild type membranes with membranes from two mutants lacking cardiolipin. Both mutant complexes were found to have similar activity and heme content as the wild type. Clear native electrophoresis showed that mutants lacking cardiolipin had b 6 c:caa 3 supercomplexes of lower mass or even individual complexes after membrane solubilization with digitonin. The use of dodecyl maltoside revealed a more evident difference between wild-type and mutant supercomplexes. Here we provide evidence showing that cardiolipin

  8. 75 FR 26885 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A, B, and C Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... states that this ``check'' should be performed in accordance with the maintenance manual. Because we have... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S- 76A, B, and C Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A, B, and C helicopters that requires...

  9. 75 FR 11428 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...-0789; Directorate Identifier 2008-NM-185-AD; Amendment 39-16228; AD 2010-06-04] RIN 2120-AA64..., A310-54-2018 and A300-54-6015. * * * This AD requires the implementation of this * * * inspection... that table were derived from the note in the Configuration 01 table in paragraph 1.E.(2) of Airbus...

  10. 75 FR 74610 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C, B2-203, B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...] attachment fitting lower flanges, DGAC [Direction G[eacute]n[eacute]rale de l'Aviation Civile] France AD 2003... [right-hand] and LH [left-hand] attachment fitting lower flanges, DGAC [Direction G[eacute]n[eacute]rale...-57A6101. This AD is revised to introduce an optional terminating action which consists of spot-facing the...

  11. Interfacial microstructure in a B{sub 4}C/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Z.; Song, Y.; Zhang, S.

    In this work, B{sub 4}C particulate-reinforced Al composite was fabricated by a pressureless infiltration technique, and its interfacial microstructure was studied in detail by X-ray diffraction as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The B{sub 4}C phase was unstable in Al melt during the infiltration process, forming AlB{sub 10}-type AlB{sub 24}C{sub 4} or Al{sub 2.1}B{sub 51}C{sub 8} as a major reactant phase. The Al matrix was large grains (over 10 {micro}m), which had no definite orientation relationships (ORs) with the randomly orientated B{sub 4}C or its reactant particles, except for possible nucleation sites with {l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub B{sub 4}C} almostmore » parallel to {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub Al} at a deviation angle of 1.5 deg. Both B{sub 4}C-Al and reactant-Al interfaces are semicoherent and free of other phases. A comparison was made with the SiC/Al composite fabricated similarly by the pressureless infiltration. It was suggested that the lack of ORs between the Al matrix and reinforced particles, except for possible nucleation sites, is the common feature of the composites prepared by the infiltration method.« less

  12. The A [plus] B [double arrow] C of Chemical Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhartl, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    Basic chemical thermodynamics usually treats non-p,T reactions in a stepmotherly fashion. This paper covers the main aspects of the theoretical principles of reactions (p,T; V,T; p,H; and V,U) and offers results from the ABC computer program, which was designed to show the validity of the equilibrium theory to all types of reaction modes. (PVD)

  13. A revised mechanism for the activation of complement C3 to C3b: a molecular explanation of a disease-associated polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J

    2015-01-23

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg(102). In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg(102)) and disease-linked C3F (Gly(102)) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Antibody-Mediated Complement C3b/iC3b Binding to Group B Streptococcus in Paired Mother and Baby Serum Samples in a Refugee Population on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T.; Gorringe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  15. Search for excited B c + states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Da Silva, C. L.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Durham, J. M.; Dutta, D.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Lopes, L.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hopchev, P. H.; Hu, W.; Huang, W.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Keizer, F.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Kress, F.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Liang, X.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Pereima, D.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pietrzyk, G.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Qin, J.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepulveda, E. S.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Weisser, C.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, M.; Xu, Q.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.

    2018-01-01

    A search is performed in the invariant mass spectrum of the B c + π+π- system for the excited B c + states B c (21 S 0)+ and B c (23 S 1)+ using a data sample of pp collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at the centre-of-mass energy of √{s}=8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2 fb-1. No evidence is seen for either state. Upper limits on the ratios of the production cross-sections of the B c (21 S 0)+ and B c (23 S 1)+ states times the branching fractions of B c (21 S 0)+ → B c + π+π- and B c (23 S 1)+ → B c * +π+π- over the production cross-section of the B c + state are given as a function of their masses. They are found to be between 0.02 and 0.14 at 95% confidence level for B c (21 S 0)+ and B c (23 S 1)+ in the mass ranges [6830 , 6890] MeV /c 2 and [6795 , 6890] MeV /c 2, respectively. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  18. Gene regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide A, B, and C receptors in rat glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Itoh, K; Nonoguchi, H; Shiraishi, N; Tomita, K

    1999-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has three types of receptor. We investigated the gene regulation of three types of ANP receptors (ANPR-A, B, and C) in rat glomeruli using reverse transcription coupled with competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Competitive PCR revealed that ANPR-C mRNA expression was most abundant (ANPR-C > A > B) in glomeruli from control rats among mRNA expressions of three receptors, which were 20- to 15,000-fold higher than those in inner medullary collecting ducts. Two days' dehydration caused reversible decreases of ANPR-A, B, and C mRNAs by 50-80%. To determine the mechanisms of down-regulation of mRNA expression, isolated glomeruli were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic solution. Hyperosmolality induced by NaCl, mannitol or raffinose caused significant increases of ANPR-A, B, and C mRNA expression. Hypertonicity by urea showed smaller effects. ANP stimulated the expression of ANPR-A, B, and C mRNA in vitro. These results indicate that dehydration caused reversible decreases of ANPR-A, B, and C mRNA expression in glomeruli, and these decreases were not caused by increased plasma osmolality but probably by lower circulating levels of ANP.

  19. Complete sequence of HLA-B27 cDNA identified through the characterization of structural markers unique to the HLA-A, -B, and -C allelic series

    SciTech Connect

    Szoets, H.; Reithmueller, G.; Weiss, E.

    1986-03-01

    Antigen HLA-B27 is a high-risk genetic factor with respect to a group of rheumatoid disorders, especially ankylosing spondylitis. A cDNA library was constructed from an autozygous B-cell line expressing HLA-B27, HLA-Cw1, and the previously cloned HLA-A2 antigen. Clones detected with an HLA probe were isolated and sorted into homology groups by differential hybridization and restriction maps. Nucleotide sequencing allowed the unambiguous assignment of cDNAs to HLA-A, -B, and -C loci. The HLA-B27 mRNA has the structure features and the codon variability typical of an HLA class I transcript but it specifies two uncommon amino acid replacements: a cysteine in positionmore » 67 and a serine in position 131. The latter substitution may have functional consequences, because it occurs in a conserved region and at a position invariably occupied by a species-specific arginine in humans and lysine in mice. The availability of the complete sequence of HLA-B27 and of the partial sequence of HLA-Cw1 allows the recognition of locus-specific sequence markers, particularly, but not exclusively, in the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.« less

  20. B97-3c: A revised low-cost variant of the B97-D density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Bannwarth, Christoph; Hansen, Andreas; Grimme, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    A revised version of the well-established B97-D density functional approximation with general applicability for chemical properties of large systems is proposed. Like B97-D, it is based on Becke's power-series ansatz from 1997 and is explicitly parametrized by including the standard D3 semi-classical dispersion correction. The orbitals are expanded in a modified valence triple-zeta Gaussian basis set, which is available for all elements up to Rn. Remaining basis set errors are mostly absorbed in the modified B97 parametrization, while an established atom-pairwise short-range potential is applied to correct for the systematically too long bonds of main group elements which are typical for most semi-local density functionals. The new composite scheme (termed B97-3c) completes the hierarchy of "low-cost" electronic structure methods, which are all mainly free of basis set superposition error and account for most interactions in a physically sound and asymptotically correct manner. B97-3c yields excellent molecular and condensed phase geometries, similar to most hybrid functionals evaluated in a larger basis set expansion. Results on the comprehensive GMTKN55 energy database demonstrate its good performance for main group thermochemistry, kinetics, and non-covalent interactions, when compared to functionals of the same class. This also transfers to metal-organic reactions, which is a major area of applicability for semi-local functionals. B97-3c can be routinely applied to hundreds of atoms on a single processor and we suggest it as a robust computational tool, in particular, for more strongly correlated systems where our previously published "3c" schemes might be problematic.

  1. Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing (the Company) is located in Arnold, Missouri. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  2. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  3. Antascomicins A, B, C, D and E. Novel FKBP12 binding compounds from a Micromonospora strain.

    PubMed

    Fehr, T; Sanglier, J J; Schuler, W; Gschwind, L; Ponelle, M; Schilling, W; Wioland, C

    1996-03-01

    5 novel ascomycin-like compounds, antascomicins A, B, C, D and E were isolated from a strain of Micromonospora. The antascomicins bind strongly to the FK506-binding protein FKBP12 and antagonize the immunosuppressive activity of FK506 and rapamycin. The strain description, fermentation, structure elucidation and biological activity of these compounds are described.

  4. Terrorist Material Support: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 2339A and 2339B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    the challenge before it were not unconstitutionally vague nor was their proscription inconsistent with the First Amendment’s freedom of speech and...creates a civil cause of action for victims, treble damages and attorneys fees may be available for some victims under 18 U.S.C. 2333. Section 2339B...Extraterritorial Jurisdiction....................................................................................................4 Civil Actions

  5. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarianmore » cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.« less

  6. The Counterarc to MS 1512-cB58 and a Companion Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Malkan, Matthew A.; McLean, Ian S.

    2004-06-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of ``A2,'' the primary counterarc to the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512-cB58. The spectra show redshifted Hα, [N II], [O III], and Hβ at z=2.729+/-0.001. We observe the same Hα/[O III] ratio as cB58, which together with the redshift confirms that A2 is indeed another image of a single background galaxy. Published lensing reconstruction reports that A2 is a magnification of the entire source, while cB58 is an image of only a part. At marginal significance, A2 shows higher line-to-continuum ratios than cB58 (by a factor of ~2), suggesting a nonuniform ratio of young to old stars across the galaxy. We observe a second emission-line source in the slit. This object, ``W5,'' is predicted to be a lensed image of another galaxy at a redshift similar to cB58. W5 is blueshifted from cB58 by ~400 km s-1 and has a significantly lower Hα/[O III] ratio, confirming that it is an image of a different background galaxy in a group with cB58. The Hα emission line in W5 implies a star formation rate of 6 Msolar yr-1 (H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1, ΩM=0.3,ΩΛ=0.7), after correcting for lensing magnification. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis-hepatitis B/C coinfections: a rising necessity to triage patients for treatment.

    PubMed

    A, Abubakr O; M, Mohamed M; A, Hatim A; Elamin, Mohamed Y; Younis, Brima M; E, Mona E; Musa, Ahmed M; Elhassan, Ahmed M; G, Eltahir A

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening infection caused by Leishmania species. In Sudan, VL is caused by L donovani. Most drugs used to treat VL, especially pentavalent antimony compounds (sodium stibogluconate, SSG), are potentially hepatotoxic. A number of fatal catastrophes happened because patients with VL-hepatitis B/C coinfection were indiscriminately treated with SSG in settings where VL and viral hepatitis coexist. This study aimed to study biochemical and hematological parameters of patients with VL-hepatitis B/C coinfections with the aim to modify treatment protocols to reduce coinfection.added morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective analytical, hospital-based, and case-controlled study. The study was done at Kassab Hospital and Professor Elhassan Centre for tropical medicine during the period of February 2008 to April 2013. Following informed consent by the participants, 78 parasitologically confirmed VL patients with either hepatitis B or C or both and 528 sex- and age-unmatched VL patients without hepatitis B/C coinfection (control group) were enrolled sequentially. Diagnosis of hepatitis B or C was made using immunochromatographic test kits and confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VL patients with hepatitis B/C coinfections had significantly increased levels of AST, ALT, and total bilirubin compared to the control group (P=.0001 for all), with significantly decreased levels of albumin and platelets counts (P=.0029 for both). VL-hepatitis B/C coinfections are an emerging entity that needs anti-leishmanial treatment modification. Alternative treatments like paromomycin and amphotericin B (AmBisome) could be reserved for these patients.

  8. Validity of injecting drug users' self report of hepatitis A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Schlicting, Erin G; Johnson, Mark E; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace

    2003-01-01

    To test the validity of drug users self-reports of diseases associated with drug use, in this case hepatitis A, B, and C. Injecting drug users (n = 653) were recruited and asked whether they had been diagnosed previously with hepatitis A, B, and/or C. These self-report data were compared to total hepatitis A antibody, hepatitis B core antibody, and hepatitis C antibody seromarkers as a means of determining the validity of the self-reported information. Anchorage, Alaska. Criteria for inclusion included being at least 18-years old; testing positive on urinalysis for cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, or morphine; having visible signs of injection (track marks). Serological testing for hepatitis A, B, and C. Findings indicate high specificity, low sensitivity, and low kappa coefficients for all three self-report measures. Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in sensitivity associated with previous substance abuse treatment experience for hepatitis B self-report and with gender for hepatitis C self-report. Given the low sensitivity, the validity of drug users, self-reported information on hepatitis should be considered with caution.

  9. [HLA A, B, C and DR antigens in a urban population from Santiago of Chile].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, L; Scagliotti, P; Quiroga, T

    1993-05-01

    HLA antigens vary in different ethnical groups and in Chile there are no reports on the frequency of these antigens in a normal representative population. The few existing studies are of indigenous populations and control groups, without including HLA-DR antigens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the frequency of HLA A, B and C antigens in 349 individuals and HLA-DR in 257, using the microlymphocytotoxicity method, and compared the results with those on normal caucasian populations (Europe and USA). Significant differences were found for 7 antigens of group A, 10 of group B, 4 of group C and 6 of group DR. The observed difference allow us to conclude that the population from Santiago has a distinct HLA antigen distribution. This fact must be bore in mind future studies in genetics, paternity or autoimmune diseases.

  10. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  11. Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in 1 2Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible Spectrophotometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a), b (chl b), c + c 1 2 (chl c + c ) and pheopigments of chlorophyll a (pheo a) 1 2 found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Chlorophyllide a is determined as chl a. Visible wavelength spectrophotomet...

  12. The HsiB1C1 (TssB-TssC) Complex of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type VI Secretion System Forms a Bacteriophage Tail Sheathlike Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lossi, Nadine S.; Manoli, Eleni; Förster, Andreas; Dajani, Rana; Pape, Tillmann; Freemont, Paul; Filloux, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Protein secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria evolved into a variety of molecular nanomachines. They are related to cell envelope complexes, which are involved in assembly of surface appendages or transport of solutes. They are classified as types, the most recent addition being the type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS displays similarities to bacteriophage tail, which drives DNA injection into bacteria. The Hcp protein is related to the T4 bacteriophage tail tube protein gp19, whereas VgrG proteins structurally resemble the gp27/gp5 puncturing device of the phage. The tube and spike of the phage are pushed through the bacterial envelope upon contraction of a tail sheath composed of gp18. In Vibrio cholerae it was proposed that VipA and VipB assemble into a tail sheathlike structure. Here we confirm these previous data by showing that HsiB1 and HsiC1 of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa H1-T6SS assemble into tubules resulting from stacking of cogwheel-like structures showing predominantly 12-fold symmetry. The internal diameter of the cogwheels is ∼100 Å, which is large enough to accommodate an Hcp tube whose external diameter has been reported to be 85 Å. The N-terminal 212 residues of HsiC1 are sufficient to form a stable complex with HsiB1, but the C terminus of HsiC1 is essential for the formation of the tubelike structure. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that HsiC1 displays similarities to gp18-like proteins in its C-terminal region. In conclusion, we provide further structural and mechanistic insights into the T6SS and show that a phage sheathlike structure is likely to be a conserved element across all T6SSs. PMID:23341461

  13. A New Orbit for Comet C/1865 B1 (Great Southern Comet of 1865)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Comet C/1865 B1 (Great southern comet of 1865), observed only in the southern hemisphere, is one of a large number of comets with parabolic orbits. Given that there are 202 observations in right ascension and 165 in declination it proves possible to calculate a better orbit than that Körber published in 1887, the orbit used in various catalogs and data bases. C/1865 B1's orbit is hyperbolic and statistically distinguishable from a parabola. This object, therefore, cannot be considered an NEO. The comet has a small perihelion distance of 0.026 AU.

  14. Where is the Best Site on Earth? Domes A, B, C, and F, and Ridges A and B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suanders, Will; Lawrence, Jon S.; Storey, John W. V.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Kato, Seiji; Minnis, Patrick; Winker, David M.; Liu, Guiping; Kulesa, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic plateau contains the best sites on earth for many forms of astronomy, but none of the existing bases were selected with astronomy as the primary motivation. In this paper, we try to systematically compare the merits of potential observatory sites. We include South Pole, Domes A, C and F, and also Ridge B (running NE from Dome A), and what we call Ridge A (running SW from Dome A). Our analysis combines satellite data, published results and atmospheric models, to compare the boundary layer, weather, free atmosphere, sky brightness, pecipitable water vapour, and surface temperature at each site. We find that all Antarctic sites are likely compromised for optical work by airglow and aurorae. Of the sites with existing bases, Dome A is the best overall; but we find that Ridge A offers an even better site. We also find that Dome F is a remarkably good site. Dome C is less good as a thermal infrared or terahertz site, but would be able to take advantage of a predicted OH hole over Antarctica during Spring.

  15. Janthinocins A, B and C, novel peptide lactone antibiotics produced by Janthinobacterium lividum. II. Structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J H; Tymiak, A A; Bolgar, M S

    1990-08-01

    The structures of janthinocins A, B and C, three novel macrocyclic peptide lactone antibiotics isolated from fermentations of Janthinobacterium lividum, were determined. The janthinocins are of particular interest because they contain three amino acid residues that have not previously been reported in natural products: Each contains erythro-beta-hydroxy-D-leucine while janthinocins A and B also contain beta-hydroxytryptophan and beta-ketotryptophan, respectively.

  16. Dynamics of A + B --> C reaction fronts in the presence of buoyancy-driven convection.

    PubMed

    Rongy, L; Trevelyan, P M J; De Wit, A

    2008-08-22

    The dynamics of A+B-->C fronts in horizontal solution layers can be influenced by buoyancy-driven convection as soon as the densities of A, B, and C are not all identical. Such convective motions can lead to front propagation even in the case of equal diffusion coefficients and initial concentration of reactants for which reaction-diffusion (RD) scalings predict a nonmoving front. We show theoretically that the dynamics in the presence of convection can in that case be predicted solely on the basis of the knowledge of the one-dimensional RD density profile across the front.

  17. A hypothetical complex between crystalline flavocytochrome b2 and cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Tegoni, M; White, S A; Roussel, A; Mathews, F S; Cambillau, C

    1993-08-01

    Flavocytochrome b2 and cytochrome c are physiological electron transfer partners in yeast mitochondria. The formation of a stable complex between them has been demonstrated both in solution and in the crystalline state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structures, using molecular modeling and energy minimization, we have generated a hypothetical model for the interaction of these redox partners in the crystal lattice. General criteria such as good charge and surface complementarity, plausible orientation, and separation distance of the prosthetic groups, as well as more specific criteria such as the stoichiometry determined in the crystal, and the involvement of both domains and of more than one subunit of flavocytochrome b2 led us to discriminate between several possible interaction sites. In the hypothetical model we present, four cytochrome c molecules interact with a tetramer of flavocytochrome b2. The b2 and c hemes are coplanar, with an edge-to-edge distance of 14 A. The contact surface area is ca. 800 A2. Several electrostatic interactions involving the flavin and the heme domains of flavocytochrome b2 stabilize the binding of cytochrome c.

  18. Understanding the Electronic Structure of the a-B5C:Hx-to-Metal Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    investigating electronic structure is optical absorption spectroscopy, where the absorbance spectrum represents a superposition of optical transitions...6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-63 Understanding the Electronic Structure of the a-B5C:Hx-to...42 4.4. Electronic Structure and Charge Transport Models

  19. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Marco Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+)-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste. PMID:26664632

  20. A Paradoxical Partnership in Higher Education: The Alliance between Alfred C. Kinsey and Herman B Wells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Herman B Wells served as president of Indiana University from 1938 to 1962--from the days of the Great Depression into the turbulent 1960s. Alfred C. Kinsey was a professor, zoologist, and human sexuality researcher at Indiana University from 1920 until his death in 1956. A unique and paradoxical professional relationship existed between these two…

  1. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  2. C 1Σ+ , A 1Σ+ , and b 3Π0+ states of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, I. C.; Blasing, D. B.; Chen, Y. P.; Elliott, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic studies of the C 1Σ+ electronic state and the A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex in 7Li-85Rb. Using resonantly enhanced, two-photon ionization, we observed v =7 , 9, 12, 13, and 26-45 of the C 1Σ+ state. We augment the REMPI data with a form of depletion spectra in regions of dense spectral lines. The A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex was observed with depletion spectroscopy, depleting to vibrational levels v =0 →29 of the A 1Σ+ state and v =8 →18 of the b 3Π0+ state. For all three series, we determine the term energy and vibrational constants. Finally, we outline several possible future projects based on the data presented here.

  3. HLA-A, B and C and HLA-DR antigens in intrinsic and allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Morris, M J; Faux, J A; Ting, A; Morris, P J; Lane, D J

    1980-03-01

    Some 103 patients with asthma and 100 healthy volunteers have been typed for HLA-A, B and C and HLA-DR antigens. The 103 patients consisted of thirty-three with intrinsic asthma, thirty-four with extrinsic asthma, and thirty-six known to have precipitins to Aspergillus fumigatus. No increase in frequency of any of the A, B, C, or DR antigens was found to be significant after correction for the number of comparisons was made. However certain trends comparable to findings in other immunopathic disorders were noted. For example B12 was increased in the allergic asthmatics (46 vs 29% controls) and it is suggested that B12 is associated with the ability to produce the IgE antibodies. A3/B7/DRw2 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) all show a decreased frequency in intrinsic asthma (24, 12 and 9% vs 32, 26 and 24% respectively in controls). Finally B8 and DRw3, which showed a moderate increase in frequency in all three groups of asthmatics, were found in five of seven patients with low atopy but persisting antibodies to A. fumigatus. Further detailed studies of these asthmatic subgroups is warranted.

  4. Public awareness and practical knowledge regarding Hepatitis A, B, and C: a two-country survey.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; Göritz, Anja S

    2012-04-01

    To assess the level of public awareness and practical knowledge regarding Hepatitis A, B, and C in two low-endemic countries (Germany and The Netherlands). Two large-scale surveys (N=1989 and 668). Although public awareness was high, practical knowledge regarding differences in the mode of transmission, consequences, and prevention was very low in both countries, especially among those with a lower level of education. Future public health initiatives are warranted to increase knowledge as a first step to empower people, especially those with a lower level of education. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modifying a numerical algorithm for solving the matrix equation X + AX T B = C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, Yu. O.

    2013-06-01

    Certain modifications are proposed for a numerical algorithm solving the matrix equation X + AX T B = C. By keeping the intermediate results in storage and repeatedly using them, it is possible to reduce the total complexity of the algorithm from O( n 4) to O( n 3) arithmetic operations.

  6. Trichopeptides A and B, trichocyclodipeptides A-C, new peptides from the ascomycete fungus Stagonospora trichophoricola.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengkun; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Jinwei; Wang, Wenzhao; Liu, Xingzhong; Li, Erwei

    2017-08-01

    Trichopeptides A (1) and B (2), new linear tetrapeptide and tripeptide, respectively, and three new diketopiperazines trichocyclodipeptides A-C (3-5) were isolated from the fermentation of the ascomycete fungus Stagonospora trichophoricola, a fungus isolated from the soil sample surrounding the fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Maqin Country, Qinghai Province, People's Republic of China. Their structures were primarily elucidated by interpretation of NMR and MS experiments. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were assigned through Marfey's method on their acid hydrolyzates. Compound 3 showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans with the IC 50 and MIC values of 22 and 90 μg ml -1 , respectively.

  7. Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Watashi, Koichi; Ishii, Naoto; Hijikata, Makoto; Inoue, Daisuke; Murata, Takayuki; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2005-07-01

    Viruses depend on host-derived factors for their efficient genome replication. Here, we demonstrate that a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin B (CyPB), is critical for the efficient replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. CyPB interacted with the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B to directly stimulate its RNA binding activity. Both the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CyPB expression and the induced loss of NS5B binding to CyPB decreased the levels of HCV replication. Thus, CyPB functions as a stimulatory regulator of NS5B in HCV replication machinery. This regulation mechanism for viral replication identifies CyPB as a target for antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  8. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 215.403-1 Section 215.403-1 Federal... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.403-1 Prohibition on obtaining cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (b) Exceptions to cost or pricing data...

  9. A multicolour flow cytometric assay for c-MYC protein in B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Alayed, Khaled; Schweitzer, Karen; Awadallah, Amad; Shetty, Shashirekha; Turakhia, Samir; Meyerson, Howard

    2018-05-16

    Develop an objective assay to detect c-MYC protein expression using multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) as an alternative to immunohistochemistry (IHC). 57 patient samples and 11 cell line samples were evaluated. Cell suspensions were obtained and c-MYC staining was performed in combination with CD45 and CD19 and, in some samples, CD10. The percentage of c-MYC+ cells by FCM was correlated with the percentage determined by IHC. The relationship between c-MYC protein expression and the presence of a c-MYC gene rearrangement in aggressive and high-grade lymphomas was also assessed. c-MYC expression by FCM and IHC demonstrated a high degree of correlation in a training set of 33 patient cases, r=0.92, 11 cell line samples, r=0.81 and in a validation set of 24 aggressive and high-grade B-cell lymphomas, r=0.85. c-MYC gene was rearranged by fluorescence in situ hybridisation in 6/9 samples with high c-MYC expression (>40%) by FCM and 6/14 by IHC. We have developed a reliable multicolour FCM assay to detect c-MYC expression suitable for clinical laboratories that should be helpful to accurately quantify c-MYC expression in B-cell lymphomas. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy. PMID:28167849

  11. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Stoian, Dana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy.

  12. Different mechanisms of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase activation by cyclophilin A and B in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weng, Leiyun; Tian, Xiao; Gao, Yayi; Watashi, Koichi; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Wakita, Takaji; Kohara, Michinori; Toyoda, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Cyclophilins (CyPs) are cellular proteins that are essential to hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Since cyclosporine A was discovered to inhibit HCV infection, the CyP pathway contributing to HCV replication is a potential attractive stratagem for controlling HCV infection. Among them, CyPA is accepted to interact with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A, although interaction of CyPB and NS5B, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), was proposed first. CyPA, CyPB, and HCV RdRp were expressed in bacteria and purified using combination column chromatography. HCV RdRp activity was analyzed in vitro with purified CyPA and CyPB. CyPA at a high concentration (50× higher than that of RdRp) but not at low concentration activated HCV RdRp. CyPB had an allosteric effect on genotype 1b RdRp activation. CyPB showed genotype specificity and activated genotype 1b and J6CF (2a) RdRps but not genotype 1a or JFH1 (2a) RdRps. CyPA activated RdRps of genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a. CyPB may also support HCV genotype 1b replication within the infected cells, although its knockdown effect on HCV 1b replicon activity was controversial in earlier reports. CyPA activated HCV RdRp at the early stages of transcription, including template RNA binding. CyPB also activated genotype 1b RdRp. However, their activation mechanisms are different. These data suggest that both CyPA and CyPB are excellent targets for the treatment of HCV 1b, which shows the greatest resistance to interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. B-535a, b and c, new sphingosine kinase inhibitors, produced by a marine bacterium; taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and structure determination.

    PubMed

    Kono, K; Tanaka, M; Mizuno, T; Kodama, K; Ogita, T; Kohama, T

    2000-08-01

    In the course of our screening for inhibitors of sphingosine kinase, we found a series of active compounds in a culture broth of a novel marine bacterium, SANK 71896. The structures of the compounds, named B-5354a, b and c, were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses to be new esters of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid with long-chain unsaturated alcohols. B-5354a, b and c inhibit sphingosine kinase activity with IC50 values of 21, 58 and 38 microm, respectively.

  14. Evidence for New Madrid earthquakes in A.D. 300 and 2350 B.C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E. S.; Campbell, J.; Thomas, P.M.; Sims, J.D.; Lafferty, R. H.

    2005-01-01

    Six episodes of earthquake-induced liquefaction are associated with soil horizons containing artifacts of the Late Archaic (3000-500 B.C.) and Early to Middle Woodland (500 B.C.-A.D. 400) cultural periods at the Burkett archaeological site in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone, where little information about prehistoric earthquakes has been available. Radiocarbon dating of organic material and analysis of artifacts are used to estimate the ages of the liquefaction features and times of the causative earthquakes. The most recent episode of liquefaction occurred after A.D. 1670, produced small sand dikes, and is probably related to the 1895 Charleston, Missouri earthquake. The preceding episode struck the area in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years and generated a sand blow that contains Late Woodland artifacts and buries an Early to Middle Woodland cultural horizon. Four older episodes of liquefaction occurred in 2350 B.C. ?? 200 years and may have been produced by a sequence of closely timed earthquakes. The four earlier episodes produced graben structures, sand dikes, and associated sand blows on which a cultural mound was constructed. The Burkett liquefaction features that formed about 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300 are relatively large and similar in age to other liquefaction features in northeastern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri, respectively. If the prehistoric features at the Burkett site and those of similar age elsewhere in the region are the result of the same earthquakes, then this suggests that they were similar in size to the three largest (M 7-8) 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. A New Madrid-type earthquake in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years would support an average recurrence time of 500 years. Although this study extends the earthquake chronology back to 2500 B.C., it is uncertain that the record of New Madrid events is complete for the period between 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300. As demonstrated by this study, information about other prehistoric earthquakes may be

  15. Short communication: Pasteurization as a means of inactivating staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C in milk.

    PubMed

    Necidova, Lenka; Bogdanovicova, Katerina; Harustiakova, Danka; Bartova, Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of pasteurization temperature on inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). Milk samples were inoculated with log 4.38 to 5.18cfu/mL of 40 different Staphylococcus aureus strains having the ability to produce types A, B, or C SE and incubated at 37°C for 24h to develop SE. This incubation was followed by heat treatment for 15 s at 72, 85, and 92°C. Samples were analyzed for Staph. aureus count by plate method and, specifically, for SE presence. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay on a MiniVIDAS analyzer (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France) was used to detect SE, which were determined semiquantitatively based on test values. The Staph. aureus count in milk before pasteurization did not affect the amount of SE. Before pasteurization, SEB was detected in the lowest amount compared with other SE types. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were markedly reduced with pasteurization and inactivated at pasteurization temperatures to an extent depending on the amount in the sample before pasteurization. After pasteurization at 72°C, SE were detected in 87.5% of samples (35/40), after pasteurization at 85°C in 52.5% of samples (21/40), and after pasteurization at 92°C in 45.0% of samples (18/40). We determined that SE may still persist in milk even when Staph. aureus bacteria are inactivated through pasteurization. Although pasteurization may partially inactivate SE in milk, a key measure in the prevention of staphylococcal enterotoxicosis linked to pasteurized milk consumption is to avoid any cold chain disruption during milk production and processing. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1.

    PubMed

    Ballou, W Ripley; Reed, Jennifer L; Noble, William; Young, Neal S; Koenig, Scott

    2003-02-15

    A recombinant human parvovirus B19 vaccine (MEDI-491; MedImmune) composed of the VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and formulated with MF59C.1 adjuvant was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial. Parvovirus B19-seronegative adults (n=24) received either 2.5 or 25 microg MEDI-491 at 0, 1, and 6 months. MEDI-491 was safe and immunogenic. All volunteers developed neutralizing antibody titers that peaked after the third immunization and were sustained through study day 364.

  17. Structural insights into ligand recognition and selectivity for class A, B, and C GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; Booe, Jason M.; Pioszak, Augen A.

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily constitutes the largest collection of cell surface signaling proteins with approximately 800 members in the human genome. GPCRs regulate virtually all aspects of physiology and they are an important class of drug targets with ~30% of drugs on the market targeting a GPCR. Breakthroughs in GPCR structural biology in recent years have significantly expanded our understanding of GPCR structure and function and ushered in a new era of structure-based drug design for GPCRs. Crystal structures for nearly thirty distinct GPCRs are now available including receptors from each of the major classes, A, B, C, and F. These structures provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of GPCR pharmacology. Here, we review structural mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity of GPCRs with a focus on selected examples from classes A, B, and C, and we highlight major unresolved questions for future structural studies. PMID:25981303

  18. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  1. Influence of Marangoni flows on the dynamics of isothermal A + BC reaction fronts.

    PubMed

    Tiani, R; Rongy, L

    2016-09-28

    The nonlinear dynamics of A + BC fronts is analyzed both numerically and theoretically in the presence of Marangoni flows, i.e., convective motions driven by surface tension gradients. We consider horizontal aqueous solutions where the three species A, B, and C can affect the surface tension of the solution, thereby driving Marangoni flows. The resulting dynamics is studied by numerically integrating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to reaction-diffusion-convection (RDC) equations for the three chemical species. We show that the dynamics of the front cannot be predicted solely on the basis of the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion profiles as is the case for buoyancy-driven convection around such fronts. We relate this observation to the structure of Marangoni flows which lead to more complex and exotic dynamics. We find in particular the surprising possibility of a reversal of the front propagation direction in time for some sets of Marangoni numbers, quantifying the influence of each chemical species concentration on the solution surface tension. We explain this reversal analytically and propose a new classification of the convective effects on A + BC reaction fronts as a function of the Marangoni numbers. The influence of the layer thickness on the RDC dynamics is also presented. Those results emphasize the importance of flow symmetry properties when studying convective front dynamics in a given geometry.

  2. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  7. Lateral diffusion of proteins on supported lipid bilayers: additive friction of synaptotagmin 7 C2A-C2B tandem domains.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Joseph K; Chantranuvatana, Kan; Giardina, Daniel T; Coffman, Matthew D; Knight, Jefferson D

    2014-12-23

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca(2+) to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A-C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1.

  8. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) and serogroup C (MenC-CRM) vaccines in infants: A phase 3b, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    P Safadi, Marco Aurelio; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; da Fonseca Lima, Eduardo Jorge; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela

    2017-04-11

    After implementation of routine infant MenC vaccination, MenB remains a serious cause of meningococcal disease, yet to be targeted by vaccination programs in several countries. This study (NCT01339923) investigated the immunogenicity and safety of MenC CRM-conjugated vaccine (MenC-CRM) concomitantly administered with MenB vaccine (4CMenB). Infants (N=251) were randomised 1:1 to receive 4CMenB and MenC-CRM (Group 1) or MenC-CRM alone (Group 2) at 3 and 5months (M3, M5) and a booster at 12months of age (M12), and pneumococcal vaccine at M3, M5, M7, M12. Antibody responses to meningococcal vaccines were measured at M3, M6, M12, and M13. Non-inferiority of MenC-CRM response in Group 1 vs Group 2 was demonstrated at M6 and M13, if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (LL95%CI) of the difference in percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥1:8 was >-10%. Sufficiency of MenB response was achieved if LL95%CI of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥1:4 against fHbp, NadA and PorA strains was ≥70% at M6 or ≥75% at M13. Adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7days post-vaccination, and serious AEs (SAEs) and medically attended AEs throughout the study. Non-inferiority of MenC response in Group 1 vs Group 2 (LL95%CI -6.4% [M6]; -5.2% [M13]) and sufficiency of MenB response in Group 1 (LL95%CI 92%, 90%, 89% [M6]; 97%, 92%, 93% [M13] against fHbp, NadA, PorA, respectively) were demonstrated. Higher rates of mild to moderate solicited AEs were reported in Group 1. Unsolicited AEs and SAEs incidences were similar across groups. Concomitant administration of MenC-CRM and 4CMenB in infants was immunogenic, resulting in non-inferior responses against MenC compared to MenC-CRM alone and demonstration of sufficient immune response to MenB, after primary and booster vaccination. Reactogenicity was higher for concomitant vaccines administration, but no safety concerns were identified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Notices for Appendixes A and B C Appendix C to Part 2634 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT... DIVESTITURE Pt. 2634, App. C Appendix C to Part 2634—Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for... (the “Ethics Act”) (5 U.S.C. App.) and subpart D of 5 CFR part 2634 of the regulations of the Office of...

  11. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Notices for Appendixes A and B C Appendix C to Part 2634 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT... DIVESTITURE Pt. 2634, App. C Appendix C to Part 2634—Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for... (the “Ethics Act”) (5 U.S.C. App.) and subpart D of 5 CFR part 2634 of the regulations of the Office of...

  12. Proposals for the classification of human rhinovirus species A, B and C into genotypically assigned types

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Chloe L.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) frequently cause mild upper respiratory tract infections and more severe disease manifestations such as bronchiolitis and asthma exacerbations. HRV is classified into three species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. HRV species A and B contain 75 and 25 serotypes identified by cross-neutralization assays, although the use of such assays for routine HRV typing is hampered by the large number of serotypes, replacement of virus isolation by molecular methods in HRV diagnosis and the poor or absent replication of HRV species C in cell culture. To address these problems, we propose an alternative, genotypic classification of HRV-based genetic relatedness analogous to that used for enteroviruses. Nucleotide distances between 384 complete VP1 sequences of currently assigned HRV (sero)types identified divergence thresholds of 13, 12 and 13 % for species A, B and C, respectively, that divided inter- and intra-type comparisons. These were paralleled by 10, 9.5 and 10 % thresholds in the larger dataset of >3800 VP4 region sequences. Assignments based on VP1 sequences led to minor revisions of existing type designations (such as the reclassification of serotype pairs, e.g. A8/A95 and A29/A44, as single serotypes) and the designation of new HRV types A101–106, B101–103 and C34–C51. A protocol for assignment and numbering of new HRV types using VP1 sequences and the restriction of VP4 sequence comparisons to type identification and provisional type assignments is proposed. Genotypic assignment and identification of HRV types will be of considerable value in the future investigation of type-associated differences in disease outcomes, transmission and epidemiology. PMID:23677786

  13. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: a technical study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO3) and Fe (existing as Fe2O3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence-based medicine in obstetrics: can levels B and C recommendations be elevated to level A recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Chang, Eugene; Brost, Brian; Assel, Barbara; Baxter, Jason; Smith, James A; Grobman, Robert; Berghella, Vincenzo; Scardo, James A; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 65% (132/195) of level B/C obstetric recommendations are amenable to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and seven were identified as most needed. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate levels B and C recommendations in obstetric practice bulletins (PBs) regarding the feasibility of performing RCT to elevate each subject to level A evidence. Eleven geographically dispersed physicians with experience in research reviewed levels B and C recommendations for the ethical and logistical feasibility of performing an RCT. In the 35 obstetric PBs, 195 level B/C recommendations were reviewed. The majority considered 47 (24%) topics unethical for an RCT and thought 16 (11%) did not need an RCT, thus leaving 132 (67%) levels B and C recommendations available for an RCT. Two-thirds of levels B and C recommendations in obstetric PB are amenable to RCTs and potentially becoming level A evidence. PMID:27582813

  15. Pancreatitis induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2b in a patient affected by chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Enrica; Forte, Paolo; Cini, Elisabetta; Banchelli, Grazia; Ferlito, Chiara; Mugelli, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    A middle-aged man was admitted to the ED because of nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention and fainting. A blood analysis revealed high levels of serum amylase and lipase, confirming a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The history showed that the patient had self-administered a single dose of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin daily for 7 days for chronic hepatitis C. The medications were stopped and his condition gradually improved. In agreement with the literature and the Naranjo algorythm result, pegylated interferon alfa-2b is associated with acute pancreatitis. Identification of a few signs and symptoms is the first 'signal' in preventing a serious drug-induced adverse event.

  16. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity in central Alabama.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Acton, Ronald T

    2002-10-07

    We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B allele and haplotype frequencies in Alabama hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity and controls, and to compare results to those in other populations. Alleles were detected using DNA-based typing (probands) and microlymphocytotoxicity (controls). Alleles were determined in 139 probands (1,321 controls) and haplotypes in 118 probands (605 controls). In probands, A*03 positivity was 0.7482 (0.2739 controls; p = or < 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) 7.9); positivity for B*07, B*14, and B*56 was also increased. In probands, haplotypes A*03-B*07 and A*03-B*14 were more frequent (p < 0.0001, respectively; OR = 12.3 and 11.1, respectively). The haplotypes A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*35, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 were also significantly more frequent in probands. 37.3% of probands were HLA-haploidentical with other proband(s). A*03 and A*03-B*07 frequencies are increased in Alabama probands, as in other hemochromatosis cohorts. Increased absolute frequencies of A*03-B*35 have been reported only in the present Alabama probands and in hemochromatosis patients in Italy. Increased absolute frequencies of A*01-B*60, A*02-B*39, A*02-B*62, A*03-B*13, A*03-B*15, A*03-B*27, A*03-B*44, A*03-B*47, and A*03-B*57 in hemochromatosis cohorts have not been reported previously.

  17. Physangulidines A, B, and C: three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhuang; Mashuta, Mark S; Stolowich, Neal J; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Stivers, Nicole S; Bates, Paula J; Lewis, Walter H; Hammond, Gerald B

    2012-03-02

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the whole plant of Physalis angulata L. afforded three new antiproliferative withanolides with an unusual carbon framework: physangulidines A (1), B (2), and C (3). Structures of the three isomeric withanolides were determined by a combination of HRMS, NMR spectroscopic, and X-ray crystallographic methods. Each has shown significant antiproliferative activity against DU145 prostate cancer cells. Physangulidine A (1) was further tested against a wide range of additional cancer cell lines and found to exhibit significant antiproliferative activity. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Is QSO 1146 + 111B,C due to lensing by a cosmic string?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A newly discovered lens candidate, QSO 1146 + 111B,C, is discussed which appears to consist of two images of equal brightness of a quasar at redshift 1.01 separated by 2.6 arcmin. If this is produced by a cosmic string, its mass per unit length is about 4.0 x 10 to the 23rd g/cm or more. This value is large enough to be interesting for string-assisted galaxy formation and near the upper limits implied by the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background and constraints on gravitational radiation.

  19. Aloha - Rigolette Area, Louisiana, Agricultural Flood Control. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes, A, B, C, D, E.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    rp - l J4J w.1> J Q)$ V + m .5 + 4 - u.j -r 4 Ŕ 0 0 u4 w w 1 0O^c 0 H4 oH -,~40 -4 IC Oq- m-~ m~ u-i Ai M~ AJ-61 *-J G Co C - oCtC 1 I It C C C 1 1... g IC C. mCt . . C .U C . CC. UCCC~. Ccc C 0 C C C- - CC ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 11 I. C - - C f .- CC U 0 C ,a CC C C Cu CC CC- C U O CC CCCCC I C CC C I . Or...I 4’C’.’C.’ 4. I g I I I I I I I I I 0 I I - a. I I I I I I I I I U I I CI..aUa I I I I I I. I I - I I .IICaC C I I I I I I I I I I .C I I 0 I I I I I

  20. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, B, C, and E viruses infection among preschool children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jye-Bin; Lin, Ding-Bang; Chen, Shiuan-Chih; Chen, Pao-San; Chen, Wen-Kang

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan was a hyperendemic area for hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV and HBV) infection before late 1980s. To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E viruses (HCV and HEV) infection among preschool children in Taiwan, a community-based survey was carried out in 54 kindergartens in 10 urban areas, 10 rural areas, and 2 aboriginal areas randomly selected through stratified sampling. Serum specimens of 2,538 preschool children were screened for the hepatitis A, C, and E antibodies by a commercially available enzyme immunoassay and for HBV markers by radioimmunoassay methods. The multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through the multiple logistic regression analysis. Females had a statistically significantly higher HAV seroprevalence than males. The seroprevalence of HCV infection increased significantly with age. The larger the sibship size, the higher the seroprevalence of HBV infection. Aboriginal children had a significantly higher seroprevalence of HBV and HEV infection and lower seroprevalence of HCV infection than non-aboriginal children. A significantly higher seroprevalence of HBV infection was found in rural children than urban children. There was no significant association between serostatus of HAV and HEV infection and between serostatus of HBV and HCV infection among preschool children in Taiwan. The poor environmental and hygienic conditions in the aboriginal areas might play a role in infection with HBV and HEV.

  1. 48 CFR 1827.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) 1827.409... Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k.... (k)(i) The contracting officer shall add paragraph (e) as set forth in 1852.227-19(a) to the clause...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL... Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) ER22DE99.002 ...

  3. Hepatitis C performance measure on hepatitis A and B vaccination: missed opportunities?

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Bridget; Hasson, Noelle K; Cheung, Ramsey

    2009-08-01

    Prevention of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) through vaccination is endorsed by all major professional societies. This study was conducted to determine adherence to the recently adopted physician performance measure on HAV and HBV vaccination. This was a retrospective study. Hepatitis A and B serology data and immunization records between 2000 and 2007 from CHC patients with detectable hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA were analyzed. A total of 2,968 CHC patients were included in the study. Of these, 2,143 patients (72%) were tested for susceptibility to HAV, of which 53% had immunity. Of the non-immune patients, 746 (74%) were vaccinated as well as an additional 218 without prior testing. For HBV, 2,303 patients (78%) were tested for immunity and 782 (34%) were immune. Of the susceptible patients, 1,086 (71%) were vaccinated as well as an additional 197 patients without prior testing. The overall vaccination performance measure adherence rate was 71% for HAV, 70% for HBV, and 62% for both HAV and HBV. Random review of 176 charts found the major reasons for non-adherence were missed opportunity (41%), change of health care system (31%), and documented vaccination outside our health care system (22%). Our study found a high and improved adherence to the recommendations, but missed opportunity was still the main reason of non-adherence. This study also supported the strategy of selective vaccination in the veteran population.

  4. Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sprong, Tom; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Fung, Michael; Pharo, Anne M; Høiby, E Arne; Michaelsen, Terje E; Aase, Audun; van der Meer, Jos W M; van Deuren, Marcel; Mollnes, Tom E

    2003-11-15

    The complement system plays an important role in the initial defense against Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, uncontrolled activation in meningococcal sepsis contributes to the development of tissue damage and shock. In a novel human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis, we studied the effect of complement inhibition on inflammation and bacterial killing. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blocking lectin and alternative pathways inhibited complement activation by N meningitidis and oxidative burst induced in granulocytes and monocytes. Oxidative burst was critically dependent on CD11b/CD18 (CR3) expression but not on Fc gamma-receptors. Specific inhibition of C5a using mAb 137-26 binding the C5a moiety of C5 before cleavage prohibited CR3 up-regulation, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst but had no effect on C5b-9 (TCC) formation, lysis, and bacterial killing. An mAb-blocking cleavage of C5, preventing C5a and TCC formation, showed the same effect on CR3, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst as the anti-C5a mAb but additionally inhibited TCC formation, lysis, and bacterial killing, consistent with a C5b-9-dependent killing mechanism. In conclusion, the anti-C5a mAb 137-26 inhibits the potentially harmful effects of N meningitidis-induced C5a formation while preserving complement-mediated bacterial killing. We suggest that this may be an attractive approach for the treatment of meningococcal sepsis.

  5. Biotransformation of Flavokawains A, B, and C, Chalcones from Kava (Piper methysticum), by Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Katharina; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Kraus, Birgit

    2015-07-22

    The in vitro metabolism of flavokawains A, B, and C (FKA, FKB, FKC), methoxylated chalcones from Piper methysticum, was examined using human liver microsomes. Phase I metabolism and phase II metabolism (glucuronidation) as well as combined phase I+II metabolism were studied. For identification and structure elucidation of microsomal metabolites, LC-HRESIMS and NMR techniques were applied. Major phase I metabolites were generated by demethylation in position C-4 or C-4' and hydroxylation predominantly in position C-4, yielding FKC as phase I metabolite of FKA and FKB, helichrysetin as metabolite of FKA and FKC, and cardamonin as metabolite of FKC. To an even greater extent, flavokawains were metabolized in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronic acid by microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases. For all flavokawains, monoglucuronides (FKA-2'-O-glucuronide, FKB-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-4-O-glucuronide) were found as major phase II metabolites. The dominance of generated glucuronides suggests a role of conjugated chalcones as potential active compounds in vivo.

  6. Allelic and haplotypic diversity of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Oh, D H; Lee, C; Yang, S Y

    2005-05-01

    High-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing exposes the unique patterns of HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in each population. In this study, HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genotypes were analyzed in 485 apparently unrelated healthy Korean individuals. A total of 20 HLA-A, 43 HLA-B, 21 HLA-C, 31 HLA-DRB1, and 14 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. Eleven alleles (A*0201, A*1101, A*2402, A*3303, B*1501, Cw*0102, Cw*0302, Cw*0303, DQB1*0301, DQB1*0302, and DQB1*0303) were found in more than 10% of the population. In each serologic group, a maximum of three alleles were found with several exceptions (A2, B62, DR4, DR14, and DQ6). In each serologic group exhibiting multiple alleles, two major alleles were present at 62-96% (i.e. A*0201 and A*0206 comprise 85% of A2-positive alleles). Multiple-locus haplotypes estimated by the maximum likelihood method revealed 51 A-C, 43 C-B, 52 B-DRB1, 34 DRB1-DQB1, 48 A-C-B, 42 C-B-DRB1, 46 B-DRB1-DQB1, and 30 A-C-B-DRB1-DQB1 haplotypes with frequencies of more than 0.5%. In spite of their high polymorphism in B and DRB1, identification of relatively small numbers of two-locus (B-C and DRB1-DQB1) haplotypes suggested strong associations of those two loci, respectively. Five-locus haplotypes defined by high-resolution DNA typing correlated well with previously identified serology-based haplotypes in the population. The five most frequent haplotypes were: A*3303-Cw*1403-B*4403-DRB1*1302-DQB1*0604 (4.2%), A*3303-Cw*0701/6-B*4403-DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201/2 (3.0%), A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*1302-DQB1*0609 (3.0%), A*2402-Cw*0702-B*0702-DRB1*0101-DQB1*0501 (2.9%), and A*3001-Cw*0602-B*1302-DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201/2 (2.7%). Several sets of allele level haplotypes that could not be discriminated by routine HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 low-resolution typing originated from allelic diversity of A2, B61, DR4, and DR8 serologic groups. Information obtained in this study will be useful for medical and forensic applications as well as in anthropology.

  7. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  8. BPN, a marine-derived PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling and improves insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Luo, Jiao; Wu, Ning; Zhang, Renshuai; Shi, Dayong

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a major negative regulator of insulin signaling cascade and has attracted intensive investigation in recent T2DM therapy study. BPN, a marine-derived bromophenol compound, was isolated from the red alga Rhodomela confervoides. This study investigated the effects of BPN on the insulin signaling pathway in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting PTP1B. Molecular docking study and analysis of small- molecule interaction with PTP1B all showed BPN inhibited PTP1B activity via binding to the catalytic site through hydrogen bonds. We then found that BPN permeated into C2C12 myotubes, on the one hand, activated insulin signaling in an insulin-independent manner in C2C12 cells; on the other hand, ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance through augmenting insulin sensitivity. Moreover, our studies also showed that PTP1B inhibition by BPN increased glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation. Taken together, BPN activates insulin signaling and alleviates insulin resistance and represents a potential candidate for further development as an antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Hans L; Thompson, Alex J; Patel, Keyur; Wiese, Manfred; Tenckhoff, Hannelore; Nischalke, Hans D; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Kullig, Ulrike; Göbel, Uwe; Capka, Emanuela; Wiegand, Johannes; Schiefke, Ingolf; Güthoff, Wolfgang; Grüngreiff, Kurt; König, Ingrid; Spengler, Ulrich; McCarthy, Jeanette; Shianna, Kevin V; Goldstein, David B; McHutchison, John G; Timm, Jörg; Nattermann, Jacob

    2010-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the IL28B gene has been associated with response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and also with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C in a heterogeneous population. We analyzed the association between IL28B and the clinical presentation of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a homogeneous population. We analyzed the SNP rs12979860 in 190 women from the German anti-D cohort (infected with HCV genotype 1b via contaminated rhesus prophylaxis) and its association with spontaneous clearance. Clinical data were available in 136 women with acute infection who were also evaluated for IL28B genotype. Based on results of a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, the rs12979860 SNP genotypes studied were C/C, C/T, or T/T. Spontaneous clearance was more common in patients with the C/C genotype (43/67; 64%) compared with C/T (22/90; 24%) or T/T (2/33; 6%) (P < .001). Jaundice during acute infection was more common among patients with C/C genotype (32.7%) than non-C/C patients (with C/T or T/T) (16.1%; P = .032). In C/C patients, jaundice during acute infection was not associated with an increased chance of spontaneous clearance (56.3%) compared with those without jaundice (60.6%). In contrast, in non-C/C patients, jaundice was associated with a higher likelihood of spontaneous clearance (42.9%) compared with those without jaundice (13.7%). The SNP rs12979860 upstream of IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV. Women with the C/T or T/T genotype who did not develop jaundice had a lower chance of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and diabetes mellitus: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Soo; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Kwon, Min-Jung; Zhang, Yiyi; Choi, Yuni; Ahn, Jiin; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lazo, Mariana; Shin, Hocheol; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2017-07-04

    The role of hepatitis virus infection in glucose homeostasis is uncertain. We examined the associations between hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of diabetes in a cohort (N = 439,708) of asymptomatic participants in health screening examinations. In cross-sectional analyses, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) to HBsAg (-) participants was 1.17 (95% CI 1.06-1.31; P = 0.003). The corresponding odds ratio comparing hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Ab) (+) to HCV Ab (-) participants was 1.43 (95% CI 1.01-2.02, P = 0.043). In prospective analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for incident diabetes comparing HBsAg (+) to HbsAg (-) participants was 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.41; P = 0.007). The number of incident cases of diabetes among HCV Ab (+) participants (10 cases) was too small to reliably estimate the prospective association between HCV infection and diabetes. In this large population at low risk of diabetes, HBV and HCV infections were associated with diabetes prevalence and HBV infection with the risk of incident diabetes. Our studies add evidence suggesting that diabetes is an additional metabolic complication of HBV and HCV infection.

  11. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of Four Models of Outboard Floats : (N.A.C.A. Models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Four models of outboard floats (N.A.C.A. models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D) were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank to determine their hydrodynamic characteristics and in the 20-foot wind tunnel to determine their aerodynamic drag. The results of the tests, together with comparisons of them, are presented in the form of charts. From the comparisons, the order of merit of the models is estimated for each factor considered. The best compromise between the various factors seems to be given by model 51-D. This model is the only one in the series with a transverse step.

  12. Simple assay for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C: modification of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Stiffler-Rosenberg, G; Fey, H

    1978-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) introduced for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins by Saunders et al., Simon and Terplan, and ourselves has proved to be a simple, reliable, and sensitive test. A new modification is described that uses polystyrene balls (diameter, 6 mm) coated individually with antibody against one of the toxins A, B, or C. In a single tube, 20 ml of the food extract was incubated with the three balls differently stained, which were then each tested for the uptake of enterotoxin by a competitive ELISA. A concentration of 0.1 ng or less of enterotoxin per ml can be measured, making tedious concentration procedures of the extracts superfluous. Culture supernatants and extracts from foods artificially or naturally contaminated with toxin were successfully examined. Cross-reactions did not occur, and nonspecific interfering substances did not create serious problems. PMID:365877

  13. Modelling the B2C Marketplace: Evaluation of a Reputation Metric for e-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowska, Anna; Sloane, Andrew

    This paper evaluates recently developed novel and comprehensive reputation metric designed for the distributed multi-agent reputation system for the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-commerce applications. To do that an agent-based simulation framework was implemented which models different types of behaviours in the marketplace. The trustworthiness of different types of providers is investigated to establish whether the simulation models behaviour of B2C e-Commerce systems as they are expected to behave in real life.

  14. Nogo-B (Reticulon-4B) functions as a negative regulator of the apoptotic pathway through the interaction with c-FLIP in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Nao; Tashiro, Keitaro; Taniguchi, Kohei; Kawai, Masaru; Tanaka, Keitaro; Okuda, Junji; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2018-08-01

    Nogo-B is a member of the Nogo/Reticulon-4 family and has been reported to be an inducer of apoptosis in certain types of cancer cells. However, the role of Nogo-B in human cancer remains less understood. Here, we demonstrated the functions of Nogo-B in colorectal cancer cells. In clinical colorectal cancer specimens, Nogo-B was obviously overexpressed, as determined by immunohistochemistry; and Western blot analysis showed its expression level to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Nogo-B in two colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and DLD-1, by transfection with si-RNA (siR) resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and a dramatic increase in apoptosis with insistent overexpression of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved PARP. The transfection with Nogo-B plasmid cancelled that apoptosis induced by siRNogoB in SW480 cells. Besides, combinatory treatment with siR-Nogo-B/staurosporine (STS) or siR-Nogo-B/Fas ligand (FasL) synergistically reduced cell viability and increased the expression of apoptotic signaling proteins in colorectal cancer cells. These results strongly support our contention that Nogo-B most likely played an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer cells, mainly by negatively regulating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in them. Finally, we revealed that suppression of Nogo-B caused down-regulation of c-FLIP, known as a major anti-apoptotic protein, and activation of caspase-8 in the death receptor pathway. Interaction between Nogo-B and c-FLIP was shown by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies. In conclusion, Nogo-B was shown to play an important negative role in apoptotic signaling through its interaction with c-FLIP in colorectal cancer cells, and may thus become a novel therapeutic target for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. HLA class I antigen and HLA-A, -B, and -C haplotype frequencies in Uruguayans.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ines; Bengochea, Milka; Toledo, Roberto; Carretto, Elena; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2006-08-01

    HLA class I antigens were determined for 959 unrelated Uruguayans. The predominant HLA alleles were A2, Cw4, and B35, and the most frequently observed two-loci haplotypes were A2-B44 and B35-Cw4. The most frequent three-loci HLA haplotype was A2-Cw5-B44. We compared the Uruguayan sample with similar data from other populations.

  16. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) is petroleum derivatives which were manufactured or produced in the United...

  17. A c-Myc and surface CD19 signaling amplification loop promotes B cell lymphoma development and progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Poe, Jonathan C; Minard-Colin, Veronique; Kountikov, Evgueni I; Haas, Karen M; Tedder, Thomas F

    2012-09-01

    Malignant B cells responding to external stimuli are likely to gain a growth advantage in vivo. These cells may therefore maintain surface CD19 expression to amplify transmembrane signals and promote their expansion and survival. To determine whether CD19 expression influences this process, Eμ-Myc transgenic (c-Myc(Tg)) mice that develop aggressive and lethal B cell lymphomas were made CD19 deficient (c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁻/⁻). Compared with c-Myc(Tg) and c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁺/⁻ littermates, the median life span of c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁻/⁻ mice was prolonged by 81-83% (p < 0.0001). c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁻/⁻ mice also lived 42% longer than c-Myc(Tg) littermates following lymphoma detection (p < 0.01). Tumor cells in c-Myc(Tg) and c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁻/⁻ mice were B lineage derived, had a similar phenotype with a large blastlike appearance, invaded multiple lymphoid tissues, and were lethal when adoptively transferred into normal recipient mice. Importantly, reduced lymphomagenesis in c-Myc(Tg)CD19⁻/⁻ mice was not due to reductions in early B cell numbers prior to disease onset. In mechanistic studies, constitutive c-Myc expression enhanced CD19 expression and phosphorylation on active sites. Reciprocally, CD19 expression in c-Myc(Tg) B cells enhanced c-Myc phosphorylation at regulatory sites, sustained higher c-Myc protein levels, and maintained a balance of cyclin D2 expression over that of cyclin D3. These findings define a new and novel c-Myc:CD19 regulatory loop that positively influences B cell transformation and lymphoma progression.

  18. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, ismore » capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.« less

  19. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript form. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B.C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific researcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Schaperclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies:

  20. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D. 1923

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript:fbrm. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B. C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific re"searcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Scha'perclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies

  1. Stability and Bioavailability of Lentztrehaloses A, B, and C as Replacements for Trehalose.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shun-Ichi; Sawa, Ryuichi; Ohba, Shun-Ichi; Hayashi, Chigusa; Umekita, Maya; Shibuya, Yuko; Iijima, Kiyoko; Iwanami, Fumiki; Igarashi, Masayuki

    2016-09-28

    Trehalose is widely used as a sweetener, humectant, and stabilizer, but is ubiquitously degraded by the enzyme trehalase expressed in a broad variety of organisms. The stability of the new trehalose analogues lentztrehaloses A, B, and C in microbial and mammalian cell cultures and their pharmacokinetics in mice were analyzed to evaluate their potential as successors of trehalose. Among the 12 species of microbes and 2 cancer cell lines tested, 7 digested trehalose, whereas no definitive digestion of the lentztrehaloses was observed in any of them. When orally administered to mice (0.5 g/kg), trehalose was not clearly detected in blood and urine and only slightly detected in feces. However, lentztrehaloses were detected in blood at >1 μg/mL over several hours and were eventually excreted in feces and urine. These results indicate that lentztrehaloses may potentially replace trehalose as nonperishable materials and drug candidates with better bioavailabilities.

  2. Hepatitis B virus core antigen determines viral persistence in a C57BL/6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, Li-Rung; Yang, Hung-Chih; Tzeng, Horng-Tay; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Wu, Hui-Lin; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2010-05-18

    We recently developed a mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in which a single i.v. hydrodynamic injection of HBV DNA to C57BL/6 mice allows HBV replication and induces a partial immune response, so that about 20-30% of the mice carry HBV for more than 6 months. The model was used to identify the viral antigen crucial for HBV persistence. We knocked out individual HBV genes by introducing a premature termination codon to the HBV core, HBeAg, HBx, and polymerase ORFs. The specific-gene-deficient HBV mutants were hydrodynamically injected into mice and the HBV profiles of the mice were monitored. About 90% of the mice that received the HBcAg-mutated HBV plasmid exhibited high levels of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and maintained HBsAg expression for more than 6 months after injection. To map the region of HBcAg essential for viral clearance, we constructed a set of serial HBcAg deletion mutants for hydrodynamic injection. We localized the essential region of HBcAg to the carboxyl terminus, specifically to the 10 terminal amino acids (HBcAg176-185). The majority of mice receiving this HBV mutant DNA did not elicit a proper HBcAg-specific IFN-gamma response and expressed HBV virions for 6 months. These results indicate that the immune response triggered in mice by HBcAg during exposure to HBV is important in determining HBV persistence.

  3. B4C as a stable non-carbon-based oxygen electrode material for lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shidong; Xu, Wu; Cao, Ruiguo

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2) batteries have extremely high theoretical specific capacities and energy densities when compared with Li-ion batteries. However, the instability of both electrolyte and carbon-based oxygen electrode related to the nucleophilic attack of reduced oxygen species during oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical oxidation during oxygen evolution reaction are recognized as the major challenges in this field. Here we report the application of boron carbide (B 4C) as the non-carbon based oxygen electrode material for aprotic Li-O 2 batteries. B 4C has high resistance to chemical attack, good conductivity, excellent catalytic activity and low density that are suitable formore » battery applications. The electrochemical activity and chemical stability of B4C are systematically investigated in aprotic electrolyte. Li-O 2 cells using B4C based air electrodes exhibit better cycling stability than those used TiC based air electrode in 1 M LiTf-Tetraglyme electrolyte. The degradation of B 4C based electrode is mainly due to be the loss of active sites on B 4C electrode during cycles as identified by the structure and composition characterizations. These results clearly demonstrate that B 4C is a very promising alternative oxygen electrode material for aprotic Li-O 2 batteries. It can also be used as a standard electrode to investigate the stability of electrolytes.« less

  4. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 2; Appendixes A, B, C and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Volume 2 of the report includes the following appendices: Appendix A: Heater Head Development (Starfish Heater Head Program, 1/10th Segment and Full-Scale Heat Pipes, and Sodium Filling and Processing); Appendix B: Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) Component Development (High-temperature Organic Materials, Heat Exchanger Fabrication, Beryllium Issues, Sodium Issues, Wear Couple Tests, Pressure Boundary Penetrations, Heating System Heaters, and Cooler Flow Test); Appendix C: Udimet Testing (Selection of the Reference Material for the Space Stirling Engine Heater Head, Udimet 720LI Creep Test Result Update, Final Summary of Space Stirling Endurance Engine Udimet 720L1 Fatigue Testing Results, Udimet 720l1 Weld Development Summary, and Udimet 720L1 Creep Test Final Results Summary), and Appendix D: CTPC Component Development Photos.

  5. Risk factors and seroprevalence of markers for hepatitis A, B and C in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Roslyn; Ferson, Mark; Orr, Karen; Lucy, Adrienne; Botham, Susan; McCarthy, Michele; Stern, Jerome; Dixon, Julie; Murray, Carolyn; Polis, Suzanne

    2007-06-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B and C and the prevalence of risk factors for blood-borne infections in persons subject to homelessness attending a medical clinic in inner Sydney. During 2003-05, 201 clients were enrolled in a prospective study to determine the acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A and B. On enrolment, clients completed a risk factor assessment questionnaire and undertook pre-vaccination serological screening for hepatitis A, B and C. Forty-five per cent (85/188) of clients were positive for anti-HCV antibodies; 32% (60/189) showed evidence of past infection with HBV (anti-HBc); and 48% (89/189) were positive for anti-HAV antibodies. It was not uncommon for clients to have multiple markers of hepatitis. A past history of injecting drug use was significantly associated with markers for hepatitis B and C; age predicted presence of anti-HAV. A verbal history of infection appeared more reliable for hepatitis C, but considerably less so for hepatitis A and B. Persons subject to homelessness are at risk of blood-borne infection. The seroprevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C are higher than in the general population. Despite the high proportion of clients with serological markers for hepatitis A and B, at least 69% of clients could potentially benefit from hepatitis A and/or B vaccination.

  6. Use of B4C powder for preparing in situ Al-Ti-B-C inoculant in Al-Ti melt and its refining effect on A356 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuiqing; Cui, Chunxiang; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Lichen; Sun, Yijiao; Shi, Jiejie; Cui, Sen; Ding, Jinhua

    2018-01-01

    A novel preparation technology of Al-Ti-B-C inoculant with uniform microstructure is prepared using B4C powder instead of graphite in Al-Ti melt reaction method in this study. It is found that the addition of B4C powder improves the wettability between carbon element and liquid aluminum and reduce the tendency to the gravity segregation simultaneously. The result shows that Al-Ti-B-C inoculant using B4C powder presents excellent grain refinement performance than the conventional approach. After T6 heat treatment, the ultimate tensile strength, the yield strength and elongation of A356 alloy are increased to 292 ± 6 MPa, 238 ± 7 MPa and 8.2% ± 0.5% from 260 ± 7 MPa, 218 ± 5 MPa and 4.9% ± 0.6% by addition of Al-Ti-B-C inoculant with a very small ratio of 0.3% in weight. The increase of strength in Al-Ti-B-C refined alloy is attributed to the grain refinement of primary α-Al, while the increase of ductility results from the submicron particles in Al-Ti-B-C inoculant adsorb impurity atoms as well as decreased grain size.

  7. Phase Variation of NadA in Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Isolates Impacts on Coverage Estimates for 4C-MenB, a MenB vaccine.

    PubMed

    Green, Luke R; Lucidarme, Jay; Dave, Neelam; Chan, Hannah; Clark, Stephen; Borrow, Ray; Bayliss, Christopher D

    2018-06-27

    A recombinant NadA protein is one of the four major protective antigens of 4C-MenB (Bexsero®), a vaccine developed for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB). The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) is utilised as a high throughput assay for assessing the invasive MenB strain coverage of 4C-MenB. Where present, the nadA gene is subject to phase variable changes in transcription due to a 5'TAAA repeat tract located in a regulatory region. The promoter-containing intergenic region sequences (IGR) and 5'TAAA repeat numbers were determined for 906 invasive meningococcal disease isolates possessing the nadA gene. Exclusion of the 5'TAAA repeats reduced the number of IGR alleles from 82 to 23. Repeat numbers were associated with low and high levels of NadA expression by Western blotting and ELISA. Low expression repeat numbers were present in 83% of 179 MenB isolates with NadA-2/3 or Nad-1 peptide variants and 68% of 480 MenW ST-11 complex isolates with Nad-2/3 peptide variants. For isolates with vaccine-compatible NadA variants, 93% of MATS negative isolates were associated with low expression repeat numbers whereas 63% of isolates with MATS RP scores above the 95% confidence interval for the positive bactericidal threshold had high expression repeat numbers. Analysis of the 5'TAAA repeat number has potential as a rapid, high throughput method for assessing strain coverage for the NadA-component of 4C-MenB. A key application will be assessing coverage in meningococcal disease cases where confirmation is by PCR only and MATS cannot be applied. Copyright © 2018 Green et al.

  8. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) regulates B cell receptor levels in a c-Cbl-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Leonard L; Myers, Margaret D; White, Carmen; Gadwal, Shyam; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Gu, Hua; Weiss, Arthur

    2006-11-28

    Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) and c-Cbl recently have been shown to cooperate in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) levels in developing T cells. SLAP also is expressed in developing B cells, and its deficiency leads to alterations in B cell receptor (BCR) levels and B cell development. Hence, we hypothesized that SLAP and c-Cbl may cooperate during B cell development to regulate BCR levels. In mice deficient in both SLAP and c-Cbl, we found that B cell development is altered, suggesting that they function through intersecting pathways. To study the mechanism by which SLAP and c-Cbl alter BCR levels, we coexpressed them in a mature mouse B cell line (Bal-17). First we determined that SLAP associates with proximal components of the BCR complex after stimulation and internalization. Coexpression of SLAP and c-Cbl in Bal-17 led to decreased surface and total BCR levels. This decrease in BCR levels depended on intact Src homology 2 (SH2) and C-terminal domains of SLAP. In addition, a mutation in the SH2 domain of SLAP blocked its colocalization with c-Cbl and the BCR complex, whereas deletion of the C terminus did not affect its localization. Last, coexpression of SLAP and c-Cbl altered BCR complex recycling. This alteration in BCR complex recycling depended on enzymatically active c-Cbl and Src family kinases, as well as the intact SH2 and C-terminal domains of SLAP. These data suggest that SLAP has a conserved function in B and T cells by adapting c-Cbl to the antigen-receptor complex and targeting it for degradation.

  9. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) regulates B cell receptor levels in a c-Cbl-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Dragone, Leonard L.; Myers, Margaret D.; White, Carmen; Gadwal, Shyam; Sosinowski, Tomasz; Gu, Hua; Weiss, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) and c-Cbl recently have been shown to cooperate in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) levels in developing T cells. SLAP also is expressed in developing B cells, and its deficiency leads to alterations in B cell receptor (BCR) levels and B cell development. Hence, we hypothesized that SLAP and c-Cbl may cooperate during B cell development to regulate BCR levels. In mice deficient in both SLAP and c-Cbl, we found that B cell development is altered, suggesting that they function through intersecting pathways. To study the mechanism by which SLAP and c-Cbl alter BCR levels, we coexpressed them in a mature mouse B cell line (Bal-17). First we determined that SLAP associates with proximal components of the BCR complex after stimulation and internalization. Coexpression of SLAP and c-Cbl in Bal-17 led to decreased surface and total BCR levels. This decrease in BCR levels depended on intact Src homology 2 (SH2) and C-terminal domains of SLAP. In addition, a mutation in the SH2 domain of SLAP blocked its colocalization with c-Cbl and the BCR complex, whereas deletion of the C terminus did not affect its localization. Last, coexpression of SLAP and c-Cbl altered BCR complex recycling. This alteration in BCR complex recycling depended on enzymatically active c-Cbl and Src family kinases, as well as the intact SH2 and C-terminal domains of SLAP. These data suggest that SLAP has a conserved function in B and T cells by adapting c-Cbl to the antigen-receptor complex and targeting it for degradation. PMID:17110436

  10. Institutional Controls and Transfer of Real Property under CERCLA Section 120(h)(3)(A), (B) or (C)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides guidance to the EPA on the exercise of EPA's discretion under CERCLA section 120(h)(3)(A),(B), or (C) when EPA is called upon to evaluate institutional controls as part of a remedial action.

  11. A new isolate of hepatitis B virus from the Philippines possibly representing a new subgenotype C6.

    PubMed

    Cavinta, Lolita; Sun, Jianguang; May, Anja; Yin, Jianhua; von Meltzer, Markus; Radtke, Monika; Barzaga, Nina G; Cao, Guangwen; Schaefer, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes show distinct geographical prevalence. A genotyping analysis of 28 samples from asymptomatic HBV carriers from the Philippines gave a distribution of HBV genotypes as expected from a previous study: 54% B (15/28), C5 18% (5/28), 14% D (4/28), 7% A1 (2/28). In addition, 7% (2/28) of the samples showed a double infection with genotypes B and D. One of the isolates sequenced completely, ph105, did not group into one of the known subgenotypes after phylogenetic analysis. Ph105 formed a separate clade in genotype C. With a genome length of 3,215 nt. and a serological subtype adr, ph105 exhibited the main features of most genotype C strains. However, ph105 differed by 4.1-7.2% from HBV subgenotypes C1 to C5 when comparing the nucleotide sequence of whole genomes. With only 4.1% difference ph105 was most closely related to subgenotype C2. SimPlot analysis gave no indication for recombination with known HBV genotypes. Ph105 fulfils all criteria for a new subgenotype C6.

  12. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  13. Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Xuan, X; Kojima, A; Murata, T; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    The genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein B (gB), gC and gD homologues have been reported already. However, products of these genes have not been identified yet. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp 145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. We demonstrated here that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 were the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of MAbs specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection.

  14. 75 FR 81424 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S76A, B, and C Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    .... The EAD requires inspecting the LITEF Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) unit of the...: Model S-76A, B, and C helicopters, with LITEF LCR-100, Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) Unit...

  15. EVI2B is a C/EBPα target gene required for granulocytic differentiation and functionality of hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zjablovskaja, Polina; Kardosova, Miroslava; Danek, Petr; Angelisova, Pavla; Benoukraf, Touati; Wurm, Alexander A; Kalina, Tomas; Sian, Stephanie; Balastik, Martin; Delwel, Ruud; Brdicka, Tomas; Tenen, Daniel G; Behre, Gerhard; Fiore, Fréderic; Malissen, Bernard; Horejsi, Vaclav; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell

    2017-04-01

    Development of hematopoietic populations through the process of differentiation is critical for proper hematopoiesis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a master regulator of myeloid differentiation, and the identification of C/EBPα target genes is key to understand this process. Here we identified the Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 2B (EVI2B) gene as a direct target of C/EBPα. We showed that the product of the gene, the transmembrane glycoprotein EVI2B (CD361), is abundantly expressed on the surface of primary hematopoietic cells, the highest levels of expression being reached in mature granulocytes. Using shRNA-mediated downregulation of EVI2B in human and murine cell lines and in primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, we demonstrated impaired myeloid lineage development and altered progenitor functions in EVI2B-silenced cells. We showed that the compromised progenitor functionality in Evi2b-depleted cells can be in part explained by deregulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, we generated an Evi2b knockout murine model and demonstrated altered properties of hematopoietic progenitors, as well as impaired G-CSF dependent myeloid colony formation in the knockout cells. Remarkably, we found that EVI2B is significantly downregulated in human acute myeloid leukemia samples characterized by defects in CEBPA. Altogether, our data demonstrate that EVI2B is a downstream target of C/EBPα, which regulates myeloid differentiation and functionality of hematopoietic progenitors.

  16. Formation of MgO-B{sub 4}C composite via a thermite-based combustion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.L.; Munir, Z.A.; Holt, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    The combustion synthesis of MgO-B{sub 4}C composites was investigated by coupling a highly exothermic Mg-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} thermite reaction with a weakly exothermic B{sub 4}C formation reaction. Unlike the case of using Al as the reducing agent, the interaction between Mg and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} depends on the surrounding inert gas pressure due to the high vapor pressure of Mg. The interaction changes from one involving predominantly gaseous Mg and liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to one involving liquid Mg and liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the pressure increases. At low inert gas pressure, the initiation temperature is found to bemore » just below the melting point of Mg (650 C). As the inert gas pressure increases, the vaporization loss of reactants is reduced, and this in turn increases the combustion temperature, which promotes greater grain growth of the product phases, MgO and B{sub 4}C. The particle size of B{sub 4}C increased from about 0.2 to 5 {mu}m as the pressure changed from 1 to 30 atm.« less

  17. Upscaling anomalous reactive kinetics (A+B-->C) from pore scale Lagrangian velocity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Anna, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Le Borgne, T.; Dentz, M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural flow fields in porous media display a complex spatio-temporal organization due to heterogeneous geological structures at different scales. This multiscale disorder implies anomalous dispersion, mixing and reaction kinetics (Berkowitz et al. RG 2006, Tartakovsky PRE 2010). Here, we focus on the upscaling of anomalous kinetics arising from pore scale, non Gaussian and correlated, velocity distributions. We consider reactive front simulations, where a component A displaces a component B that saturates initially the porous domain. The reactive component C is produced at the dispersive front located at interface between the A and B domains. The simulations are performed with the SPH method. As the mixing zone grows, the total mass of C produced increases with time. The scaling of this evolution with time is different from that which would be obtained from the homogeneous advection dispersion reaction equation. This anomalous kinetics property is related to spatial structure of the reactive mixture, and its evolution with time under the combined action of advective and diffusive processes. We discuss the different scaling regimes arising depending on the dominant process that governs mixing. In order to upscale these processes, we analyze the Lagrangian velocity properties, which are characterized by the non Gaussian distributions and long range temporal correlation. The main origin of these properties is the existence of very low velocity regions where solute particles can remain trapped for a long time. Another source of strong correlation is the channeling of flow in localized high velocity regions, which created finger-like structures in the concentration field. We show the spatial Markovian, and temporal non Markovian, nature of the Lagrangian velocity field. Therefore, an upscaled model can be defined as a correlated Continuous Time Random Walk (Le Borgne et al. PRL 2008). A key feature of this model is the definition of a transition probability density for

  18. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER... 1 to Part 1213—Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c) ER22DE99.007 ...

  1. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus infection in Amsterdam, 2004.

    PubMed

    Baaten, G G G; Sonder, G J B; Dukers, N H T M; Coutinho, R A; Van den Hoek, J A R

    2007-12-01

    In order to enhance screening and preventive strategies, this study investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C in the general adult urban population and in subgroups. In 2004, sera from 1,364 adult residents of Amsterdam were tested for viral markers. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire. For hepatitis A, 57.0% was immune. Of first-generation immigrants from Turkey and Morocco, 100% was immune. Of all Western persons and second-generation non-Western immigrants, approximately half was still susceptible. For hepatitis B, 9.9% had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and 0.4% had hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBc seroprevalences were highest among first-generation immigrants from Surinam, Morocco, and Turkey, and correlated with age at the time of immigration, and among men with a sexual preference for men. Seroprevalence among second-generation immigrants was comparable to Western persons. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 0.6%. In conclusion, a country with overall low endemicity for viral hepatitis can show higher endemicity in urban regions, indicating the need for differentiated regional studies and prevention strategies. More prevention efforts in cities like Amsterdam are warranted, particularly for hepatitis A and B among second-generation immigrants, for hepatitis B among men with a sexual preference for men, and for hepatitis C. Active case finding strategies are needed for both hepatitis B and C. (c) Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C serological markers in children from western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia; Maldonado-González, Monserrat; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy; Panduro, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Viral hepatitis in children is a major public health problem worldwide. To evaluate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C infections in Mexican children diagnosed with hepatitis during a five-year period. A total of 31,818 children admitted to a tertiary level hospital in Mexico from 2005 to 2009 were evaluated for hepatitis. Hepatitis was found in 215 (0.7%) of the children. Serum samples from hepatitis-positive children were screened for anti-HAV IgM, HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HCV. HAV was the leading cause of viral hepatitis (81%), followed by HBV and HCV (3.1 and 2%, respectively), whereas no serological marker was observed in 13.9% of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, when children were categorized by age, a significant increase in anti-HAV detection was observed in school-aged children (7-11 years old) (p < 0.001) and a reduction in adolescents (12-15 years old). In conclusion, hepatitis A is the most prevalent viral hepatitis infection detected in children, followed by HBV and HCV. In addition, the high percentage of hepatitis infections without a known etiological agent and the serological test limitations require the detection of occult HBV, HCV and hepatitis E infections. The age-dependent vulnerability of groups with HAV infections emphasizes the importance of HAV vaccination in young children in Mexico.

  3. A population-based prevalence study of hepatitis A, B and C virus using oral fluid in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, Sophie; Hutse, Veronik; Vandenberghe, Hans; Claeys, Françoise; Verhaegen, Els; De Cock, Liesbet; Van Loock, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre; Vranckx, Robert; Van Oyen, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Ten years after the first seroprevalence study performed in Flanders, the aim of this cross sectional study was to follow the evolution of hepatitis A, B and C prevalence. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies was measured in oral fluid samples collected by postal survey. Using the National Population Register, an incremental sampling plan was developed to obtain a representative sampling of the general population. A total of 24,000 persons were selected and 6,000 persons among them contacted in a first wave. With 1834 participants a response rate of 30.6% was achieved. The prevalence was weighted for age and was 20.2% (95% CI 19.43-21.08) for hepatitis A, 0.66% (95% CI 0.51-0.84) for hepatitis B surface antigen and 0.12% (95% CI 0.09-0.39) for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis A and C in the Flemish population is lower in 2003 compared with the results of the study performed in 1993. The difference may be due to a real decrease of the diseases but also to differences in the methodology. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains stable. Considering the 30% response rate and the high quality of the self-collected samples as reflect of a good participation of the general population, saliva test for prevalence study is a good epidemiological monitoring tool.

  4. A Novel Wheat C-bZIP Gene, TabZIP14-B, Participates in Salt and Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Gao, Lifeng; Hao, Chenyang; Zhao, Guangyao; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs) are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP) production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP14-B was targeted to the nucleus of tobacco epidermal cells. A transactivation assay demonstrated that TabZIP14-B showed transcriptional activation ability and was capable of binding the abscisic acid (ABA) responsive element (ABRE) in yeast. RT-qPCR revealed that TabZIP14-B was expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and young spikes and was up-regulated by exogenous ABA, salt, low-temperature, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress treatments. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP14-B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, freezing stresses and ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of TabZIP14-B resulted in increased expression of the AtRD29A, AtCOR47, AtRD20, AtGSTF6, and AtRAB18 genes and changes in several physiological characteristics. These results suggest that TabZIP14-B could function as a positive regulator in mediating the abiotic stress response. PMID:28536588

  5. 2C-B: a new psychoactive phenylethylamine recently discovered in Ecstasy tablets sold on the Swiss black market.

    PubMed

    Giroud, C; Augsburger, M; Rivier, L; Mangin, P; Sadeghipour, F; Varesio, E; Veuthey, J L; Kamalaprija, P

    1998-09-01

    This study sought to identify, by means of several analytical methods (GC-MS, HPLC-DAD, CE-DAD, FTIR, and NMR), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), which was found in two sets of tablets obtained from the Swiss black market. Unequivocal identification of 2C-B was only achieved by a combination of mass spectrometric and NMR analysis. Quantitation of 2C-B was performed by HPLC-DAD and CE-DAD. The amounts of 2C-B found in the tablets (3-8 mg) were in the range of the minimum quantity required to induce the effects characteristic of this drug.

  6. 46 CFR 153.903 - Operating a United States ship in special areas: Categories A, B, and C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating a United States ship in special areas: Categories A, B, and C. 153.903 Section 153.903 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Documents and Cargo...

  7. Postoperative Outcomes for Patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Subgroup Analysis of Patients with a History of Hepatitis B Infection.

    PubMed

    Omichi, Kiyohiko; Shindoh, Junichi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Arita, Junichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) not associated with active hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, termed non-B non-C HCC (nBnC-HCC), is reportedly correlated with better survival outcomes than HBV- or HCV-related HCC. However, the nBnC-HCC population includes patients with a history of HBV infection possessing anti-hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb), and the oncologic significance of this finding remains unclear. A retrospective review of the data for 562 patients who underwent curative resection for primary HCC was performed. The clinical outcomes were compared among the following four groups: HBV group (HBsAg-positive), HCV group (HCVAb-positive), HBcAb-positive nBnC-HCC group, and pure nBnC-HCC group (negative for these viral markers). The HBcAb-positive nBnC-HCC group showed better overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates than the HBV, HCV, and pure nBnC-HCC groups (5-year OS 89.4 vs 68.4, 62.0, and 66.2 %; P = 0.003; 5-year RFS 53.8 vs 31.4, 28.1, and 33.6 %; P = 0.01). A multivariate analysis confirmed that a history of HBV is associated with a lower risk of OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.23; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.56; P = 0.001) and RFS (HR 0.45; 95 % CI 0.27-0.73; P = 0.001). The HBcAb-positive nBnC-HCC group was associated with a higher incidence of well-differentiated HCC (33 vs 15 %; P = 0.03) and lower plasma des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin concentration (72 vs 357 mAu/mL; P = 0.047) than the pure nBnC group. The subgroup of patients with a history of HBV infection may have better survival outcomes after resection of HCC than the HBV/HCV-related or pure nBnC-HCC patients.

  8. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Substitution of Finished Petroleum Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback...

  9. A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Julien; Wakeford, Hannah R; Gillon, Michaël; Lewis, Nikole K; Valenti, Jeff A; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Burgasser, Adam J; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Here we report observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016. The lack of features in the combined spectrum rules out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Many denser atmospheres remain consistent with the featureless transmission spectrum-from a cloud-free water-vapour atmosphere to a Venus-like one.

  10. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  11. Phocoenamicins B and C, New Antibacterial Spirotetronates Isolated from a Marine Micromonospora sp.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Kokkini, Maria; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Phocoenamicins B and C (1 and 2), together with the known spirotetronate phocoenamicin (3), were isolated from cultures of Micromonospora sp. The acetone extract from a culture of this strain, isolated from marine sediments collected in the Canary Islands, displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and Mycobacterium bovis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using SP207ss column chromatography and preparative reversed-phased HPLC led to the isolation of the new compounds 1 and 2 belonging to the spirotetronate class of polyketides. Their structures were determined using a combination of HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments and comparison with the spectra reported for phocoenamicin. Antibacterial activity tests of the pure compounds against these pathogens revealed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 4 to 64 µg/mL for MRSA, and 16 to 32 µg/mL for M. tuberculosis H37Ra, with no significant activity found against M. bovis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) at concentrations below 128 µg/mL, and weak activity detected against Bacillus subtilis grown on agar plates. PMID:29547589

  12. Thotneosides A, B and C: potent antioxidants from nepalese crude drug, leaves of Aconogonon molle.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Khem Raj; Devkota, Hari Prasad; Watanabe, Takashi; Yahara, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Three new glycosides: thotneoside A (quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-phenylacetyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside) (1), thotneoside B (quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-phenylacetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside) (2) and thotneoside C (3-methyl-2-butenoic acid 1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) (3), together with nine known compounds; quercetin (4), quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5), quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (6), quercetin 3-O-β-D-galacturonopyranoside (7), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (8), quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (9), rutin (10), quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (11) and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (12) have been isolated from the shade dried leaves of Aconogonon molle, commonly known as "Thotne″ in Nepal. The structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of these compounds were isolated for the first time from A. molle and their in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Quercetin (4) and its glycosides (1-2, 5-11) showed potent free radical scavenging activity.

  13. Regulation of plasma factor XIII levels in healthy individuals; a major impact by subunit B intron K c.1952+144 C>G polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Zoltán A; Katona, Éva; Kállai, Judit; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Éva; Kovács, Bettina; Ajzner, Éva; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Miklós, Tünde; Muszbek, László

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of plasma factor XIII (FXIII) levels in healthy individuals has been only partially explored. The identification of major non-genetic and genetic regulatory factors might provide important information on the contribution of FXIII to the risk of cardio/cerebrovascular diseases. To determine the effect of age, smoking, BMI, fibrinogen concentration on plasma FXIII activity, complex FXIII antigen (FXIII-A 2 B 2 ) and total FXIII-B subunit (tFXIII-B) level, to correlate FXIII-B level with the other two FXIII parameters and to assess the variation of FXIII levels in carriers of major FXIII subunit polymorphisms. 268 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. FXIII activity was measured by the ammonia release assay; FXIII-A 2 B 2 and tFXIII-B were determined by ELISAs. FXIII-A p.Val34Leu, FXIII-B p.His95Arg and FXIII-B intron K c.1952+144 C>G polymorphisms were identified by RT-PCR using melting point analysis with fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection. All investigated FXIII parameters showed significant positive correlation with age and fibrinogen level; gender and BMI influenced only tFXIII-B. A highly significant positive correlation was demonstrated between tFXIII-B and the other FXIII parameters. FXIII-A p.Val34Leu polymorphism had only slight, if any effect on FXIII levels. The FXIII-B Arg95 allele moderately increased all three FXIII parameters, but the effect became statistically significant only after adjustment. The FXIII-B intron K G allele drastically decreased FXIII levels, and it seemed to be in synergism with the FXIII-A Leu34 allele. Plasma FXIII levels are subjected to multifactorial regulation, in which age, fibrinogen level and FXIII-B intron K polymorphism are major determinants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement [Dollars in thousands] () Greyhound Lines, Inc...

  15. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement [Dollars in thousands] () Greyhound Lines, Inc...

  16. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement [Dollars in thousands] () Greyhound Lines, Inc...

  17. Quantum dynamics of the C(1D)+HD and C(1D)+n-D2 reactions on the ã 1A' and b 1A" surfaces.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Paolo; Gamallo, Pablo; González, Miguel; Akpinar, Sinan; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Honvault, Pascal; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2010-03-14

    We present the Born-Oppenheimer, quantum dynamics of the reactions C((1)D)+HD and C((1)D)+n-D(2) on the uncoupled potential energy surfaces ã (1)A' and b (1)A", considering the Coriolis interactions and the nuclear-spin statistics. Using the real wavepacket method, we obtain initial-state-resolved probabilities, cross sections, isotopic branching ratios, and rate constants. Similarly to the C+n-H(2) reaction, the probabilities present many ã (1)A' or few b (1)A" sharp resonances, and the cross sections are very large at small collision energies and decrease at higher energies. At any initial condition, the C+HD reaction gives preferentially the CD+H products. Thermal cross sections, isotopic branching ratios, and rate constant k vary slightly with temperature and agree very well with the experimental values. At 300 K, we obtain for the various products k(CH+H)=(2.45+/-0.08) x 10(-10), k(CD+H)=(1.19+/-0.04) x 10(-10), k(CH+D)=(0.71+/-0.02) x 10(-10), k(CD+D)=(1.59+/-0.05) x 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1), and k(CD+H)/k(CH+D)=1.68+/-0.01. The b (1)A" contribution to cross sections and rate constants is always large, up to a maximum value of 62% for a rotationally resolved C+D(2) rate constant. The upper b (1)A" state is thus quite important in the C((1)D) collision with H(2) and its deuterated isotopes, as the agreement between theory and experiment shows.

  18. Oxidative stress, a trigger of hepatitis C and B virus-induced liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Valuev-Elliston, Vladimir T.; Tyurina, Daria A.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Bartosch, Birke; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Virally induced liver cancer usually evolves over long periods of time in the context of a strongly oxidative microenvironment, characterized by chronic liver inflammation and regeneration processes. They ultimately lead to oncogenic mutations in many cellular signaling cascades that drive cell growth and proliferation. Oxidative stress, induced by hepatitis viruses, therefore is one of the factors that drives the neoplastic transformation process in the liver. This review summarizes current knowledge on oxidative stress and oxidative stress responses induced by human hepatitis B and C viruses. It focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses activate cellular enzymes/systems that generate or scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and control cellular redox homeostasis. The impact of an altered cellular redox homeostasis on the initiation and establishment of chronic viral infection, as well as on the course and outcome of liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis will be discussed The review neither discusses reactive nitrogen species, although their metabolism is interferes with that of ROS, nor antioxidants as potential therapeutic remedies against viral infections, both subjects meriting an independent review. PMID:27965466

  19. Comparison of Capsular Genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciNβ in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciNβ. Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination. PMID:21411593

  20. Full-length genomic sequence of hepatitis B virus genotype C2 isolated from a native Brazilian patient.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Santana, Rúbia Anita Ferraz; Sitnik, Roberta; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Abrão; Mangueira, Cristovão Luís Pitangueira; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

    2011-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is among the leading causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Brazil, genotype A is the most frequent, followed by genotypes D and F. Genotypes B and C are found in Brazil exclusively among Asian patients and their descendants. The aim of this study was to sequence the entire HBV genome of a Caucasian patient infected with HBV/C2 and to infer the origin of the virus based on sequencing analysis. The sequence of this Brazilian isolate was grouped with four other sequences described in China. The sequence of this patient is the first complete genome of HBV/C2 reported in Brazil.

  1. HIV-1 Gp120 clade B/C induces a GRP78 driven cytoprotective mechanism in astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    López, Sheila N.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; Rivera, Mariela; Rodríguez, Maridaliz; Babu, Mohan; Cubano, Luis A.; Xiong, Huangui; Wang, Guangdi; Kucheryavykh, Lilia; Boukli, Nawal M.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 clades are known to be one of the key factors implicated in modulating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 B and C clades account for the majority of HIV-1 infections, clade B being the most neuropathogenic. The mechanisms behind HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis remain the subject of active research. We hypothesized that HIV-1 gp120 clade B and C proteins may exert differential proliferation, cell survival and NeuroAIDS effects in human astrocytoma cells via the Unfolded Protein Response, an endoplasmic reticulum- based cytoprotective mechanism. The differential effect of gp120 clade B and C was evaluated using for the first time a Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling quantitative proteomic approach. Flow cytometry analyses were performed for cell cycle and cell death identification. Among the proteins differentiated by HIV-1 gp120 proteins figure cytoskeleton, oxidative stress, UPR markers and numerous glycolytic metabolism enzymes. Our results demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120 B induced migration, proliferative and protective responses granted by the expression of GRP78, while HIV-1 gp120 C induced the expression of key inflammatory and pro-apoptotic markers. These novel findings put forward the first evidence that GRP78 is a key player in HIV-1 clade B and C neuropathogenic discrepancies and can be used as a novel target for immunotherapies. PMID:28978127

  2. Deposition of a-C/B films from o-carborane and trimethyl boron precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, J.B.; Getty, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Vacuum wall deposition of a-B/C films has had tremendous positive impact on the performance of tokamak fusion reactors. In this work, precursor vapor and helium carrier gas have been used to create a plasma using a novel plasma source. Either trimethyl boron (TMB) or sublimed vapor from o-carborane solid can be used as deposition precursors. The plasma operates in a pressure range of 5 to 15 mTorr and typical flow rates are 5 sccm He plus 0.5-1 sccm o-carborane or TMB vapor. The film deposition rate ranges from less than 100 {angstrom}/minute to over 1,000 {angstrom}/minute. Microwave power levels rangemore » from 300--400 W at 2.45 GHz. The temperature and bias of the substrate can be varied, and the temperature of the substrate is recorded during deposition. The films have been analyzed using XPS. The atomic composition of the films has been measured. The o-carborane films have a much higher boron concentration than those deposited from TMB. The chemical bond characteristics of the different species have also been examined for each type of film. The thickness of the films is measured by profilometry, and this is combined with measurements of the film area and weight to calculate the film density. X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed; no evidence of any crystalline structure was found. Films with a thickness of a few thousand {angstrom} are routinely obtained. Deposition rates were 350 {angstrom}/minute on average.« less

  3. Meningococcal Carriage Following a Vaccination Campaign With MenB-4C and MenB-FHbp in Response to a University Serogroup B Meningococcal Disease Outbreak-Oregon, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; MacNeil, Jessica; Chang, How Yi; Day, Michael; Fisher, Emily; Martin, Stacey; Poissant, Tasha; Schmink, Susanna E; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Jenkins, Laurel T; Wang, Xin; Acosta, Anna

    2017-11-27

    Limited data exist on the impact of the serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines MenB-FHbp and MenB-4C on meningococcal carriage and herd protection. We therefore assessed meningococcal carriage following a MenB vaccination campaign in response to a university serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak in 2015. A convenience sample of students recommended for vaccination provided oropharyngeal swab specimens and completed questionnaires during 4 carriage surveys over 11 months. Isolates were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, slide agglutination, and whole-genome sequencing. Vaccination history was verified via university records and the state immunization registry. A total of 4225 oropharyngeal swab specimens from 3802 unique participants were analyzed. Total meningococcal and genotypically serogroup B carriage prevalence among sampled students were stable, at 11%-17% and 1.2%-2.4% during each round, respectively; no participants carried the outbreak strain. Neither 1-3 doses of MenB-FHbp nor 1-2 doses of MenB-4C was associated with decreased total or serogroup B carriage prevalence. While few participants completed the full MenB vaccination series, limiting analytic power, these data suggest that MenB-FHbp and MenB-4C do not have a large, rapid impact on meningococcal carriage and are unlikely to provide herd protection in the context of an outbreak response. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-09

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  5. Deletion of the late cornified envelope (LCE) 3B and 3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    de Cid, Rafael; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Robarge, Jason; Liao, Wilson; Dannhauser, Emma N.; Giardina, Emiliano; Stuart, Philip E.; Nair, Rajan; Helms, Cynthia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ballana, Ester; Martín-Ezquerra, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Kamsteeg, Marijke; Joosten, Irma; Eichler, Evan E.; Lázaro, Conxi; Pujol, Ramón M.; Armengol, Lluís; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Elder, James T.; Novelli, Giuseppe; Armour, John A.L.; Kwok, Pui; Bowcock, Anne; Schalkwijk, Joost; Estivill, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a prevalence of 2% to 3% in Caucasians1. In a genome-wide search for copy number variants (CNV) using a sample pooling approach we have identified a deletion comprising LCE3B and LCE3C, members of the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster2. The absence of LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3C-LCE3B-del) is significantly associated (p=1.38E-08) with risk of psoriasis in 2,831 samples from Spain, The Netherlands, Italy and the USA, and in a family-based study (p=5.4E-04). LCE3C-LCE3B-del is tagged by rs4112788 (r2=0.93), which is also strongly associated with psoriasis (p<6.6E-09). LCE3C-LCE3B-del shows epistatic effects with the HLA-Cw6 allele on the development of psoriasis in Dutch samples, and multiplicative effects in the other samples. LCE expression can be induced in normal epidermis by skin barrier disruption and is strongly expressed in psoriatic lesions, suggesting that compromised skin barrier function plays a role in psoriasis susceptibility. PMID:19169253

  6. Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Klasse, P. J.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Pugach, Pavel; Ringe, Rajesh P.; Golabek, Michael; van Gils, Marit J.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Wilson, Ian A.; Butera, Salvatore T.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the immunogenicity in rabbits of native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP.664 trimers based on the env genes of four isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); specifically BG505 (clade A), B41 (clade B), CZA97 (clade C) and DU422 (clade C). The various trimers were delivered either simultaneously (as a mixture of clade A + B trimers) or sequentially over a 73-week period. Autologous, Tier-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were generated to the clade A and clade B trimers in the bivalent mixture. When delivered as boosting immunogens to rabbits immunized with the clade A and/or clade B trimers, the clade C trimers also generated autologous Tier-2 NAb responses, the CZA97 trimers doing so more strongly and consistently than the DU422 trimers. The clade C trimers also cross-boosted the pre-existing NAb responses to clade A and B trimers. We observed heterologous Tier-2 NAb responses albeit inconsistently, and with limited overall breath. However, cross-neutralization of the clade A BG505.T332N virus was consistently observed in rabbits immunized only with clade B trimers and then boosted with clade C trimers. The autologous NAbs induced by the BG505, B41 and CZA97 trimers predominantly recognized specific holes in the glycan shields of the cognate virus. The shared location of some of these holes may account for the observed cross-boosting effects and the heterologous neutralization of the BG505.T332N virus. These findings will guide the design of further experiments to determine whether and how multiple Env trimers can together induce more broadly neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:27627672

  7. Hepatitis B and C coinfection in a real-life setting: viral interactions and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Papavdi, Maria; Pavlidou, Anna; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Kranidioti, Hariklia; Kontos, George; Koskinas, John; Papatheodoridis, George V; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Only limited data concerning hepatitis B (HBV) and C viruses (HCV) coinfection are available. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may be more effective for HCV clearance than interferon (IFN)-based regimens with a risk of HBV reactivation. We retrospectively enrolled 40 HBV/HCV-coinfected patients to evaluate their clinical profile and treatment outcomes. Chronic dual infection was present in 25/40 (62.5%) patients, acute HCV superinfection in 5/40 (12.5%) patients and acute HBV superinfection in 10/40 (25%). Twenty-five patients (62.5%) were treated: 16/25 (64%) with IFN, 4/25 (16%) with nucleot(s)ide analogs (NUCs) and 5/25 (20%) with DAAs. Of the 16 patients treated with IFN-based therapy, 6 (37.5%) achieved both sustained virological response (SVR) and HBsAg clearance. Of the 4 patients treated with NUCs, one (25%) achieved both SVR and HBsAg clearance. All five patients treated with DAAs (100%) achieved SVR, while one case of HBV reactivation was recorded. Fifteen of the 40 patients (37.5%) did not receive any treatment. Eight of them (53.5%) presented with acute HBV superinfection: spontaneous HCV clearance was recorded in 5/8 (62.5%), while HBsAg clearance occurred in 6/8 (75%). Three of them (20%) presented with acute HCV superinfection; spontaneous HCV clearance was recorded in one of the three (33.5%). The other four patients (26.5%) presented with dual HBV/HCV infection. A significant proportion of patients presented with active HBV replication. Treatment with DAAs seems to be efficacious for HCV eradication. However, clinicians should be aware of HBV reactivation. HBV superinfection may lead to both HBsAg and HCV clearance.

  8. The C-2 derivatives of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B, have anti-cocaine properties with minimal side effects.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Amy W M; Bosch, Peter J; Culverhouse, Aimee; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Kivell, Bronwyn M

    2017-08-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have pre-clinical anti-cocaine and analgesic effects. However, side effects including sedation, dysphoria, aversion, anxiety and depression limit their therapeutic development. The unique structure of salvinorin A has been used to develop longer acting KOPr agonists. We evaluate two novel C-2 analogues of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B (EOM Sal B) and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B (β-THP Sal B) alongside U50,488 for their ability to modulate cocaine-induced behaviours and side effects, pre-clinically. Anti-cocaine properties of EOM Sal B were evaluated using the reinstatement model of drug seeking in self-administering rats. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for effects on cocaine-induced hyperactivity, spontaneous locomotor activity and sucrose self-administration. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for aversive, anxiogenic and depressive-like effects using conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FSTs), respectively. EOM Sal B (0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) dose dependently attenuated drug seeking, and EOM Sal B (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and β-THP Sal B (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity. No effects on locomotor activity, open arm times (EPM) or swimming behaviours (FST) were seen with EOM (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or β-THP Sal B (1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.). However, β-THP Sal B decreased time spent in the drug-paired chamber. EOM Sal B is more potent than Sal A and β-THP Sal B in reducing drug-seeking behaviour with fewer side effects. EOM Sal B showed no effects on sucrose self-administration (0.1 mg/kg), locomotor, depressive-like, aversive-like or anxiolytic effects.

  9. HAT-P-31b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT JUPITER AND A LONG-PERIOD, MASSIVE THIRD BODY

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, D. M.; Hartman, J.; Bakos, G. A.

    2011-09-15

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-31b, a transiting exoplanet orbiting the V = 11.660 dwarf star GSC 2099-00908. HAT-P-31b is the first planet discovered with the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope (HAT) without any follow-up photometry, demonstrating the feasibility of a new mode of operation for the HATNet project. The 2.17 M{sub J} , 1.1 R{sub J} planet has a period of P{sub b} = 5.0054 days and maintains an unusually high eccentricity of e{sub b} = 0.2450 {+-} 0.0045, determined through Keck, FIbr-fed Echelle Spectrograph, and Subaru high-precision radial velocities (RVs). Detailed modeling of the RVs indicates an additional quadratic residualmore » trend in the data detected to very high confidence. We interpret this trend as a long-period outer companion, HAT-P-31c, of minimum mass 3.4 M{sub J} and period {>=}2.8 years. Since current RVs span less than half an orbital period, we are unable to determine the properties of HAT-P-31c to high confidence. However, dynamical simulations of two possible configurations show that orbital stability is to be expected. Further, if HAT-P-31c has non-zero eccentricity, our simulations show that the eccentricity of HAT-P-31b is actively driven by the presence of c, making HAT-P-31 a potentially intriguing dynamical laboratory.« less

  10. Detection of a late B star companion of the bright cluster giant C PUP equals HD 63032

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groote, D.; Reimers, D.

    1983-03-01

    IUE observations show that c Pup, the central bright K giant in the open cluster NGC 2451, has a blue companion. A fit of theoretical line blanketed model atmosphere fluxes to the observed energy distribution yields reddening E(B-V) = 0.15 (from λ2200 Å feature), an effective temperature Te = 10,200K, and an angular diameter θ = 0.060. If the companion is a main-sequence star, c Pup and its companion are located at a distance of 310 ± 50 pc which lends additional support to membership of c Pup in NGC 2451. The evolutionary status of c Pup is briefly discussed.

  11. Conversion of (η(5)-C2B9H10R)TaX3 (X = Me, NMe2) to (η(6)-C2B9H10R)TaX' (X' = NMe2, azaallyl) in the absence of a reducing agent: synthesis and structure of tantallacarboranes incorporating an arachno-η(6)-C2B9(4-) ligand.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Xie, Zuowei

    2014-08-04

    Heating a benzene solution of [η(5)-(Me2NCH2CH2)C2B9H10] Ta(NMe2)3 (1) in the presence of pyridine gave an unprecedented complex [η(1):η(6)-(Me2NCH2CH2)C2B9H10]Ta (NMe2)(NC5H5) (2). On the other hand, reaction of (η(5)-C2B9H11)TaMe3 with adamantly isonitrile (AdNC) in dimethoxyethane (DME) at room temperature afforded another unexpected complex (η(6)-C2B9H11)Ta[η(3)-C,C,N-CH2C(CH3)NAd](DME) (4). These results show that pyridine and DME are essential for the formation of 2 and 4, respectively. It is suggested that the nido-η(5)-C2B9H10R(2−) ligand in tantallacarboranes takes up two electrons released by reductive elimination to form an arachno-η(6)-C2B9H10R(4−) fragment via the cage C–C bond cleavage.

  12. Hepatitis A and B vaccination--the rate of uptake and course completion in patients with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Trinity; Kwan, Kellie; Mak, Donna

    2010-10-01

    Western Australian general practitioners may order Department of Health funded hepatitis A and B vaccines for patients newly notified with hepatitis C to prevent complications associated with co-infections. The aim of this study was to determine vaccination uptake of hepatitis C patients through this program. We reviewed hepatitis C notifications and hepatitis A and B vaccine orders received in 2007 and 2008 to determine the rate of vaccine uptake and course completion. Vaccination orders for initial doses were received for 37% (448/1209) of patients. Vaccination uptake was positively associated with age and non- Aboriginality. Final vaccination doses were ordered for 30% of patients for whom an initial order had been received. Uptake of hepatitis A and B vaccination was higher than that of similar populations. However, vaccination course completion was low. General practitioners need to emphasise to their patients the importance of completing a vaccine course.

  13. Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Binding to RelA(p65)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Haiwei; Yin, Peiqi; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Leiliang; Jin, Qi; Zhu, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-κB signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer p65/p50, the predominant form of NF-κB. We also show that picornavirus 2C family proteins inhibit NF-κB activation and associate with p65 and IKKβ. Our findings provide a novel mechanism how EV71 antagonizes innate immunity. PMID:26394554

  14. Hepatitis A, B, and C in Canada. Results from the National Sentinel Health Unit Surveillance System, 1993-1995.

    PubMed

    elSaadany, Susie; Gully, Paul; Giulivi, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of and to describe the risk factors that were associated with the acquisition of hepatitis A, B, and C in well-defined Canadian populations from the Sentinel Health Unit Surveillance System (SHUSS). We used the 1993 to 1995 data on hepatitis A, B, and C infection in Canada, collected by SHUSS, a national surveillance system established by the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control in Health Canada in 1993, through consultation and collaboration with provincial partners. We calculated the rates of, and described and discussed the risk factors that were associated with, hepatitis A, B, and C infection, based on the SHUSS surveillance data. From 1993 to 1995, SHUSS reported 92 cases of hepatitis A, 89 hepatitis B, and 720 hepatitis C, yielding a rate of 3.9, 3.8, and 30.3 per 100,000, respectively. The reported rates varied substantially among participating health units, ranging from 0.8 to 8.1 per 100,000 for hepatitis A, 0.0 to 9.0 for hepatitis B, and 5.4 to 73.3 for hepatitis C. The most frequently reported risk factor for hepatitis A was a history of street drug use, followed by recent international travel and household contact with a hepatitis A case, household crowding, and a history of raw or undercooked shellfish consumption. The most frequently reported risk factors for the acquisition of hepatitis B included history of street drug use and occupational exposure. The most frequently reported risk factor for the acquisition of hepatitis C was a history of street drug use, followed by health care exposure and occupational exposure. Only 5% of persons with hepatitis B infection had a history of hepatitis B immunization. Despite the limitations of possible bias due to selective participation of SHUSS and the lack of information on risk factors among controls, the high exposure to known risk factors and the low rate of vaccination among hepatitis patients can provide useful information for the development of public health policies to

  15. Mechanistic Characterization of GS-9190 (Tegobuvir), a Novel Nonnucleoside Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase▿

    PubMed Central

    Shih, I-hung; Vliegen, Inge; Peng, Betty; Yang, Huiling; Hebner, Christy; Paeshuyse, Jan; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Fenaux, Martijn; Tian, Yang; Mabery, Eric; Qi, Xiaoping; Bahador, Gina; Paulson, Matthew; Lehman, Laura S.; Bondy, Steven; Tse, Winston; Reiser, Hans; Lee, William A.; Schmitz, Uli; Neyts, Johan; Zhong, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    GS-9190 (Tegobuvir) is a novel imidazopyridine inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication in vitro and has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patients chronically infected with genotype 1 (GT1) HCV. GS-9190 exhibits reduced activity against GT2a (JFH1) subgenomic replicons and GT2a (J6/JFH1) infectious virus, suggesting that the compound's mechanism of action involves a genotype-specific viral component. To further investigate the GS-9190 mechanism of action, we utilized the susceptibility differences between GT1b and GT2a by constructing a series of replicon chimeras where combinations of 1b and 2a nonstructural proteins were encoded within the same replicon. The antiviral activities of GS-9190 against the chimeric replicons were reduced to levels comparable to that of the wild-type GT2a replicon in chimeras expressing GT2a NS5B. GT1b replicons in which the β-hairpin region (amino acids 435 to 455) was replaced by the corresponding sequence of GT2a were markedly less susceptible to GS-9190, indicating the importance of the thumb subdomain of the polymerase in this effect. Resistance selection in GT1b replicon cells identified several mutations in NS5B (C316Y, Y448H, Y452H, and C445F) that contributed to the drug resistance phenotype. Reintroduction of these mutations into wild-type replicons conferred resistance to GS-9190, with the number of NS5B mutations correlating with the degree of resistance. Analysis of GS-9190 cross-resistance against previously reported NS5B drug-selected mutations showed that the resistance pattern of GS-9190 is different from other nonnucleoside inhibitors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GS-9190 represents a novel class of nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors that interact with NS5B likely through involvement of the β-hairpin in the thumb subdomain. PMID:21746939

  16. Acute hepatitis A, B and C but not D is still prevalent in Mongolia: a time trend analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Lee, Hye Won; George, Jacob; Munkh-Orshikh, Dashchirev; Enkhtuvshin, Baasankhuu; Ariunaa, Sosorbaram; Eslam, Mohammed; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken. Results Acute hepatitis A, B and C was diagnosed in 50.9%, 26.2% and 6.0% of the cohort. Notably, 16.8% of the cohort had a dual infection. The etiologies of acute viral hepatitis were varied by age groups. The most common cause of acute viral hepatitis among 2-19 year olds was hepatitis A, HBV and superinfection with HDV among 20-40 year olds, and HCV among 40-49 year olds. Patients with more than one hepatitis virus infection were significantly older, more likely to be male and had a higher prevalence of all risk factors for disease acquisition. These patients also had more severe liver disease at presentation compared to those with mono-infection. Conclusions Acute viral hepatitis is still prevalent in Mongolia. Thus, the need for proper infection control is increasing in this country. PMID:28535669

  17. Acute hepatitis A, B and C but not D is still prevalent in Mongolia: a time trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Lee, Hye Won; George, Jacob; Munkh-Orshikh, Dashchirev; Enkhtuvshin, Baasankhuu; Ariunaa, Sosorbaram; Eslam, Mohammed; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young

    2017-06-01

    Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken. Acute hepatitis A, B and C was diagnosed in 50.9%, 26.2% and 6.0% of the cohort. Notably, 16.8% of the cohort had a dual infection. The etiologies of acute viral hepatitis were varied by age groups. The most common cause of acute viral hepatitis among 2-19 year olds was hepatitis A, HBV and superinfection with HDV among 20-40 year olds, and HCV among 40-49 year olds. Patients with more than one hepatitis virus infection were significantly older, more likely to be male and had a higher prevalence of all risk factors for disease acquisition. These patients also had more severe liver disease at presentation compared to those with mono-infection. Acute viral hepatitis is still prevalent in Mongolia. Thus, the need for proper infection control is increasing in this country.

  18. The general theory of multistage geminate reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. III. Two-stage reversible dissociation in geminate reaction A + ACB + B.

    PubMed

    Kipriyanov, Alexey A; Kipriyanov, Alexander A; Doktorov, Alexander B

    2016-04-14

    Specific two-stage reversible reaction A + ACB + B of the decay of species C reactants by two independent transition channels is considered on the basis of the general theory of multistage reactions of isolated pairs of reactants. It is assumed that at the initial instant of time, the reacting system contains only reactants C. The employed general approach has made it possible to consider, in the general case, the inhomogeneous initial distribution of reactants, and avoid application of model concepts of a reaction system structure (i.e., of the structure of reactants and their molecular mobility). Slowing of multistage reaction kinetics as compared to the kinetics of elementary stages is established and physically interpreted. To test approximations (point approximation) used to develop a universal kinetic law, a widely employed specific model of spherical particles with isotropic reactivity diffusing in solution is applied. With this particular model as an example, ultimate kinetics of chemical conversion of reactants is investigated. The question concerning the depths of chemical transformation at which long-term asymptotes are reached is studied.

  19. Quantum Torus Algebras and B(C)-Type Toda Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Li, Chuanzhong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we construct a new even constrained B(C)-type Toda hierarchy and derive its B(C)-type Block-type additional symmetry. Also we generalize the B(C)-type Toda hierarchy to the N-component B(C)-type Toda hierarchy which is proved to have symmetries of a coupled \\bigotimes ^NQT_+ algebra ( N-fold direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus algebra QT).

  20. A type III effector protease NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli targets NF-κB for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Riedmaier, Patrice; Marchès, Olivier; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2011-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection. Previously, we found that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III effector, NleE, to block the inflammatory response by inhibiting IκB degradation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Here we screened further effectors with unknown function for their capacity to prevent p65 nuclear translocation. We observed that ectopic expression of GFP–NleC in HeLa cells led to the degradation of p65. Delivery of NleC by the T3SS of EPEC also induced degradation of p65 in infected cells as well as other NF-κB components, c-Rel and p50. Recombinant His6-NleC induced p65 and p50 cleavage in HeLa cell lysates and mutation of a consensus zinc metalloprotease motif, HEIIH, abrogated NleC proteolytic activity. NleC inhibited IL-8 production during prolonged EPEC infection of HeLa cells in a protease activity-dependent manner. A double nleE/nleC mutant was further impaired for its ability to inhibit IL-8 secretion than either a single nleE or a single nleC mutant. We conclude that NleC is a type III effector protease that degrades NF-κB thereby contributing the arsenal of bacterial effectors that inhibit innate immune activation. PMID:21306441

  1. Acute hepatitis B in a patient with OLT during treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence.

    PubMed

    Biliotti, Elisa; Zacharia, Sabu; Grieco, Stefania; Spaziante, Martina; Giusto, Michela; Merli, Manuela; Gallinaro, Valentina; Taliani, Gloria

    2012-12-01

    The course and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in liver transplanted patients with hepatitis C recurrence are unknown. Here we describe a patient who presented with acute hepatitis B infection while on treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. A nucleoside analogue was added (entecavir) and the patient cleared hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and seroconverted to anti-HBs. In this case, the acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might have contributed to the clearance of HCV, the concomitant immunosuppression might have lead to the slow clearance of HBV infection, and the combined antiviral therapy has helped in the resolution of both infections. Hepatitis B vaccination should be recommended in susceptible patients waiting for liver transplantation.

  2. Tissue distribution and early developmental expression patterns of aldolase A, B, and C in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Fan, J J; Bai, J J; Ma, D M; Yu, L Y; Jiang, P

    2017-09-27

    Aldolase is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To establish the expression patterns of all three aldolase isozyme genes in different tissues and during early embryogenesis in lower vertebrates, as well as to explore the functional differences between these three isozymes, the grass carp was selected as a model owing to its relatively high glucose-metabolizing capability. Based on the cDNA sequences of the aldolase A, B, and C genes, the expression patterns of these three isozymes were analyzed in different tissues and during early embryogenesis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Sequence analysis of cDNAs indicated that aldolase A, B, and C (GenBank accession numbers: KM192250, KM192251, and KM192252) consist of 364, 364, and 363 amino acids, respectively. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression levels of aldolase A, B, and C were highest in the muscle, liver, and brain, respectively. Aldolase A and C exhibited similar expression patterns during embryogenesis, with high levels observed in unfertilized and fertilized eggs and at the blastocyst stage, followed by a decline and then increase after organogenesis. In contrast, aldolase B transcript was not detected during the unfertilized egg stage, and appeared only from gastrulation; the expression increased markedly during the feeding period (72 h after hatching), at which point the level was higher than those of aldolase A and C. These data suggest that the glucose content of grass carp starter feed should be adjusted according to the metabolic activity of aldolase B.

  3. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    NPS67-82- 003 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC HP-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) FOR THE E-2C, E-2B, AND C-2A...A’P-𔃻"’f .00 ____________ 4. TITLE9 (and Subtil) SL TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED H1P-41CV FLIGHT PERFORMANCE ADVISORY SYSTEM (FPAS) TECHNICAL REPORT...complement the original design of a Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C aircraft. The original design fulfilled the requirements of AE 3001

  4. Differential binding of RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC to protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK) isoforms PRK1, PRK2, and PRK3: PRKs have the highest affinity for RhoB.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Catherine L; Lowe, Peter N; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Mott, Helen R; Owen, Darerca

    2013-11-12

    Protein kinase C-related kinases (PRKs) are members of the protein kinase C superfamily of serine-threonine kinases and can be activated by binding to members of the Rho family of GTPases via a Rho-binding motif known as an HR1 domain. Three tandem HR1 domains reside at the N-terminus of the PRKs. We have assessed the ability of the HR1a and HR1b domains from the three PRK isoforms (PRK1, PRK2, and PRK3) to interact with the three Rho isoforms (RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC). The affinities of RhoA and RhoC for a construct encompassing both PRK1 HR1 domains were similar to those for the HR1a domain alone, suggesting that these interactions are mediated solely by the HR1a domain. The affinities of RhoB for both the PRK1 HR1a domain and the HR1ab didomain were higher than those of RhoA or RhoC. RhoB also bound more tightly to the didomain than to the HR1a domain alone, implicating the HR1b domain in the interaction. As compared with PRK1 HR1 domains, PRK2 and PRK3 domains bind less well to all Rho isoforms. Uniquely, however, the PRK3 domains display a specificity for RhoB that requires both the C-terminus of RhoB and the PRK3 HR1b domain. The thermal stability of the HR1a and HR1b domains was also investigated. The PRK2 HR1a domain was found to be the most thermally stable, while PRK2 HR1b, PRK3 HR1a, and PRK3 HR1b domains all exhibited lower melting temperatures, similar to that of the PRK1 HR1a domain. The lower thermal stability of the PRK2 and PRK3 HR1b domains may impart greater flexibility, driving their ability to interact with Rho isoforms.

  5. 48 CFR 1827.303 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contract clauses. (NASA... COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.303 Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs.... (5) Alternate IV to 52.227-11 is not used in NASA contracts. See instead 1827.303-70(a). (b)(1)(ii...

  6. 46 CFR 153.909 - Completing the Cargo Record Book and record retention: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on board and readily available for inspection and copying by the Coast Guard and when the ship is a U... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... and record retention: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) The person in charge of a ship shall ensure that...

  7. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard (OMB...

  8. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard (OMB...

  9. Terrorist Material Support: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 2339A and 2339B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    child (which also is not a violent act), is an ‘act dangerous to human life.’ And it violates ... 18 U.S.C. §2339A(a), which provides that ‘whoever...United States. Giving money to Hamas, like giving a loaded gun to a child (which also is not a violent act), is an ‘act dangerous to human life.’ And...explosive or incendiary devices, or endangerment of human life by means of weapons, on an aircraft within U.S. jurisdiction) 49 U.S.C. 46506 (homicide or

  10. β1-C121W Is Down But Not Out: Epilepsy-Associated Scn1b-C121W Results in a Deleterious Gain-of-Function

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Larisa C.; O'Malley, Heather A.; Hull, Jacob M.; Kleeman, Amanda; Patino, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) β subunits signal through multiple pathways on multiple time scales. In addition to modulating sodium and potassium currents, β subunits play nonconducting roles as cell adhesion molecules, which allow them to function in cell–cell communication, neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth, neuronal pathfinding, and axonal fasciculation. Mutations in SCN1B, encoding VGSC β1 and β1B, are associated with epilepsy. Autosomal-dominant SCN1B-C121W, the first epilepsy-associated VGSC mutation identified, results in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). This mutation has been shown to disrupt both the sodium-current-modulatory and cell-adhesive functions of β1 subunits expressed in heterologous systems. The goal of this study was to compare mice heterozygous for Scn1b-C121W (Scn1b+/W) with mice heterozygous for the Scn1b-null allele (Scn1b+/−) to determine whether the C121W mutation results in loss-of-function in vivo. We found that Scn1b+/W mice were more susceptible than Scn1b+/− and Scn1b+/+ mice to hyperthermia-induced convulsions, a model of pediatric febrile seizures. β1-C121W subunits are expressed at the neuronal cell surface in vivo. However, despite this, β1-C121W polypeptides are incompletely glycosylated and do not associate with VGSC α subunits in the brain. β1-C121W subcellular localization is restricted to neuronal cell bodies and is not detected at axon initial segments in the cortex or cerebellum or at optic nerve nodes of Ranvier of Scn1bW/W mice. These data, together with our previous results showing that β1-C121W cannot participate in trans-homophilic cell adhesion, lead to the hypothesis that SCN1B-C121W confers a deleterious gain-of-function in human GEFS+ patients. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms underlying genetic epilepsy syndromes are poorly understood. Closing this gap in knowledge is essential to the development of new medicines to treat epilepsy. We have used mouse models to

  11. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in the Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Andric, Zorana; Popadic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Barbara; Jaglicic, Ivana; Bojic, Svetlana; Simonovic, Ruzica

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first published detailed analysis of five loci polymorphisms as well as reports of two, three and five loci haplotype frequencies in the Serbian population in a sample of 1992 volunteer bone marrow donors recruited from different part of the country. Typing was performed by PCR SSO method combined with PCR SSP techniques to resolve ambiguities. In total, 16 HLA-A, 28 HLA-B, 14 HLA-C, 13 HLA-DRB1 and 5 HLA-DQB1 allelic groups were identified. The most frequent in allele groups are HLA-A(∗)02 (29.5%), HLA-A(∗)01 (14.2%), HLA-B(∗)35 (13.1%), HLA-B(∗)51 (12.8%), HLA-C(∗)07 (24.8%), HLA-DRB1(∗)11 (16.9%), HLA-DRB1(∗)13 (13.2%), HLA-DQB1(∗)03 (33.3%) and DQB1(∗)05 (33.0%). The most frequent three- and five-loci haplotypes were A(∗)01-B(∗)08-DRB1(∗)03 (5.9%) and A(∗)02-B(∗)18-DRB1(∗)11 (1.9%), A(∗)01-B(∗)08-C(∗)07-DRB1(∗)03-DQB1(∗)02 (6.6%) followed by A(∗)02-B(∗)18-C(∗)07-DRB1(∗)11-DQB1(∗)03 (2.5%), then A(∗)33-B(∗)14-C(∗)08-DRB1(∗)01-DQB1(∗)05 and A(∗)02-B(∗)35-C(∗)04-DRB1(∗)16-DQB1(∗)05 (2.2% both), respectively. The results of cluster analysis showed that the Serbian population is closely related to the populations living in central Balkan and neighboring European regions. The level of allelic diversity found in this study are relevant to facilitate searching for unrelated matched donor and provide a healthy control population from our region that should be useful in the future disease association study. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). 1827.302 Section 1827.302 Federal Acquisition... the performance of experimental, developmental, or research work with a small business firm or a...

  13. 76 FR 69125 - Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2104A, B, C, D and E; Huntsville, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...-0693; Airspace Docket No. 11-ASO-29] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2104A, B, C, D and E... changes the using agency name for Restricted Area R-2104 A through E, Huntsville, AL to read ``Commander... that the FAA change the name of the using agency for Restricted Areas R-2104A through E to ``Commander...

  14. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Caucasian JK*A/JK*B woman with Jk(a+b-) red blood cells, anti-Jkb, and a novel JK*B allele c.1038delG.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Glenn; Sumugod, Ricardo D; Lindholm, Paul F; Zinni, Jules G; Keller, Jessica A; Horn, Trina; Keller, Margaret A

    2016-09-01

    The Kidd blood group on the red blood cell (RBC) glycoprotein urea transporter-B has a growing number of weak and null alleles in its gene SLC14A1 that are emerging from more widespread genotyping of blood donors and patients. We investigated a 64-year-old Caucasian woman of Polish-Czech descent who developed anti-Jkb detected in solid-phase RBC adherence testing within 12 days after 7 units of RBCs were transfused. Her RBCs subsequently typed Jk(a+b–) by licensed reagents and human antisera. Nevertheless, in RBC genotyping (BioArray HEA BeadChip, Immucor, Warren, NJ) performed in our transfusion service on all patients with alloantibodies, her Kidd typing was JK*A/JK*B based on the Jka/Jkb single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 9 (c.838G>A, p.Asp280Asn). Genomic analysis and cDNA sequencing of her JK*B allele revealed a novel single-nucleotide deletion of c.1038G in exon 11, predicting a frameshift and premature stop (p.Thr346Thrfs*5) after translation of nearly 90 percent of the expressed exons 4–11. This allele has been provisionally named JK*02N.14, subject to approval by the International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party. The site of this variant is closer to the C-terminus than that of any allele associated with the Jk(a–b–) phenotype reported to date. Routine genotyping of patients with RBC alloantibodies can reveal variants posing potential risk of alloimmunization. Continuing investigation of Kidd variants may shed light on the structure of Kidd antigens and the function of urea transporter-B.

  16. Terrorist Material Support: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 2339A and 2339B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    the challenge before it were not unconstitutionally vague nor was their proscription inconsistent with the First Amendment’s freedom of speech and...Circuit decision which had found unconstitutionally vague some of the terms used to define material support and found application to some forms of...its application may be unclear under other circumstances. The Court held that Section 2339B is not unconstitutionally vague as applied to the type

  17. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 2. Appendices A, B and C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    i . Oil .362 .00 382 13 971 13 .879,230 .00 1 .29b , 168 .00 38M 106 78b 61 . 719,799 .00 1,281 .136 .00 386 18...7 2 1302 Oil oJ7 b3V 1 73 bb2 b16 b 1 I bVU 803 127 bOO 612 326 16U V36 bbD 3b3 212 VI 1 2ib 0rt3 b6b 7V0 ObV 1 30 b7 1 82... luv 1 10 I I I 1 1 i 1 I J I I N 1 lb 1 1 6 1 I / 1 1 I ) 1 I "

  18. Interaction of 2',3'-cAMP with Rbp47b Plays a Role in Stress Granule Formation.

    PubMed

    Kosmacz, Monika; Luzarowski, Marcin; Kerber, Olga; Leniak, Ewa; Gutiérrez-Beltrán, Emilio; Moreno, Juan Camilo; Gorka, Michał; Szlachetko, Jagoda; Veyel, Daniel; Graf, Alexander; Skirycz, Aleksandra

    2018-05-01

    2',3'-cAMP is an intriguing small molecule that is conserved among different kingdoms. 2',3'-cAMP is presumably produced during RNA degradation, with increased cellular levels observed especially under stress conditions. Previously, we observed the presence of 2',3'-cAMP in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) protein complexes isolated from native lysate, suggesting that 2',3'-cAMP has potential protein partners in plants. Here, affinity purification experiments revealed that 2',3'-cAMP associates with the stress granule (SG) proteome. SGs are aggregates composed of protein and mRNA, which enable cells to selectively store mRNA for use in response to stress such as heat whereby translation initiation is impaired. Using size-exclusion chromatography and affinity purification analyses, we identified Rbp47b, the key component of SGs, as a potential interacting partner of 2',3'-cAMP. Furthermore, SG formation was promoted in 2',3'-cAMP-treated Arabidopsis seedlings, and interactions between 2',3'-cAMP and RNA-binding domains of Rbp47b, RRM2 and RRM3, were confirmed in vitro using microscale thermophoresis. Taken together, these results (1) describe novel small-molecule regulation of SG formation, (2) provide evidence for the biological role of 2',3'-cAMP, and (3) demonstrate an original biochemical pipeline for the identification of protein-metabolite interactors. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Test wells SF-1A, 1B, 1C, and SF-2A, 2B, 2C, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two well nests, SF-1 and SF-2, were drilled in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, to monitor the hydraulic head within selected zones of the aquifer. Each well nest consists of three piezometers of shallow, middle, and deep completion within the aquifer. Each set of wells was drilled to a depth of about 2,000 ft before actual construction of the piezometers. Each piezometer was completed using either 5 or 10 ft of wire-wrapped screen. These piezometers were constructed as part of a larger ongoing program with the Santa Fe Metropolitan Water Board and New Mexico State Engineer Office to establish a regional observation-well network and to define better the groundwater flow system in the vicinity of Santa Fe and Santa Fe well fields. (USGS)

  20. Project A.B.C. (Bronx Academic Bilingual Career Program). O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collazo-Levy, Dora; And Others

    Project A.B.C. (Academic Bilingual Career Program) is a multisite project serving new immigrant students at three different high schools in the Bronx, New York: Vietnamese (Chinese ethnics) at Theodore Roosevelt, Italians at Christopher Columbus, and Cubans and Dominicans at John F. Kennedy high schools. Project students are incorporated into the…

  1. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28, 1986...

  2. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28, 1986...

  3. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28, 1986...

  4. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28, 1986...

  5. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28, 1986...

  6. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by...

  7. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by...

  8. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by...

  9. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by...

  10. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by...

  11. The C1Σ+ , A1Σ+ , and b3Π0+ states of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Ian; Blasing, David; Chen, Yong; Elliott, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    We present the first spectroscopic studies of the C1Σ+ electronic state and the A1Σ+ - b3Π0+ complex in 7Li - 85Rb. Using resonantly-enhanced, two-photon ionization, we observed v = 7 , 9, 12, 13 and 26 - 45 of the C1Σ+ state. We augment the REMPI data with a form of depletion spectra in regions of dense spectral lines. The A1Σ+ - b3Π0+ complex was observed with depletion spectroscopy, depleting to vibrational levels v = 0 -> 29 of the A1Σ+ state and v = 8 -> 18 of the b3Π0+ state. For all three series, we determine the term energy and vibrational constants. Finally, we outline several possible future projects in ultracold molecules based on the data presented here.

  12. 5 CFR 213.103 - Publication of excepted appointing authorities in Schedules A, B, and C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXCEPTED SERVICE General Provisions § 213.103 Publication of excepted... for use by all agencies shall be published as regulations in the Federal Register and the Code of... applicable to a single agency shall be published monthly in the Notices section of the Federal Register. (c...

  13. Alternative Basic Comprehension Program (Project A.B.C.). Final Evaluation Report, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc A.; Yanping, Ann

    The Alternative Basic Comprehension Program (Project A.B.C.) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded special alternative instructional program in its fourth year at two high schools in the Bronx (New York). In 1993-94, the project served 264 students of limited English proficiency from many countries. Participating students…

  14. 31 CFR 501.807 - Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter. 501.807 Section 501.807 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each ship... cubic meters per hour at which the ship operator wishes to discharge slops (note: Qd affects the...

  16. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each ship... cubic meters per hour at which the ship operator wishes to discharge slops (note: Qd affects the...

  17. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each ship... cubic meters per hour at which the ship operator wishes to discharge slops (note: Qd affects the...

  18. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each ship... cubic meters per hour at which the ship operator wishes to discharge slops (note: Qd affects the...

  19. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each ship... cubic meters per hour at which the ship operator wishes to discharge slops (note: Qd affects the...

  20. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on the GapC protein of Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhou, Xue; Fan, Ziyao; Tang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Dai, Jian; Wei, Yuhua; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Xijing; Liu, Daolong; Yu, Liquan; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Sun, Hunan; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactia) GapC is a highly conserved surface dehydrogenase among the streptococcus spp., which is responsible for inducing protective antibody immune responses in animals. However, the B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactia GapC have not been well characterized. In this study, a monoclonal antibody 1F2 (mAb1F2) against S. dysgalactiae GapC was generated by the hybridoma technique and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12) for mapping the linear B-cell epitope. The mAb1F2 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif TRINDLT. Amino acid sequence of the motif exactly matched (30)TRINDLT(36) of the S. dysgalactia GapC. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenic analysis further demonstrated that residues R31, I32, N33, D34 and L35 formed the core of (30)TRINDLT(36), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1F2. The epitope (30)TRINDLT(36) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Overall, our findings characterized a conserved B-cell epitope, which will be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Cultural Resources Survey of the C. B. Maery Jr., L’Anguille River - 23 Permit Area, Cross County, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    and hunting small mammals, deer and Pleistocene megafauna . Dalton : 8.000 - 7.000 B. C. Dalton materials, primarily the characteristic Dalton point...important subsystems to supplement the diet with prnteins and other nutrients . In addition, the maintenance of these subsystems could serve as a

  2. Cloning and characterization of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (TbPDE2B) from Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Rascón, Ana; Soderling, Scott H.; Schaefer, Jonathan B.; Beavo, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Here we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) from Trypanosoma brucei (TbPDE2B). Using a bioinformatic approach, two different expressed sequence tag clones were identified and used to isolate the complete sequence of two identical PDE genes arranged in tandem. Each gene consists of 2,793 bases that predict a protein of 930 aa with a molecular mass of 103.2 kDa. Two GAF (for cGMP binding and stimulated PDEs, Anabaena adenylyl cyclases, and Escherichia coli FhlA) domains, similar to those contained in many signaling molecules including mammalian PDE2, PDE5, PDE6, PDE10, and PDE11, were located N-terminal to a consensus PDE catalytic domain. The catalytic domain is homologous to the catalytic domain of all 11 mammalian PDEs, the Dictyostelium discoideum RegA, and a probable PDE from Caenorhabditis elegans. It is most similar to the T. brucei PDE2A (89% identity). TbPDE2B has substrate specificity for cAMP with a Km of 2.4 μM. cGMP is not hydrolyzed by TbPDE2B nor does this cyclic nucleotide modulate cAMP PDE activity. The nonselective PDE inhibitors 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, papaverine and pentoxifyline are poor inhibitors of TbPDE2B. Similarly, PDE inhibitors selective for the mammalian PDE families 2, 3, 5, and 6 (erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)]-adenine, enoximone, zaprinast, and sildenafil) were also unable to inhibit this enzyme. However, dipyridamole was a reasonably good inhibitor of this enzyme with an IC50 of 27 μM. cAMP plays key roles in cell growth and differentiation in this parasite, and PDEs are responsible for the hydrolysis of this important second messenger. Therefore, parasite PDEs, including this one, have the potential to be attractive targets for selective drug design. PMID:11930017

  3. DYGABCD: A program for calculating linear A, B, C, and D matrices from a nonlinear dynamic engine simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geyser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    A digital computer program, DYGABCD, was developed that generates linearized, dynamic models of simulated turbofan and turbojet engines. DYGABCD is based on an earlier computer program, DYNGEN, that is capable of calculating simulated nonlinear steady-state and transient performance of one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines. Most control design techniques require linear system descriptions. For multiple-input/multiple-output systems such as turbine engines, state space matrix descriptions of the system are often desirable. DYGABCD computes the state space matrices commonly referred to as the A, B, C, and D matrices required for a linear system description. The report discusses the analytical approach and provides a users manual, FORTRAN listings, and a sample case.

  4. Immunogenicity and thermal stability of a combined vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases.

    PubMed

    Saydam, Manolya; Burkin, Karena; Care, Rory; Rigsby, Peter; Bolgiano, Barbara; Mawas, Fatme

    2010-08-31

    The immunogenicity, structure and stability of a combined conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal serogroup C (Hib/MenC) were investigated. A rat model for immunogenicity showed that antibody responses to Hib and MenC in the combined vaccine were similar to or higher than those of individual conjugates given alone, or concomitantly at separate sites. At elevated temperatures, the combination vaccine was slightly more stable than a monovalent Hib-TT vaccine, with respect to molecular size, which could be attributed to differences in the formulations. Following 5 weeks incubation at 56 degrees C, there was some dissociation of high molecular weight conjugate without significant loss of saccharide integrity; however, this did not significantly affect the vaccine immunogenicity, demonstrating the stability of this lyophilized vaccine. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [11C]AZ10419096 - a full antagonist PET radioligand for imaging brain 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Anton; Nag, Sangram; Schou, Magnus; Takano, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Junya; Amini, Nahid; Elmore, Charles S; Farde, Lars; Pike, Victor W; Halldin, Christer

    2017-11-01

    The serotonergic system is widely present in all regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a key modulatory role in many of its functions. Positron emission tomography (PET) is used to study several serotonin receptors in CNS in vivo. The G-protein coupled receptor 5-HT 1B is mostly present in the occipital cortex and in midbrain and is linked to several psychiatric disorders. There is evidence that agonist PET radioligands for neuroreceptors are more sensitive to endogenous neurotransmitters than antagonists. Our previously developed 5-HT 1B receptor PET radioligand, [ 11 C]AZ10419369, is now considered a partial agonist. In this work we are aiming to develop a full antagonist PET radioligand for imaging brain 5-HT 1B receptors, and evaluate its sensitivity to increased endogenous serotonin concentration. [ 11 C]AZ10419096 was synthesized by rapid methylation of the prepared corresponding N-desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl triflate. Five PET measurements were performed in cynomolgus monkeys, consisting of two at baseline, one after treatment of a monkey with a 5-HT 1B antagonist, AR-A000002, and two in which fenfluramine was administered during scanning to induce endogenous serotonin release. [ 11 C]AZ10419096 was synthesized in high yield and purity within 30 min, including purification, formulation and sterile filtration. The baseline PET measurements demonstrated [ 11 C]AZ10419096 to have favorable radioligand characteristics, including high specific binding in brain regions that have high 5-HT 1B density, such as occipital cortex and globus pallidus, as well as subsequent rapid elimination from brain and a minor abundance of lipophilic radiometabolites in plasma. AR-A00002 completely blocked radioligand receptor-specific binding. Fenfluramine produced a distinct displacement of radioligand consistent with an expected increase of synaptic endogenous serotonin concentration. [ 11 C]AZ10419096, a full 5-HT 1B antagonist PET radioligand

  6. A B-C-N hybrid porous sheet: an efficient metal-free visible-light absorption material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Li, Feng; Salafranca, Juan; Kan, Erjun; Xiao, Chuanyun; Deng, Kaiming

    2014-03-07

    The polyphenylene network, known as porous graphene, is one of the most important and widely studied two-dimensional materials. As a potential candidate for photocatalysis and photovoltaic energy generation, its application has been limited by the low photocatalytic activity in the visible-light region. State-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory investigations are presented to show that an analogous B-C-N porous sheet outperforms the pristine polyphenylene network with significantly enhanced visible-light absorption. Compared with porous graphene, the calculated energy gap of the B-C-N hybrid crystal shrinks to 2.7 eV and the optical absorption peak remarkably shifts to the visible light region. The redox potentials of water splitting are well positioned in the middle of the band gap. Hybridizations among B_p, N_p and C_p orbitals are responsible for these findings. Valence and conduction band calculations indicate that the electrons and holes can be effectively separated, reducing charge recombination and improving the photoconversion efficiency. Moreover, the band gap and optical properties of the B-C-N hybrid porous sheet can be further finely engineered by external strain.

  7. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against P57, the C3/C3b-cleaving proteinase expressed in human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Fiandino-Tirel, A; Barel, M; Lyamani, F; Gauffre, A; Hermann, J; Frade, R

    1991-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody was raised against p57, a serine proteinase, characterized by an apparent molecular weight of 57 kDa, and purified from human erythrocyte membranes. P57 proteinase cleaves the human third component of complement, C3. The antibody selected, MP1, of IgG2a isotype, precipitated specifically the p57 antigen which carried the C3/C3b-cleaving activity present in membrane crude extract of human erythrocytes. P57 proteinase eluted from MP1-sepharose was inhibited by 5 x 10(-4) M PMSF, enhanced by 0.5% SDS and generated C3 fragments identical to those generated by membrane crude extract of human erythrocytes. All these properties were identical to those of the p57 previously purified by biochemical procedures. In addition, 5000 binding sites were detected on cell surface. This MP1 monoclonal antibody will be helpful to analyse the role of p57 in human erythrocytes.

  8. Immunometric assays of ras and c-erbB-2/neu overexpression in breast cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pelizzola, D; Malagutti, R; Giovannini, G; Indelli, M; Carcoforo, P; Piffanelli, A

    1999-01-01

    The expression of the ras and c-erbB2 oncoproteins (p21 and p185, respectively), together with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) determination, has been retrospectively analyzed in 68 primary breast carcinomas and in 19 normal breast tissue samples. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the association between ras and c-erbB2 expression; b) to evaluate the relationship between ras and c-erbB2 expression and both steroid receptor status and the classical clinical and pathological parameters; and c) to compare two different methods for p185 determination. p185 and p21 were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA); p185 was also determined by Western blotting (WB); ER and PgR were assayed by radioligand binding assay. The highest value of p185 in benign breast lesions was used as the threshold to distinguish between positive and negative samples. With this threshold the c-erbB2 oncoprotein was overexpressed in 41.2% (with EIA) and in 50% (with WB) of cancer samples. The concordance rate between the two methods was 79.4. No significant association was found between p21 and p185 levels either in cancer or in normal breast tissue samples. Increasing levels of tumor p21 were associated with a shorter time to recurrence and overall survival. Increasing levels of p185 were associated with a significantly shorter time to recurrence (p185 EIA: p = 0.04, p185 WB: p = 0.029) and overall survival (p185 EIA: p = 0.04, p185 WB: p = 0.029).

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on borrowing...

  10. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  11. Use of a 1-dB decrease in C/N\\0x2080AS the GPS interference protection criterion : global positioning systems directorate.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-30

    A 1 dB decrease in the carrier-to-noise (C/N) ratio is equivalent to a -6 dB interference-to-noise (I/N) ratio and a 1 dB increase in the noise floor ((I+N)/N). Regulations alternate between referencing the 1 dB decrease in C/N, -6 dB I/N ratio, and ...

  12. Plasmin cleaves fibrinogen and the human complement proteins C3b and C5 in the presence of Leptospira interrogans proteins: A new role of LigA and LigB in invasion and complement immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Castiblanco-Valencia, Mónica Marcela; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Pagotto, Ana Helena; Serrano, Solange Maria de Toledo; Abreu, Patricia Antonia Estima; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Plasminogen is a single-chain glycoprotein found in human plasma as the inactive precursor of plasmin. When converted to proteolytically active plasmin, plasmin(ogen) regulates both complement and coagulation cascades, thus representing an important target for pathogenic microorganisms. Leptospira interrogans binds plasminogen, which is converted to active plasmin. Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are surface exposed molecules that interact with extracellular matrix components and complement regulators, including proteins of the FH family and C4BP. In this work, we demonstrate that these multifunctional molecules also bind plasminogen through both N- and C-terminal domains. These interactions are dependent on lysine residues and are affected by ionic strength. Competition assays suggest that plasminogen does not share binding sites with C4BP or FH on Lig proteins at physiological molar ratios. Plasminogen bound to Lig proteins is converted to proteolytic active plasmin in the presence of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Lig-bound plasmin is able to cleave the physiological substrates fibrinogen and the complement proteins C3b and C5. Taken together, our data point to a new role of LigA and LigB in leptospiral invasion and complement immune evasion. Plasmin(ogen) acquisition by these versatile proteins may contribute to Leptospira infection, favoring bacterial survival and dissemination inside the host. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Conclusions Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey.

    PubMed

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah

    2014-01-09

    Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low

  15. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2014-03-31

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  16. 75 FR 11435 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 Airplanes; and Model A300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... operator reported that, during a routine inspection, the Right Hand frame 40 forward fitting between... result in a deterioration of the structural integrity of the frame. * * * * * We are issuing this AD to... operator reported that, during a routine inspection, the Right Hand frame 40 forward fitting between...

  17. Spreading of hepatitis C virus subtypes 1a and 1b through the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Culasso, Andrés Carlos Alberto; Farías, Adrián; Di Lello, Federico Alejandro; Golemba, Marcelo Darío; Ré, Viviana; Barbini, Luciana; Campos, Rodolfo

    2014-08-01

    The recent history of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes 1a and 1b in the central region of Argentina is hypothesized by phylogeographic reconstruction using coalescent based Bayesian analyses. Direct partial E2 sequences from HCV 1a and 1b infected patients attending different health-care centers of the country were analyzed. The inferred date of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for HCV-1a was: 1962 (between 1943 and 1977) and for HCV-1b was earlier: 1929 (between 1895 and 1953). Diverse ancestral populations were inferred from both subtypes in Córdoba and in Buenos Aires cities and after that, HCV spread within and between larger cities and to other smaller cities. The analyses suggested that HCV-1b was dispersed first and it is currently in a stationary phase whereas HCV-1a was dispersed latter and it is still in a growth phase. Finally, as it was observed in the developed countries, while the transmission of HCV-1b appears to have been somehow prevented, the HCV-1a may still represent a concern in the public health. Further work should be carried out to address their current transmission rate (and its main transmission route) in the Argentinean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Administration and Stenographic Career Ladders, AFS 702x0/A/B/C and 702X1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    MEN mIIIIIIIII hhhllllhlhhl UNITED STATES AIR FORCE _Si -j𔃽.- 0 ADMINISTRATION AND5$TENOGRAPHIC -CAREER LADDERS AIS 702XO/ A /B/C AND 702X1 -J AFPT- 9...7J2-389 ( ,/ " ’ _ LA. -IAPRI 180 This document has n a :’.-pro+ved1 + ,for pil s’ s ;i - , OqCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM USAF OCCUPATIONAL...79 APPENDIX A O--------------------------------------------- 80 Acc22~C~For 1 -* ii L PREFACE This report presents the results of a detailed Air

  19. Unusual behaviour of (Np,Pu)B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, Tomasz; Boulet, Pascal; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Bauer, Ernst; Falmbigl, Matthias; Rogl, Peter; Wastin, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Two transuranium metal boron carbides, NpB2C and PuB2C have been synthesized by argon arc melting. The crystal structures of the {Np,Pu}B2C compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray data to be isotypic with the ThB2C-type (space group ?, a = 0.6532(2) nm; c = 1.0769(3) nm for NpB2C and a = 0.6509(2) nm; c = 1.0818(3) nm for PuB2C; Z = 9). Physical properties have been derived from polycrystalline bulk material in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering for NpB2C with a Neel temperature TN = 68 K. PuB2C is a Pauli paramagnet most likely due to a strong hybridization of s(p,d) electrons with the Pu-5f states. A pseudo-gap, as concluded from the Sommerfeld value and the electronic transport, is thought to be a consequence of the hybridization. The magnetic behaviour of {Np,Pu}B2C is consistent with the criterion of Hill.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885] PMID:25969894

  1. High-pressure phase transition makes B 4.3 C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H.; Werheit, Helmut; ...

    2016-01-11

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated concerning the pressure-dependence of optical properties and of Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The high concentration of structural defects determining the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decrease and finally vanish with pressure increasing. We obtain this immediately from transparency photos, allowing to estimate the pressure-dependent variation of the absorption edge rapidly increasing around 55 GPa. Glass-like transparency at pressures exceeding 60 GPa indicate that the width of the band exceeds ~3.1 eV thus making boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor. Furthermore, the spectra of Raman–active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phasemore » transition in single-crystal natB4.3C boron carbide near 35 GPa., particularly related to structural changes in connection with the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure remains largely unaffected.« less

  2. A Novel Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem in B2C E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chao; Sheng, Ying; Jiang, Zhong-Zhong; Tan, Chunqiao; Huang, Min; He, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a novel discrete differential evolution (DDE) algorithm is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problems (VRP) in B2C e-commerce, in which VRP is modeled by the incomplete graph based on the actual urban road system. First, a variant of classical VRP is described and a mathematical programming model for the variant is given. Second, the DDE is presented, where individuals are represented as the sequential encoding scheme, and a novel reparation operator is employed to repair the infeasible solutions. Furthermore, a FLOYD operator for dealing with the shortest route is embedded in the proposed DDE. Finally, an extensive computational study is carried out in comparison with the predatory search algorithm and genetic algorithm, and the results show that the proposed DDE is an effective algorithm for VRP in B2C e-commerce.

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A,B, and C viruses in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics and the impact of hepatitis B on clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Fatih; Gunsar, Fulya; Erdogan, Elvan Isik; Sertoz, Ruchan Yazan; Karasu, Zeki; Ersoz, Galip; Ozutemiz, Omer; Akarca, Ulus

    2015-03-15

    The aims of this study were to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C viruses in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics, and to evaluate the impact of hepatitis B infection on clinical profile at first admittance. Serological markers for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses in 300 alcoholic cirrhotics diagnosed between January 1994 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 148 eligible patients were divided into group 1 (HBsAg positive, n = 43) and group 2 (HBsAg and anti-HBc negative, n = 105). Clinical characteristics at first admittance of groups 1 and 2 were compared. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV total, HBsAg, and anti-HCV was found to be 91.5%, 16.3%, and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in the HbsAg-positive group compared to HbsAg- and anti-HBc-negative group (16.3% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.007). Other clinical features were similar in the two groups. Alcoholic cirrhotics have higher frequencies of HBsAg and anti-HCV than the general population. These patients should be investigated for coexistent HBV and HCV infections, and HBV vaccination should not be neglected. Alcoholic cirrhotic patients with concomitant HBV infection should be closely screened for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Papulacandins, a new family of antibiotics with antifungal activity, I. Fermentation, isolation, chemical and biological characterization of papulacandins A, B, C, D and E.

    PubMed

    Traxler, P; Gruner, J; Auden, J A

    1977-04-01

    Papulacandin, a new antibiotic complex, active against Candida albicans and several other yeasts, was isolated from a strain of Papularia sphaerosperma. The fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activity of the five structurally related papulacandins A, B, C, D and E are reported. Papulacandin B, the main component, was assigned the formula of C47H64O17.

  5. 76 FR 24910 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G- 325B, and G-325C; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: Forms G- 325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C, Biographic Information; OMB Control No. 1615-0008. The Department of...

  6. Acute hepatitis C: a 24-week course of pegylated interferon α-2b versus a 12-week course of pegylated interferon α-2b alone or with ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Santantonio, Teresa; Fasano, Massimo; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Tundo, Paolo; Babudieri, Sergio; Fabris, Paolo; Toti, Mario; Di Perri, Giovanni; Marino, Nicoletta; Pizzigallo, Eligio; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2014-06-01

    Therapy of acute hepatitis C (AHC) has not yet been standardized and several issues are still unresolved. This open, randomized, multicenter trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a 24-week course of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) alpha-2b versus a 12-week course of Peg-IFN alpha-2b alone or with ribavirin (RBV) in AHC patients. One hundred and thirty HCV acutely infected patients who did not spontaneously resolve by week 12 after onset were consecutively enrolled and randomized to receive Peg-IFN alpha-2b monotherapy (1.5 μg/kg/week) for 24 or 12 weeks (arm 1, n = 44 and arm 2, n = 43, respectively) or in combination with RBV (10.6 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks (arm 3, n = 43). The primary endpoint was undetectable HCV RNA at 6-month posttreatment follow-up (sustained virological response; SVR). All patients were followed for 48 weeks after therapy cessation. HCV RNA levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (limit of detection: 15 IU/mL) at the central laboratory at baseline, week 4, end of treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, overall SVR rate was 71.5%. In particular, an SVR was achieved in 31 of 44 (70.5%), 31 of 43 (72.1%), and 31 of 43 (72.1%) patients in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = 0.898). Sixteen patients (12.3%) prematurely discontinued therapy or were lost to follow-up; thus, sustained response rates with per-protocol analysis were 81.6%, 81.6%, and 81.6% for patients in arms 1, 2, and 3 respectively. With multivariate analysis, virologic response at week 4 of treatment was an independent predictor of SVR. Peg-IFN alpha-2b was well tolerated. Peg-IFN alpha-2b induces a high SVR in chronically evolving AHC patients. Response rates were not influenced by combination therapy or treatment duration. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. HAT-P-17b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT SATURN AND A LONG-PERIOD, COLD JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Bakos, G. A.

    2012-04-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-17b,c, a multi-planet system with an inner transiting planet in a short-period, eccentric orbit and an outer planet in a 4.4 yr, nearly circular orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-17b, transits the bright V = 10.54 early K dwarf star GSC 2717-00417, with an orbital period P = 10.338523 {+-} 0.000009 days, orbital eccentricity e = 0.342 {+-} 0.006, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454801.16943 {+-} 0.00020 (BJD: barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1690 {+-} 0.0009 days. HAT-P-17b has a mass of 0.534 {+-} 0.018more » M{sub J} and radius of 1.010 {+-} 0.029 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.64 {+-} 0.05 g cm{sup -3}. This planet has a relatively low equilibrium temperature in the range 780-927 K, making it an attractive target for follow-up spectroscopic studies. The outer planet, HAT-P-17c, has a significantly longer orbital period P{sub 2} = 1610 {+-} 20 days and a minimum mass m{sub 2}sin i{sub 2} = 1.31{sup +0.18}{sub -0.15} M{sub J}. The orbital inclination of HAT-P-17c is unknown as transits have not been observed and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.84 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5246 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.00 {+-} 0.08. HAT-P-17 is the second multi-planet system detected from ground-based transit surveys.« less

  8. Fracture resistance of a TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Seshadri, Srinivasa G.

    1988-01-01

    The fracture resistance of a comercial TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 1400 C. A laser interferometric strain gauge (LISG) was used to continuously monitor the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of the chevron-notched and straight-notched, three-point bend specimens used. Crack growth resistance curves (R-curves) were determined from the load versus displacement curves and displacement calibrations. Fracture toughness, work-of-fracture, and R-curve levels were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Microstructure, fracture surface, and oxidation coat were examined to explain the fracture behavior.

  9. Fracture resistance of a TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Seshadri, Srinivasa G.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture resistance of a commercial TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 1400 C. A laser interferometric strain gauge (LiSG) was used to continuously monitor the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of the chevron-notched and straight-notched, three-point bend specimens used. Crack growth resistance curves (R-curves) were determined from the load versus displacement curves and displacement calibrations. Fracture toughness, work-of-fracture, and R-curve levels were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Microstructure, fracture surface, and oxidation coat were examined to explain the fracture behavior.

  10. Molecular Tracing of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Isolates in Iran: A NS5B Phylogenetic Analysis with Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is characterized by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and classified into 7 genotypes and different subtypes. It heterogeneously distributed through various risk groups and geographical regions. A well-established phylogenetic relationship can simplify the tracing of HCV hierarchical strata into geographical regions. The current study aimed to find genetic phylogeny of subtypes 1a and 1b of HCV isolates based on NS5B nucleotide sequences in Iran and other members of Eastern Mediterranean regional office of world health organization, as well as other Middle Eastern countries, with a systematic review of available published and unpublished studies. The phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the nucleotide sequences of NS5B gene of HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1), which were registered in the GenBank database. The literature review was performed in two steps: 1) searching studies evaluating the NS5B sequences of HCV-1, on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and 2) Searching sequences of unpublished studies registered in the GenBank database. In this study, 442 sequences from HCV-1a and 232 from HCV-1b underwent phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of all sequences revealed different clusters in the phylogenetic trees. The results showed that the proportion of HCV-1a and -1b isolates from Iranian patients probably originated from domestic sources. Moreover, the HCV-1b isolates from Iranian patients may have similarities with the European ones. In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of HCV-1 sequences clearly indicated for molecular tracing and ancestral relationships of the HCV genotypes in Iran, and showed the likelihood of domestic origin for HCV-1a and various origin for HCV-1b.

  11. [Medical and economic evaluation of donated blood screening for hepatitis C and non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Vergnon, P; Colin, C; Jullien, A M; Bory, E; Excoffier, S; Matillon, Y; Trepo, C

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost of hepatitis C and non-A non-B non-C screening strategy in donated blood, currently used in French transfusion centres and to assess the effect in the blood transfusion centres according to the prevalence of the disease and the intrinsec values of tests. This screening strategy was based on alanine aminotransferase assay, and HBc and HCV antibodies detection. In 1993, a survey was conducted in 26 French transfusion centers to estimate the costs of the screening strategy currently used. Average expenditure on diagnostic sets, equipment, staff and administration charges for hepatitis C and non-A non-B non-C screening were calculated. From these results, we estimated the cost of the previous strategy which did not involve HCV antibody testing, so as to determine the incremental cost between the two strategies. We used clinical decision analysis and sensitivity analysis to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio with data gathered from the literature and examine the impact on blood transfusion centre. Implemented for 100,000 volunteer blood donations, the incremental cost of the new strategy was FF 2,566,111 (1992) and the marginal effectiveness was 180 additional infected donations detected. The sensitivity analysis showed the major influence of infection prevalence in donated blood on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: the lower the prevalence, the higher the cost-effectiveness ratio per contaminated blood product avoided.

  12. The response of aggregated Pseudomonas putida CP1 cells to UV-C and UV-A/B disinfection.

    PubMed

    Maganha de Almeida, Ana C; Quilty, Bríd

    2016-11-01

    UV radiation is a spread method used worldwide for the disinfection of water. However, much of the research on the disinfection of bacterial cells by UV has focused on planktonic cells. Many bacterial cells in nature are present in clumps or aggregates, and these aggregates, which are more resistant to disinfection than their planktonic counterparts, can be problematic in engineered water systems. The current research used Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) CP1, an environmental and non-pathogenic microorganism which autoaggregates when grown under certain conditions, as a model organism to simulate aggregated cells. The study investigated the response of both the planktonic and the aggregated forms of the bacterium to UV-C (λ = 253.7 nm) and UV-A/B (λ > 300 nm) disinfection at laboratory scale in a minimal medium. The planktonic cells of P. putida CP1 were inactivated within 60 s by UV-C and in 60 min by UV-A/B; however, the aggregated cells required 120 min of UV-C treatment and 240 min of UV-A/B radiation to become inactive. The size of the aggregate was reduced following UV treatment. Although all the cells had lost culturability, viability as measured by the LIVE/DEAD ® stain and epifluorescence microscopy was not completely lost and the cells all demonstrated regrowth after overnight incubation in the dark.

  13. First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Alling, B.

    2014-07-01

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatom's picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R3¯m ) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational

  14. Evaluation of the Flying Qualities Requirements of MIL-F-8785B (ASG) using the C-5A Airplane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-20

    using only the elevator control (neutralizing the aileron and rudder controls is allowed). The same tech - nique used to recover from post-stall gyrations...AD-AO11 728 EVALUATION OF THE FLYING QUALITIES REQUIREMENTS OF MIL- F-8785B (ASG) USING THE C-5A AIRPLANE Charles L. Silvers, et al Lockheed-Geor-gia...75-3 00 EVALUATION OF THE FLYING QUALITIES •- ~REQUIRIMENTS OF MIL-F-878S5 (ASO) USING THE C-SA AIRPLANE LOCKHEED-GEORGIA COMPANY TECHNICAL REPORT

  15. Neurotensin stimulates mitogenesis of prostate cancer cells through a novel c-Src/Stat5b pathway.

    PubMed

    Amorino, G P; Deeble, P D; Parsons, S J

    2007-02-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE)-like cells are hypothesized to contribute to the progression of prostate cancer by producing factors that enhance the growth, survival or metastatic capabilities of surrounding tumor cells. Many of the factors known to be secreted by NE-like cells, such as neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone-related peptide, serotonin, bombesin, etc., are agonists for G-protein-coupled receptors, but the signaling pathways activated by these agonists in prostate tumor cells are not fully defined. Identification of such pathways could provide insights into novel methods of treating late-stage disease. Using conditioned culture medium (CM) from LNCaP-derived NE-like cells (as a source of these agonists) or NT (a prototypical component of CM) to treat PC3 cells, we found that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) was transactivated and that such activation was required for maximal PC3 cell mitogenesis, as measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine incorporation or cell number. NT also induced a time-dependent increase in EGFR Tyr(845) phosphorylation and phosphorylation of c-Src and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (Stat5b) (a downstream effector of Tyr(845)), events that were blocked by specific inhibition of c-Src (which mediates Tyr(845) phosphorylation of EGFR) or of EGFR. Introduction of mutant forms of EGFR (Tyr(845)) or Stat5b in PC3 cells, or treatment with selective, catalytic inhibitors of EGFR, c-Src and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) resulted in the loss of NT-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis, relative to wild-type controls. These data indicate that the mitogenic effect of NT on prostate cancer cells requires transactivation of the EGFR by MMPs and a novel downstream pathway involving c-Src, phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr(845) and activation of Stat5b.

  16. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  17. Near Full-Length Identification of a Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C Recombinant in Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Heng; Chen, Xin; Liang, Yue-Bo; Pang, Wei; Qin, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Chiyu; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-08-01

    The Myanmar-China border appears to be the "hot spot" region for the occurrence of HIV-1 recombination. The majority of the previous analyses of HIV-1 recombination were based on partial genomic sequences, which obviously cannot reflect the reality of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in this area well. Here, we present a near full-length characterization of a novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant isolated from a long-distance truck driver in Northern Myanmar. It is the first description of a near full-length genomic sequence in Myanmar since 2003, and might be one of the most complicated HIV-1 chimeras ever detected in Myanmar, containing four CRF01_AE, six B segments, and five C segments separated by 14 breakpoints throughout its genome. The discovery and characterization of this new CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant indicate that intersubtype recombination is ongoing in Myanmar, continuously generating new forms of HIV-1. More work based on near full-length sequence analyses is urgently needed to better understand the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in these regions.

  18. Distinguishing functional polymorphism from random variation in the sequences of >10,000 HLA-A, -B and -C alleles.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Cereb, Nezih; Yang, Soo Young; Norman, Paul J; Marsh, Steven G E; Parham, Peter

    2017-06-01

    HLA class I glycoproteins contain the functional sites that bind peptide antigens and engage lymphocyte receptors. Recently, clinical application of sequence-based HLA typing has uncovered an unprecedented number of novel HLA class I alleles. Here we define the nature and extent of the variation in 3,489 HLA-A, 4,356 HLA-B and 3,111 HLA-C alleles. This analysis required development of suites of methods, having general applicability, for comparing and analyzing large numbers of homologous sequences. At least three amino-acid substitutions are present at every position in the polymorphic α1 and α2 domains of HLA-A, -B and -C. A minority of positions have an incidence >1% for the 'second' most frequent nucleotide, comprising 70 positions in HLA-A, 85 in HLA-B and 54 in HLA-C. The majority of these positions have three or four alternative nucleotides. These positions were subject to positive selection and correspond to binding sites for peptides and receptors. Most alleles of HLA class I (>80%) are very rare, often identified in one person or family, and they differ by point mutation from older, more common alleles. These alleles with single nucleotide polymorphisms reflect the germ-line mutation rate. Their frequency predicts the human population harbors 8-9 million HLA class I variants. The common alleles of human populations comprise 42 core alleles, which represent all selected polymorphism, and recombinants that have assorted this polymorphism.

  19. Distinguishing functional polymorphism from random variation in the sequences of >10,000 HLA-A, -B and -C alleles

    PubMed Central

    Cereb, Nezih; Yang, Soo Young; Marsh, Steven G. E.; Parham, Peter

    2017-01-01

    HLA class I glycoproteins contain the functional sites that bind peptide antigens and engage lymphocyte receptors. Recently, clinical application of sequence-based HLA typing has uncovered an unprecedented number of novel HLA class I alleles. Here we define the nature and extent of the variation in 3,489 HLA-A, 4,356 HLA-B and 3,111 HLA-C alleles. This analysis required development of suites of methods, having general applicability, for comparing and analyzing large numbers of homologous sequences. At least three amino-acid substitutions are present at every position in the polymorphic α1 and α2 domains of HLA-A, -B and -C. A minority of positions have an incidence >1% for the ‘second’ most frequent nucleotide, comprising 70 positions in HLA-A, 85 in HLA-B and 54 in HLA-C. The majority of these positions have three or four alternative nucleotides. These positions were subject to positive selection and correspond to binding sites for peptides and receptors. Most alleles of HLA class I (>80%) are very rare, often identified in one person or family, and they differ by point mutation from older, more common alleles. These alleles with single nucleotide polymorphisms reflect the germ-line mutation rate. Their frequency predicts the human population harbors 8–9 million HLA class I variants. The common alleles of human populations comprise 42 core alleles, which represent all selected polymorphism, and recombinants that have assorted this polymorphism. PMID:28650991

  20. A study of H-alpha velocities in NGC 1499, NGC 7000, and IC 1318B/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, W. F.; Gary, G. A.; Odell, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Multiple slit echelle spectrograph observations of the H-alpha emission line are used to map the radial velocities of the California Nebula (NGC 1499), the North American Nebula complex (NGC 7000 and IC 5070), and IC 1318B/C. The California Nebula is singularly constant in velocity, considering its geometry. The North American Nebula complex reflects a very simple, classical dynamical picture. The expansion discovered earlier in IC 1318B/C is confirmed, detailed, and the model refined. The new data, along with that in earlier papers of this series, show that stellar wind acceleration and champagne flow mechanisms both play important roles in determining the evolution of H II regions.

  1. Alloy composition effects on oxidation products of VIA, B-1900, 713C, and 738X: A high temperature diffractometer study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlick, R. G.; Lowell, C.

    1973-01-01

    High temperature X-ray diffraction studies were performed to investigate isothermal and cyclic oxidation at 1000 and 1100 C of the nickel-base superalloys VIA, B-1900, 713C, and 738X. Oxidation was complex. The major oxides, Al2O3, Cr2O3, and the spinels, formed in amounts consistent with alloy chemistry. The alloys VIA and B-1900 (high Al, low Cr alloys) tended to form Al2O3 and NiAl2O4; 738X (high Cr, low Al) formed Cr2O3 and NiCr2O4. A NiTa2O6 type of oxide formed in amounts approximately proportional to the refractory metal content of the alloy. One of the effects of cycling was to increase the amount of spinels formed.

  2. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Amongst Health-care Workers of a Tertiary Hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Setia, S; Gambhir, Rs; Kapoor, V; Jindal, G; Garg, S; Setia, S

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis is an inflammatory disease of the liver. In sever cases, it may lead to permanent liver damage including liver cirrhosis or hepato-cellular carcinoma and may ultimately lead to death. Health-care workers (HCWs), due to their regular contact with patients are at a high-risk of acquiring this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude toward hepatitis B and C infection among the health-care interns and correlate the level of awareness to the attitude they behold toward the disease. A closed ended questionnaire consisting of questions to evaluate the knowledge regarding hepatitis B and C infection and attitude of the (HCWs/interns) was duly filled by 255 participants including, 100 dental, 100 medical, and 55 nursing interns. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test, ANOVA test, post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation. Although most of the interns were aware of the existence of hepatitis B and C infection, the level of awareness regarding the modes of transmission and vaccination was found to be dissatisfactory. Awareness level regarding the infection among nursing interns was statistically significantly lower than the dental and medical interns. A direct positive correlation as found between awareness score and behavior score, which reveals that interns with better awareness level had better attitudes toward the infection and prevention of its transmission. There is an urgent need to increase the level and quality of training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus.

  3. Assessment of a Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model for Telemonitoring patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF).

    PubMed

    Grustam, Andrija S; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Koymans, Ron; Hukal, Philipp; Severens, Johan L

    2017-10-11

    The purpose of this study is to assess the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model for telemonitoring patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) by analysing the value it creates, both for organizations or ventures that provide telemonitoring services based on it, and for society. The business model assessment was based on the following categories: caveats, venture type, six-factor alignment, strategic market assessment, financial viability, valuation analysis, sustainability, societal impact, and technology assessment. The venture valuation was performed for three jurisdictions (countries) - Singapore, the Netherlands and the United States - in order to show the opportunities in a small, medium-sized, and large country (i.e. population). The business model assessment revealed that B2C telemonitoring is viable and profitable in the Innovating in Healthcare Framework. Analysis of the ecosystem revealed an average-to-excellent fit with the six factors. The structure and financing fit was average, public policy and technology alignment was good, while consumer alignment and accountability fit was deemed excellent. The financial prognosis revealed that the venture is viable and profitable in Singapore and the Netherlands but not in the United States due to relatively high salary inputs. The B2C model in telemonitoring CHF potentially creates value for patients, shareholders of the service provider, and society. However, the validity of the results could be improved, for instance by using a peer-reviewed framework, a systematic literature search, case-based cost/efficiency inputs, and varied scenario inputs.

  4. A comparison of mucosal inflammatory responses to Giardia muris in resistant B10 and susceptible BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, P; Finch, R G; Wakelin, D

    1997-03-01

    In the first three weeks of primary Giardia muris infections B10 mice clear infection more rapidly than BALB/c mice. There is evidence that interferon-gamma contributes to the relative resistance of B10 mice. The nature of the functional contribution of interferon-gamma is unclear and does not relate to the secretory or serum antibody response. Mucosal inflammatory events in these strains have been studied. Apart from a small rise in both strains of goblet cell and mucosal mast cell numbers, associated with release of mast cell protease-1 in serum, no inflammatory infiltrate was observed at the time trophozoites were cleared from the intestinal lumen. Inhibition of mast cell products (5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine) by cyproheptadine enhanced the intensity of infection in both strains. The relative resistance of B10 mice could not be explained in terms of the mucosal inflammatory response.

  5. Dynamic properties of porous B sub 4 C. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, N.S.; Rosenberg, Z.; Bless, S.J.

    1990-01-25

    The sound speed in porous B4C (Boron Carbide) was measured and predicted on the basis of a spherical void model and a penny crack model. Neither model does well for porosity exceeding 10 percent. Measured values of Hugoniot elastic limit for porous B4C agree well with those predicted by the Steinberg's model. Measured transverse stress in the elastic range of B4C under 1-d strain condition agrees with the predictions.

  6. A Comparison of the Behaviour of AlTiB and AlTiC Grain Refiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, W.; Kearns, M. A.; McGarry, M. J.; Whitehead, A. J.

    AlTiC master alloys present a new alternative to AlTiB grain refiners which have enjoyed pre-eminence in cast houses for several decades. Recent investigations have shown that, under defined casting conditions, AlTiC is a more efficient grain refiner than AlTiB, is less prone to agglomeration and is more resistant to poisoning by Zr, Cr. Moreover it is observed that there are differences in the mechanism of grain refinement for the different alloys. This paper describes the influence of melt temperature and addition rate on the performance of both types of grain refiner in DC casting tests on different wrought alloys. Furthermore the effects of combined additions of the grain refiners and the recycling behaviour of the treated alloys are presented. Results are compared with laboratory test data. Finally, mechanisms of grain refinement are discussed which are consistent with the observed differences in behaviour with AlTiC and AlTiB.

  7. The antioxidant effects of vitamin A, C, and E on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, L; Yildirim, A; Agar, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of vitamin A, C, and E on aflatoxin B(1)-induced in human lymphocytes using biochemical approaches. The control group received dimethyl sulfoxide, the second group of cultures were administered aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) at a dose of 5 muM. The other group of cultures were treated with AFB(1)+vitamin A (0.5 and 1.0 and 1.5 microM) and AFB(1)+vitamin C (25, 50, and 100 microM) and AFB(1)+vitamin E (40, 100, and 200 microM). The results of this experiment show that AFB(1) significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx and increased level of malondialdehyde. Simultaneous supplementation with vitamin A, C, and E restored these parameters to that of normal range. In conclusion, vitamin A, C, and E exhibited protective effects in human lymphocytes by inhibiting AFB(1)-induced ROS generation.

  8. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-0 - Taxability under an annuity purchased by a section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... plans that permit in-service distributions. (f) Special rule for life insurance contracts. (g) Special...) contracts. (a) Exclusion for section 403(b) contracts. (b) Application of requirements. (c) Special rules...) Section 403(b) elective deferrals. (d) Employer contributions for former employees. (e) Special rules for...

  9. Comparison of two vaccination strategies against hepatitis A and B in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Díez Redondo, M P; Almaraz, A; Jiménez Rodríguez-Vila, M; Santamaría, A; de Castro, J; Torrego, J C; Caro-Patón, A

    2009-04-01

    although the vaccination against hepatitis A (VAH) and hepatitis B (VBH) is recommended in patients with HCV, the most cost-effective strategy has not been established. Our objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of universal strategy (vaccination all patients) with selective strategy (vaccination only patients against virus they lack immunity to) in patients with HCV. we compared the direct medical costs of the two vaccination strategies against both viruses in 313 patients with HC. Serological markers for HAV (anti-HAV) and HBV (HbsAg, anti HBs, anti HBc) were determined in the 313 patients and the costs of the vaccines and the blood tests necessary to determinate the immunity state in our care system were considered. the prevalence of anti-HAV was 81,2% and of anti-HBc was 24,6%. The prevalence of anti-HAV increases with age. HAV vaccination with universal strategy has a cost of 19.806,64 euro and with selective one of 9.899,62 euro. HBV vaccination with universal strategy rose to 18.780 euro and to 20.385,57 euro with selective one (employing anti-HBc). Costs were analysed in different groups of age and several hepatitis HBV risk factors. the selective vaccination strategy against HAV was most cost-effective in our patients with HCV. However, when the prevalence of the anti-HAV decreased to less than 20% universal strategy will be the best option. Difference of cost-effective between the two vaccination strategies against HBV was small, on behalf of universal one, so in groups with higher anti-HBc prevalence, like parenteral drugs users and tattoos, the selective strategy could be the best option.

  10. The A2Πi˜X2Σ+ interaction in CO +: Deperturbation analyses of B- A and A- X bands of 12C 16O +, 13C 16O + and 14C 16O +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, John A.; Kępa, Ryszard; Piotrowska, Izabela

    2010-08-01

    The 1-0, 6-0 and 6-1 bands of the A2Πi→X2Σ+ system of 13C 16O + and the 2-0 and 2-1 bands of the A2Πi→X2Σ+ system of 14C 16O + have been recorded at high resolution for the first time. The 0-2 and 5-0 bands of the A → X system of 12C 16O + have also been recorded at higher resolution than in previous work. The spectra were excited in an air-cooled hollow cathode discharge and photographed using a 2-m plane grating spectrograph. The spectral resolution and the Doppler-broadened line widths are both ˜0.12 cm -1, and the experimental measurement precision of resolved lines is ˜0.02 cm -1. The measured line positions, sometimes in combination with literature data on the B2Σ+→A2Πi transition, have been employed in deperturbation analyses of level crossings in the near-degenerate A(0)˜ X(10) and A(5)˜ X(14) interactions in 12C 16O +, the A(1)˜ X(11) and A(6)˜ X(15) interactions in 13C 16O +, and the A(2)˜ X(12) interaction in 14C 16O +. No radial dependence of the electronic perturbation matrix elements HSO( r) and HRE( r) could be detected over the narrow range of r-centroids (1.477-1.501 Å), and the mean values of these parameters are HSO = -49.06(15) cm -1 and HRE = 0.211(2). Using iteratively improved RKR potentials and FC-overlap integrals, the mean HSO and HRE were employed in least-squares analyses of A → X literature data involving A( υ) levels of the three isotopologues that are affected by interactions with one or two distant X( υ∗) levels. The fitted parameters of the A2Πi state ( B υ, A υ, A Dυ, p υ, q υ) exhibit υ-dependences that are much smoother than those employing perturbed parameters determined in previous investigations. In addition, a significant electronic isotope effect has been characterized. The separations Te( A)- Te( X) of the minima of the A and X states of 13C 16O + and 14C 16O + are less than that of 12C 16O + by 0.39 and 0.73 cm -1, respectively. Although Born-Oppenheimer breakdown of this magnitude is

  11. 78 FR 4883 - Excepted Service; Consolidated Listing of Schedules A, B, and C Exceptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...) Professional and technical positions in grades GS-9 through 15 on the staff of the Council. (d)-(f) (Reserved... and Technology Policy-- (1) Thirty positions of Senior Policy Analyst, GS-15; Policy Analyst, GS-11/14... Secretary for Management. (2) (Reserved) (b)-(f) (Reserved) (g) Bureau of Population, Refugees, and...

  12. 77 FR 19366 - Excepted Service; Consolidated Listing of Schedules A, B, and C Exceptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Council. (d)-(f) (Reserved) (g) National Security Council-- (1) All positions on the staff of the Council. (h) Office of Science and Technology Policy-- (1) Thirty positions of Senior Policy Analyst, GS-15..., Office of the Under Secretary for Management. (2) (Reserved) (b)-(f) (Reserved) (g) Bureau of Population...

  13. Novel recombinant insulin analogue with flexible C-terminus in B chain. NMR structure of biosynthetic engineered A22G-B31K-B32R human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution.

    PubMed

    Borowicz, Piotr; Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elżbieta; Mikiewicz-Syguła, Diana; Błażej-Sosnowska, Sylwia; Bogiel, Monika; Rusek, Dorota; Kurzynoga, Dariusz; Kozerski, Lech

    2011-11-01

    A tertiary structure of recombinant A22(G)-B31(K)-B32(R)-human insulin monomer (insulin GKR) has been characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR at natural isotopic abundance using NOESY, TOCSY, (1)H/(13)C-GHSQC, and (1)H/(13)C-GHSQC-TOCSY spectra. Translational diffusion studies indicate the monomer structure in water/acetonitrile (65/35vol.%). CSI analysis confirms existence of secondary structure motifs present in human insulin standard (HIS). Both techniques allow to establish that in this solvent recombinant insulin GKR exists as a monomer. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different refinement protocols used molecular dynamics simulated annealing with the program AMBER; in vacuum (AMBER_VC), and including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER_GB). From these calculations an ensemble of 20 structures of lowest energy was chosen which represents the tertiary structure of studied insulin. Here we present novel insulin with added A22(G) amino acid which interacts with β-turn environment resulting in high flexibility of B chain C-terminus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human leukocyte antigen class I (A, B and C) allele and haplotype variation in a South African Mixed ancestry population.

    PubMed

    Loubser, Shayne; Paximadis, Maria; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    South Africa has a large (∼53million), ethnically diverse population (black African, Caucasian, Indian/Asian and Mixed ancestry) and a high disease burden (particularly HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The Mixed ancestry population constitutes ∼9% of the total population and was established ∼365years ago in the Western Cape region through interracial mixing of black Africans, Europeans and Asians. Admixed populations present unique opportunities to identify genetic factors involved in disease susceptibility. Since HLA genes are important mediators of host immunity, we investigated HLA-A, -B and -C allele and haplotype diversity in 50 healthy, unrelated individuals recruited from the Mixed ancestry population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal.

    PubMed

    Login, Frédéric H; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-10-23

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca(2+)-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the "classical" N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. YscU/FlhB of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Harbors a C-terminal Type III Secretion Signal*

    PubMed Central

    Login, Frédéric H.; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    All type III secretion systems (T3SS) harbor a member of the YscU/FlhB family of proteins that is characterized by an auto-proteolytic process that occurs at a conserved cytoplasmic NPTH motif. We have previously demonstrated that YscUCC, the C-terminal peptide generated by auto-proteolysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YscU, is secreted by the T3SS when bacteria are grown in Ca2+-depleted medium at 37 °C. Here, we investigated the secretion of this early T3S-substrate and showed that YscUCC encompasses a specific C-terminal T3S signal within the 15 last residues (U15). U15 promoted C-terminal secretion of reporter proteins like GST and YopE lacking its native secretion signal. Similar to the “classical” N-terminal secretion signal, U15 interacted with the ATPase YscN. Although U15 is critical for YscUCC secretion, deletion of the C-terminal secretion signal of YscUCC did neither affect Yop secretion nor Yop translocation. However, these deletions resulted in increased secretion of YscF, the needle subunit. Thus, these results suggest that YscU via its C-terminal secretion signal is involved in regulation of the YscF secretion. PMID:26338709

  17. Study of B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} and B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}K

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Hsiao, Y.-K.; Chua, C.-K.

    2009-06-01

    We study the doubly charmful two-body and three-body baryonic B decays B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -} and B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K. As pointed out before, a naive estimate of the branching ratio O(10{sup -8}) for the latter decay is too small by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude compared to experiment. Previously, it has been shown that a large enhancement for the {lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K production can occur due to a charmoniumlike resonance (e.g. X(4630) discovered by Belle) with a mass near the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c} threshold. Motivated by the BABAR's observation of a resonance in themore » {lambda}{sub c}K system with a mass of order 2930 MeV, we study in this work the contribution to B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K from the intermediate state {xi}{sub c}(2980) which is postulated to be a first positive-parity excited D-wave charmed baryon state. Assuming that a soft qq quark pair is produced through the {sigma} and {pi} meson exchanges in the configuration for B{yields}{xi}{sub c}(2980){lambda}{sub c} and {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}, it is found that branching ratios of B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K and B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -} are of order 3.5x10{sup -4} and 5x10{sup -5}, respectively, in agreement with experiment except that the prediction for the {lambda}{sub c}{lambda}{sub c}K{sup -} is slightly smaller. In conjunction with our previous analysis, we conclude that the enormously large rate of B{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{lambda}{sub c}{sup -}K arises from the resonances {xi}{sub c}(2980) and X(4630)« less

  18. Epidemiology and molecular analysis of hepatitis A, B and C in a semi-urban and rural area of Crete.

    PubMed

    Drositis, I; Bertsias, A; Lionis, C; Kouroumalis, E

    2013-12-01

    An observational seroepidemiological study was carried out in a well-defined primary-care district on the island of Crete in order to determine the recent endemicity of viral hepatitis in Cretan-population. The setting consisted of a semi-urban group and a remote & rural group. Serum samples were collected from 876 subjects (437 males, 439 females) aged 15 years or above. Subjects were randomly selected from the permanent population of the area that consisted of 5705 individuals. The aim was to measure the prevalence of selected viral-hepatitis markers. Hepatitis B surface-antigen (HBsAg) was found positive in twenty-nine individuals, (3.3%). Antibodies to hepatitis B virus core-antigen (HBcAb) were detected in 287 subjects (32.8%) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were detected in nineteen subjects (2.2%). Seropositivities for the semi-urban group were: 3.4%, 19.1%, 2.1% and 3.2%, 48.8%, 2.2% in remote & rural group respectively. Virtually, all subjects >45 years old were seropositive for antibodies to hepatitis A, whereas approximately 80% of those in the 15-44 age-group were found to be seropositive. A threefold increase in the HBV exposure and carrier proportion was found in Cretan native-population and in rural-areas compared to older studies carried out in other rural-populations of the island. It is still unknown whether the recent economic crisis or the demographic changes in Cretan-population contributed to these findings. HCV endemicity remains relatively constant, however an alteration of hepatitis C genotypes was observed. Exposure to HAV was found to be higher in remote and rural areas compared to semi-urban areas. © 2013.

  19. Taming B.C. Hydro: Site C and the implementation of the B.C. Utilities Commission Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. Graham

    1988-07-01

    Public policy making in resources management is greatly influenced by the institutional arrangements that arise out of the legal powers, administrative structures, and financial provisions of the decision system. In British Columbia, the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province have been greatly altered by the passage of the Utilities Commission Act in 1980. This act redefines the policy implementation process for energy in British Columbia and provides for the regulation of the province's power utility, B.C. Hydro. This is the first time that the hitherto autonomous utility has been subject to regulation and the Utilities Commission Act represents a major reform in the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. The article evaluates the effectiveness of the 1980 B.C. Utilities Commission Act and assesses the impact of the legislation upon the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. Data for the article were derived from written sources and a series of personal interviews with key participants involved with energy planning in B.C. It is shown that the act represented a major departure in the management of energy resources in B.C. Moreover the implementation of the act's provisions, particularly in regard to B.C. Hydro, had a dramatic impact on the development of new energy projects in the province. It is suggested that while the political and economic climate during the period also favored restraint, the major influence on “taming” the utility was passage of the Utilities Commission Act. The article concludes by exploring the implications of policy changes that have occurred as a consequence of the act's impact on B.C. Hydro.

  20. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z.; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J.; Hirakis, Sophia P.

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ~90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteinsmore » in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant ‘reading head’ in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M–C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design.« less

  1. Bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a hepatitis B virus endemic area: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunil; Jin, Young-Joo; Yoon, Chang Hwi; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is a type of acute or chronic autoimmune disease that involves subepidermal skin lesions with bulla formation. Although viral infections, such as, human herpes virus (HHV), human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HHV-6, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), are known factors of bullous pemphigoid, HCV infection has only been rarely associated factor, especially in HBV endemic area. A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to erythematous bulla of onset 3 months before presentation affecting his entire body. Pathologic findings, that is, subepidermal bullae containing eosinophils and neutrophils with superficial perivascular lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltration, were consistent with bullous pemphigoid. Anti-HCV was positive and HCV quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.25 x 10 IU/mL. HCV genotype was 2a. After a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection was reached, he was treated with oral methylprednisolone for bullous pemphigoid, and his skin lesions improved. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (sofosbuvir plus ribavirin) were prescribed for chronic hepatitis C, and sustained viral response was achieved. The authors report a rare case of bullous pemphigoid associated with chronic HCV infection in a HBV endemic area and advise that HCV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of factors precipitating bullous pemphigoid, even in HBV endemic areas.

  2. A review of the irradiation evolution of dispersed oxide nanoparticles in the b.c.c. Fe-Cr system: Current understanding and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Swenson, Matthew J.; Yano, Kayla H.

    2017-04-01

    Thus far, a number of studies have investigated the irradiation evolution of oxide nanoparticles in b.c.c. Fe-Cr based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. But given the inconsistent experimental conditions, results have been widely variable and inconclusive. Crystal structure and chemistry changes differ from experiment to experiment, and the total nanoparticle volume fraction has been observed to both increase and decrease. Furthermore, there has not yet been a comprehensive review of the archival literature. In this paper, we summarize the existing studies on nanoparticle irradiation evolution. We note significant observations with respect to oxide nanoparticle crystallinity, composition, size, and number density. We discuss four possible contributing mechanisms for nanoparticle evolution: ballistic dissolution, Ostwald ripening, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, and homogeneous nucleation. Finally, we propose future directions to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of irradiation effects on oxide nanoparticles in ODS alloys.

  3. Subclassification of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer B and C hepatocellular carcinoma: A cohort study of the multicenter registry database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheun; Kim, Beom Kyung; Song, Kijun; Park, Jun Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seung Up; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to subclassify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer intermediate and advanced stages, which include a highly heterogeneous population. From two registries ("random" and "voluntary" cohorts in the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group), patients who were newly diagnosed as HCC with intermediate or advanced stage between 2003 and 2005 were considered eligible. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method with comparison by log-rank test. Patients with intermediate-stage HCC (n = 994) were subclassified according to tumor size and Child-Pugh class. Patients with tumor size < 5 cm (B1), those with tumor size ≥ 5 cm and Child-Pugh A (B2), and those with tumor size ≥ 5 cm and Child-Pugh B (B3) had median OS of 30.73, 20.60, and 9.23 months, respectively (P < 0.001 by log-rank test). Among patients with advanced stage HCC (n = 1746), patients were subclassified according to presence of significant portal vein invasion (sPVI; defined as portal vein invasion in lobar, main, or contralateral branch) and extrahepatic spread (EHS). Patients with neither sPVI nor EHS (C1), those with either sPVI or EHS (C2), and those with both sPVI and EHS (C3) had median OS of 8.43, 4.63, and 3.63 months, respectively (P < 0.001 by log-rank test). Subclassification of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer intermediate and advanced stages might be useful for determining patient prognosis and guiding treatment strategies for HCC. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. MicroRNA-34b/c inhibits aldosterone-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via a SATB2/Runx2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianbing; Zhang, Lei; Cong, Guangting; Ren, Liansheng; Hao, Lirong

    2016-12-01

    Increasing evidence shows that aldosterone and specific microRNAs (miRs) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanistic links between miR-34b/c and aldosterone in VSMC calcification. VSMC calcification models were established both in vitro and in vivo. First, the levels of aldosterone, miR-34b/c and special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) were measured. Then, miR-34b/c mimics or inhibitors were transfected into VSMCs to evaluate the function of miR-34b/c. Luciferase reporter assays were used to demonstrate whether SATB2 was a direct target of miR-34b/c. Aldosterone and SATB2 were found to be markedly upregulated during VSMC calcification, whereas miR-34b/c expression was downregulated. Treatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist eplerenone inhibited VSMC calcification. In aldosterone-induced VSMC calcification, miR-34b/c levels were downregulated and SATB2 protein was upregulated. Furthermore, miR-34b/c overexpression alleviated aldosterone-induced VSMC calcification as well as inhibited the expression of SATB2 protein, whereas miR-34b/c inhibition markedly enhanced VSMC calcification and upregulated SATB2 protein. In addition, luciferase reporter assays showed that SATB2 is a direct target of miR-34b/c in VSMCs. Overexpression of SATB2 induced Runx2 overproduction and VSMC calcification. Therefore, miR-34b/c participates in aldosterone-induced VSMC calcification via a SATB2/Runx2 pathway. As miR-34b/c appears to be a negative regulator, it has potential as a therapeutic target of VSMC calcification.

  5. gC1q-R/p32, a C1q-binding protein, is a receptor for the InlB invasion protein of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Braun, L; Ghebrehiwet, B; Cossart, P

    2000-04-03

    InlB is a Listeria monocytogenes protein that promotes entry of the bacterium into mammalian cells by stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor proteins Gab1, Cbl and Shc, and activation of phosphatidyl- inositol (PI) 3-kinase. Using affinity chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrate a direct interaction between InlB and the mammalian protein gC1q-R, the receptor of the globular part of the complement component C1q. Soluble C1q or anti-gC1q-R antibodies impair InlB-mediated entry. Transient transfection of GPC16 cells, which are non-permissive to InlB-mediated entry, with a plasmid-expressing human gC1q-R promotes entry of InlB-coated beads. Furthermore, several experiments indicate that membrane recruitment and activation of PI 3-kinase involve an InlB-gC1q-R interaction and that gC1q-R associates with Gab1 upon stimulation of Vero cells with InlB. Thus, gC1q-R constitutes a cellular receptor involved in InlB-mediated activation of PI 3-kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Gab1. After E-cadherin, the receptor for internalin, gC1q-R is the second identified mammalian receptor promoting entry of L. monocytogenes into mammalian cells.

  6. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by sunlight and UV-A, -B and -C irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Kohei; Sugihara, Kazumi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.

  7. Spontaneous control of HIV-1 viremia in a subject with protective HLA-B plus HLA-C alleles and HLA-C associated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Marco; Ghezzi, Silvia; Baroli, Paolo; Heltai, Silvia; De Battista, Davide; Pensieroso, Simone; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Dispinseri, Stefania; Vanni, Irene; Pastori, Claudia; Zerbi, Pietro; Tosoni, Antonella; Vicenzi, Elisa; Nebuloni, Manuela; Wong, Kim; Zhao, Hong; McHugh, Sarah; Poli, Guido; Lopalco, Lucia; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Biassoni, Roberto; Mullins, James I; Malnati, Mauro S; Alfano, Massimo

    2014-12-05

    Understanding the mechanisms by which some individuals are able to naturally control HIV-1 infection is an important goal of AIDS research. We here describe the case of an HIV-1(+) woman, CASE1, who has spontaneously controlled her viremia for the last 14 of her 20 years of infection. CASE1 has been clinically monitored since 1993. Detailed immunological, virological and histological analyses were performed on samples obtained between 2009 and 2011. As for other Elite Controllers, CASE1 is characterized by low to undetectable levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) associated HIV-1 DNA and reduced in vitro susceptibility of target cells to HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, a slow rate of virus evolution was demonstrated in spite the lack of assumption of any antiretroviral agent. CASE1 failed to transmit HIV-1 to either her sexual male partner or to her child born by vaginal delivery. Normal values and ratios of T and B cells were observed, along with normal histology of the intestinal mucosa. Attempts to isolate HIV-1 from her PBMC and gut-derived cells were unsuccessful, despite expression of normal cell surface levels of CD4, CCRC5 and CXCR4. CASE1 did not produce detectable anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies in her serum or genital mucosal fluid although she displayed potent T cell responses against HIV-1 Gag and Nef. CASE1 also possessed multiple genetic polymorphisms, including HLA alleles (B*14, B*57, C*06 and C*08.02) and HLA-C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs9264942 C/C and rs67384697 del/del), that have been previously individually associated with spontaneous control of plasma viremia, maintenance of high CD4(+) T cell counts and delayed disease progression. CASE1 has controlled her HIV-1 viremia below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy for more than 14 years and has not shown any sign of immunologic deterioration or disease progression. Co-expression of multiple protective HLA alleles, HLA-C

  8. [A space for women in the Etruscan and Roman houses (VI-I cent. B.C.)?].

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the scientific discussion about the existence of a domestic space reserved to women in Etruscan and Roman houses. The hypotesis regarding the existence of a 'gynaeceum' has been recently proposed for the Etruscan houses built on Palatino in Rome (VI cent. B.C.) and for the ancient phase of the Centaurus Protodomus in Pompei. Considering the specific role of Roman matronae as laniferae, and also a substantial equality of social role between Etruscan men and women, it is possible to advance the hypotesis of the existence of a room originally reserved to women (oecus) on one side of the tablinum, the symmetrical room being reserved to men (triclinium).

  9. 76 FR 33176 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203, and B4-2C Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...: One operator reported a failure of the MLG [main landing gear] retraction actuator sliding rod. This...: One operator reported a failure of the MLG [main landing gear] retraction actuator sliding rod. This... inspections of the retraction actuator sliding rod as installed on A300, A300-600 and A300-600ST aeroplanes...

  10. The HLA Dictionary 2001: a summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5 and -DQB1 alleles and their association with serologically defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ antigens.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, G M; Hurley, C K; Marsh, S G; Lau, M; Maiers, M; Kollman, C; Noreen, H J

    2001-12-01

    This report presents the serological equivalents of 123 HLA-A, 272 HLA-B and 155 HLA-DRB1 alleles. The equivalents cover over 64% of the presently identified HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 alleles. The dictionary is an update of the one published in 1999 (<1>Schreuder et al., 1999, Tissue Antigens, 54, 409) and also includes equivalents for HLA-C, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5 and DQB1 alleles. The data summarize information obtained by the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System, the International Cell Exchange (UCLA), the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and individual laboratories. In addition, a listing is provided of alleles that are expressed as antigens with serological reaction patterns that differ from the well-established HLA specificities. The equivalents provided will be useful in guiding searches for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors in which patients and/or potential donors are typed by either serology or DNA-based methods. These equivalents will also serve typing and matching procedures for organ transplant programmes where HLA typings from donors and from recipients on waiting lists represent mixtures of serological and molecular typings. The tables with HLA equivalents and a questionnaire for submission of serological reaction patterns for poorly identified allelic products will also be available on the WMDA web page: www.worldmarrow.org

  11. The effect of vitamin C deficiency and chronic ultraviolet-B exposure on corneal ultrastructure: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sally; Cafaro, Thamara A.; Boguslawska, Patrycja J.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Boote, Craig; Harris, Jonathan; Young, Robert; Hiller, Jennifer; Terrill, Nicholas; Meek, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In the visually debilitating condition of climatic droplet keratopathy, corneal transparency is progressively lost. Although the precise cause of the disease and the mechanism by which it progresses are not known, a lifetime exposure to high solar radiation and a vitamin C–deficient diet may be involved in its development. This study examines the effect of dietary ascorbate levels and ultraviolet (UV)-B exposure on corneal stromal structure. Methods Eight guinea pigs were divided into four treatment groups (A, B, C, and D). For 15 weeks, Groups A and C were fed an ascorbate-rich diet (2 mg/100 g bodyweight/day), while Groups B and D received an ascorbate-deficient diet (0.07 mg/100 g bodyweight/day). For the last 12 weeks of the study, Groups C and D also experienced chronic UVB exposure (0.12 J/cm2 for 40 min/day). Following euthanasia, the corneas were enucleated and their stromal ultrastructure examined using X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. Results UVB exposure resulted in an increased corneal thickness (p<0.001), but this was not accompanied by a widespread expansion of the collagen fibrillar array, and in the case of ascorbate-deficient animals, stromal thickening was associated with the compaction of collagen fibrils (p<0.01). Neither UVB exposure nor ascorbic acid deficiency caused any change in the average diameter or D-periodicity of the stromal collagen fibrils. Conclusions UVB-induced changes in the corneal ultrastructure were most pronounced in animals fed an ascorbic acid–deficient diet. This suggests that ascorbic acid may play a vital role in protecting the corneal stroma from the harmful effects of UVB. PMID:22171156

  12. The HLA dictionary 1999: a summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, -DQB1 alleles and their association with serologically defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ antigens.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, G M; Hurley, C K; Marsh, S G; Lau, M; Maiers, M; Kollman, C; Noreen, H

    1999-11-01

    This report presents serologic equivalents of 90 HLA-A, 190 HLA-B, and 145 HLA-DRB1 alleles. The equivalents cover over 70% of the presently identified HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles. The dictionary is an update of the one published in 1997 and now also includes equivalents for HLA-C, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1 alleles. The data summarize information obtained by the WHO HLA Nomenclature Committee, the International Cell Exchange (UCLA), the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), and by individual laboratories. In addition, a listing is provided of alleles that are expressed as antigens with serologic reaction patterns that differ from the well-established HLA specificities and that often lack official WHO nomenclature. The provided equivalents will be useful in guiding searches for unrelated donors in which patients and/or potential donors are typed by either serology or DNA-based methods. These equivalents will also serve typing and matching procedures for organ transplant programs where HLA typings from donors and from recipients on waiting lists represent mixtures of serologic and molecular typings. Some guidelines are provided for the use of appropriate WHO HLA nomenclature for serologic typings and for generic and allele specific typings obtained with molecular methods. The tables with HLA equivalents and the questionnaire for submission of serology on poorly identified alleles will also be available at the WMDA web page: www.bmdw.org/wmda.

  13. Detection of transfusion-associated hepatitis caused by non-A, non-B, non-C flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Takács, M; Berencsi, G; Mezey, I; Brojnás, J; Barcsay, E; Garamvölgyi, E; Hütter, E; Ferenczi, E; Pipirász, E; Hollós, I

    1994-01-01

    Sera of patients suffering from acute hepatitis, and different forms of chronic hepatitis were found to be reactive to reagents prepared from the yellow fever virus (YF) vaccine strain. Serum samples of 1974 patients were tested, and 133 of them were positive. Hepatitis C virus specific antibodies were absent from the majority of them. The frequency of antibodies to other flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile) and hepatitis B virus markers was similar to that measured among the population in Hungary positive for any of the surrogate markers of hepatitis infections. Results of both immunofluorescence tests, and Western blots suggest that there is a non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis virus circulating among the Hungarian population, which possesses antigenic cross-reactivity with the yellow fever virus, but the identity to any of the known flaviviruses could not be verified yet. No history of yellow fever vaccination could be revealed in any of the patients included into this study. The anamnestic data on previous transfusions or surgical operations can be verified only in the case of the half of YFV-positive patients, nevertheless, the sexual transmission seems to be very infrequent. Attempts are continued in order to detect the viral RNA using polymerase chain reaction, and clone cDNA sequences for sequence analysis.

  14. Quinolactacins A, B and C: novel quinolone compounds from Penicillium sp. EPF-6. I. Taxonomy, production, isolation and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, N; Iwai, H; Takahashi, S; Hamano, K; Yanagisawa, T; Nagai, K; Tanaka, K; Suzuki, K; Kirikae, F; Kirikae, T; Nakagawa, A

    2000-11-01

    Quinolactacins A (1), B (2) and C (3), novel quinolone antibiotics have been found from the cultured broth of a fungal strain isolated from the larvae of the mulberry pyralid Margaronia pyloalis Welker). The fungal strain, EPF-6 was identified as Penicillium sp. from its morphological characteristics. Quinolactacins were obtained from the culture medium by solvent extraction and chromatographic purification. Compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production induced by murine peritoneal macrophages and macrophage-like J774.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  15. 76 FR 64798 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203, and B4-2C Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... condition as: One operator reported a failure of the MLG [main landing gear] retraction actuator sliding rod.... The MCAI states: One operator reported a failure of the MLG [main landing gear] retraction actuator..., December 10, 2007)] to require repetitive inspections of the retraction actuator sliding rod as installed...

  16. Alternative Basic Comprehensive Program (Project A.B.C.) Special Alternative Instructional Program. Final Evaluation Report 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc A.

    The Alternative Basic Comprehension Program (Project A.B.C.) for bilingual high school students was a special alternative instructional program funded by Title VII for the third year at two high schools in the Bronx. In the year under review, Project A.B.C. served 260 students of limited English proficiency (LEP). Participating students received…

  17. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology [correction of biotechnilogy].

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adapted at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICAL (correction of ZOOLOGICASL) COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90

  18. Precerebellin is a cerebellum-specific protein with similarity to the globular domain of complement C1q B chain.

    PubMed Central

    Urade, Y; Oberdick, J; Molinar-Rode, R; Morgan, J I

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellum contains a hexadecapeptide, termed cerebellin, that is conserved in sequence from human to chicken. Three independent, overlapping cDNA clones have been isolated from a human cerebellum cDNA library that encode the cerebellin sequence. The longest clone codes for a protein of 193 amino acids that we term precerebellin. This protein has a significant similarity (31.3% identity, 52.2% similarity) to the globular (non-collagen-like) region of the B chain of human complement component C1q. The region of relatedness extends over approximately 145 amino acids located in the carboxyl terminus of both proteins. Unlike C1q B chain, no collagen-like motifs are present in the amino-terminal regions of precerebellin. The amino terminus of precerebellin contains three possible N-linked glycosylation sites. Although hydrophobic amino acids are clustered at the amino terminus, they do not conform to the classical signal-peptide motif, and no other obvious membrane-spanning domains are predicted from the cDNA sequence. The cDNA predicts that the cerebellin peptide is flanked by Val-Arg and Glu-Pro residues. Therefore, cerebellin is not liberated from precerebellin by the classical dibasic amino acid proteolytic-cleavage mechanism seen in many neuropeptide precursors. In Northern (RNA) blots, precerebellin transcripts, with four distinct sizes (1.8, 2.3, 2.7, and 3.0 kilobases), are abundant in cerebellum. These transcripts are present at either very low or undetectable levels in other brain areas and extraneural structures. A similar pattern of cerebellin precursor transcripts are seen in rat, mouse, and human cerebellum. Furthermore, a partial genomic fragment from mouse shows the same bands in Northern blots as the human cDNA clone. During rat development, precerebellin transcripts mirror the level of cerebellin peptide. Low levels of precerebellin mRNA are seen at birth. Levels increase modestly from postpartum day 1 to 8, then increase more dramatically between

  19. PENTACHLOROPHENOL POTENTIATES BENZO[A]PYRENE DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN ADULT BUT NOT INFANT B6C3F1 MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The objective of this study is to determine whether pentachlorophenol (PCP) alters benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced DNA adduct formation in infant and adult B6C3Fl mice. Mice were exposed to 55 ug B[a]P/g body weight (BW) alone and in combination with several dose...

  20. The Optimal Timing of Hepatitis C Therapy in Transplant Eligible Patients With Child B and C Cirrhosis: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Hughes, Michael S; Buti, Maria; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Flamm, Steve; Firdoos, Saima; Curry, Michael P; Afdhal, Nezam H

    2017-05-01

    Ledipasvir (LDV)/sofosbuvir (SOF) has demonstrated high efficacy, safety, and tolerability in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. There is limited data, however, regarding the optimal timing of therapy in the context of possible liver transplantation (LT). We compared the cost-effectiveness of 12 weeks of HCV therapy before or after LT or nontreatment using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model for a simulated cohort of 10 000 patients with HCV Genotype 1 or 4 with Child B or C cirrhosis. All model parameters regarding the efficacy of therapy, adverse events and the effect of therapy on changes in model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were derived from the SOLAR-1 and 2 trials. The simulations were repeated with 10 000 samples from the parameter distributions. The primary outcome was cost (2014 US dollars) per quality adjusted life year. Treatment before LT yielded more quality-adjusted life year for less money than treatment after LT or nontreatment. Treatment before LT was cost-effective in 100% of samples at a willingness-to-pay threshold of US $100 000 in the base-case and when the analysis was restricted to Child B alone, Child C, or MELD > 15. Treatment before transplant was not cost-effective when MELD was 6-10. In sensitivity analyses, the MELD after which treatment before transplant was cost-effective was 13 and the maximum cost of LDV/SOF therapy at which treatment before LT is cost-effective is US $177 381. From a societal perspective, HCV therapy using LDV/SOF with ribavirin before LT is the most cost-effective strategy for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and MELD score greater than 13.

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class I Nitrogen Oxides Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units a b c

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units a b c 3 Table 3 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 3 Table... Waste Combustion Units a b c ER31JA03.008 ...

  2. 76 FR 6629 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G- 325B, and G-325C; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Forms 325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C, Biographic Information; OMB Control No. 1615-0008. The Department of Homeland...

  3. C2 Arylated Benzo[b]thiophene Derivatives as Staphylococcus aureus NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liger, François; Bouhours, Pascale; Ganem-Elbaz, Carine; Jolivalt, Claude; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane; Popowycz, Florence; Paris, Jean-Marc; Lemaire, Marc

    2016-02-04

    An innovative and straightforward synthesis of second-generation 2-arylbenzo[b]thiophenes as structural analogues of INF55 and the first generation of our laboratory-made molecules was developed. The synthesis of C2-arylated benzo[b]thiophene derivatives was achieved through a method involving direct arylation, followed by simple structural modifications. Among the 34 compounds tested, two of them were potent NorA pump inhibitors, which led to a 16-fold decrease in the ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the SA-1199B strain at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μg mL(-1) (1 and 1.5 μm, respectively). This is a promising result relative to that obtained for reserpine (MIC=20 μg mL(-1)), a reference compound amongst NorA pump inhibitors. These molecules thus represent promising candidates to be used in combination with ciprofloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm-secreted Effector PlcC/CegC1 Together with PlcA and PlcB Promotes Virulence and Belongs to a Novel Zinc Metallophospholipase C Family Present in Bacteria and Fungi*

    PubMed Central

    Aurass, Philipp; Schlegel, Maren; Metwally, Omar; Harding, Clare R.; Schroeder, Gunnar N.; Frankel, Gad; Flieger, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a water-borne bacterium that causes pneumonia in humans. PlcA and PlcB are two previously defined L. pneumophila proteins with homology to the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Additionally, we found that Lpg0012 shows similarity to PLCs and has been shown to be a Dot/Icm-injected effector, CegC1, which is designated here as PlcC. It remained unclear, however, whether these L. pneumophila proteins exhibit PLC activity. PlcC expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed a broad phospholipid spectrum, including PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol. The addition of Zn2+ ions activated, whereas EDTA inhibited, PlcC-derived PLC activity. Protein homology search revealed that the three Legionella enzymes and P. fluorescens PC-PLC share conserved domains also present in uncharacterized fungal proteins. Fifteen conserved amino acids were essential for enzyme activity as identified via PlcC mutagenesis. Analysis of defined L. pneumophila knock-out mutants indicated Lsp-dependent export of PG-hydrolyzing PLC activity. PlcA and PlcB exhibited PG-specific activity and contain a predicted Sec signal sequence. In line with the reported requirement of host cell contact for Dot/Icm-dependent effector translocation, PlcC showed cell-associated PC-specific PLC activity after bacterial growth in broth. A PLC triple mutant, but not single or double mutants, exhibited reduced host killing in a Galleria mellonella infection model, highlighting the importance of the three PLCs in pathogenesis. In summary, we describe here a novel Zn2+-dependent PLC family present in Legionella, Pseudomonas, and fungi with broad substrate preference and function in virulence. PMID:23457299

  5. The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm-secreted effector PlcC/CegC1 together with PlcA and PlcB promotes virulence and belongs to a novel zinc metallophospholipase C family present in bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Aurass, Philipp; Schlegel, Maren; Metwally, Omar; Harding, Clare R; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Frankel, Gad; Flieger, Antje

    2013-04-19

    Legionella pneumophila is a water-borne bacterium that causes pneumonia in humans. PlcA and PlcB are two previously defined L. pneumophila proteins with homology to the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Additionally, we found that Lpg0012 shows similarity to PLCs and has been shown to be a Dot/Icm-injected effector, CegC1, which is designated here as PlcC. It remained unclear, however, whether these L. pneumophila proteins exhibit PLC activity. PlcC expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed a broad phospholipid spectrum, including PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol. The addition of Zn(2+) ions activated, whereas EDTA inhibited, PlcC-derived PLC activity. Protein homology search revealed that the three Legionella enzymes and P. fluorescens PC-PLC share conserved domains also present in uncharacterized fungal proteins. Fifteen conserved amino acids were essential for enzyme activity as identified via PlcC mutagenesis. Analysis of defined L. pneumophila knock-out mutants indicated Lsp-dependent export of PG-hydrolyzing PLC activity. PlcA and PlcB exhibited PG-specific activity and contain a predicted Sec signal sequence. In line with the reported requirement of host cell contact for Dot/Icm-dependent effector translocation, PlcC showed cell-associated PC-specific PLC activity after bacterial growth in broth. A PLC triple mutant, but not single or double mutants, exhibited reduced host killing in a Galleria mellonella infection model, highlighting the importance of the three PLCs in pathogenesis. In summary, we describe here a novel Zn(2+)-dependent PLC family present in Legionella, Pseudomonas, and fungi with broad substrate preference and function in virulence.

  6. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adpated at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICASL COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90 spaceshuttle missions and the

  7. Lack of Association between Oral Lichen Planus and Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection - a Report from Southeast Iran

    PubMed

    Nosratzahi, Tahereh; Raiesi, Mehrab; Shahryari, Bahareh

    2018-06-25

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology. Dentists are usually the first medical practitioners to diagnose this condition although it also affects body parts other than the oral mucosa. Several studies have reported an association between the OLP and hepatitis B and C infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies in patients with OLP compared with healthy controls. Methods: In this case‒control study, 50 patients with clinical and histopathological characteristics of OLP, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls supplied serum samples (5 mL) for evaluation by ELISA. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software, version 21. Chi-square test was applied as appropriate. Results: In this study, the 50 patients with OLP (33 females and 17 males) had a mean age of 42.0 ± 14.5 years, and the 50 healthy subjects (33 females and 17 males) a mean age of 41.9 ± 13.7 years. None demonstrated any evidence of HBV antigen or HCV antibodies. Discussion: We could not detect any association between OLP and viral hepatitis. This could be attributed to a lower prevalence of hepatitis viruses compared to other countries or genotypic variation or other etiological factors contributing in our cases. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  12. Response to hepatitis A and B vaccination in patients with chronic hepatitis C: 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kalyoncu, Derya; Urganci, Nafiye

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), superinfection with hepatitis A (HAV) or B (HAB) viruses is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The seroconversion rate of these patients following vaccination is considered to be lower than in healthy subjects. To evaluate the response to HAV and HBV vaccination in children with CHC. Thirty patients with CHC aged from 7.3 to 18 years were compared with 50 healthy age-, gender- and body-mass-index-matched controls. Post-vaccination serological evaluation was performed 1 month after the last dose of primary vaccination, 1 month after the booster dose and once a year during follow-up. Twenty-two patients received hepatitis A vaccine and response rate was 95.4%. Thirty patients received hepatitis B vaccine and 80% responded (hepatitis Bs titres ≥10 mIU/ml). Thirty-five controls received hepatitis A vaccine and protective anti-HAV antibodies developed in all. All of the controls were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus and 90% responded. After the whole vaccination series, overall seroprotection rates were 86% in patients and 96% in controls. No significant reduction in antibody response was observed in patients or controls during 8-years follow-up. The rate of seroconversion to the HBV vaccine is lower in patients with CHC than in healthy controls but response to HAV is adequate.

  13. 48 CFR 1827.303 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., a prospective contractor may be required to represent itself as either a small business firm or a... contracting officer may file a protest in accordance with FAR 19.302 if small business firm status is... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  14. 48 CFR 1827.303 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., a prospective contractor may be required to represent itself as either a small business firm or a... contracting officer may file a protest in accordance with FAR 19.302 if small business firm status is... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  15. The Structure of the Atom: Teacher's Guide Levels A, B, and C. Preliminary Limited Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Physics Outlet, Woburn, MA. Education Programs Dept.

    This is a two-part curriculum package for teaching the structure of atoms. The first part--the Teacher's Guide--contains information necessary for using the equipment in a typical classroom including learning goals, vocabulary, math skills, and sample data for each activity. The second part of the package consists of photocopy masters for a set of…

  16. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services, Inc., Barberton, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on...

  17. Photographic and photometric enhancement of Lunar Orbiter products, projects A, B and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the framelet joining, photometric data improvement, and statistical error analysis. The Lunar Orbiter film handling system, readout system, and the digitization are described, along with the technique of joining adjacent framelets by a using a digital computer. Time and cost estimates are given. The problems and techniques involved in improving the digitized data are discussed. It was found that spectacular improvements are possible. Program documentations are included.

  18. Modular Total Syntheses of Hyperforin, Papuaforins A, B, and C via Gold(I)-Catalyzed Carbocyclization.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, Gabriel; Barriault, Louis

    2018-05-15

    The remarkable biological activities of polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) combined with their highly oxygenated and densely functionalized frameworks have stimulated the interest of synthetic organic chemists over the past decade. Herein, we report the concise total syntheses of four natural products PPAPs, of which some have antibacterial properties, notably hyperforin and papuaforin A. The salient features of this strategy are the short and gram-scalable synthesis of densely substituted PPAPs scaffolds via a Au(I)-catalyzed carbocyclization and the late-stage functionalization for a unified access to a wide variety of PPAPs.

  19. Chemistry and the Periodic Table: Teacher's Guide Levels A, B, and C. Preliminary Limited Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Physics Outlet, Woburn, MA. Education Programs Dept.

    This is a two-part curriculum package for the teaching of chemistry and the periodic table. The first part, the Teacher's Guide, contains information necessary for using the equipment in a typical classroom including learning goals, vocabulary, math skills, and sample data for each activity. The second part of the package consists of photocopy…

  20. Comparison between a serum creatinine-and a cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate equation in patients receiving amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Iman; Khalili, Hossein

    2016-06-06

    Serum cystatin C (Cys C) has a number of advantages over serum creatinine in the evaluation of kidney function. Apart from Cys C level itself, several formulas have also been introduced in different clinical settings for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon serum Cys C level. The aim of the present study was to compare a serum Cys C-based equation with Cockcroft-Gault serum creatinine-based formula, both used in the calculation of GFR, in patients receiving amphotericin B. Fifty four adult patients with no history of acute or chronic kidney injury having been planned to receive conventional amphotericin B for an anticipated duration of at least 1 week for any indication were recruited. At three time points during amphotericin B treatment, including days 0, 7, and 14, serum cystatin C as well as creatinine levels were measured. GFR at the above time points was estimated by both creatinine (Cockcroft-Gault) and serum Cys C based equations. There was significant correlation between creatinine-based and Cys C-based GFR values at days 0 (R = 0.606, P = 0.001) and 7 (R = 0.714, P < 0.001). In contrast to GFR estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation, the mean (95 % confidence interval) Cys C-based GFR values at different studied time points were comparable within as well as between patients with and without amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. Our results suggested that the Gentian Cys C-based GFR equation correlated significantly with the Cockcroft-Gault formula at least at the early time period of treatment with amphotericin B. Graphical abstract Comparison between a serum creatinine-and a cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate equation in patients receiving amphotericin B.

  1. Basic design studies for a 600 MWe CFB boiler (270b, 2 x 600 C)

    SciTech Connect

    Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L.

    Commercial CFB boilers are currently available in the 300 MWe equivalent range for use with international coal. Retrofitting of Provence 4 with a 250 MWe CFB boiler was an important step in CFB development. In light of the results obtained from two large French units--Emile Huchet 4 (125 MWe) and Provence 4 (250 MWe)--this paper focuses on the main technical points which are currently being studied in relation to the basic design of a 600 MWe CFB boiler, a project that has been undertaken by EDF. The general aim of this project is to demonstrate the competitiveness of a CFBmore » boiler compared with a PF boiler. The main areas of focus in the design of this large CFB boiler with advanced steam conditions are described. These points are subjected to particular analysis from a design standpoint. The objective is to prepare the precise specifications needed to ensure a product which is optimized in terms of quality/cost or service/cost. Due to the present lack of theoretical understanding of the refined and complex two-phase flow, design is a challenge which has to be based on reliable and comprehensive data obtained from large plants in commercial operation. This will ensure that the advantages of CFB which arise from the hydrodynamics within the circulation loop are maintained. The major goals of maintaining good particle residence time and concentration in the furnace are described. Misunderstanding of CFB furnace bottom conditions is also pointed out, with cost reduction and better NO{sub x} capture certainly among the major new targets in relation to bottom furnace design. General problems associated with the heat exchanger arrangement, principally those linked to high steam conditions and, especially, the vaporization system, are discussed. Once again, comparison with PF in this area showed that CFB boilers appear more competitive. Finally, the main area in which there is a need for sharing of CFB experience among CFB users is pointed out.« less

  2. Structure and expression of the human thymocyte antigens CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.H.; Calabi, F.; Lefebvre, F.A.

    1987-12-01

    The CD1 human antigens are a family of at least three components, CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c, that are characteristic of the cortical stage of thymocyte maturation. CD1a was originally named HTA1 or T6 and thought to be the human equivalent of mouse Tla. The genes coding for all three have not been identified by transfection into mouse cells. The transfectants express the surface antigens that can then be recognized by the corresponding cluster of monoclonal antibodies used to define the three members of CD1. The full sequence of the genomic DNA is described for all three. The intron-exon structure ofmore » CD1a is deduced by comparison with a near-full-length cDNA clone. Similar structures are proposed for the other two, largely based on sequence homology. An unusually long 5'-untranslated exon (280 bases long) is highly conserved between the three genes, suggesting an important but unknown function. CD1c has a duplicated form of this exon that is thought to be spliced out. The major homology between the three antigens is in the ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin-binding-domain. The general relatedness to major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules is significant but low, with no section of higher homology to mouse Tla.« less

  3. Re Thinking the Public Sector Role in Training: A B.C. College's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witter, Susan

    Prior to 1985, the British Columbia (Canada) community colleges relied heavily on institutional seat purchases (direct funding) to support ongoing vocational programs and, to a lesser extent, to implement new training programs. With the introduction of the Canada Job Strategy in 1985, many of the seat purchases were reduced in favor of indirect…

  4. Does Nationality Matter in the B2C Environment? Results from a Two Nation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Different studies have explored the relations between different dimensions of e-commerce transactions and lots of models and findings have been proposed to the academic and business worlds. However, there is a doubt on the applications and generalization of such models and findings in different countries and nations. In other words, this study argues that the relations among the variables of a model ay differ in different countries, which raises questions on the findings of researchers collecting data in one country to test their hypotheses. This study intends to examine if different nations have different perceptions toward the elements of Website interface, security and purchase intention on Internet. Moreover, a simple model was developed to investigate whether the independent variables of the model are equally important in different nations and significantly influence the dependent variable in such nations or not. Since majority of the studies in the context of e-commerce were either focused on the developed countries which have a high e-readiness indices and overall ranks, two developing countries with different e-readiness indices and ranks were selected for the data collection. The results showed that the samples had different significant perceptions of security and some of the Website interface factors. Moreover, it was found that the significance of relations among the independent variables ad the dependent variable are different between the samples, which questions the findings of the researchers testing their model and hypotheses only based on the data collected in one country.

  5. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  6. Banned Books; 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Anne Lyon; Grannis, Chandler B.

    The first half of this volume presents an introductory essay defining the First Amendment and the legal aspects of censorship, and offers an annotated list of books that have been banned at various times throughout history. The annotations, arranged according to the birth dates of the authors, include a chronological account of the censorship…

  7. Artificial intelligence against breast cancer (A.N.N.E.S-B.C.-Project).

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Domenico; Avenia, Nicola; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Siciliano, Mattia; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Madonna, Imma; Peltrini, Roberto; Parmeggiani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Our preliminary study examined the development of an advanced innovative technology with the objectives of--developing methodologies and algorithms for a Artificial Neural Network (ANN) system, improving mammography and ultra-sonography images interpretation;--creating autonomous software as a diagnostic tool for the physicians, allowing the possibility for the advanced application of databases using Artificial Intelligence (Expert System). Since 2004 550 F patients over 40 yrs old were divided in two groups: 1) 310 pts underwent echo every 6 months and mammography every year by expert radiologists. 2) 240 pts had the same screening program and were also examined by our diagnosis software, developed with ANN-ES technology by the Engineering Aircraft Research Project team. The information was continually updated and returned to the Expert System, defining the principal rules of automatic diagnosis. In the second group we selected: Expert radiologist decision; ANN-ES decision; Expert radiologists with ANN-ES decision. The second group had significantly better diagnosis for cancer and better specificity for breast lesions risk as well as the highest percentage account when the radiologist's decision was helped by the ANN software. The ANN-ES group was able to select, by anamnestic, diagnostic and genetic means, 8 patients for prophylactic surgery, finding 4 cancers in a very early stage. Although it is only a preliminary study, this innovative diagnostic tool seems to provide better positive and negative predictive value in cancer diagnosis as well as in breast risk lesion identification.

  8. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  9. Magnitudes and Sources of Catchment Sediment: When A + B Doesn't Equal C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The export of land-based sediments to receiving waters can cause degradation of water quality and habitat, loss of reservoir capacity and damage to reef ecosystems. Predictions of sources and magnitudes generally come from simulations using catchment models that focus on overland flow processes at the expense of gully and channel processes. This is not appropriate for many catchments where recent research has shown that the dominant erosion sources have shifted from the uplands and fields following European Settlement, to the alluvial valleys today. Still, catchment models which fail to adequately address channel and bank processes are still the overwhelming choice by resource agencies to help manage sediment export. These models often utilize measured values of sediment load at the river mouth to "calibrate" the magnitude of loads emanating from uplands and fields. The difference between the sediment load at the mouth and the simulated upland loading is then proportioned to channel sources.Bank erosion from the Burnett River (a "Reef Catchment" in eastern Queensland) was quantified by comparisons of bank-top locations and by numerical modeling using BSTEM. Results show that bank-derived sediment contributes between 44 and 73% of the sediment load being exported to the Coral Sea. In comparison reported results from a catchment model showed bank contributions of 8%. In absolute terms, this is an increase in the reported average, annual rate of bank erosion from 0.175 Mt/y to 2.0 Mt/y.In the Hoteo River, New Zealand, a rural North Island catchment characterized by resistant cohesive sediments, bank erosion was found to contribute at least 48% of the total specific yield of sediment. Combining the bank-derived, fine-grained loads from some of the major tributaries gives a total, average annual loading rate for fine material of about 10,900 t/y for the studied reaches in the Hoteo River System. If the study was extended to include the lower reaches of the main stem

  10. [Hepatitis B and C prevalence in a blood bank at general hospital in Callao, Peru].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Liliana; Tejada-Llacsa, Paul Jesús; Melgarejo-García, Giannina; Berto, Gabriel; Montes Teves, Pedro; Monge, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of sero positivity for HBsAg, Anti-HBcAg and AntiHVC in the blood bank of Hospital Daniel Carrion during the period 2010 - 2012. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Potential donors who met the inclusion criteria were included. Sociodemographic factors, risk behaviors were gathered. A descriptive analysis was performed with STATA 14. 13,887 potential blood donors of the HNDAC between January 2010 and December 2012 were identified. The population's mean was 37 years, 32% were women. 897 potential positive blood donors were identified. The prevalence of HBsAg was 0.55%; Anti-HBcAg, 5.15%; and Anti-HVC, 1.25%. The prevalence of positive serology for HBsAg was similar to the previous reports and Anti-HVC was higher than the prevalence reported in our country.

  11. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  12. Radiation experiments on Cosmos 2044: K-7-41, parts A, B, C, D, E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 deg and attitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10(exp -4) and 3.05 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm/s/sr, of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(sub infinity)-H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mrem/d in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra were compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 deg) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCRs, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  14. The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joseph D; Meyers, Kathrine; Best, John; Kaplan, Karyn; Pendse, Razia; Fenton, Kevin A; Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Figueroa, Carmen; Goicochea, Pedro; Gore, Charles; Ishizaki, Azumi; Khwairakpam, Giten; Miller, Veronica; Mozalevskis, Antons; Ninburg, Michael; Ocama, Ponsiano; Peeling, Rosanna; Walsh, Nick; Colombo, Massimo G; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. This contest involved four steps: 1) establishment of a multisectoral steering committee to coordinate a call for contest entries; 2) dissemination of the call for entries through diverse media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, email listservs, academic journals); 3) independent ranking of submissions by a panel of judges according to pre-specified criteria (clarity of testing model, innovation, effectiveness, next steps) using a 1-10 scale; 4) recognition of highly ranked entries through presentation at international conferences, commendation certificate, and inclusion as a case study in the WHO 2017 testing guidelines. The innovation contest received 64 entries from 27 countries and took a total of 4 months to complete. Sixteen entries were directly included in the WHO testing guidelines. The entries covered testing in different populations, including primary care patients (n = 5), people who inject drugs (PWID) (n = 4), pregnant women (n = 4), general populations (n = 4), high-risk groups (n = 3), relatives of people living with hepatitis B and C (n = 2), migrants (n = 2), incarcerated individuals (n = 2), workers (n = 2), and emergency department patients (n = 2). A variety of different testing delivery approaches were employed, including integrated HIV-hepatitis testing (n = 12); integrated testing with harm reduction and addiction services (n = 9); use of electronic medical records to support targeted testing (n = 8

  15. The HLA Dictionary 2004: a summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5 and -DQB1 alleles and their association with serologically defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ antigens.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, G M Th; Hurley, C K; Marsh, S G E; Lau, M; Fernandez-Vina, M; Noreen, H J; Setterholm, M; Maiers, M

    2005-01-01

    This report presents serologic equivalents of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4, -DRB5 and -DQB1 alleles. The dictionary is an update of the one published in 2001. The data summarize equivalents obtained by the World Health Organization Nomenclature Committee for factors of the HLA System, the International Cell Exchange, the National Marrow Donor Program, recent publications and individual laboratories. This latest update of the dictionary is enhanced by the inclusion of results from studies performed during the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and from neural network analyses. A summary of the data as recommended serologic equivalents is presented as expert assigned types. The tables include remarks for alleles, which are or may be expressed as antigens with serologic reaction patterns that differ from the well-established HLA specificities. The equivalents provided will be useful in guiding searches for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donors in which patients and/or potential donors are typed by either serology or DNA-based methods. The serological DNA equivalent dictionary will also aid in typing and matching procedures for organ transplant programs whose waiting lists of potential donors and recipients comprise of mixtures of serologic and DNA-based typings. The tables with HLA equivalents and a questionnaire for submission of serologic reaction patterns for poorly identified allelic products will be made available through the WMDA web page: www.worldmarrow.org. and in the near future also in a searchable form on the IMGT/HLA database.

  16. The HLA Dictionary 2004: a summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5 and -DQB1 alleles and their association with serologically defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ antigens.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, G M Th; Hurley, C K; Marsh, S G E; Lau, M; Fernandez-Vina, M; Noreen, H J; Setterholm, M; Maiers, M

    2005-02-01

    This report presents serological equivalents of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4, -DRB5 and -DQB1 alleles. The dictionary is an update of that published in 2001. The data summarize equivalents obtained by the World Health Organization Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System, the International Cell Exchange (UCLA), the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), recent publications and individual laboratories. This latest update of the dictionary is enhanced by the inclusion of results from studies performed during the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and from neural network analyses. A summary of the data as recommended serological equivalents is presented as expert assigned types. The tables include remarks for alleles, which are or may be expressed as antigens with serological reaction patterns that differ from the well-established HLA specificities. The equivalents provided will be useful in guiding searches for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donors in which patients and/or potential donors are typed by either serology or DNA-based methods. The serological DNA equivalent dictionary will also aid in typing and matching procedures for organ transplant programmes whose waiting lists of potential donors and recipients comprise mixtures of serological and DNA-based typings. The tables with HLA equivalents and a questionnaire for submission of serological reaction patterns for poorly identified allelic products will be made available through the WMDA web page (http://www.worldmarrow.org) and, in the near future, also in a searchable form on the IMGT/HLA database.

  17. A method of semi-quantifying β-AP in brain PET-CT 11C-PiB images.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Lin, Xiaoman; Wen, Junlin; Huang, Zhemin; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem for elderly populations. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)11C-PiB for beta-P (amyloid-β peptide, β-AP) imaging is an advanced method to diagnose AD in early stage. However, in practice radiologists lack a standardized value to semi-quantify β-AP. This paper proposes such a standardized value: SVβ-AP. This standardized value measures the mean ratio between the dimension of β-AP areas in PET and CT images. A computer aided diagnosis approach is also proposed to achieve SVβ-AP. A simulation experiment was carried out to pre-test the technical feasibility of the CAD approach and SVβ-AP. The experiment results showed that it is technically feasible.

  18. Hepatitis A, B, and C infection in a community of sub-Saharan immigrants living in Verona (Italy).

    PubMed

    Majori, Silvia; Baldo, Vincenzo; Tommasi, Irene; Malizia, Maria; Floreani, Annarosa; Monteiro, Geraldo; Ferrari, Aladino; Accordini, Augusto; Guzzo, Patrizia; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, about 5% of the population is represented by immigrants. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa is very different from Europe; the present study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of viral hepatitis infections in sub-Saharan African immigrants living in Verona. A total of 182 illegal immigrants were interviewed concerning sociodemographic characteristics and epidemiological information. Their serum was tested for anti-HAV [immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM], HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, HBeAg, and anti-HBe), and HCV (anti-HCV) markers. The immigrants (age: 3 mo-60 y) were mostly single and males, with a higher education; only 50% of them declared having a regular job. Anti-IgG HAV+ prevalence was 99.5% (100% HAV positivity in the younger age bracket). As for HBV, 67.6% (123) of the immigrants were naturally infected and 9.3% had chronic infection; 4.4% were anti-HBs+ isolated (vaccinated). For HBV infection (any HBV marker), a significant difference was only found for increasing age ( p < 0.01) and married people ( p < 0.001). A statistically significant prevalence of HBsAg was found among the unemployed ( p < 0.001) and those with a lower education ( p < 0.05). Five cases (2.7%) resulted in HCV+ with no reported specific risk factors and with no significantly different sociodemographic features; these people tended to report a low level of education and unemployment. HAV and HBV positivity is higher than in the autochthonous population. While HAV positivity merely represents past infection, the high prevalence of HBsAg in immigrants and the presence of HBsAg/HBeAg in the same group may represent a risk for HBV transmission. The HCV positivity rate resulted similar to the prevalence of the Italian population.

  19. P-wave excited {B}_{c}^{* * } meson photoproduction at the LHeC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, He; Huan-Yu, Bi; Ren-You, Zhang; Xiao-Zhou, Li; Wen-Gan, Ma

    2018-05-01

    As an important sequential work of the S-wave {B}c(* ) ({}1{S}0({}3{S}1) ) meson production at the large hadron electron collider (LHeC), we investigate the production of the P-wave excited {B}c* * states (1 P 1 and 3 P J with J = 0, 1, 2) via photoproduction mechanism within the framework of nonrelativistic QCD at the LHeC. Generally, the {e}-+P\\to γ +g\\to {B}c* * +b+\\bar{c} process is considered as the main production mechanism at an electron–proton collider due to the large luminosity of the gluon. However, according to our experience on the S-wave {B}c(* ) meson production at the LHeC, the extrinsic production mechanism, i.e., {e}-+P\\to γ +c\\to {B}c* * +b and {e}-+P\\to γ +\\bar{b} \\to {B}c* * +\\bar{c}, could also provide dominating contributions at low p T region. A careful treatment between these channels is performed and the results on total and differential cross sections, together with main uncertainties are discussed. Taking the quark masses m b = 4.90 ± 0.40 GeV and m c = 1.50 ± 0.20 GeV into account and summing up all the production channels, we expect to accumulate ({2.48}-1.75+3.55)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}1{P}1), ({1.14}-0.82+1.49)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}0),({2.38}-1.74+3.39)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}1) and ({5.59}-3.93+7.84)× {10}4 {B}c* * ({}3{P}2) events at the \\sqrt{S}=1.30 {{T}}{{e}}{{V}} LHeC in one operation year with luminosity { \\mathcal L }={10}33 cm‑2 s‑1. With such sizable events, it is worth studying the properties of excited P-wave {B}c* * states at the LHeC.

  20. C086, a novel analog of curcumin, induces growth inhibition and down-regulation of NFκB in colon cancer cells and xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Liu, Yang; Chen, Yuanzhong; Xu, Jianhua

    2011-11-01

    New analogues of curcumin with improved properties are needed to meet therapeutic requirements. In this study, the effects of C086 on growth inhibition and NFκB pathway regulation were investigated in colon cancer cells and xenograft tumors. C086 exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in all 6 colon cancer cell lines. In a xenograft model of SW480 cells in nude mice, the oral administration of C086 showed significant growth suppression of SW480 tumors, and both Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed decreased NFκB (p65) expression in tumor tissues. Using TNF-α to induce NFκB activation in SW480 cells, it was revealed that C086 inhibited IκBα phosphorylation and its subsequent degradation, and suppressed the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NFκB. C-Myc, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2, NFκB-regulated gene products involving in cellular proliferation and antiapoptosis, were decreased in the C086 treated groups. This effect was accompanied by pro-apoptosis of C086 in colon cancer cells and lower expression of PCNA in C086 treated colon cancer xenografts. Immunostaining for CD31 showed that there were fewer microvessels in C086 treated SW480 tumors, and NFκB-targeted gene products involved in angiogenesis (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9) were also downregulated. C086 also inhibited bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel. Overall, our results suggest that C086 is a potent antitumor agent and has promising future in colon cancer. C086 suppressed NFκB activation through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation. Downregulation of NFκB-regulated gene products contributed to the antiproliferation, pro-apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis effect of C086.

  1. Tomato SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3 and SlERF.A3, Members of B3 Group of ERF Family, Are Required for Resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lihong; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    The Ethylene-Responsive Factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcriptional factors that play critical roles in plant immunity. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, a typical necrotrophic fungal pathogen, is the serious disease that threatens tomato production worldwide. However, littler is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the immunity to B. cinerea in tomato. In the present study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based functional analyses of 18 members of B3 group (also called Group IX) in tomato ERF family were performed to identify putative ERFs that are involved in disease resistance against B. cinerea. VIGS-based silencing of either SlERF.B1 or SlERF.C2 had lethal effect while silencing of SlERF.A3 (Pit4) significantly suppressed vegetative growth of tomato plants. Importantly, silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 resulted in increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, attenuated the B. cinerea-induced expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signaling responsive defense genes and promoted the B. cinerea-induced H2O2 accumulation. However, silencing of SlERF.A3 also decreased the resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 but silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4 or SlERF.C3 did not affect the resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Expression of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 was induced by B. cinerea and by defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an ethylene precursor). SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3, and SlERF.A3 proteins were found to localize in nucleus of cells and possess transactivation activity in yeasts. These data suggest that SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, and SlERF.C3, three previously uncharacterized ERFs in B3 group, and SlERF.A3, a previously identified ERF with function in immunity to Pst DC3000, play important roles in resistance against B. cinerea in tomato. PMID:28083004

  2. Intramolecular B-B Linkage Between Polyhedral Cages in a Commo-Metallacarborane. Synthesis and Structure of a Fluxional Metal-Boron Cluster, (n(5)-C5(CH3)5)2Co3(CH3)4C4B8H7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    FINSTER , E SINN, R N GRIMES N0001475--0305 UNCLASSIFIED TR-35 NL’ minimnmlhnnnhu ,IIIIIIIIIIIIIl hEIIIIIIIIEIII EEEEEEEEEEEL 1.8 MICROCOPY’ RESOLUTION...David C./ Finster Ekk/inn Russell . Grimes Department of Chemistry ",00t University ofLyirginla ’ Charlottesville, Va. 22901 Prepared for Publication In...a Commo-Metallacarborane. Synthesis and Structure of a Fluxi:. Metal-Boron Cluster, [n5C 5 (CCB3)512HCo3(C13)4C4B8H7 David C. Finster , Ekk Sinn, and

  3. The HLA dictionary 2008: a summary of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1/3/4/5, and -DQB1 alleles and their association with serologically defined HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ antigens.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, R; Hurley, C K; Marsh, S G E; Lau, M; Noreen, H J; Kempenich, J H; Setterholm, M; Maiers, M

    2009-02-01

    The 2008 report of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) data dictionary presents serologic equivalents of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3, -DRB4, -DRB5, and -DQB1 alleles. The dictionary is an update of the one published in 2004. The data summarize equivalents obtained by the World Health Organization Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System, the International Cell Exchange, UCLA, the National Marrow Donor Program, recent publications, and individual laboratories. The 2008 edition includes information on 832 new alleles (685 class I and 147 class II) and updated information on 766 previously listed alleles (577 class I and 189 class II). The tables list the alleles with remarks on the serologic patterns and the equivalents. The serological equivalents are listed as expert assigned types, and the data are useful for identifying potential stem cell donors who were typed by either serology or DNA-based methods. The tables with HLA equivalents are available as a searchable form on the IMGT/HLA database Web site (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/dictionary.html).

  4. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Figures C-1 through C-16

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures C-1 through C-16 B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 1928 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective...

  5. Structure characterization of lipocyclopeptide antibiotics, aspartocins A, B & C, by ESI-MSMS and ESI-nozzle-skimmer-MSMS.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marshall M; Kong, Fangming; Feng, Xidong; Carter, Guy T

    2009-12-01

    Three lipocyclopeptide antibiotics, aspartocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were obtained from the aspartocin complex by HPLC separation methodology. Their structures were elucidated using previously published chemical degradation results coupled with spectroscopic studies including ESI-MS, ESI-Nozzle Skimmer-MSMS and NMR. All three aspartocin compounds share the same cyclic decapeptide core of cyclo [Dab2 (Asp1-FA)-Pip3-MeAsp4-Asp5-Gly6-Asp7-Gly8-Dab9-Val10-Pro11]. They differ only in the fatty acid side chain moiety (FA) corresponding to (Z)-13-methyltetradec-3-ene-carbonyl, (+,Z)-12-methyltetradec-3-ene-carbonyl and (Z)-12-methyltridec-3-ene-carbonyl for aspartocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), respectively. All of the sequence ions were observed by ESI-MSMS of the doubly charged parent ions. However, a number of the sequence ions observed were of low abundance. To fully sequence the lipocyclopeptide antibiotic structures, these low abundance sequence ions together with complementary sequence ions were confirmed by ESI-Nozzle-Skimmer-MSMS of the singly charged linear peptide parent fragment ions H-Asp5-Gly6-Asp7-Gly8-Dab9-Val10-Pro11-Dab2(1+)-Asp1-FA. Cyclization of the aspartocins was demonstrated to occur via the beta-amino group of Dab2 from ions of moderate intensity in the ESI-MSMS spectra. As the fatty acid moieties do not undergo internal fragmentations under the experimental ESI mass spectral conditions used, the 14 Da mass difference between the fatty acid moieties of aspartocins A (1) and B (2) versus aspartocin C (3) was used as an internal mass tag to differentiate fragment ions containing fatty acid moieties and those not containing the fatty acid moieties. The most numerous and abundant fragment ions observed in the tandem mass spectra are due to the cleavage of the tertiary nitrogen amide of the pipecolic acid residue-3 (16 fragment ions) and the proline residue-11 (7 fragment ions). In addition, the neutral loss of ethanimine from alpha

  6. Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain deficient in capB and overexpressing the fusion protein of IglA, IglB, and IglC from the bfr promoter induces improved protection against F. tularensis respiratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qingmei; Bowen, Richard; Lee, Bai-Yu; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2016-09-22

    A safer and more effective vaccine than the unlicensed Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) is needed to protect against the biowarfare agent F. tularensis. Previously, we developed an LVS ΔcapB mutant that is significantly safer than LVS and provides potent protective immunity against F. tularensis respiratory challenge when administered intranasally but limited protection when administered intradermally unless as part of a prime-boost vaccination strategy. To improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of LVS ΔcapB, we developed recombinant LVS ΔcapB (rLVS ΔcapB) strains overexpressing various F. tularensis Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI) proteins - IglA, IglB and IglC, and a fusion protein (IglABC) comprising immunodominant epitopes of IglA, IglB, and IglC downstream of different Francisella promoters, including the bacterioferritin (bfr) promoter. We show that rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglA, iglB, iglC, and iglABC express more IglA, IglB, IglC or IglABC than parental LVS ΔcapB in broth and in human macrophages, and stably express FPI proteins in macrophages and mice absent antibiotic selection. In response to IglC and heat-inactivated LVS, spleen cells from mice immunized intradermally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglC or bfr-iglABC secrete greater amounts of interferon-gamma and/or interleukin-17 than those from mice immunized with LVS ΔcapB, comparable to those from LVS-immunized mice. Mice immunized with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglA, iglB, iglC or iglABC produce serum antibodies at levels similar to LVS-immunized mice. Mice immunized intradermally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglABC and challenged intranasally with virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 survive longer than sham- and LVS ΔcapB-immunized mice. Mice immunized intranasally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglABC - but not with LVS - just before or after respiratory challenge with F. tularensis Schu S4 are partially protected; protection is correlated with induction of a strong innate immune response. Thus, rLVS ΔcapB

  7. Evidence for C P violation in B + → K * ( 892 ) + π 0 from a Dalitz plot analysis of B + → K S 0 π + π 0 decays

    DOE PAGES

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; ...

    2017-10-02

    We report a Dalitz plot analysis of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K 0 Sπ +π 0 using the full BABAR data set of 470.9 ± 2.8 million B¯B events collected at the Υ(4S) resonance. We measure the overall branching fraction and CP asymmetry to be B(B + → K 0π +π 0) = (31.8 ± 1.8 ± 2.1 +6.0 –0.0) × 10 –6 and ACP(B + → K 0π +π 0) = 0.07 ± 0.05 ± 0.03 +0.02 –0.03, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the signal model, respectively. Thismore » is the first measurement of the branching fraction for B + → K 0π +π 0. We find first evidence of a CP asymmetry in B + → K*(892) +π 0 decays: ACP(B + → K*(892) +π 0) = –0.52 ± 0.14 ± 0.04 +0.04 –0.02. The significance of this asymmetry, including systematic and model uncertainties, is 3.4 standard deviations. As a result, we also measure the branching fractions and CP asymmetries for three other intermediate decay modes.« less

  8. Evidence for C P violation in B + → K * ( 892 ) + π 0 from a Dalitz plot analysis of B + → K S 0 π + π 0 decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.

    We report a Dalitz plot analysis of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state K 0 Sπ +π 0 using the full BABAR data set of 470.9 ± 2.8 million B¯B events collected at the Υ(4S) resonance. We measure the overall branching fraction and CP asymmetry to be B(B + → K 0π +π 0) = (31.8 ± 1.8 ± 2.1 +6.0 –0.0) × 10 –6 and ACP(B + → K 0π +π 0) = 0.07 ± 0.05 ± 0.03 +0.02 –0.03, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the signal model, respectively. Thismore » is the first measurement of the branching fraction for B + → K 0π +π 0. We find first evidence of a CP asymmetry in B + → K*(892) +π 0 decays: ACP(B + → K*(892) +π 0) = –0.52 ± 0.14 ± 0.04 +0.04 –0.02. The significance of this asymmetry, including systematic and model uncertainties, is 3.4 standard deviations. As a result, we also measure the branching fractions and CP asymmetries for three other intermediate decay modes.« less

  9. Examining Hepatitis, A and B Vaccination, and HBV Reactivation Monitoring During Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Davison, John; O'Shea, Amy; Waterbury, Nancee; Villalvazo, Yolanda

    2018-05-30

    The objective of this study was to examine Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis B (HBV) screening, and the risk of HBV reactivation during Hepatitis C (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). A retrospective chart review was performed of patients treated with second generation DAA therapy from January 2014 to September 2016 at the Iowa City VA Healthcare System. In total 409 patients initiated HCV treatment, 308 (75%) and 241 (59%) were HAV and HBV vaccine eligible, respectively. Among those, 24 (8%) received a HAV vaccine, while only 20 (8%) received a HBV vaccine. Of these, 7 patients initiating an immunization in the clinic had record of completing the series. Further, 101 patients had a reactive Hepatitis B core Antibody indicating previous HBV infection, and 3 of these were tested for HBV reactivation during HCV therapy. Overall, the assessment found low rates of HAV and HBV vaccine administration, indicating missed opportunities for preventative care during HCV therapy. With the known risk of HBV reactivation with DAAs, the need for HAV and HBV screening is essential.

  10. [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements with primary skin involvement: A case report and a review of literature].

    PubMed

    Gabeeva, N G; Koroleva, D A; Belyaeva, A V; Chernova, N G; Kuzmina, L A; Sudarikov, A B; Obukhova, T N; Kovrigina, A M; Zvonkov, E E; Savchenko, V G

    Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoma with concomitant c-MYC, BCL2 or BCL6 gene rearrangements, which is characterized by the high frequency of extranodal lesions and by resistance to chemotherapy. The median survival does not exceed 18 months in patients with this disease. The majority of DHL is represented by с-MYC/BCL2 cases. The combination of c-MYC/BCL6 occurs rarely (5-8%). The paper describes a case of DHL with concomitant c-MYC and BCL6 gene rearrangements, which mimics diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

  11. 76 FR 67209 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V. (``Grupo Bimbo'') and BBU, Inc. (collectively ``BBU'') of the North American..., 15 U.S.C. 18. The proposed Final Judgment, filed the same time as the Complaint, requires BBU to... Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18, and result in higher prices for consumers of sliced bread in these markets. The...

  12. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; ...

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex.more » We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A 1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A 1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less

  13. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex.more » We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A 1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A 1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less

  14. MS 1512 cB58: A case study of star formation, metal enrichment and superwinds in Lyman break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Rix, Samantha A.; Steidel, Chuck C.; Hunt, Matthew P.; Shapley, Alice E.; Adelberger, Kurt L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z = 3, when the universe was still in its ‘teen years’. I illustrate recent progress in this field with the latest observations of the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512- cB58.

  15. A Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Small Business B2C E-Commerce Network Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the security vulnerability of the U.S. small companies' business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce network systems. Background: As the Internet technologies have been changing the way business is conducted, the U.S. small businesses are investing in such technologies and taking advantage of e-commerce to access global…

  16. The Discovery of HD 37605c and a Dispositive Null Detection of Transits of HD 37605b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuesong, Sharon; Wright, Jason T.; Cochran, William; Kane, Stephen R.; Henry, Gregory W.; Payne, Matthew J.; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Ford, Eric B.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; von Braun, Kaspar

    2012-12-01

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P ~ 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of ~7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of ~3.4 M Jup. Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the Gt10σ level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5σ. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the

  17. A SEARCH FOR WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HAT-P-26b USING LDSS-3C

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of a physically diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step toward establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. It is those planets with identifiable spectroscopic features that can most effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. The newly commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan provides enhanced sensitivity and suppressed fringing in the red optical, thus advancing the search for the spectroscopic signature of water in exoplanetary atmospheres from the ground. Using data acquired by LDSS-3C and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we search for evidence of water vapormore » in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Our measured spectrum is best explained by the presence of water vapor, a lack of potassium, and either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ∼10 mbar. The emergence of multi-scale-height spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet’s atmospheric chemical abundances. We also update HAT-P-26b’s transit ephemeris, t{sub 0} = 2455304.65218(25) BJD{sub TDB}, and orbital period, p = 4.2345023(7) days.« less

  18. Mid- and North Atlantic multichannel seismic reflection profiles, 7, 8 A, B, and C, 12 E, F, G, H, I, and J, and 13 A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Available are four multichannel profiles collected by Digicon Geophysical Corporation in 1975 using a 48-channel streamer (3600 m long), and a 27.9 cubic liter airgun array. They were processed in Denver on the Phoenix "I" by William C. Petterson. The processing includes demultiplexing and resampling, geometry and common-depth-point, definition, velocity analysis noise muting, band-pass filtering, time-variant filtering, time-variant deconvolution, and automatic gain control (AGC) sealing, prior to the final profile playout.The release includes pares of or all of four lines off the eastern United States (see map) over the Georges Bank basin and the Long Island platform and upper continental rise. These profiles were collected as a part of a regional arid over the offshore Atlantic sedimentary basins as a part of a continuing program to assess the resource potential using non-proprietary data. Lines 7 and 8 are cross-shelf profiles (280 ken and 400 km long respectively) taken across Georges Basin George Bank, the continental slope and rise east of Massachusetts. A five kilometer gap exists in line 8C near the outer edge of the shelf because the high concentration of lobster pots there prevented a continous traverse through the area. Line 12 (shotpoint 5988 - 14380, parts E, F, G, H, I and J) is along-the-shelf profile, and stretches from the vicinity of Husdon Channel (mid-shelf east of New Jersey) to Browns Bank, 100 km southeast of Nova Scotia, terminating in the vicinity of the Shell Mohawk (B-93) hole. Line 13 (shotpoint 83-11295, 1120 km) traverse the upper Continental rise between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank.These profiles including velocity scans and shot point maps, may be viewed at U. S. Geological Survey Office, Bldg. B, Quissett Campus, Woods Hole, MA., and U. S. Geological Survey Office, Bldg. 25 at the Denver Federal Center. Copies of maps, scans and profiles can be purchased from the National Geophysical Solar-Terrestrial Data center, Environmental

  19. A combination of thalidomide and augmentin protects BALB/c mice suffering from Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Harjai, K; Chhibber, S

    2009-04-01

    Despite extensive research, the mortality associated with sepsis in hospitals remains very high. We have evaluated the protective immunomodulatory effect of thalidomide alone or with Augmentin in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced sepsis in BALB/c mice. The mouse model of sepsis was developed by placing K. pneumoniae B5055 entrapped in fibrin and thrombin clots in the peritoneal cavity of mice. The septic mice were treated with thalidomide alone (30 mg/kg/day/po), Augmentin alone (20 microg/ml/ip) and with their combination. the thalidomide-alone treated mice showed 75% survival whereas 60% of the Augmentin-alone treated group survived. Combination treatment provided 100% survival. Treatment with thalidomide alone significantly (p<0.05) decreased interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum without significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the bacterial count in blood. Augmentin alone only decreased the bacterial load in blood significantly (p<0.05). However, a combination of thalidomide with Augmentin significantly (p<0.05) decreased both the bacterial count and inflammatory mediators.

  20. A SEARCH FOR l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} AND l-C{sub 3}H IN Sgr B2(N), Sgr B2(OH), AND THE DARK CLOUD TMC-1

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Loomis, Ryan A.

    2013-09-01

    Pety et al. recently reported the detection of several transitions of an unknown carrier in the Horsehead PDR and attribute them to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}. Here, we have tested the predictive power of their fit by searching for, and identifying, the previously unobserved J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of the unknown carrier (B11244) toward Sgr B2(N) in data from the publicly available PRIMOS project. Also presented here are observations of the J = 6-5 and J = 7-6 transitions toward Sgr B2(N) and Sgr B2(OH) using the Barry E. Turner Legacy Survey and results from the Kaifumore » et al. survey of TMC-1. We calculate an excitation temperature and column density of B11244 of {approx}10 K and {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} in Sgr B2(N) and {approx}79 K with an upper limit of {<=}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} in Sgr B2(OH) and find trace evidence for the cation's presence in TMC-1. Finally, we present spectra of the neutral species in both Sgr B2(N) and TMC-1, and comment on the robustness of the assignment of the detected signals to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}.« less

  1. Llama Antibody Fragments Recognizing Various Epitopes of the CD4bs Neutralize a Broad Range of HIV-1 Subtypes A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Aasa-Chapman, Marlèn; Gorlani, Andrea; Forsman Quigley, Anna; Hulsik, David Lutje; Chen, Lei; Weiss, Robin; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Many of the neutralising antibodies, isolated to date, display limited activities against the globally most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes A and C. Therefore, those subtypes are considered to be an important target for antibody-based therapy. Variable domains of llama heavy chain antibodies (VHH) have some superior properties compared with classical antibodies. Therefore we describe the application of trimeric forms of envelope proteins (Env), derived from HIV-1 of subtype A and B/C, for a prolonged immunization of two llamas. A panel of VHH, which interfere with CD4 binding to HIV-1 Env were selected with use of panning. The results of binding and competition assays to various Env, including a variant with a stabilized CD4-binding state (gp120Ds2), cross-competition experiments, maturation analysis and neutralisation assays, enabled us to classify the selected VHH into three groups. The VHH of group I were efficient mainly against viruses of subtype A, C and B′/C. The VHH of group II resemble the broadly neutralising antibody (bnmAb) b12, neutralizing mainly subtype B and C viruses, however some had a broader neutralisation profile. A representative of the third group, 2E7, had an even higher neutralization breadth, neutralizing 21 out of the 26 tested strains belonging to the A, A/G, B, B/C and C subtypes. To evaluate the contribution of certain amino acids to the potency of the VHH a small set of the mutants were constructed. Surprisingly this yielded one mutant with slightly improved neutralisation potency against 92UG37.A9 (subtype A) and 96ZM651.02 (subtype C). These findings and the well-known stability of VHH indicate the potential application of these VHH as anti-HIV-1 microbicides. PMID:22438910

  2. Association between ABO blood/rhesus grouping and hepatitis B and C: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, Abolfazl

    2014-06-01

    During past decades, a connection between hepatitis and the host ABO/Rh blood groups has been always under dispute, with no appropriately designed study yet. This study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood/Rh groups with both hepatitis B and C. In this case-control setting, 200 healthy individuals (controls), 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-B infection (HB) and 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-C infection (HC) were recruited from 2010 to 2013 in Tabriz Sina Hospital. ABO blood and Rh grouping was performed and the results were compared between the case and control groups. Both pair of the control and HB groups and the control and HC groups were matched for their subjects' age and sex. In the control group, 178 subjects (89%) were Rh+ and 22 subjects (11%) were Rh-. In the HB group, there were 180 Rh+ (90%) and 20 Rh- (10%) patients. In the HC group there were 168 Rh+ (84%) and 32 Rh-negative (16%) patients. Both pair of the control and HB groups (p = 0.74), as well as the control and HC groups (p = 0.14) were comparable for the status of Rh. In the control group there were 84 (42%), 32 (16%), 66 (33%) and 18 (9%) subjects with A, B, O and AB blood groups, respectively. The corresponding figures were 84 (42%), 34 (17%), 58 (29%) and 24 (12%) for the HB patients; and 80 (40%), 29 (14.5%), 85 (42.5%) and 6 (3%) for the HC patients. Comparing between the control and HB groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). However, with comparing the control and HC groups, the rate of O blood group was significantly higher in the HC group and concomitantly, the rate of AB blood group was significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.04). Although, there is not a significant association between ABO blood groups and HB, this association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HC.

  3. Structure of 14C and 14B from the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoor, S.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, Sergio; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Deibel, C. M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Mcneel, D. G.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 proton-removing reactions in inverse kinematics. The (d ,3He ) reaction probes the proton occupation of the target ground state, and also provides spectroscopic information about the final states in B,1413. The experiments were performed using C,1514 beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The reaction products were analyzed with the HELIOS device. Angular distributions were obtained for transitions from both reactions. The 14C-beam data reveal transitions to excited states in 13B that suggest configurations with protons outside the π (0 p3 /2) orbital, and some possibility of proton cross-shell 0 p -1 s 0 d excitations, in the 14C ground state. The 15C-beam data confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state in 14B. The experimental data are compared to the results of shell-model calculations.

  4. C%2B%2B tensor toolbox user manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, Todd D.; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2012-04-01

    The C++ Tensor Toolbox is a software package for computing tensor decompositions. It is based on the Matlab Tensor Toolbox, and is particularly optimized for sparse data sets. This user manual briefly overviews tensor decomposition mathematics, software capabilities, and installation of the package. Tensors (also known as multidimensional arrays or N-way arrays) are used in a variety of applications ranging from chemometrics to network analysis. The Tensor Toolbox provides classes for manipulating dense, sparse, and structured tensors in C++. The Toolbox compiles into libraries and is intended for use with custom applications written by users.

  5. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Proteins BapA and BapC Are Secreted TTSS3 Effectors and BapB Levels Modulate Expression of BopE

    PubMed Central

    Treerat, Puthayalai; Alwis, Priyangi; D’Cruze, Tanya; Cullinane, Meabh; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Devenish, Rodney J.; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens use a type III secretion system (TTSS) for the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins play direct roles in modulation of host cell pathways for bacterial benefit. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, expresses three different TTSSs. One of these systems, the TTSS3, is essential for escape from host endosomes and therefore intracellular survival and replication. Here we have characterized three putative TTSS3 proteins; namely BapA, BapB and BapC. By employing a tetracysteine (TC)-FlAsH™ labelling technique to monitor the secretion of TC-tagged fusion proteins, BapA and BapC were shown to be secreted during in vitro growth in a TTSS3-dependant manner, suggesting a role as TTSS3 effectors. Furthermore, we constructed B. pseudomallei bapA, bapB and bapC mutants and used the well-characterized TTSS3 effector BopE as a marker of secretion to show that BapA, BapB and BapC are not essential for the secretion process. However, BopE transcription and secretion were significantly increased in the bapB mutant, suggesting that BapB levels modulate BopE expression. In a BALB/c mouse model of acute melioidosis, the bapA, bapB and bapC mutants showed a minor reduction of in vivo fitness. Thus, this study defines BapA and BapC as novel TTSS3 effectors, BapB as a regulator of BopE production, and all three as necessary for full B. pseudomallei in vivo fitness. PMID:26624293

  6. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Proteins BapA and BapC Are Secreted TTSS3 Effectors and BapB Levels Modulate Expression of BopE.

    PubMed

    Treerat, Puthayalai; Alwis, Priyangi; D'Cruze, Tanya; Cullinane, Meabh; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Devenish, Rodney J; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens use a type III secretion system (TTSS) for the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins play direct roles in modulation of host cell pathways for bacterial benefit. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, expresses three different TTSSs. One of these systems, the TTSS3, is essential for escape from host endosomes and therefore intracellular survival and replication. Here we have characterized three putative TTSS3 proteins; namely BapA, BapB and BapC. By employing a tetracysteine (TC)-FlAsH™ labelling technique to monitor the secretion of TC-tagged fusion proteins, BapA and BapC were shown to be secreted during in vitro growth in a TTSS3-dependant manner, suggesting a role as TTSS3 effectors. Furthermore, we constructed B. pseudomallei bapA, bapB and bapC mutants and used the well-characterized TTSS3 effector BopE as a marker of secretion to show that BapA, BapB and BapC are not essential for the secretion process. However, BopE transcription and secretion were significantly increased in the bapB mutant, suggesting that BapB levels modulate BopE expression. In a BALB/c mouse model of acute melioidosis, the bapA, bapB and bapC mutants showed a minor reduction of in vivo fitness. Thus, this study defines BapA and BapC as novel TTSS3 effectors, BapB as a regulator of BopE production, and all three as necessary for full B. pseudomallei in vivo fitness.

  7. Multifunctional ion transport properties of human SLC4A11: comparison of the SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C variants.

    PubMed

    Kao, Liyo; Azimov, Rustam; Shao, Xuesi M; Frausto, Ricardo F; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Aldave, Anthony J; Kurtz, Ira

    2016-11-01

    Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED), Harboyan syndrome (CHED with progressive sensorineural deafness), and potentially a subset of individuals with late-onset Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy are caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene that results in corneal endothelial cell abnormalities. Originally classified as a borate transporter, the function of SLC4A11 as a transport protein remains poorly understood. Elucidating the transport function(s) of SLC4A11 is needed to better understand how its loss results in the aforementioned posterior corneal dystrophic disease processes. Quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that, of the three known human NH 2 -terminal variants, SLC4A11-C is the major transcript expressed in human corneal endothelium. We studied the expression pattern of the three variants in mammalian HEK-293 cells and demonstrated that the SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C variants are plasma membrane proteins, whereas SLC4A11-A is localized intracellularly. SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C were shown to be multifunctional ion transporters capable of transporting H + equivalents in both a Na + -independent and Na + -coupled mode. In both transport modes, SLC4A11-C H + flux was significantly greater than SLC4A11-B. In the presence of ammonia, SLC4A11-B and SLC4A11-C generated inward currents that were comparable in magnitude. Chimera SLC4A11-C-NH 2 -terminus-SLC4A11-B experiments demonstrated that the SLC4A11-C NH 2 -terminus functions as an autoactivating domain, enhancing Na + -independent and Na + -coupled H + flux without significantly affecting the electrogenic NH 3 -H (n) + cotransport mode. All three modes of transport were significantly impaired in the presence of the CHED causing p.R109H (SLC4A11-C numbering) mutation. These complex ion transport properties need to be addressed in the context of corneal endothelial disease processes caused by mutations in SLC4A11. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule: Behaviour of an Artificial Aquatic Ecological System During Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Andriske, M.; Paris, F.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule, a closed aquatic ecosystem integrated into a middeck locker and consisting of a Zoological (animal tanks), a Botanical (plant bioreactor), a Microbial (bacteria filter) and an Electronic Component (data acquisition/control system) was flown on the STS-89 spaceshuttle mission in January 1998 for 9 days. Preflight the plant bioreactor was loaded with 53 g of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and the animal tanks with 4 adult pregnant females of the fish, Xiphophorus helleri (sword-tails), 200 juveniles of the same species less than 1 week of age, 38 large and 30 juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata water snails. The filter compartment was filled with 200 g of lava grain inoculated with laboratory strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. A ground reference was undertaken with the same biological setup with a delay of 4 d. After an adaptation period of 5 d the system was closed and integrated into the spaceshuttle one day before launch. Video recordings of the animals were automatically taken for 10 minutes in 2-hour periods; the tapes were changed daily by the astronauts. The chemical and physical data for the aquatic system were within the expected range and were closely comparable in comparison to the ground reference. After 9 d under space conditions, the plant biomass increased to 117 g. The plants were all found in very good condition. All 4 adult female fish were retrieved in a good physiological condition. The juvenile fishes had a survival rate of about 33 %. Almost 97 % of the snails had survived and produced more than 250 neonates and 40 spawning packs. All samples were distributed according to a defined schedule and satisfied all scientific needs of the involved 12 principal investigators. This was the first successful spaceflight of an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing vertebrates, invertebrates, higher plants and microorganisms self-sustained by its inhabitants only. C.E.B.A.S. in a modified form and biological setup is a

  9. Bu-2470, a new peptide antibiotic complex. II. Structure determination of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, K; Yonemoto, T; Konishi, M; Matsumoto, K; Miyaki, T; Kawaguchi, H

    1983-06-01

    The structures of Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a, and B2b have been determined. Bu-2470 A is a simple octapeptide having no fatty acid moiety, while Bu-2470 B1, B2a and B2b are octapeptides that have been acylated with a beta-hydroxy C11 or C10 fatty acid. The octapeptide structure of Bu-2470 components was found identical with that of octapeptin C1, hence generic names of octapeptin C0, C2, C3 and C4 are proposed for Bu-2470 A, B1, B2a and B2b, respectively.

  10. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree in United States of America; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; City of Philadelphia...

  11. Longer survival associated with HLA-A*03, B*14 among 212 hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity and HLA-A and -B typing and haplotyping.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T

    2010-11-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes may influence iron phenotypes in patients with HFE hemochromatosis and could affect survival. We tabulated general characteristics of HLA-A and -B types and haplotypes of HFE C282Y/C282Y probands diagnosed in medical care and analyzed these data to identify HLA survival modifiers. There were 212 probands (130 men, 82 women). Mean follow-up was 12.0 ± 6.4 yr (0.1-41.2 yr; 34 deaths). HLA-A*03 was more prevalent in men (76.9% vs. 61.0% women; P = 0.0129); 35.4% of men and 29.3% of women had A*03, B*07; and 7.7% of men and 8.5% of women had A*03, B*14. Twenty-three probands had cirrhosis; none had A*03, B*14. Positivity for A*03 or A*03, B*07 was not a significant predictor or modifier of survival. In multiple regression analyses, A*03, B*14 predicted longer survival (P = 0.0004). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed longer survival in probands with A*03, B*14 (P = 0.0199, log-rank test). After excluding the 23 non-A*03, B*14 probands with cirrhosis, survival of probands with A*03, B*14 was still greater than that of probands without A*03, B*14 (P = 0.0254; log-rank test). Twenty-four years after diagnosis, cumulative survival of probands with and without A*03, B*14 was 100% and 58%, respectively. The percentage of deaths due to iron overload was lower in probands with A*03, B*14 (0% vs. 21.9%; P = 0.0392). In hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y/C282Y, survival was longer in those with HLA-A*03, B*14. Earlier age at diagnosis and less severe iron overload in probands with A*03, B*14 could explain this difference. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. An exonic missense mutation c.28G>A is associated with weak B blood group by affecting RNA splicing of the ABO gene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohong; Qian, Chengrui; Wu, Wenman; Lei, Hang; Ding, Qiulan; Zou, Wei; Xiang, Dong; Wang, Xuefeng

    2017-09-01

    The amino acid substitutions caused by ABO gene mutations are usually predicted to impact glycosyltransferase's function or its biosynthesis. Here we report an ABO exonic missense mutation that affects B-antigen expression by decreasing the mRNA level of the ABO gene rather than the amino acid change. Serologic studies including plasma total GTB transfer capacity were performed. The exon sequences of the ABO gene were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. B 310 cDNA with c.28G>A (p.G10R) mutation was expressed in HeLa cells and total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant was measured. Flow cytometry was performed on these HeLa cells after transfection, and agglutination of Hela-B weak cells was also examined. The mRNA of the ABO gene was analyzed by direct sequencing and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A minigene construct was prepared to evaluate the potential of splicing. While plasma total GTB transfer capacity was undetectable in this B 3 -like individual, the relative percentage of antigen-expressing cells and mean fluorescence index of the B weak red blood cells (RBCs) were 19 and 14% of normal B RBCs, respectively. There was no significant difference of total GTB transfer capacity in cell supernatant and B-antigen expression on cell surfaces between HeLa cells transfected with B 310 cDNA and B cDNA. The mRNA expression level of B 310 in peripheral whole blood was significantly reduced. The amount of splicing is significantly lower in c.28G>A construct compared to that in wild-type construct after transfection in K562 cells. ABO c.28G>A mutation may cause B 3 -like subgroup by affecting RNA splicing of the ABO gene. © 2017 AABB.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). 57.22235 Section 57.22235 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the...

  15. Biomimetic Synthesis of Macahydantoins A and B from Lepidium meyenii, and Structure Revision of Macahydantoin B as a Class of Thiohydantoin with a 4-Methyl-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole Skeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Ma, Hang-Ying; Xing, Huan-Huan; Li, Ping; Li, Gan-Peng; Geng, Hui-Chun; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2017-09-15

    Phytochemical investigation on Lepidium meyenii led to the discovery of macahydantoin C (3), a new thiohydantoin with a 1,3-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core, the spectral properties of which indicate a potential structural misassignment of its previously reported analogue, macahydantoin B (2a). To probe this hypothesis, a concise, scalable, and biomimetic synthesis of the originally proposed 2a and its revised structure (2b) was efficiently accomplished using the modified Edman degradation as the key step from commercially available materials in 65% (three steps) and 52% (three steps) overall yields, respectively. These synthetic endeavors undoubtedly reassigned the structure of macahydantoin B as an unreported type of thiohydantoin featuring a 4-methyl-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole scaffold.

  16. Downregulation of miR-29a/b/c in placenta accreta inhibits apoptosis of implantation site intermediate trophoblast cells by targeting MCL1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongzhong; Bian, Yuehong; Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xietong; Zuo, Changting; Meng, Jinlai; Li, Hongyan; Zhao, Shigang; Ning, Yunnan; Cao, Yongzhi; Huang, Tao; Yan, Junhao; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Placenta accreta is defined as abnormal adhesion of placental villi to the uterine myometrium. Although this condition has become more common as a result of the increasing rate of cesarean sections, the underlying causative mechanism(s) remain elusive. Because microRNA-29a/b/c (miR-29a/b/c) have been shown to play important roles in placental development, this study evaluated the roles of these microRNAs in placenta accreta. Expression of miR-29a/b/c and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL1) were quantified in patient tissues and HTR8/SVneo trophoblast cells using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to analyze expression of the MCL1 protein in HTR8/SVneo trophoblast cells with altered expression of miR-29a/b/c. To determine their role in apoptosis, miR-29a/b/c were overexpressed in HTR-8/SVneo cells, and levels of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Luciferase activity assays were used to determine whether MCL1 is a target gene of miR-29a/b/c. Expression of miR-29a/b/c was significantly lower in creta sites compared to noncreta sites (p = 0.018, 0.041, and 0.022, respectively), but expression of MCL1 was upregulated in creta sites (p = 0.039). MCL1 expression was significantly downregulated in HTR-8/SVneo cells overexpressing miR-29a/b/c (p = 0.002, 0.008, and 0.013, respectively). Luciferase activity assays revealed that miR-29a/b/c directly target the 3' untranslated region of MCL1 in 293T cells. Over-expression of miR-29a/b/c induced apoptosis in the HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell line. Moreover, histopathological evaluation revealed that the number of implantation site intermediate trophoblast (ISIT) cells was increased in creta sites and that these cells were positive for MCL1. Our results demonstrate that in placenta accreta, miR-29a/b/c inhibits apoptosis of ISIT cells by targeting MCL1. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of placenta accreta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. A monoclonal antibody against PDGF B-chain inhibits PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in C3H fibroblasts and prevents binding of PDGF to its receptor.

    PubMed

    Vassbotn, F S; Langeland, N; Hagen, I; Holmsen, H

    1990-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb 6D11) against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was studied. We found that the MAb 6D11 in concentrations equimolar to PDGF blocked the [3H]thymidine incorporation in C3H/10T1/2 C18 fibroblasts stimulated by PDGF B-B and PDGF A-B. This inhibition was overcome by high doses of PDGF. The [3H]thymidine incorporation stimulated by other growth factors (aFGF, bFGF and bombesin) was not inhibited by the antibody. The MAb 6D11 blocked receptor binding of PDGF B-B, but not PDGF A-A. These findings suggest that the MAb 6D11 abolishes PDGF-induced DNA synthesis by blocking PDGF receptor binding. In this communication we demonstrate an isoform-specific monoclonal antibody against PDGF.

  18. Identification of a Src kinase SH3 binding site in the C-terminal domain of the human ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Bornet, Olivier; Nouailler, Matthieu; Feracci, Michaël; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Byrne, Deborah; Halimi, Hubert; Morelli, Xavier; Badache, Ali; Guerlesquin, Françoise

    2014-06-05

    Overexpression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase is associated with most aggressive tumors in breast cancer patients and is thus one of the main investigated therapeutic targets. Human ErbB2 C-terminal domain is an unstructured anchor that recruits specific adaptors for signaling cascades resulting in cell growth, differentiation and migration. Herein, we report the presence of a SH3 binding motif in the proline rich unfolded ErbB2 C-terminal region. NMR analysis of this motif supports a PPII helix conformation and the binding to Fyn-SH3 domain. The interaction of a kinase of the Src family with ErbB2 C-terminal domain could contribute to synergistic intracellular signaling and enhanced oncogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NLO QCD corrections to B c( B*c) production around the Z pole at an e + e - collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, XuChang; Chang, ChaoHsi; Feng, TaiFu; Pan, Zan

    2018-03-01

    The production of B c and B*c mesons at a Z-factory (an e + e - collider operating at energies around the Z pole) is calculated up to the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD accuracy. The results show that the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization scale μ is suppressed by the corrections, and the NLO corrections enhance the total cross sections of B c by 52% and of B*c by 33% when the renormalization scale is taken at μ = 2 m b . To observe the various behaviors of the production of the mesons B c and B*c, such as the differential cross section vs. the out-going angle, the forward-backward asymmetry, and the distribution vs. the energy fraction z up to NLO QCD accuracy as well as the relevant K-factor (NLO to LO) for the production, are calculated, and it is pointed out that some of the observables obtained in the present work may be used as a specific precision test of the standard model.

  20. Notes on the availability of mid-Atlantic multichannel seismic reflection profiles 11 and 12-A, -B, -C, and -D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlee, John Stevens

    1978-01-01

    Available are two multichannel profiles collected by Digicon Geophysical Corporation in 1975 using a 48-channel streamer (3600 m long). and a 27.9 cu. liter air gun array. They were processed in Denver on the Phoenix "I" by William C. Patterson. The processing included demultiplexing and resampling, geometry and common-depth-point definition, velocity analysis, noise muting, band-pass filtering, time-variant filtering, time-variant deconvolution, and automatic gain control (AGC) scaling, prior to the final profile playout.The release includes parts of two lines off the mid-atlantic continental margin (see map) over the Baltimore Canyon trough. These profiles were collected as part of a regional grid over the offshore Atlantic sedimentary basins, as a part of a continuing program to assess the resource potential using non-proprietary data Line 11 is a cross shelf profile (233 ken long) taken across the shelf, slope and upper rise off Virginia (southern Baltimore Canyon trough). Line 12 (shotpoint 1Ol- 6011, parts A, 8, C and D) is an along-the-shelf profiler and stretches from the Cape Hatteras IPOD line to line 2, at the northern part of the Baltimore Canyon trough), a distance of 591 km.These profiles may be viewed at the U.S. Geological Survey, Atlantic Gulf of Mexico, Office of Marine Geology, Quissett campus, Building B, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, and at the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Oil and Gas Resources, Denver Federal Center, Building 25, Denver. Colorado 80225. Copies of the profiles can be purchased from the Nations Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center, Environmental Data Service- NOAA, Code D621 Boulder, Colorado 80303.

  1. 75 FR 14069 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-19] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E; Fort Stewart, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action changes the using agency of restricted areas R- 3005A, R-3005B...

  2. 77 FR 1656 - Proposed Establishment of Restricted Areas R-5402, R-5403A, R-5403B, R-5403C, R-5403D, R-5403E, R...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...-0117; Airspace Docket No. 09-AGL-31] RIN 2120-AI92 Proposed Establishment of Restricted Areas R-5402, R-5403A, R- 5403B, R-5403C, R-5403D, R-5403E, R-5403F; Devils Lake, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Restricted Areas R-5402, R-5403A, R-5403B, R- 5403C, R-5403D, R-5403E, R-5403F; Devils Lake, ND (76 FR 72869...

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis C and B virus among patients infected with HIV: a cross-sectional analysis of a large HIV care programme in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Sai Ko Ko; Tun, Sai Thein Than; Thida, Aye; Aung, Thet Ko; Maung, Win; Shwe, Myint; Aye, Mar Mar; Clevenbergh, Phillipe

    2013-07-01

    Co-infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) influences the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV. A cross sectional analysis was of 11,032 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Integrated HIV Care Program from May 2005 to April 2012 and Epi-info 3.5 was used to determine the serological prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 36 ± 8.4 years (adult cohort) and 7 ± 3 years (paediatric cohort). The sero prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C (anti HCV antibodies) and triple infection are 8.7%, 5.3% and 0.35%, respectively. Men who have sex with men are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis B while intravenous drug users are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis C. It is important to screen for hepatitis B and C in HIV infected people in order to provide quality care for HIV patients with co-infection.

  4. First-principles investigation of neutron-irradiation-induced point defects in B4C, a neutron absorber for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yan; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko

    2018-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a leading candidate neutron absorber material for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors owing to its excellent neutron-capture capability. The formation and migration energies of the neutron-irradiation-induced defects, including vacancies, neutron-capture reaction products, and knocked-out atoms were studied by density functional theory calculations. The vacancy-type defects tend to migrate to the C–B–C chains of B4C, which indicates that the icosahedral cage structures of B4C have strong resistance to neutron irradiation. We found that lithium and helium atoms had significantly lower migration barriers along the rhombohedral (111) plane of B4C than perpendicular to this plane. This implies that the helium and lithium interstitials tended to follow a two-dimensional diffusion regime in B4C at low temperatures which explains the formation of flat disk like helium bubbles experimentally observed in B4C pellets after neutron irradiation. The knocked-out atoms are considered to be annihilated by the recombination of the close pairs of self-interstitials and vacancies.

  5. Observation of B_{c}^{+}→D^{0}K^{+} Decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-03-17

    Using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb^{-1}, recorded by the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, the B_{c}^{+}→D^{0}K^{+} decay is observed with a statistical significance of 5.1 standard deviations. By normalizing to B^{+}→D[over ¯]^{0}π^{+} decays, a measurement of the branching fraction multiplied by the production rates for B_{c}^{+} relative to B^{+} mesons in the LHCb acceptance is obtained, R_{D^{0}K}=(f_{c}/f_{u})×B(B_{c}^{+}→D^{0}K^{+})=(9.3_{-2.5}^{+2.8}±0.6)×10^{-7}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This decay is expected to proceed predominantly through weak annihilation and penguin amplitudes, and is the first B_{c}^{+} decay of this nature to be observed.

  6. Antibody against Surface-Bound C5a Peptidase Is Opsonic and Initiates Macrophage Killing of Group B Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qi; Carlson, Brian; Pillai, Sub; Eby, Ron; Edwards, Lorri; Olmsted, Stephen B.; Cleary, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococci (GBS) are a primary focus of vaccine development. Immunogenicity and long-lasting protection are best achieved by conjugating polysaccharides to a T-cell-dependent protein antigen. Streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPB) is a conserved surface protein that is expressed by all streptococcal serotypes tested to date, and it is a possible carrier protein that could itself induce a protective immune response. Clearance of GBS from lungs, mucosal surfaces, or blood probably depends on the opsonophagocytic response of tissue-specific macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this study, we examined the potential of antibody directed against SCPB from a serotype II strain to enhance the capacity of mouse bone marrow macrophages (from primary cultures) and human PMNs in whole blood to kill GBS in vitro. Our experiments demonstrated that Streptococcus serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, preopsonized with anti-SCPB antibody, were killed more rapidly by cultured macrophages and PMNs in whole blood than were nonopsonized GBS. The increased rate of killing was accompanied by an increased macrophage oxidative burst. Furthermore, opsonization was serotype transparent. Immunization with SCPB conjugated to capsular polysaccharide type III produced polysaccharide-specific antibodies. It is interesting that this antiserum promoted serotype-independent killing of streptococci. These data support the use of SCPB in a GBS polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. SCPB not only enhanced the immunogenicity of polysaccharide components of the vaccine, but it might also induce additional serotype-independent protective antibodies. PMID:11254587

  7. Antibody against surface-bound C5a peptidase is opsonic and initiates macrophage killing of group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Q; Carlson, B; Pillai, S; Eby, R; Edwards, L; Olmsted, S B; Cleary, P

    2001-04-01

    The capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococci (GBS) are a primary focus of vaccine development. Immunogenicity and long-lasting protection are best achieved by conjugating polysaccharides to a T-cell-dependent protein antigen. Streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPB) is a conserved surface protein that is expressed by all streptococcal serotypes tested to date, and it is a possible carrier protein that could itself induce a protective immune response. Clearance of GBS from lungs, mucosal surfaces, or blood probably depends on the opsonophagocytic response of tissue-specific macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this study, we examined the potential of antibody directed against SCPB from a serotype II strain to enhance the capacity of mouse bone marrow macrophages (from primary cultures) and human PMNs in whole blood to kill GBS in vitro. Our experiments demonstrated that Streptococcus serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, preopsonized with anti-SCPB antibody, were killed more rapidly by cultured macrophages and PMNs in whole blood than were nonopsonized GBS. The increased rate of killing was accompanied by an increased macrophage oxidative burst. Furthermore, opsonization was serotype transparent. Immunization with SCPB conjugated to capsular polysaccharide type III produced polysaccharide-specific antibodies. It is interesting that this antiserum promoted serotype-independent killing of streptococci. These data support the use of SCPB in a GBS polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. SCPB not only enhanced the immunogenicity of polysaccharide components of the vaccine, but it might also induce additional serotype-independent protective antibodies.

  8. c-Met and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor regulate mature B cell survival in a pathway induced by CD74.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Maya; Tesio, Melania; Cohen, Sivan; Gore, Yael; Lantner, Frida; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Shachar, Idit

    2010-08-15

    The signals regulating the survival of mature splenic B cells have become a major focus in recent studies of B cell immunology. Durable B cell persistence in the periphery is dependent on survival signals that are transduced by cell surface receptors. In this study, we describe a novel biological mechanism involved in mature B cell homeostasis, the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF)/c-Met pathway. We demonstrate that c-Met activation by HGF leads to a survival cascade, whereas its blockade results in induction of mature B cell death. Our results emphasize a unique and critical function for c-Met signaling in the previously described macrophage migration inhibitory factor/CD74-induced survival pathway. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor recruits c-Met to the CD74/CD44 complex and thereby enables the induction of a signaling cascade within the cell. This signal results in HGF secretion, which stimulates the survival of the mature B cell population in an autocrine manner. Thus, the CD74-HGF/c-Met axis defines a novel physiologic survival pathway in mature B cells, resulting in the control of the humoral immune response.

  9. An Experimental Study of Water Injection into a Rolls-Royce Model 250-C20B Turboshaft Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 6 May 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATE COVERED 4...9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER US Naval Academy... used an instrumented Model 250-C20B gas turbine and an original water spray system. Temperatures and pressures were measured for each of the gas

  10. A Nitrogen Response Pathway Regulates Virulence Functions in Fusarium oxysporum via the Protein Kinase TOR and the bZIP Protein MeaB[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C.; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    During infection, fungal pathogens activate virulence mechanisms, such as host adhesion, penetration and invasive growth. In the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 is required for plant infection and controls processes such as cellophane penetration, vegetative hyphal fusion, or root adhesion. Here, we show that these virulence-related functions are repressed by the preferred nitrogen source ammonium and restored by treatment with l-methionine sulfoximine or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR, respectively. Deletion of the bZIP protein MeaB also resulted in nitrogen source–independent activation of virulence mechanisms. Activation of these functions did not require the global nitrogen regulator AreA, suggesting that MeaB-mediated repression of virulence functions does not act through inhibition of AreA. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) supplied with ammonium rather than nitrate showed a significant reduction in vascular wilt symptoms when infected with the wild type but not with the ΔmeaB strain. Nitrogen source also affected invasive growth in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. We propose that a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway might operate via TOR and MeaB to control virulence in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:20639450

  11. Combined total deficiency of C7 and C4B with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, O G; Arnaiz-Villena, A A; Iglesias-Casarrubios, P; Martinez-Laso, J; Vicario, J L; Fontan, G; Lopez-Trascasa, M

    1992-01-01

    The first inherited combined total deficiency of C7 and C4B complement components associated with SLE is described in a young female. Functional C7 assays showed a homozygous C7 deficiency in the propositus and her sister, and an heterozygous one in their parents. C4 molecular analyses showed that both the propositus and her mother had two HLA haplotypes carrying only C4A-specific DNA sequences and a normal C4 gene number. Thus, only C4A proteins could be expressed, with resultant normal C4 serum levels. The coexistence of a combined complete C7 and C4B deficiency may therefore abrogate essential functions of the complement cascade presumably related to immune complex handling and solubilization despite an excess of circulating C4A. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and stress the need to perform both functional assays and C4 allotyping in patients with autoimmune pathology and low haemolytic activity without low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1347491

  12. Illness perceptions and explanatory models of viral hepatitis B & C among immigrants and refugees: a narrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owiti, John A; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Sweeney, Lorna; Foster, Graham R; Bhui, Kamaldeep S

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many countries with traditionally low prevalence (such as UK) are now planning interventions (screening, vaccination, and treatment) of high-risk immigrants from countries with high prevalence. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence on immigrants' knowledge of HBV and HCV that might influence the uptake of clinical interventions. The review was also used to inform the design and successful delivery of a randomised controlled trial of targeted screening and treatment. Five databases (PubMed, CINHAL, SOCIOFILE, PsycINFO & Web of Science) were systematically searched, supplemented by reference tracking, searches of selected journals, and of relevant websites. We aimed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated knowledge of HBV and HCV among immigrants from high endemic areas to low endemic areas. Evidence, extracted according to a conceptual framework of Kleinman's explanatory model, was subjected to narrative synthesis. We adapted the PEN-3 model to categorise and analyse themes, and recommend strategies for interventions to influence help-seeking behaviour. We identified 51 publications including quantitative (n = 39), qualitative (n = 11), and mixed methods (n = 1) designs. Most of the quantitative studies included small samples and had heterogeneous methods and outcomes. The studies mainly concentrated on hepatitis B and ethnic groups of South East Asian immigrants residing in USA, Canada, and Australia. Many immigrants lacked adequate knowledge of aetiology, symptoms, transmission risk factors, prevention strategies, and treatment, of hepatitis HBV and HCV. Ethnicity, gender, better education, higher income, and English proficiency influenced variations in levels and forms of knowledge. Immigrants are vulnerable to HBV and HCV, and risk life-threatening complications from these infections because of poor knowledge and help

  13. Structure of C 14 and B 14 from the C 14 , 15 ( d , He 3 ) B 13 , 14 reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bedoor, S.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Albers, M.

    We have studied the C-14,C-15(d,He-3)B-13,B-14 proton-removing reactions in inverse kinematics. The (d,He-3) reaction probes the proton occupation of the target ground state, and also provides spectroscopic information about the final states in B-13,B-14. The experiments were performed using C-14,C-15 beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The reaction products were analyzed with the HELIOS device. Angular distributions were obtained for transitions from both reactions. The C-14-beam data reveal transitions to excited states in B-13 that suggest configurations with protons outside the pi(0p(3/2)) orbital, and some possibility of proton cross-shell 0p-1s0d excitations, in the C-14 ground state. The C-15-beammore » data confirm the existence of a broad 2(-) excited state in B-14. The experimental data are compared to the results of shell-model calculations.« less

  14. Results of investigations (OA77 and OA78) on an 0.015-scale 140A/B configuration space shuttle vehicle orbiter model 49-0 in the AEDC VKF B and C wind tunnels, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale 140A/B configuration SSV Orbiter model in the AEDC VKF B and C wind tunnels are presented. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers of 6 and 8 in the B tunnel and at a Mach number of 10 to in the C tunnel to verify hypersonic stability and control characteristics, determine control surface effectiveness, and investigate Reynolds number effects of the 140A/B configuration. Force data were obtained for various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle-of-attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +10 deg. Data were obtained for a few configurations at angles of attack from -27 deg to 45 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speedbrake and bodyflap deflections. The effects of an alternate wing leading edge shape were investigated to determine its hypersonic stability and control characteristics.

  15. Electron-Rich Carboranes. Studies of a Stereochemically Novel System, (CH3)4C4B7H9, and 11-Vertex Arachno Cluster.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    FINSTER , R N GRIMES NOGOIR-75C-0305 UNCLASSIFIED TR-37 NL EOMEEEhE OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT NO. i14.-7-C-31 q,4 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 37L" 0...Electron-Rich Carboranes. Studies of a Stereochemically Novel System, (CH") 4C4 BH 9 , an 11-Vertex Arachno Cluster. .) David C./ Finster aad Russell N...System, (CH3 )4C4B7H9 , an l-Vertex Arachno Cluster 1 David C. Finster and Russell N. Grimes* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry University of

  16. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays.

  17. The serological markers of acute infection with hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G viruses revisited.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background. A number of acute-phase serological markers, such as anti-HAV, anti-HBc, anti-HDV and anti-HEV IgM antibodies, are able to provide a clear indication of an infection caused by HAV, HBV, HDV or HEV. Anti-HCV antibodies and HGV/RNA are used for the diagnosis of HCV and HGV infections. The importance of each of these markers will be reviewed, and different factors that can interfere with the diagnosis of acute infections caused by these viruses will be described.

  18. Correlations of EGF G1380A, bFGF C754G and VEGF T460C polymorphisms with malignant melanoma susceptibility and prognosis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Long, Zi-Wen

    2017-06-20

    This case-control study aims to investigate the correlations of EGF G1380A, bFGF C754G and VEGF T460C polymorphisms with the susceptibility and prognosis of malignant melanoma. A total of 153 patients with multiple primary melanomas were collected as the case group and another 170 healthy individuals were selected as the control group. ELISA and PCR-RFLP were performed to test the serum level of VEGF and to analyze the genotype as well as allele frequencies of VEGF T460C, EGF G1380A, and bFGF C754G, respectively. The patients were assigned into complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR) and non-remission groups after treatment. HE and CD34 staining were conducted in tissue samples of CR and PR patients. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were measured. AA genotype of EGF G1380A and GG genotype of bFGF C754G had higher frequency distribution in the case group than the control group. Patients with AA genotype of EGF G1380 and GG genotype of bFGF C754G had an elevated VEGF level in comparison to other genotypes. Patients with GA+GG genotypes of EGF G1380A and CG+CC genotypes of bFGF C754G had higher EFS and OS than those with AA genotype and those with GG genotype, respectively. According to the haplotype analysis, the case group had a notably higher frequency of TAG and CAG along with while lower frequency of TGG and CGC compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the polymorphisms of EGF G1380A and bFGF C754G as well as the haploid TAG increased the susceptibility of malignant melanoma. The results indicated that EGF G1380A and bFGF C754G gene polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility and prognosis of malignant melanoma, and that the polymorphisms of EGF G1380A and bFGF C754G as well as the haploid TAG increased the susceptibility of malignant melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low rates of hepatitis A and B vaccination in patients with chronic hepatitis C at an urban methadone maintenance program.

    PubMed

    Felsen, Uriel R; Fishbein, Dawn A; Litwin, Alain H

    2010-10-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are at increased risk for complications of liver disease if they become infected with the hepatitis A (HAV) or hepatitis B (HBV) viruses. The authors examined the rates of testing for HAV, HBV, and HCV, as well as rates of vaccination against HAV and HBV in patients with chronic HCV in a random sample (N = 207) of medical records of patients enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. Almost all patients reviewed were tested for HAV, HBV, and HCV. Of the 111 patients with chronic HCV, 53 (48.6%) and 68 (63%) lacked immunity to HAV and HBV, respectively. Of those lacking immunity, 29 (54.7%) and 2 (2.9%) were vaccinated for HAV and HBV, respectively. Despite high rates of testing for HAV, HBV, and HCV at a methadone maintenance program, approximately half of those with chronic HCV eligible for the HAV vaccine received it, and few of those eligible for HBV vaccine received it.

  20. Granulocyte and monocyte CD11b expression during plasma separation is dependent on complement factor 5 (C5) - an ex vivo study with blood from a C5-deficient individual.

    PubMed

    Hardersen, Randolf; Enebakk, Terje; Christiansen, Dorte; Bergseth, Grethe; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore; Hovland, Anders

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of complement factor 5 (C5) in reactions elicited by plasma separation using blood from a C5-deficient (C5D) individual, comparing it to C5-deficient blood reconstituted with C5 (C5DR) and blood from healthy donors. Blood was circulated through an ex vivo plasma separation model. Leukocyte CD11b expression and leukocyte-platelet conjugates were measured by flow cytometry during a 30-min period. Other markers were assessed during a 240-min period. Granulocyte and monocyte CD11b expression did not increase in C5D blood during plasma separation. In C5DR samples granulocytes CD11b expression, measured by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), increased from 10481 ± 6022 (SD) to 62703 ± 4936, and monocytes CD11b expression changed from 13837 ± 7047 to 40063 ± 713. Granulocyte-platelet conjugates showed a 2.5-fold increase in the C5DR sample compared to the C5D sample. Monocyte-platelet conjugates increased independently of C5. In the C5D samples, platelet count decreased from 210 × 10 9 /L (201-219) (median and range) to 51 × 10 9 /L (50-51), and C3bc increased from 14 CAU/mL (21-7) to 198 CAU/mL (127-269), whereas TCC formation was blocked during plasma separation. In conclusion, up-regulation of granulocyte and monocyte CD11b during plasma separation was C5-dependent. The results also indicate C5 dependency in granulocyte-platelet conjugates formation. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Complete replication of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in a newly developed hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Darong; Zuo, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Xianghe; Xue, Binbin; Liu, Nianli; Yu, Rong; Qin, Yuwen; Gao, Yimin; Wang, Qiuping; Hu, Jun; Wang, Ling; Zhou, Zebin; Liu, Bing; Tan, Deming; Guan, Yang; Zhu, Haizhen

    2014-04-01

    The absence of a robust cell culture system for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has limited the analysis of the virus lifecycle and drug discovery. We have established a hepatoma cell line, HLCZ01, the first cell line, to the authors' knowledge, supporting the entire lifecycle of both HBV and HCV. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive particles can be observed in the supernatant and the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of the cells via electron microscopy. Interestingly, HBV and HCV clinical isolates propagate in HLCZ01 cells. Both viruses replicate in the cells without evidence of overt interference. HBV and HCV entry are blocked by antibodies against HBsAg and human CD81, respectively, and the replication of HBV and HCV is inhibited by antivirals. HLCZ01 cells mount an innate immune response to virus infection. The cell line provides a powerful tool for exploring the mechanisms of virus entry and replication and the interaction between host and virus, facilitating the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccines.

  2. The 3849 + 10 kB C-->T mutation in a 21-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D M; Niv, A; Aviram, M; Parvari, R; Leiberman, A; Fliss, D M

    1996-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disease in the white population. It is characterized by exocrine gland epithelia dysfunction, which leads to pulmonary and pancreatic insufficiency. Since the cloning of the CF gene in 1989 and the identification of the most common CF mutation (delta F508), more than 400 different mutations have been described. These mutations appear to contribute to the heterogeneity of the CF phenotype and several reports have speculated on the relationship between the most common CF mutations and the patient's clinical status. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with longstanding chronic pansinusitis, nasal polyposis, chronic cough and severe nasal crusting. During a period of five years she had been followed by her otolaryngologist and pediatric pulmonologist. Sweat tests performed at the age of 17 and 18 were within normal limits and she underwent repeated conventional sinonasal procedures, with no improvement in her clinical status. On her present admission, sweat tests showed a 70 meq/l chloride concentration. The diagnosis of CF was then confirmed by DNA analysis and the patient was found to carry the 3849 + 10 kB C-->T mutation. The early detection of this newly recognized form of CF in adults as well as in children presenting with sinonasal symptoms is critical for life expectancy and quality.

  3. General epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in six regions of China: a cross-sectional study in 2007.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Zhou, Yongdong; Lin, Xiaojing; Jiang, Yongzhen; Tian, Ruiguang; Zhang, Yonghui; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Fengwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yue; Bi, Shengli

    2009-12-24

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health burden worldwide. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C, and E in China. Therefore, the general epidemiological parameters of viral hepatitis remain unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we performed a serological prevalence analysis of viral hepatitis A, B, C, and E in 8,762 randomly selected Chinese subjects, which represented six areas of China. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) was 0.58%, which was much lower than was estimated by WHO. The prevalences of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis B virus surface protein antibody (HBsAb), and anti-Hepatitis B virus core protein antibody (HBcAb) were 5.84%, 41.31%, and 35.92%, respectively, whereas in the group of subjects less than 5 years old, these prevalences were 1.16%, 46.77%, and 8.69% respectively, which suggests that the Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier population is decreasing, and the nationwide HBV vaccine program has contributed to the lowered HBV prevalence in the younger generation in China. Meanwhile, a large deficit remains in coverage provided by the national HBV immune program. In addition, our data suggested the possibility that HBsAb may not last long enough to protect people from HBV infection throughout life. The overall prevalence of anti-Hepatitis A virus antibody (anti-HAV) and anti-Hepatitis E virus antibody (anti-HEV) were as high as 72.87% and 17.66%, respectively. The indices increased with age, which suggests that a large proportion of Chinese adults are protected by latent infection. Furthermore, the pattern of HEV infection was significantly different among ethnic groups in China. Our study provided much important information concerning hepatitis A, B, C, and E prevalence in China and will contribute to worldwide oversight of viral hepatitis.

  4. Feasibility Report and Preliminary Design Proposal Transport and Loading of New Class A, Mk 21/36, New Class B and Class C Weapons into Strike and Transport Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Division 1284

    1956-12-01

    The primary purpose of this report was to discuss the feasibility of developing a trailer which would pick-up, transport, position, & load the Class A bomb into the B-52 aircraft and the Mk 21/38 or Class B & C bombs into a B-47, B-52, C-124, or C-133.

  5. IgA-mediated inhibition of human leucocyte function by interference with Fc gamma and C3b receptors.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kato, C; Katsuragi, H; Komatsuzaki, A

    1991-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of IgA from human colostrum, and IgA1 and IgA2 from human serum on the chemiluminescence (CL) response and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML) to Staphylococcus epidermidis and the CL response to formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were studied. The dose-dependent inhibition of the luminol-mediated CL response of human PML to the bacteria was observed in the presence of more than 0.1 mg/ml IgA from both colostrum and serum. The preincubation of PML with a solution of IgA enhanced the suppressive effect of IgA on the cells. Removal of IgA from the reaction mixture after preincubation resulted in recovery, with time, of the response of PML to the bacteria. The bacteria treated with IgA did not give rise to any inhibition of the response. The CL response of PML to FMLP was not affected by the presence of IgA in the reaction mixture. The decrease of phagocytic activity of PML in the presence of IgA resulted in a decrease of NADPH oxidase activity of PML after stimulation with the bacteria as compared with the absence of IgA. The effect of IgA on the receptors of Fc and C3b (CR1) on the surface of PML was measured by monitoring erythrocyte-antibody (EA) or erythrocyte-antibody-complement (EAC) rosette formation and by direct and indirect immunofluorescence techniques using anti-CR1 antibody and Fc-specific antibodies. The presence of IgA in the reaction mixture led to a quantitative decrease in CR1 and the ability to bind IgG to the surface of PML.

  6. IgA-mediated inhibition of human leucocyte function by interference with Fc gamma and C3b receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, K; Kato, C; Katsuragi, H; Komatsuzaki, A

    1991-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of IgA from human colostrum, and IgA1 and IgA2 from human serum on the chemiluminescence (CL) response and phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML) to Staphylococcus epidermidis and the CL response to formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were studied. The dose-dependent inhibition of the luminol-mediated CL response of human PML to the bacteria was observed in the presence of more than 0.1 mg/ml IgA from both colostrum and serum. The preincubation of PML with a solution of IgA enhanced the suppressive effect of IgA on the cells. Removal of IgA from the reaction mixture after preincubation resulted in recovery, with time, of the response of PML to the bacteria. The bacteria treated with IgA did not give rise to any inhibition of the response. The CL response of PML to FMLP was not affected by the presence of IgA in the reaction mixture. The decrease of phagocytic activity of PML in the presence of IgA resulted in a decrease of NADPH oxidase activity of PML after stimulation with the bacteria as compared with the absence of IgA. The effect of IgA on the receptors of Fc and C3b (CR1) on the surface of PML was measured by monitoring erythrocyte-antibody (EA) or erythrocyte-antibody-complement (EAC) rosette formation and by direct and indirect immunofluorescence techniques using anti-CR1 antibody and Fc-specific antibodies. The presence of IgA in the reaction mixture led to a quantitative decrease in CR1 and the ability to bind IgG to the surface of PML. PMID:1834550

  7. Impaired phloem loading in zmsweet13a,b,c sucrose transporter triple knock-out mutants in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Bezrutczyk, Margaret; Hartwig, Thomas; Horschman, Marc; Char, Si Nian; Yang, Jinliang; Yang, Bing; Frommer, Wolf B; Sosso, Davide

    2018-04-01

    Crop yield depends on efficient allocation of sucrose from leaves to seeds. In Arabidopsis, phloem loading is mediated by a combination of SWEET sucrose effluxers and subsequent uptake by SUT1/SUC2 sucrose/H + symporters. ZmSUT1 is essential for carbon allocation in maize, but the relative contribution to apoplasmic phloem loading and retrieval of sucrose leaking from the translocation path is not known. Here we analysed the contribution of SWEETs to phloem loading in maize. We identified three leaf-expressed SWEET sucrose transporters as key components of apoplasmic phloem loading in Zea mays L. ZmSWEET13 paralogues (a, b, c) are among the most highly expressed genes in the leaf vasculature. Genome-edited triple knock-out mutants were severely stunted. Photosynthesis of mutants was impaired and leaves accumulated high levels of soluble sugars and starch. RNA-seq revealed profound transcriptional deregulation of genes associated with photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses may indicate that variability in ZmSWEET13s correlates with agronomical traits, especifically flowering time and leaf angle. This work provides support for cooperation of three ZmSWEET13s with ZmSUT1 in phloem loading in Z. mays. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Quinolactacins A, B and C: novel quinolone compounds from Penicillium sp. EPF-6. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Kakinuma, N; Iwai, H; Yanagisawa, T; Nagai, K; Suzuki, K; Tokunaga, T; Nakagawa, A

    2000-11-01

    Three novel quinolone compounds, quinolactacins A (1), B (2) and C (3), have been found from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp. EPF-6, a fungus isolated from the larvae of mulberry pyralid (Margaronia pyloalis Welker). The molecular formulas of 1, 2 and 3 were determined to be C16H18N2O2, C15H16N2O2 and C16H18N2O3, respectively by FAB-MS and NMR spectral analyses. The structures of these compounds have a novel quinolone skeleton with a gamma-lactam ring consisting of C12H8N2O2 as the common chromophore.

  9. Magterpenoids A-C, Three Polycyclic Meroterpenoids with PTP1B Inhibitory Activity from the Bark of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Li, Chuang-Jun; Ma, Jie; Chen, Fang-You; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-06-15

    Magterpenoid A (1), possessing a rare 4,6,11-trioxatricyclo[5.3.1.0 1,5 ]undecane framework with an irregular monoterpenoid moiety, magterpenoid B (2), with an unprecedented 6/6/6/6 polycyclic skeleton, and magterpenoid C (3), a novel terpenoid quinone with a C6-C3 unit, were isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Plausible biogenetic pathways of 1-3 are presented. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC 50 values of 1.44 and 0.81 μM, respectively.

  10. Crystal structure of the vitamin B3 transporter PnuC, a full-length SWEET homolog.

    PubMed

    Jaehme, Michael; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2014-11-01

    PnuC transporters catalyze cellular uptake of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) and belong to a large superfamily that includes the SWEET sugar transporters. We present a crystal structure of Neisseria mucosa PnuC, which adopts a highly symmetrical fold with 3+1+3 membrane topology not previously observed in any protein. The high symmetry of PnuC with a single NR bound in the center suggests a simple alternating-access translocation mechanism.

  11. NleC, a type III secretion protease, compromises NF-κB activation by targeting p65/RelA.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hilo; Ooka, Tadasuke; Iguchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Tobe, Toru

    2010-12-16

    The NF-κB signaling pathway is central to the innate and adaptive immune responses. Upon their detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, Toll-like receptors on the cell surface initiate signal transduction and activate the NF-κB pathway, leading to the production of a wide array of inflammatory cytokines, in attempt to eradicate the invaders. As a countermeasure, pathogens have evolved ways to subvert and manipulate this system to their advantage. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are closely related bacteria responsible for major food-borne diseases worldwide. Via a needle-like protein complex called the type three secretion system (T3SS), these pathogens deliver virulence factors directly to host cells and modify cellular functions, including by suppressing the inflammatory response. Using gain- and loss-of-function screenings, we identified two bacterial effectors, NleC and NleE, that down-regulate the NF-κB signal upon being injected into a host cell via the T3SS. A recent report showed that NleE inhibits NF-κB activation, although an NleE-deficient pathogen was still immune-suppressive, indicating that other anti-inflammatory effectors are involved. In agreement, our present results showed that NleC was also required to inhibit inflammation. We found that NleC is a zinc protease that disrupts NF-κB activation by the direct cleavage of NF-κB's p65 subunit in the cytoplasm, thereby decreasing the available p65 and reducing the total nuclear entry of active p65. More importantly, we showed that a mutant EPEC/EHEC lacking both NleC and NleE (ΔnleC ΔnleE) caused greater inflammatory response than bacteria carrying ΔnleC or ΔnleE alone. This effect was similar to that of a T3SS-defective mutant. In conclusion, we found that NleC is an anti-inflammatory bacterial zinc protease, and that the cooperative function of NleE and NleC disrupts the NF-κB pathway and accounts for most of the immune suppression caused

  12. Carotenoids, vitamins (A, B2, C and E) and total folate of traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Finglas, Paul; Ribeiro, Tiago; Valente, Ana; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Cármen-Eugenia; Hayran, Osman; Jorjadze, Mariam; Kaprelyants, Leonid; Karpenko, Dmitry; D'Antuono, L Filippo; Costa, Helena S

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids, vitamins (A, B2, C and E) and total folate are related to health promotion. However, there are still many food matrices for which the content of these compounds is not available. In order to fill this gap, traditional foods from Black Sea Area countries (BSAC) were analysed in order to investigate their potential health benefits. The most abundant carotenoid was β-carotene. Plum jam was the sample with the highest β-carotene content (608 µg 100 g(-1) edible portion). The group of vegetables and vegetable-based foods contributed most to β-carotene content. Evergreen cherry laurel presented the highest l-ascorbic acid content (29.9 mg 100 g(-1) edible portion), while the highest riboflavin and total folate contents were found for roasted sunflower seeds. Approximately 61% of the analysed samples showed quantifiable amounts of α-tocopherol but did not contain retinol. Despite the great variability in the content of carotenoids, vitamins and total folate, most of the analysed traditional foods from BSAC can be considered good sources of these compounds. Therefore, owing to their putative health benefits, the consumption of those with higher contents of these compounds should be encouraged and promoted. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The first genetic map of a synthesized allohexaploid Brassica with A, B and C genomes based on simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Chen, S; Geng, X X; Yan, G; Li, Z Y; Meng, J L; Cowling, W A; Zhou, W J

    2016-04-01

    We present the first genetic map of an allohexaploid Brassica species, based on segregating microsatellite markers in a doubled haploid mapping population generated from a hybrid between two hexaploid parents. This study reports the first genetic map of trigenomic Brassica. A doubled haploid mapping population consisting of 189 lines was obtained via microspore culture from a hybrid H16-1 derived from a cross between two allohexaploid Brassica lines (7H170-1 and Y54-2). Simple sequence repeat primer pairs specific to the A genome (107), B genome (44) and C genome (109) were used to construct a genetic linkage map of the population. Twenty-seven linkage groups were resolved from 274 polymorphic loci on the A genome (109), B genome (49) and C genome (116) covering a total genetic distance of 3178.8 cM with an average distance between markers of 11.60 cM. This is the first genetic framework map for the artificially synthesized Brassica allohexaploids. The linkage groups represent the expected complement of chromosomes in the A, B and C genomes from the original diploid and tetraploid parents. This framework linkage map will be valuable for QTL analysis and future genetic improvement of a new allohexaploid Brassica species, and in improving our understanding of the genetic control of meiosis in new polyploids.

  14. Characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC Mutants in In Vitro and In Vivo Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David A.; Stevens, Marla K.; Latimer, Jo L.; Ward, Christine K.; Deng, Kaiping; Blick, Robert; Lumbley, Sheryl R.; Ison, Catherine A.; Hansen, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi expresses a soluble cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that is encoded by the cdtABC gene cluster and can be detected in culture supernatant fluid by its ability to kill HeLa cells. The cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC genes of H. ducreyi were cloned independently into plasmid vectors, and their encoded proteins expressed singly or in various combinations in an Escherichia coli background. All three gene products had to be expressed in order for E. coli-derived culture supernatant fluids to demonstrate cytotoxicity for HeLa cells. Isogenic H. ducreyi cdtA and cdtB mutants were constructed and used in combination with the wild-type parent strain and a previously described H. ducreyi cdtC mutant (M. K. Stevens, J. L. Latimer, S. R. Lumbley, C. K. Ward, L. D. Cope, T. Lagergard, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 67:3900–3908, 1999) to determine the relative contributions of the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins to CDT activity. Expression of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC appeared necessary for H. ducreyi-derived culture supernatant fluid to exhibit cytotoxicity for HeLa cells. Whole-cell sonicates and periplasmic extracts from the cdtB and cdtC mutants had no effect on HeLa cells, whereas these same fractions from a cdtA mutant had a very modest cytotoxic effect on these same human cells. CdtA appeared to be primarily associated with the H. ducreyi cell envelope, whereas both CdtB and CdtC were present primarily in the soluble fraction from sonicated cells. Both the cdtA mutant and the cdtB mutant were found to be fully virulent in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for experimental chancroid. PMID:11500438

  15. Evidence for C P violation in B+→K*(892)+ π0 from a Dalitz plot analysis of B+→KS0 π+π0 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lee, M. J.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Röhrken, M.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Grünberg, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voß, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lindemann, D.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wulsin, H. W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; BaBar Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report a Dalitz plot analysis of charmless hadronic decays of charged B mesons to the final state KS0π+π0 using the full BABAR data set of 470.9 ±2.8 million B B ¯ events collected at the Υ (4 S ) resonance. We measure the overall branching fraction and C P asymmetry to be B (B+→K0π+π0) =(31.8 ±1.8 ±2. 1-0.0+6.0 ) ×10-6 and AC P(B+→K0π+π0) =0.07 ±0.05 ±0.0 3-0.03+0.02 , where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and due to the signal model, respectively. This is the first measurement of the branching fraction for B+→K0π+π0. We find first evidence of a C P asymmetry in B+→K*(892 )+π0decays: AC P(B+→K*(892 )+π0) =-0.52 ±0.14 ±0.0 4-0.02+0.04 . The significance of this asymmetry, including systematic and model uncertainties, is 3.4 standard deviations. We also measure the branching fractions and C P asymmetries for three other intermediate decay modes.

  16. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψμ^{+}ν_{μ}).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2018-03-23

    A measurement is reported of the ratio of branching fractions R(J/ψ)=B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψμ^{+}ν_{μ}), where the τ^{+} lepton is identified in the decay mode τ^{+}→μ^{+}ν_{μ}ν[over ¯]_{τ}. This analysis uses a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity recorded with the LHCb experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A signal is found for the decay B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ} at a significance of 3 standard deviations corrected for systematic uncertainty, and the ratio of the branching fractions is measured to be R(J/ψ)=0.71±0.17(stat)±0.18(syst). This result lies within 2 standard deviations above the range of central values currently predicted by the standard model.

  17. A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE8B) that is mutated in adrenal hyperplasia is expressed widely in human and mouse tissues: a novel PDE8B isoform in human adrenal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Anelia; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Tsang, Kitman; Greene, Elizabeth; Osorio, Paulo; Boikos, Sosipatros; Libè, Rossella; Patronas, Yianna; Robinson-White, Audrey; Remmers, Elaine; Bertherat, Jerôme; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia (BAH) is the second most common cause of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome (CS). Genetic forms of BAH have been associated with complex syndromes such as Carney Complex and McCune Albright syndrome or may present as isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease (iMAD) usually in children and young adults with CS. A genome-wide association study identified inactivating phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A (PDE11A) sequencing defects as low-penetrance predisposing factors for iMAD and related abnormalities; we also described a mutation (c.914A>C/H305P) in cAMP-specific PDE8B, in a patient with iMAD. In this study we further characterize this mutation; we also found a novel PDE8B isoform, highly expressed in the adrenal gland. This mutation is shown to significantly affect the ability of the protein to degrade cAMP in vitro. Tumor tissues from patients with iMAD and no mutations in the coding PDE8B sequence or any other related genes (PRKAR1A, PDE11A) showed down-regulated PDE8B expression (compared to normal adrenal cortex). Pde8b is detectable in the adrenal gland of newborn mice and is widely expressed in other mouse tissues. We conclude that PDE8B is another PDE gene linked to iMAD; it is a candidate causative gene for other adrenocortical lesions linked to the cAMP-signaling pathway, and possibly for tumors in other tissues. PMID:18431404

  18. p100, a precursor of NF-κB2, inhibits c-Rel and reduces the expression of IL-23 in dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mise-Omata, Setsuko, E-mail: smise@brc.riken.jp; Obata, Yuichi; Doi, Takahiro S.

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • The deficiency of p100 enhances c-Rel-, not RelA-, dependent cytokine expression. • p100 associates with c-Rel in the steady state but dissociates after LPS stimulation. • The deficiency of p100 enhances the nuclear translocation of c-Rel. • p100 negatively regulates the c-Rel function. - Abstract: Nuclear factor κB regulates various genes involved in the immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and development. NF-κB activation is controlled by proteins possessing ankyrin repeats, such as IκBs. A precursor of the NF-κB2 (p52) subunit, p100, contains ankyrin repeats in its C-terminal portion and has been found to act as a cytoplasmic inhibitormore » of RelA in the canonical pathway of NF-κB activation. Here, we demonstrate that p100 also suppresses c-Rel function in dendritic cells. Expression of the p19 and p40 subunits of IL-23, a c-Rel-dependent cytokine, was enhanced in p100-deficient cells, although expression of a RelA-dependent cytokine, TNF-α, was reduced. Nuclear translocation of c-Rel was enhanced in p100-deficient cells. p100, and not the processed p52 form, associated with c-Rel in the steady state and dissociated immediately after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in wild-type dendritic cells. Four hours after the stimulation, p100 was newly synthesized and associated with c-Rel again. In cells expressing both c-Rel and RelA, c-Rel is preferentially suppressed by p100.« less

  19. Aberrant c-erbB2 expression in cell clusters overlying focally disrupted breast myoepithelial cell layers: a trigger or sign for emergence of more aggressive cell clones?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xichen; Hashemi, Shahreyar Shar; Yousefi, Morvarid; Ni, Jinsong; Wang, Qiuyue; Gao, Ling; Gong, Pengtao; Gao, Chunling; Sheng, Joy; Mason, Jeffrey; Man, Yan-gao

    2008-01-01

    Our recent studies revealed that cell clusters overlying focal myoepithelial cell layer disruption (FMCLD) had a significantly higher frequency of genetic instabilities and expression of invasion-related genes than their adjacent counterparts within the same duct. Our current study attempted to assess whether these cell clusters would also have elevated c-erbB2 expression. Human breast tumors (n=50) with a high frequency of FMCLD were analyzed with double immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and chromogenic in situ hybridization for c-erbB2 protein and gene expression. Of 448 FMCLD detected, 404 (90.2%) were associated with cell clusters that had intense c-erbB2 immunoreactivities primarily in their cytoplasm, in contrast to their adjacent counterparts within the same duct, which had no or barely detectable c-erbB2 expression. These c-erbB2 positive cells were arranged as tongue-like projections, “puncturing” into the stroma, and about 20% of them were in direct continuity with tube-like structures that resembled blood vessels. Aberrant c-erbB2 expression was also seen in clusters of architecturally normal-appearing ducts that had distinct cytological abnormalities in both ME and epithelial cells, whereas not in their clear-cut normal counterparts. Molecular assays detected markedly higher c-erbB2 mRNA and gene amplification in cell clusters associated with FMCLD than in those associated with non-disrupted ME cell layers. Our findings suggest that cell clusters overlying FMCLD may represent the precursors of pending invasive lesions, and that aberrant cerbB2 expression may trigger or signify the emergence of biologically more aggressive cell clones. PMID:18726004

  20. The Reduced Predictive Value of Interleukin 28b Gene Polymorphisms in a Cohort of Patients With Thyroiditis Developed During Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Huy A; Jones, Tracey L; Ianna, Elizabeth A; Gibson, Robert A; Reeves, Glenn E M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism in the interleukin28B (IL28B) gene was recently shown to be associated with a significant increase in response to interferon-α and ribavirin treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Similarly, thyroid disease (TD) occurring during treatment confer an improved sustained virologic response (SVR). Objectives: To determine the role of IL28B genotypes in a cohort of hepatitis C patients who develop TD during treatment and its relationship to SVR. Patients and Methods: IL28B gene profiles including rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs 8099917 and their genotypes were determined in a cohort of 23 hepatitis C patients who developed TD during treatment and their relationship to SVR. Results: Out of 23 studies cases, 19 has one or more favorable genotypes, of which 15 (78.9%) achieved SVR. Eleven has all three unfavorable genotypes and yet achieved 72.7 % SVR. The presence of more than one favorable genotype only correctly predicts SVR vs. non- SVR in ~50 % of cases, i.e. by chance. Conclusions: Despite the small number of subjects, the presence of one or more unfavorable IL28B genotype does not portend a poor SVR prognostic outcome. This suggests that TD in this clinical context may be a critical factor in the achievement of SVR, probably above that of the genetic predisposition. PMID:23087747

  1. Study of grain boundary transparency in (Y b1 -xC ax) B a2C u3O bicrystal thin films over a wide temperature, field, and field orientation range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Abraimov, Dmytro; Polyanskii, Anatolii; Kametani, Fumitake; Larbalestier, David

    2015-03-01

    The residual low-angle grain boundary (GB) network is still the most important current-limiting mechanism operating in biaxially textured rare-earth barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) coated conductors. While Ca doping is well established to improve supercurrent flow across low-angle GBs in weak fields at high temperatures, Ca doping also depresses Tc, making it so far impractical for high-temperature applications of REBCO coated conductors. On the other hand, high-field-magnet applications of REBCO require low temperatures. Here we systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Ca doping in improving the GB transparency, rGB=JcGB/ Jcgrain , of low-angle Y b1 -xC axBaCuO [001] tilt bicrystal films down to 10 K and with magnetic fields perpendicular and parallel to the film surfaces, while varying the Ca and oxygen doping level. Using low-temperature scanning laser microscopy and magneto-optical imaging, we found rGB to strongly depend on the angle between magnetic field and the GB plane and clearly identified regimes in which JcGB can exceed Jcgrain(rGB>1 ) where the GB pinning is optimized by the field being parallel to the GB dislocations. However, even in this favorable situation, we found that rGB became much smaller at lower temperatures. Calculations of the GB Ca segregation profile predict that the high-Jc channels between the GB dislocation cores are almost Ca free. It may be therefore that the positive effects of Ca doping seen by many authors near Tc are partly a consequence of the higher Tc of these Ca-free channels.

  2. Implementation and testing of a sensor-netting algorithm for early warning and high confidence C/B threat detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Thomas; Grim, Larry; Fauth, Ryan; Tercha, Brian; Powell, Chris; Steinhardt, Kristin

    2011-05-01

    Large networks of disparate chemical/biological (C/B) sensors, MET sensors, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) sensors reporting to various command/display locations can lead to conflicting threat information, questions of alarm confidence, and a confused situational awareness. Sensor netting algorithms (SNA) are being developed to resolve these conflicts and to report high confidence consensus threat map data products on a common operating picture (COP) display. A data fusion algorithm design was completed in a Phase I SBIR effort and development continues in the Phase II SBIR effort. The initial implementation and testing of the algorithm has produced some performance results. The algorithm accepts point and/or standoff sensor data, and event detection data (e.g., the location of an explosion) from various ISR sensors (e.g., acoustic, infrared cameras, etc.). These input data are preprocessed to assign estimated uncertainty to each incoming piece of data. The data are then sent to a weighted tomography process to obtain a consensus threat map, including estimated threat concentration level uncertainty. The threat map is then tested for consistency and the overall confidence for the map result is estimated. The map and confidence results are displayed on a COP. The benefits of a modular implementation of the algorithm and comparisons of fused / un-fused data results will be presented. The metrics for judging the sensor-netting algorithm performance are warning time, threat map accuracy (as compared to ground truth), false alarm rate, and false alarm rate v. reported threat confidence level.

  3. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-07-01

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health and nutrition outcomes. Relevant publications were identified by searching PubMed, Popline and Web of Science databases. Meta-analyses were conducted for outcomes where results from at least three controlled trials were available. Potential benefits of vitamin B6 supplementation were reduction in nausea and vomiting, improvement in dental health, and treatment of some cases of anaemia. In meta-analysis based on three small studies, vitamin B6 supplementation had a significant positive effect on birthweight (d = 217 g [95% confidence interval (CI) 130, 304]). Interventions with vitamin C alone or combined with vitamin E did not systematically reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, or other adverse pregnancy outcomes. In meta-analyses, vitamins C and E increased the risk of pregnancy-related hypertension (relative risk 1.10 [95% CI 1.02, 1.19]). Effects of vitamin B6 or C intervention on other neonatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birthweight, and perinatal morbidity and mortality, were not significant. Data on child health outcomes were lacking. Despite the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency amongst populations with limited intake of animal source foods, no intervention trials have evaluated vitamin B12 supplementation before or during pregnancy. In conclusion, existing evidence does not justify vitamin C supplementation during pregnancy. Additional studies are needed to confirm positive effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on infant birthweight and other outcomes. While vitamin B12 supplementation may reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the offspring based on theoretical considerations, research is needed to support

  4. All-oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b: a multinational, phase 3, multicohort study.

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael; Pol, Stanislas; Jacobson, Ira M; Marcellin, Patrick; Gordon, Stuart C; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Everson, Gregory T; Heo, Jeong; Gerken, Guido; Yoffe, Boris; Towner, William J; Bourliere, Marc; Metivier, Sophie; Chu, Chi-Jen; Sievert, William; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Thabut, Dominique; Lee, Youn-Jae; Kao, Jia-Horng; McPhee, Fiona; Kopit, Justin; Mendez, Patricia; Linaberry, Misti; Hughes, Eric; Noviello, Stephanie

    2014-11-01

    An unmet need exists for interferon-free and ribavirin-free treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we assessed all-oral therapy with daclatasvir (NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus asunaprevir (NS3 protease inhibitor) in patients with genotype 1b infection, including those with high unmet needs or cirrhosis, or both. We did this phase 3, multicohort study (HALLMARK-DUAL) at 116 sites in 18 countries between May 11, 2012, and Oct 9, 2013. Patients were adults with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection who were treatment-naive; previous non-responders to peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin; or medically ineligible for, previously intolerant of, or ineligible for and intolerant of peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin. Treatment-naive patients were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) by an interactive voice-response system with a computer-generated random allocation sequence (stratified by cirrhosis status) to receive daclatasvir 60 mg once daily plus asunaprevir 100 mg twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients and investigator sites were masked to treatment assignment and HCV RNA results to the end of week 12. The treatment-naive group assigned to daclatasvir plus asunaprevir continued open-label treatment to the end of week 24; participants assigned to placebo entered another daclatasvir plus asunaprevir study. Non-responders and ineligible, intolerant, or ineligible and intolerant patients received open-label daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12. Efficacy analyses were restricted to patients given daclatasvir plus asunaprevir. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01581203. This study included 307 treatment-naive patients (205 received daclatasvir plus asunaprevir and 102 received placebo; all randomly assigned patients received the intended treatment), 205 non-responders, and 235 ineligible, intolerant, or ineligible and

  5. 77 FR 50519 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services [OMB Control Number 1615... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting... collection: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). (4...

  6. Comparative studies of differential expression of chitinolytic enzymes encoded by chiA, chiB, chiC and nagA genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, T; Molnár, Z; Emri, T; Klement, E; Miskei, M; Kerékgyárto, J; Balla, J; Pócsi, I

    2006-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine, chito-oligomers and carbon starvation regulated chiA, chiB, and nagA gene expressions in Aspergillus nidulans cultures. The gene expression patterns of the main extracellular endochitinase ChiB and the N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase NagA were similar, and the ChiB-NagA enzyme system may play a morphological and/or nutritional role during autolysis. Alterations in the levels of reactive oxygen species or in the glutathione-glutathione disulfide redox balance, characteristic physiological changes developing in ageing and autolyzing fungal cultures, did not affect the regulation of either the growth-related chiA or the autolysis-coupled chiB genes although both of them were down-regulated under diamide stress. The transcription of the chiC gene with unknown physiological function was repressed by increased intracellular superoxide concentration.

  7. Comparative studies on the lethal, mutagenic, and recombinogenic effects of ultraviolet -A, -B, -C, and visible light with and without 8-methoxypsoralen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mondon, P; Shahin, M M

    1992-05-01

    Genetic effects of UV-A, UV-B, UV-C, and the combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with UV-A or visible light were studied in the haploid strain XV185-14C and diploid strain D5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The induction of his+, lys+, and hom+ reverse mutations was measured in strain XV185-14C. In strain D5 we measured the induction of genetically altered colonies, particularly twin spot colonies arising from a mitotic crossing-over. UV-C and UV-B induced point mutations at the three loci in the haploid strain and mitotic crossing-over and other genetic alterations in the diploid strain. UV-C was more mutagenic and recombinogenic than UV-B. UV-A or visible light alone did not induce genotoxic effects at the doses tested. However, UV-A plus 8-MOP produced lethal and mutagenic effects in the haploid strain XV185-14C, although mutagenic activity was less than that of UV-B. Visible light plus 8-MOP also induced genotoxic effects in strain XV185-14C. In the diploid strain D5, UV-A plus 8-MOP induced a higher frequency of genetic alterations than UV-B at comparative doses. Visible light plus 8-MOP was also genetically active in strain D5. The haploid strain was more sensitive to the lethal effects of UV-C, UV-B, UV-A, and impure visible light plus 8-MOP than the diploid strain.

  8. Incidence trends of viral hepatitis A, B, and C seropositivity over eight years of surveillance in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Knawy, Bandar Al; El-Saed, Aiman

    2010-02-01

    In Saudi Arabia, viral hepatitis ranked the second most common reportable viral disease in 2007, with almost 9000 new cases diagnosed in that year. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence trends of viral hepatitis seropositivity among the population served by the National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA) hospitals in the central, eastern, and western Saudi Arabia regions. The surveillance system at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh receives weekly reports of laboratory confirmed hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases from all NGHA-served regions. In this study the viral hepatitis surveillance data for the period from January 2000 through December 2007 were analyzed. Between 2000 and 2007, a total of 14 224 seropositive cases of viral hepatitis were reported to the surveillance system. The average annual incidence of seropositivity per 100 000 served population was highest for HBV (104.6), followed by HCV (78.4), and lowest for HAV (13.6). Saudis had higher HBV and HAV incidence, but lower HCV incidence compared to non-Saudis. Over the eight years (2000-2007), the incidence of all three viral hepatitis types showed a 20-30% declining trend. Only HAV incidence followed a clear seasonal cyclic pattern. Despite the declining trend over the eight-year period, viral hepatitis, especially that caused by HBV and HCV, remains a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia, and has probably been underestimated in previous reports. There is a need for more comprehensive prevention strategies. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meeting vaccination quality measures for hepatitis A and B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Jennifer R; Hachem, Christine Y; Kanwal, Fasiha; Mei, Minghua; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2011-01-01

    Coinfection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has identified HAV and HBV vaccination as a priority area for quality measurement in HCV. It is unclear to what extent patients with HCV meet these recommendations. We used national data from the Department of Veterans Affairs HCV Clinical Case Registry to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of meeting the quality measure (QM) of receiving vaccination or documented immunity to HAV and HBV in patients with chronic HCV. We identified 88,456 patients who had overall vaccination rates of 21.9% and 20.7% for HBV and HAV, respectively. The QM rates were 57.0% and 45.5% for HBV and HAV, respectively. Patients who were nonwhite or who had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels, cirrhosis, or human immunodeficiency virus were more likely to meet the HBV QM. Factors related to HCV care were also determinants of meeting the HBV QM. These factors included receiving a specialist consult, genotype testing, or HCV treatment. Patients who were older, had psychosis, and had a higher comorbidity score were less likely to meet the HBV QM. With a few exceptions, similar variables were related to meeting the HAV QM. The incidence of superinfection with acute HBV and HAV was low, but it was significantly lower in patients who received vaccination than in those who did not. Quality measure rates for HAV and HBV are suboptimal for patients with chronic HCV. In addition, several patient-related factors and receiving HCV-related care are associated with a higher likelihood of meeting QMs. Copyright © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Single-strand breakage of DNA in UV-irradiated uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M S; Ross, L

    1985-01-01

    We transduced the uvrA6, uvrB5, uvrC34, and uvrC56 markers from the original mutagenized strains into an HF4714 background. Although in the original mutagenized strains uvrA6 cells are more UV sensitive than uvrB5 and uvrC34 cells, in the new background no significant difference in UV sensitivity is observed among uvrA6, uvrB5, and uvrC34 cells. No DNA single-strand breaks are detected in UV-irradiated uvrA6 or uvrB5 cells, whereas in contrast a significant number of single-strand breaks are detected in both UV-irradiated uvrC34 and uvrC56 cells. The number of single-strand breaks in these cells reaches a plateau at 20-J/m2 irradiation. Since these single-strand breaks can be detected by both alkaline sucrose and neutral formamide-sucrose gradient sedimentation, we concluded that the single-strand breaks observed in UV-irradiated uvrC cells are due to phosphodiester bond interruptions in DNA and are not due to apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. PMID:3882671

  11. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel human topoisomerase I inhibitors, topopyrones A, B, C and D. I. Producing strain, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Y; Ishiyama, D; Senda, H; Iwatani, W; Takahashi, H; Konno, H; Tokumasu, S; Kanazawa, S

    2000-09-01

    In the course of a screening program for specific inhibitors of human topoisomerase I using a recombinant yeast, we have discovered four new active compounds. All four compounds were isolated from the culture broth of a fungus, Phoma sp. BAUA2861, and two of them were isolated from the culture broth of a fungus, Penicillium sp. BAUA4206. We designated these compounds as topopyrones A, B, C and D. Topopyrones A, B, C and D selectively inhibited recombinant yeast growth dependent on expression of human topoisomerase I with IC50 values of 1.22, 0.15, 4.88 and 19.63 ng/ml, respectively. The activity and selectivity of topopyrone B were comparable to those of camptothecin. The relaxation of supercoiled pBR322 DNA by human DNA topoisomerase I was inhibited by these compounds, however they did not inhibit human DNA topoisomerase II. Topopyrones A, B, C and D were cytotoxic to all tumor cell lines when tested in vitro. Topopyrone B has potent inhibitory activity against herpesvirus, especially varicella zoster virus (VZV). It inhibited VZV growth with EC50 value of 0.038 microg/ml, which is 24-fold stronger than that of acyclovir (0.9 microg/ml). Topopyrones A, B, and C were inhibitory to Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. The FhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion system is involved in adhesion of Acinetobacter baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A; Merino, M; Rumbo-Feal, S; Álvarez-Fraga, L; Vallejo, J A; Beceiro, A; Ohneck, E J; Mateos, J; Fernández-Puente, P; Actis, L A; Poza, M; Bou, G

    2017-08-18

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC 2-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534.1). The AbFhaB is a large exoprotein which transport to the bacterial surface is mediated by the AbFhaC protein. In the present study, the role of this TPS system in the AbH12O-A2 adherence phenotype was investigated. The functional inactivation of this 2-partner secretion system was addressed by analyzing the outer membrane vesicles (OMV) proteomic profile from the wild-type strain and its derivative mutant AbH12O-A2ΔfhaC demonstrating that AbFhaB is no longer detected in the absence of AbFhaC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion experiments demonstrated that inactivation of the AbFhaB/FhaC system significantly decreases bacterial attachment to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that this 2-partner secretion system is involved in fibronectin-mediated adherence of the A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 isolate. Finally, we report that the AbFhaB/FhaC system is involved in virulence when tested using invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. These data suggest the potential role that this AbFhaB/FhaC secretion system could play in the pathobiology of A. baumannii.

  14. The FhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion system is involved in adhesion of Acinetobacter baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, A.; Merino, M.; Rumbo-Feal, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Vallejo, J. A.; Beceiro, A.; Ohneck, E. J.; Mateos, J.; Fernández-Puente, P.; Actis, L. A.; Poza, M.; Bou, G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC 2-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534.1). The AbFhaB is a large exoprotein which transport to the bacterial surface is mediated by the AbFhaC protein. In the present study, the role of this TPS system in the AbH12O-A2 adherence phenotype was investigated. The functional inactivation of this 2-partner secretion system was addressed by analyzing the outer membrane vesicles (OMV) proteomic profile from the wild-type strain and its derivative mutant AbH12O-A2ΔfhaC demonstrating that AbFhaB is no longer detected in the absence of AbFhaC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion experiments demonstrated that inactivation of the AbFhaB/FhaC system significantly decreases bacterial attachment to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that this 2-partner secretion system is involved in fibronectin-mediated adherence of the A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 isolate. Finally, we report that the AbFhaB/FhaC system is involved in virulence when tested using invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. These data suggest the potential role that this AbFhaB/FhaC secretion system could play in the pathobiology of A. baumannii. PMID:27858524

  15. Synthesis, processing and properties of TaC-TaB2-C Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    powder used. • A very important conclusion from the present study is that the grain size of nominally pure TaC ceramics is a strong function of carbon...ceramics at temperatures as low as 1500 ◦C. The grain size of nominally pure TaC ceramics was a strong function of carbon stoichiometry. Enhanced grain...evaluate the properties of ceramics in the TaC–TaB2–C system. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: A . Sintering; B. Microstructure; D. Carbides; D. Carbon

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in a forensic population of rapists and child molesters.

    PubMed Central

    Giotakos, O.; Bourtsoukli, P.; Paraskeyopoulou, T.; Spandoni, P.; Stasinos, S.; Boulougouri, D.; Spirakou, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence as well as the possible risk factors of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, in 194 male prisoners who had been convicted for rape (n = 105) or child molestation (n = 89). HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1/2 were tested for. The participants also completed a standard sociodemographic questionnaire, indicating possible risk factors, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the life-time history of aggression. Anti-HIV antibodies were not found in any of the prisoners. HBsAg was found in 25 (13%), anti-HBc in 94 (49%), anti-HBs in 40 (21%) and anti-HCV in 13 (6.5%) subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that anti-HCV positivity was associated with intravenous drug use (OR 20.7, 95% CI 1.1-4.9, P<0.001), while HBsAg positivity was associated separately with being foreign (OR 4.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.5, P<0.1), as well as with impulsiveness score (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.11, P<0.02). The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in this sex offender sample was highly increased in relation to the general population. Since it has been proved that sex offenders are a high-risk group for reoffending, monitoring their health is a necessary step towards prevention of sexually transmitted diseases being spread. PMID:12825735

  17. Characterization of Uterine Granular Cell Tumors in B6C3F1 Mice: A Histomorphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Veit, A. C.; Painter, J. T.; Miller, R. A.; Hardisty, J. F.; Dixon, D.

    2009-01-01

    The granular cell tumor is most often a benign neoplasm of uncertain origin. Four uterine granular cell tumors in control and treated female B6C3F1 mice were identified in chronic studies at the National Toxicology Program. Two tumors occurred in untreated control animals and 2 in treated animals receiving different compounds. Tissue sections were evaluated histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid–Schiff with diastase resistance, Masson’s trichrome, toluidine blue, phosphotungstic acid–hematoxylin, and stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies to muscle (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin), neural (S-100, neuron specific enolase), epithelial (wide-spectrum cytokeratin), and macrophage (F4/80) markers. The main histomorphologic feature of tumor cells was the presence of abundant cytoplasmic eosinophilic granules that stained positive for periodic acid–Schiff with diastase resistance. Tumors varied in appearance and were comprised of sheets and nests of round to polygonal cells with distinct borders. Nuclei were hyperchromatic, pleomorphic, and centrally to eccentrically located and often contained single nucleoli. Occasional multinucleated giant cells were observed. Tumors were pale pink and homogeneous with trichrome stain and negative with toluidine blue. Three tumors had positive to weakly positive immunoreactivity for desmin, and 1 was positive for alpha smooth muscle actin. Expression of S-100, wide-spectrum cytokeratin, and neuron-specific enolase was negative for all tumors. Ultrastructurally, prominent electron-dense cytoplasmic granules were abundant and contained secondary lysosomes with heterogeneous lysosomal contents. The characteristics of these uterine granular cell tumors were suggestive of a myogenic origin. PMID:18725470

  18. Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po Yee; Chen, Na; Leong, Po Kuan; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the signal transduction pathway involved in the cytoprotective action of (-)schisandrin B [(-)Sch B, a stereoisomer of Sch B]. Using H9c2 cells, the authors examined the effects of (-)Sch B on MAPK and Nrf2 activation, as well as the subsequent eliciting of glutathione response and protection against apoptosis. Pharmacological tools, such as cytochrome P-450 (CYP) inhibitor, antioxidant, MAPK inhibitor, and Nrf2 RNAi, were used to delineate the signaling pathway. (-)Sch B caused a time-dependent activation of MAPK in H9c2 cells, with the degree of ERK activation being much larger than that of p38 or JNK. The MAPK activation was followed by an increase in the level of nuclear Nrf2, an indirect measure of Nrf2 activation, and the eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response. The activation of MAPK and Nrf2 seemed to involve oxidants generated from a CYP-catalyzed reaction with (-)Sch B. Both ERK inhibition by U0126 and Nrf2 suppression by Nrf2 RNAi transfection largely abolished the cytoprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in (-)Sch B-pretreated cells. (-)Sch B pretreatment potentiated the reoxygenation-induced ERK activation, whereas both p38 and JNK activations were suppressed. Under the condition of ERK inhibition, Sch B treatment did not protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an ex vivo rat heart model. The results indicate that (-)Sch B triggers a redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 signaling, which then elicits a cellular glutathione antioxidant response and protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. The ERK-mediated signaling is also likely involved in the cardioprotection afforded by Sch B in vivo.

  19. Extended generation profile - E.B.I.C model application in the case of a PN junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermazi, S.; Toureille, A.; Grill, C.; El Jani, B.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a model for the calculation of the induced current due to an electron beam with an extended generation profile. Added to the absorbed and diffuse electrons in the depth distribution, the generation profile takes into account the lateral diffusion. The analytical expression of the electron beam induced current (EBIC) is obtained by solving the continuity equation in permanent regime by the Green function method. The induced current profile, obtained in the case of a ternary component (Ga{0.7}Al{0.3}As:N^+/Ga{0.7}Al{0.3}As:P) sulfur doped and prepared by organometallic compounds phase vapor epitaxy method, is compared to the theoretical profiles whose analytical expressions are given by Van Roosbroeck and Bresse. The experimental current profile, measured by S.E.M provided us to calculate the diffusion length of the minority carriers: L_p=1 μm in the N region and L_n=1.80 μm in the P region of the ternaire component. The theoretical curve obtained from the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental one for a surface recombination velocity of 10^6 cm s^{-1}. Our results are found to be consistent compared to those obtained by other experimental techniques using the same samples. Nous avons développé un modèle de calcul du courant induit par un faisceau d'électrons avec un profil de génération élargi. Le profil de génération prend en compte la répartition spatiale de la diffusion et de l'absorption des électrons. L'expression analytique du courant induit (E.B.I.C) est déterminée par résolution de l'équation de continuité en régime permanent par la méthode des fonctions de Green. Le profil de courant induit obtenu dans le cas d'une jonction PN (Ga{0,7}Al{0,3}As:N^+/Ga{0,7}Al{0,3}As:P) dopée par le soufre et préparée par épitaxie à phase vapeur organo-métallique, est comparé au profil de courant théorique dont l'expression analytique est explicitée par Van Roosbroeck et Bresse. Le profil expérimental de

  20. Comparison of Detection Rate and Mutational Pattern of Drug-Resistant Mutations Between a Large Cohort of Genotype B and Genotype C Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients in North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Yan; Xin, Shaojie; Ji, Dong; You, Shaoli; Hu, Jinhua; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Jingjing; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xu, Dongping

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the association of prevalent genotypes in China (HBV/C and HBV/B) with HBV drug-resistant mutations. A total of 13,847 nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-treated patients with chronic HBV infection from North China were enrolled. HBV genotypes and resistant mutations were determined by direct sequencing and confirmed by clonal sequencing if necessary. HBV/B, HBV/C, and HBV/D occupied 14.3%, 84.9%, and 0.8% across the study population, respectively. NA usage had no significant difference between HBV/B- and HBV/C-infected patients. Lamivudine-resistant mutations were more frequently detected in HBV/C-infected patients, compared with HBV/B-infected patients (31.67% vs. 25.26%, p < 0.01). Adefovir- and entecavir-resistant mutation detection rates were similar, but the mutational pattern was different between the two genotypes. For adefovir-resistant mutations, HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of rtA181 V (HBV/C 5.29% vs. HBV/B 1.36%, p < 0.01) and a lower detection rate of rtN236T (2.70% vs. 6.54%, p < 0.01). For entecavir-resistant mutations, HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of rtM204 V/I+T184 substitution or S202G/C (3.66% vs. 2.16%, p < 0.01) and a lower detection rate of rtM204 V/I+M250 V/I/L substitution (0.67% vs. 1.46%, p < 0.01). Multidrug-resistant mutations (defined as coexistence of mutation to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues) were detected in 104 patients. HBV/C-infected patients had a higher detection rate of multidrug-resistant mutation than HBV/B-infected patients (0.83% vs. 0.35%, p < 0.05). The study for the first time clarified that HBV/C-infected patients had a higher risk to develop multidrug-resistant mutations, compared with HBV/B-infected patients; and HBV/C- and HBV/B-infected patients had different inclinations in the ETV-resistant mutational pattern.

  1. B cells in chronically hepatitis C virus-infected individuals lack a virus-induced mutation signature in the TP53, CTNNB1, and BCL6 genes.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Felicia Anna; Broering, Ruth; Johansson, Patricia; Schlaak, Joerg F; Küppers, Ralf

    2013-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to have a causative role in B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, including B-cell lymphomas, in chronic virus carriers. Previous data from in vitro HCV-infected B-cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV-positive individuals suggested that HCV might have a direct mutagenic effect on B cells, inducing mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and the proto-oncogenes BCL6 and CTNNB1 (β-catenin). To clarify whether HCV indeed has a mutagenic effect on B cells in vivo, we analyzed naive and memory B cells from the peripheral blood of four chronic HCV carriers and intrahepatic B cells from the livers of two HCV-positive patients for mutations in the three reported target genes. However, no mutations were found in the TP53 and CTNNB1 genes. For BCL6, which is a physiological target of the somatic hypermutation process in germinal-center B cells, the mutation levels identified were not higher than those reported in the respective B-cell subsets in healthy individuals. Hence, we conclude that in chronic HCV carriers, the virus does not generally induce mutations in the cancer-related genes TP53, CTNNB1, and BCL6 in B cells. Based on these findings, new targets have to be investigated as potential mediators of HCV-associated B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  2. Mortality associated with hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection: A nationwide study on multiple causes of death data.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Grande, Enrico; Grippo, Francesco; Frova, Luisa

    2017-03-14

    To analyze mortality associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Italy. Death certificates mentioning either HBV or HCV infection were retrieved from the Italian National Cause of Death Register for the years 2011-2013. Mortality rates and proportional mortality (percentage of deaths with mention of HCV/HBV among all registered deaths) were computed by gender and age class. The geographical variability in HCV-related mortality rates was investigated by directly age-standardized rates (European standard population). Proportional mortality for HCV and HBV among subjects aged 20-59 years was assessed in the native population and in different immigrant groups. HCV infection was mentioned in 1.6% ( n = 27730) and HBV infection in 0.2% ( n = 3838) of all deaths among subjects aged ≥ 20 years. Mortality rates associated with HCV infection increased exponentially with age in both genders, with a male to female ratio close to unity among the elderly; a further peak was observed in the 50-54 year age group especially among male subjects. HCV-related mortality rates were higher in Southern Italy among elderly people (45/100000 in subjects aged 60-79 and 125/100000 in subjects aged ≥ 80 years), and in North-Western Italy among middle-aged subjects (9/100000 in the 40-59 year age group). Proportional mortality was higher among Italian citizens and North African immigrants for HCV, and among Sub-Saharan African and Asian immigrants for HBV. Population ageing, immigration, and new therapeutic approaches are shaping the epidemiology of virus-related chronic liver disease. In spite of limits due to the incomplete reporting and misclassification of the etiology of liver disease, mortality data represent an additional source of information for surveillance.

  3. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the addiction antidote CcdA in complex with its toxin CcdB

    SciTech Connect

    Buts, Lieven; De Jonge, Natalie; Loris, Remy, E-mail: reloris@vub.ac.be

    2005-10-01

    The CcdA C-terminal domain was crystallized in complex with CcdB in two crystal forms that diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. CcdA and CcdB are the antidote and toxin of the ccd addiction module of Escherichia coli plasmid F. The CcdA C-terminal domain (CcdA{sub C36}; 36 amino acids) was crystallized in complex with CcdB (dimer of 2 × 101 amino acids) in three different crystal forms, two of which diffract to high resolution. Form II belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.6, b = 60.5, c = 83.8 Å and diffracts to 1.8more » Å resolution. Form III belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.0, b = 37.9, c = 69.6 Å, β = 96.9°, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.« less

  4. Combustion of Na 2B 4O 7 + Mg + C to synthesis B 4C powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guojian, Jiang; Jiayue, Xu; Hanrui, Zhuang; Wenlan, Li

    2009-09-01

    Boron carbide powder was fabricated by combustion synthesis (CS) method directly from mixed powders of borax (Na 2B 4O 7), magnesium (Mg) and carbon. The adiabatic temperature of the combustion reaction of Na 2B 4O 7 + 6 Mg + C was calculated. The control of the reactions was achieved by selecting reactant composition, relative density of powder compact and gas pressure in CS reactor. The effects of these different influential factors on the composition and morphologies of combustion products were investigated. The results show that, it is advantageous for more Mg/Na 2B 4O 7 than stoichiometric ratio in Na 2B 4O 7 + Mg + C system and high atmosphere pressure in the CS reactor to increase the conversion degree of reactants to end product. The final product with the minimal impurities' content could be fabricated at appropriate relative density of powder compact. At last, boron carbide without impurities could be obtained after the acid enrichment and distilled water washing.

  5. Ligand Based-Pharmacophore Modeling and Extended Bi oactivity Prediction for Salinosporamide A, B and C from Marine Actino mycetes Salinispora tropica.

    PubMed

    Dineshkumar, Kesavan; Vasudevan, Aparna; Hopper, Waheeta

    2017-01-01

    Actinomycetes produce structurally unique secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically essential bioactivities. Salinispora, an obligate marine actinomycete, produces structurally varied and unique secondary metabolites. There is plenty of scope for development of drugs from the novel compounds isolated from Salinispora. Anticancer, antibacterial and anti-protozoa activities have been shown for Salinosporamides A, B and C, the secondary metabolites identified from Salinispora, which make them interesting subjects for further extended biological activity prediction. An in silico ligand based-pharmacophore approach was used for the prediction of extended biological targets for salinosporamide A, B and C. Pharmacophore models of salinosporamide A, B and C were generated individually and screened against known drug databases. The drugs with best fitness score were shortlisted, and their respective targets pertaining to their bioactivity were retrieved. The predicted biological drug targets were docked with salinosporamide A, B and C for validation. The glucocorticoid receptor and methionine aminopeptidase 2 showed good docking score and binding energy with salinosporamide A, B and C. Molecular dynamics studies of the protein-ligand complexes showed stable interactions suggesting that the predicted new targets for salinosporamides might be promising. The glucocorticoid receptor and methionine aminopeptidase 2 could be possible new drug targets of bioactivity of salinosporamides. These proteins could be the druggable targets for antiinflammatory and anticancer activity of salinosporamides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Epidemiological study of hepatitis B and C in a municipality with rural characteristics: Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Laura Valdiane Luz; Silva, Marcondes Alves Barbosa da; Perdoná, Gleici da Silva Castro; Nascimento, Margarida Maria Passeri; Secaf, Marie; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Martinelli, Ana de Lourdes Candolo; Passos, Afonso Dinis Costa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections remain an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Studies have been conducted in population groups of large cities, leaving gaps in the knowledge regarding the situation in small municipalities. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers and presence of infection-associated factors. All inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros aged ≥18 years who agreed to participate in the research were included. We collected blood as well as information via a questionnaire between March 2011 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Among the 1,001 participants, 41 (4.1%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis B viral exposure, and only one (0.1%) participant was considered a virus carrier. The frequency of isolated antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) markers was 17.8% for the overall population. In the multivariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was associated with age, birth outside the State of São Paulo, history of hepatitis, ≥2 sexual partners in the last 6 months, and tattoos. Four (0.4%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis C viral exposure. However, after confirmation using viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) evaluation, only one (0.1%) individual remained positive. The positivity rates for hepatitis B and C were low, despite greater sexual freedom and the recent emergence of illicit drugs, as observed by the health personnel working in Cássia dos Coqueiros.

  7. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is a substrate for the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity of cyclophilins A and B.

    PubMed

    Hanoulle, Xavier; Badillo, Aurélie; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Lippens, Guy

    2009-05-15

    We report here a biochemical and structural characterization of domain 2 of the nonstructural 5A protein (NS5A) from the JFH1 Hepatitis C virus strain and its interactions with cyclophilins A and B (CypA and CypB). Gel filtration chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and finally NMR spectroscopy all indicate the natively unfolded nature of this NS5A-D2 domain. Because mutations in this domain have been linked to cyclosporin A resistance, we used NMR spectroscopy to investigate potential interactions between NS5A-D2 and cellular CypA and CypB. We observed a direct molecular interaction between NS5A-D2 and both cyclophilins. The interaction surface on the cyclophilins corresponds to their active site, whereas on NS5A-D2, it proved to be distributed over the many proline residues of the domain. NMR heteronuclear exchange spectroscopy yielded direct evidence that many proline residues in NS5A-D2 form a valid substrate for the enzymatic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of CypA and CypB.

  8. MicroRNA-23b mediates urokinase and c-met downmodulation and a decreased migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Alessandro; Sabelli, Cristiano; Moncini, Silvia; Venturin, Marco; Arici, Bruna; Riva, Paola; Portolani, Nazario; Giulini, Stefano M; De Petro, Giuseppina; Barlati, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and c-met play a major role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Evidence has suggested that uPA and c-met overexpression may be coordinated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, to understand whether the expression of these genes might be coregulated by specific microRNAs (miRs) in human cells, we predicted that Homo sapiens microRNA-23b could recognize two sites in the 3'-UTR of uPA and four sites in the c-met 3'-UTR by the algorithm pictar. The miR-23b expression analysis in human tumor and normal cells revealed an inverse trend with uPA and c-met expression, indicating that uPA and c-met negative regulation might depend on miR-23b expression. Transfection of miR-23b molecules in HCC cells (SKHep1C3) led to inhibition of protein expression of the target genes and caused a decrease in cell migration and proliferation capabilities. Furthermore, anti-miR-23b transfection in human normal AB2 dermal fibroblasts upregulated the expression of endogenous uPA and c-met. Cotransfection experiments in HCC cells of the miR-23b with pGL4.71 Renilla luciferase reporter gene constructs, containing the putative uPA and c-met 3'-UTR target sites, and with the pGL3 firefly luciferase-expressing vector showed a decrease in the relative luciferase activity. This would indicate that miR-23b can recognize target sites in the 3'-UTR of uPA and of c-met mRNAs and translationally repress the expression of uPA and c-met in HCC cells. The evidence obtained shows that overexpression of miR-23b leads to uPA and c-met downregulation and to decreased migration and proliferation abilities of HCC cells.

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Prabha; Khan, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have several important similarities including worldwide distribution, hepato-tropism, similar modes of transmission and the ability to induce chronic infection that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since both viruses are individually known to cause the pathologies mentioned above, co-infection with both HBV and HCV would be expected to be linked with higher morbidity as well as mortality and impact healthcare resource utilisation. Precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection would be needed to formulate policy decisions and plan communal health interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aims to understand the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in India based on the available literature. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary studies reporting the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, Google SCHOLAR, Medline, Cochrane Library, WHO reports, Indian and International journals online. All online searches were conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect statistical software. Thirty studies published between 2000 and 2016 conducted across six regions of India were included in this review. The pooled HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence rate across the thirty studies was 1.89% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.2%-2.4%). A high heterogeneity was observed between prevalence estimates. The HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence in different subgroups varied from 0.02% (95% CI = 0.0019%-0.090%) to 3.2% (95% CI = 1.3%-5.9%). The pooled prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India was found to be 1.89%. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in chronic liver patients, followed by HIV-positive patients, and then followed by persons who inject drugs and kidney disease patients.

  10. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of a Family of Models of Seaplane Floats with Varying Angles of Dead Rise - N.A.C.A. Models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; House, Rufus O

    1939-01-01

    Three models of V-bottom floats for twin-float seaplanes (N.A.C.A. models 57-A, 57-B, and 57-C) having angles of dead rise of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and thirty degrees, respectively, were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank and in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. Within the range investigated, the effect of angle of dead rise on water resistance was found to be negligible at speeds up to and including the hump speed, and water resistance was found to increase with angle of dead rise at planing speeds. The height of the spray at the hump speed decreased with increase in angle of dead rise and the aerodynamic drag increased with dead rise. Lengthening the forebody of model 57-B decreased the water resistance and the spray at speeds below the hump speed. Spray strips provided an effective means for the control of spray with the straight V sections used in the series but considerably increased the aerodynamic drag. Charts for the determination of the water resistance and the static properties of the model with 25 degrees dead rise and for the aerodynamic drag of all the models are included for use in design.

  11. 48 CFR 1827.304-1 - General. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), and (h))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., shall apply. (b) Greater rights determinations. In any contract with other than a small business firm or... in the performance of work under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit... inventions made and reported under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit...

  12. 48 CFR 1827.304-1 - General. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), and (h))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., shall apply. (b) Greater rights determinations. In any contract with other than a small business firm or... in the performance of work under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit... inventions made and reported under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit...

  13. 48 CFR 1827.304-1 - General. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), and (h))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., shall apply. (b) Greater rights determinations. In any contract with other than a small business firm or... in the performance of work under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit... inventions made and reported under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit...

  14. 48 CFR 1827.304-1 - General. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), and (h))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., shall apply. (b) Greater rights determinations. In any contract with other than a small business firm or... in the performance of work under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit... inventions made and reported under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit...

  15. 48 CFR 1827.304-1 - General. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), and (h))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., shall apply. (b) Greater rights determinations. In any contract with other than a small business firm or... in the performance of work under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit... inventions made and reported under any contract with other than a small business firm or a nonprofit...

  16. Fate of avermectin B1a on citrus fruits. 1. Distribution and magnitude of the avermectin B sub 1a and sup 14 C residue on citrus fruits from a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, M.S.; Iwata, Y.; Wislocki, P.G.

    An 8{mu}g/mL solution of ({sup 14}C)avermectin B{sub 1a}, the approximate field application rate, was applied to oranges, lemons, and grapefruit; a 10-fold higher rate was also applied to oranges. Immediately postapplication, {sup 14}C residues were 20-38 ng/g for the fruit treated at the field rate. Most of the residue was recovered in the surface solvent rinse at less than 2 weeks postapplication; however, after this time more of the residue was recovered from the rind fraction. The total recoveries of applied radioactivity were 61-90% and 33-50% at 1 and 12 weeks postapplication, respectively. The level of unextractable rind {sup 14}Cmore » residue from oranges treated at the 10{times} rate and harvested at 12 weeks (a worse case) was 4.9% of the applied dose (<2 ppb at the field rate). The inner pulp samples for all treatments had {sup 14}C residue levels below the detection limit of 0.4-0.8 ppb. The initial depletion half-life of avermectin B{sub 1a} was <1 week, with losses occurring within 30-40 min. For the 1-12-week postapplication period, the avermectin B{sub 1a} and {sup 14}C residue depletion half-lives were 20-38 and 56-98 days, respectively. Differences in the rate of dissipation of avermectin B{sub 1a} due to fruit type and application rate were observed.« less

  17. Temperature dependence of the A, B, and C excitons in ZnO over 5-400 K: A modulated reflectivity study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoi, S.; Cardona, M.; Lauck, R.; Alawadhi, H.; Lu, X.; Grimsditch, M.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2005-03-01

    Optical properties of ZnO, a wide gap semiconductor with wurtzite structure, have generated renewed interest in the material in the context of opto-electronic phenomena and applications. The A, B, and C excitons of ZnO, arising from the combined effects of crystal field and spin-orbit splittings of the valence band, are investigated in the temperature range 5- 400 K, exploiting electro-, photo-, and wavelength-modulated reflectivity. The specimens studied have natural isotopic composition. The temperature dependence of the A, B, and C excitonic band gaps, fitted with a two harmonic oscillator modelootnotetextM. Cardona, Phys. Status. Solidi b 220, 5 (2000); R. Pä'ssler, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 6235 (2001) following Manj'on et al.ootnotetextF. J. Manj'on et al., Solid State Commun. 128, 35 (2003), yields the magnitudes of the zero-point renormalizations 262 meV (A), 227 meV (B), and 249 meV (C), respectively. Isotopically controlled ZnO is currently being investigated to determine the isotopic mass dependence of the zero-point renormalizations.

  18. Structure of Myo7b/USH1C complex suggests a general PDZ domain binding mode by MyTH4-FERM myosins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianchao; He, Yunyun; Weck, Meredith L.; Lu, Qing; Tyska, Matthew J.; Zhang, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional myosin 7a (Myo7a), myosin 7b (Myo7b), and myosin 15a (Myo15a) all contain MyTH4-FERM domains (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in their cargo binding tails and are essential for the growth and function of microvilli and stereocilia. Numerous mutations have been identified in the MyTH4-FERM tandems of these myosins in patients suffering visual and hearing impairment. Although a number of MF domain binding partners have been identified, the molecular basis of interactions with the C-terminal MF domain (CMF) of these myosins remains poorly understood. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of Myo7b CMF in complex with the extended PDZ3 domain of USH1C (a.k.a., Harmonin), revealing a previously uncharacterized interaction mode both for MyTH4-FERM tandems and for PDZ domains. We predicted, based on the structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ3 complex, and verified that Myo7a CMF also binds to USH1C PDZ3 using a similar mode. The structure of the Myo7b CMF/USH1C PDZ complex provides mechanistic explanations for >20 deafness-causing mutations in Myo7a CMF. Taken together, these findings suggest that binding to PDZ domains, such as those from USH1C, PDZD7, and Whirlin, is a common property of CMFs of Myo7a, Myo7b, and Myo15a. PMID:28439001

  19. Chloroform-Methanol Residue of Coxiella burnetii Markedly Potentiated the Specific Immunoprotection Elicited by a Recombinant Protein Fragment rOmpB-4 Derived from Outer Membrane Protein B of Rickettsia rickettsii in C3H/HeN Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wenping; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiong, Xiaolu; Jiao, Jun; Yang, Xiaomei; Wen, Bohai

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii, are the potential agents of bio-warfare/bio-terrorism. Here C3H/HeN mice were immunized with a recombinant protein fragment rOmp-4 derived from outer membrane protein B, a major protective antigen of R. rickettsii, combined with chloroform-methanol residue (CMR) extracted from phase I C. burnetii organisms, a safer Q fever vaccine. These immunized mice had significantly higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2a to rOmpB-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), two crucial cytokines in resisting intracellular bacterial infection, as well as significantly lower rickettsial loads and slighter pathological lesions in organs after challenge with R. rickettsii, compared with mice immunized with rOmpB-4 or CMR alone. Additionally, after challenge with C. burnetii, the coxiella loads in the organs of these mice were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with rOmpB-4 alone. Our results prove that CMR could markedly potentiate enhance the rOmpB-4-specific immunoprotection by promoting specific and non-specific immunoresponses and the immunization with the protective antigen of R. rickettsii combined with CMR of C. burnetii could confer effective protection against infection of R. rickettsii or C. burnetii. PMID:25909586

  20. Janthinocins A, B and C, novel peptide lactone antibiotics produced by Janthinobacterium lividum. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, J; McCullough, J; Johnson, J H; Bonner, D P; Clark, J C; Dean, L; Trejo, W H

    1990-08-01

    Janthinocins A, B and C are novel antibacterial agents produced by Janthinobacterium lividum. They were isolated from fermentation broths and characterized by UV, IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. They are cyclic decapeptide lactones with marked activity against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria and are 2 to 4 times more potent in vitro than vancomycin. Janthinocins A and B were also found to be effective in a Staphylococcus aureus systemic infection in mice.

  1. USSAERO computer program development, versions B and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, F. A.

    1980-01-01

    Versions B and C of the unified subsonic and supersonic aerodynamic analysis program, USSAERO, are described. Version B incorporates a new symmetrical singularity method to provide improved surface pre