Science.gov

Sample records for a b c

  1. Isolation and structure of homotemsirolimuses A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fangming; Zhu, Tianmin; Yu, Ker; Pagano, Thomas G; Desai, Parimal; Radebaugh, Galen; Fawzi, Mahdi

    2011-04-25

    Homotemsirolimuses A, B, and C (2a, 2b, 2c) were found to be minor components of a temsirolimus preparation made from rapamycin. These three temsirolimus analogues are derived from the corresponding rapamycin analogues, homorapamycins A, B, and C (1a, 1b, 1c) produced by the strain Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The structures of homotemsirolimuses A, B, and C were determined by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were tested for mTOR kinase inhibition and in two proliferation assays using LNCap prostate and MDA468 breast cancer cells. The results suggested that the mTOR inhibition and antiproliferation potencies for 2a, 2b, and 2c are comparable to those of rapamycin (1) and temsirolimus (2).

  2. A Revised Mechanism for the Activation of Complement C3 to C3b

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg102. In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg102-Glu1032 salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg102) and disease-linked C3F (Gly102) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. PMID:25488663

  3. The A-B-C of Desalting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Office of Water Research and Technology.

    This publication provides a simple explanation of how various processes convert sea or brackish water to fresh water. Included are descriptions of the membrane processes (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, transport depletion, and piezodialysis); the distillation processes (multistage flash distillation, vertical tube distillation, multieffect…

  4. The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structure of C2b has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution, which reveals the arrangement of its three complement control protein (CCP) modules. A model for complement component C2 is presented and its conformational changes during the C3-convertase formation are also discussed. The second component of complement (C2) is a multi-domain serine protease that provides catalytic activity for the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical and lectin pathways of human complement. The formation of these convertases requires the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent binding of C2 to C4b and the subsequent cleavage of C2 by C1s or MASP2, respectively. The crystal structure of full-length C2 is not yet available, although the structure of its C-terminal catalytic segment C2a has been determined. The crystal structure of the N-terminal segment C2b of C2 determined to 1.8 Å resolution presented here reveals the arrangement of its three CCP domains. The domains are arranged differently compared with most other CCP-domain assemblies, but their arrangement is similar to that found in the Ba part of the full-length factor B structure. The crystal structures of C2a, C2b and full-length factor B are used to generate a model for C2 and a discussion of the domain association and possible interactions with C4b during formation of the C4b–C2 complex is presented. The results of this study also suggest that upon cleavage by C1s, C2a domains undergo conformational rotation while bound to C4b and the released C2b domains may remain folded together similar to as observed in the intact protein.

  5. Bacithrocins A, B and C, novel thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, T; Umino, T; Nakamura, Y; Itezono, Y; Sawairi, S; Satoh, T; Yokose, K

    1994-09-01

    Novel thrombin inhibitors, bacithrocins A, B and C, have been isolated from the culture broth of Bacillus laterosporus Laubach NR 2988. The structures of these inhibitors have been determined to be N-acyl-L-phenylalanyl-DL-arginal by the 2D-NMR experiments on their oxidation products and by amino acid analysis. Bacithrocin A inhibits thrombin, factor Xa and trypsin with IC50s of 48, 13 and 0.65 microM, respectively, which are similar to those of bacithrocins B and C. Bacithrocins prolong the clotting time induced by thrombin and factor Xa.

  6. ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111681. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Pure Number Curriculum Guide, Sections A, B, and C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    Included are three curriculum guides, Section A, Section B, and Section C, which are concerned with the development of number concepts in elementary school, through the use of Cuisenaire rods. Small group and individual instruction are encouraged, and many suitable learning activities are suggested. Section A is introductory and covers number…

  8. Gramicidins A, B, and C form structurally equivalent ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, D B; Williams, L P; Whaley, W L; Koeppe, R E; Andersen, O S

    1990-01-01

    The membrane structure of the naturally occurring gramicidins A, B, and C was investigated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and single-channel recording techniques. All three gramicidins form channels with fairly similar properties (Bamberg, E., K. Noda, E. Gross, and P. Läuger. 1976. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 419:223-228.). When incorporated into lysophosphatidylcholine micelles, however, the CD spectrum of gramicidin B is different from that of gramicidin A or C (cf. Prasad, K. U., T. L. Trapane, D. Busath, G. Szabo, and D. W. Urry. 1983. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 22:341-347.). The structural identity of the channels formed by gramicidin B has, therefore, been uncertain. We find that when gramicidins A and B are incorporated into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, their CD spectra are fairly similar, suggesting that the two channel structures could be similar. In planar bilayers, gramicidins A, B, and C all form hybrid channels with each other. The properties of the hybrid channels are intermediate to those of the symmetric channels, and the appearance rates of the hybrid channels (relative to the symmetric channels) corresponds to what would be predicted if all three gramicidin molecules were to form structurally equivalent channels. These results allow us to interpret the different behavior of channels formed by the three gramicidins solely on the basis of the amino acid substitution at position 11. PMID:1705449

  9. 75 FR 68970 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D; NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... agency for restricted areas R-5301 Albemarle Sound, NC; R-5302A, B and C, Harvey Point, NC; and R-5313A... areas R-5301; R-5302A, B and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D, in North Carolina by removing the words...

  10. 24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. Complement components C2, C3, and C4 (C4A and C4B) and BF polymorphisms in populations of the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Ad'hiah, A H; Papiha, S S

    1996-10-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of the complement components (five loci: C2, C3, C4A, C4B, and BF) have been investigated in the Telugu-speaking Hindu population of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, and the Bangali-speaking Muslim population of Dacca, Bangladesh. The available data are compared to understand the genetic variation of complement components in populations of the Indian subcontinent. The C3*F and BF*F alleles show wide frequency variations in different ethnic groups of India. The range of variation in the C3*F allele is intermediate between European whites and southeast Asian populations, whereas the BF*F allele places the Indian frequencies between European whites and African blacks. This is the first population study to investigate the C2 and C4 (C4A and C4B) polymorphisms in two distinct groups of the Indian subcontinent. For the C2 polymorphism only the C2*B variant allele was observed, and its frequency was slightly higher than in European populations. In both populations the C4A and C4B loci were highly polymorphic, with a high frequency of the null alleles C4A*QO and C4B*QO, which may account for the greater susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases in populations of South Asia.

  13. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    PubMed

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  14. Callipeltosides A, B and C: Total Syntheses and Structural Confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James R; Pearson, Colin M; Snaddon, Thomas N; Booth, Richard A; Turner, Richard M; Gold, Johan; Shaw, David M; Gaunt, Matthew J; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Since their isolation almost 20 years ago, the callipeltosides have been of long standing interest to the synthetic community owing to their unique structural features and inherent biological activity. Herein we present our full research effort that has led to the synthesis of these molecules. Key aspects of our final strategy include 1) synthesis of the C1–C9 pyran core (5) using an AuCl3-catalysed cyclisation; 2) formation of C10–C22 vinyl iodide (55) by sequential bidirectional Stille reactions and 3) diastereoselective union of these advanced fragments by means of an alkenylzinc addition (d.r.=91:9 at C9). The common callipeltoside aglycon (4) was completed in a further five steps. Following this, all three sugar fragments were appended to provide the entire callipeltoside family. In addition to this, D-configured callipeltose B was synthesised and appended to the callipeltoside aglycon. The 1H NMR spectrum of this molecule was found to be significantly different to the natural isolate, further supporting our assignment of callipeltoside B (2). PMID:26230615

  15. Novel autophagy inducers lentztrehaloses A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shun-ichi; Kubota, Yumiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Hatano, Masaki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Chigusa; Igarashi, Masayuki; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Trehalose has widespread use as a sweetener, humectant and stabilizer, and is now attracting attention as a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as it is an autophagy inducer and chemical chaperone. However, the bioavailability of trehalose is low because it is digested by the hydrolyzing enzyme trehalase, expressed in the intestine and kidney. Enzyme-stable analogs of trehalose would potentially solve this problem. We have previously reported an enzyme-stable analog of trehalose, lentztrehalose, and herein report two new analogs. The original lentztrehalose has been renamed lentztrehalose A and the analogs named lentztrehaloses B and C. Lentztrehalose B is a di-dehydroxylated analog and lentztrehalose C is a cyclized analog of lentztrehalose A. All the lentztrehaloses are only minimally hydrolyzed by mammalian trehalase. The production of the lentztrehaloses is high in rather dry conditions and low in wet conditions. Lentztrehalose B shows a moderate antioxidative activity. These facts suggest that the lentztrehaloses are produced as humectants or protectants for the producer microorganism under severe environmental conditions. All the lentztrehaloses induce autophagy in human cancer cells at a comparable level to trehalose. Considering the enzyme-stability, these lentztrehaloses can be regarded as promising new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and other autophagy-related diseases, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cancer and heart disease.

  16. Seeing the B-A-C-H motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catravas, Palmyra

    2005-09-01

    Musical compositions can be thought of as complex, multidimensional data sets. Compositions based on the B-A-C-H motif (a four-note motif of the pitches of the last name of Johann Sebastian Bach) span several centuries of evolving compositional styles and provide an intriguing set for analysis since they contain a common feature, the motif, buried in dissimilar contexts. We will present analyses which highlight the content of this unusual set of pieces, with emphasis on visual display of information.

  17. Structural organization of nuclear lamins A, C, B1, and B2 revealed by superresolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi; Kittisopikul, Mark; Tran, Joseph; Goldman, Anne E.; Adam, Stephen A.; Zheng, Yixian; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Goldman, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a key structural element of the metazoan nucleus. However, the structural organization of the major proteins composing the lamina is poorly defined. Using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy and computational image analysis, we characterized the supramolecular structures of lamin A, C, B1, and B2 in mouse embryo fibroblast nuclei. Each isoform forms a distinct fiber meshwork, with comparable physical characteristics with respect to mesh edge length, mesh face area and shape, and edge connectivity to form faces. Some differences were found in face areas among isoforms due to variation in the edge lengths and number of edges per face, suggesting that each meshwork has somewhat unique assembly characteristics. In fibroblasts null for the expression of either lamins A/C or lamin B1, the remaining lamin meshworks are altered compared with the lamin meshworks in wild-type nuclei or nuclei lacking lamin B2. Nuclei lacking LA/C exhibit slightly enlarged meshwork faces and some shape changes, whereas LB1-deficient nuclei exhibit primarily a substantial increase in face area. These studies demonstrate that individual lamin isoforms assemble into complex networks within the nuclear lamina and that A- and B-type lamins have distinct roles in maintaining the organization of the nuclear lamina. PMID:26310440

  18. CD8+ T-Cell Responses in Hepatitis B and C: The (HLA-) A, B, and C of Hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Katja; Luxenburger, Hendrik; Kiraithe, Muthamia M; Thimme, Robert; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph

    Approximately 500 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and are thus at high risk of progressive liver disease, leading to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and ultimately hepatocellular cancer. Virus-specific CD8+ T-cells play a major role in viral clearance in >90% of adult patients who clear HBV and in approximately 30% of patients who clear HCV in acute infection. However, several mechanisms contribute to the failure of the adaptive CD8+ T-cell response in those patients who progress to chronic infection. These include viral mutations leading to escape from the CD8+ T-cell response as well as exhaustion and dysfunction of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells. Antiviral efficacy of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cell response also strongly depends on its restriction by specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I alleles. Our review will summarize the role of HLA-A, B and C-restricted CD8+ T-cells in HBV and HCV infection. Due to the current lack of a comprehensive database of HBV- and HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes, we also provide a summary of the repertoire of currently well-described HBV- and HCV-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the success or failure of virus-specific CD8+ T-cells may help to develop new therapeutic options for HBV eradication in patients with chronic HBV infection (therapeutic vaccination and/or immunomodulation) as well as a prophylactic vaccine against HCV infection.

  19. Series reactions ABC on successive spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strieder, William; Saddawi, Salma

    2016-07-01

    The twin spherical harmonic expansion method with iterative solution of the coefficient equations is used to generate a rigorous analytical solution for the rate of series reaction, ABC, occurring, respectively, on two successive spheres of radius a1 and a2, a center-to-center distance d apart. To investigate the influences of the intersphere diffusion and geometry, diffusion-controlled reactions are considered. Results are presented as a series expansion of the dimensionless reaction rate R in terms of the dimensionless center-to-center sphere separation d bar (= d / (a1 +a2)) reciprocals, and for various sphere radius ratios γ (=a1 /a2) . When the sphere radius ratio γ is less than unity, a maximum in the series reaction rate is found for a d bar of about 1.05. Also an exact value of the series dimensionless reaction rate of ln2 is obtained in the limit γ → 0 (very large a2 or very small a1) for spheres in contact. Results suggest that the plots of reaction rates for contacting spheres can be extrapolated versus γ to the ln2 limit at γ → 0, and that the rate maximum effect is large in the γ → 0 limit.

  20. c-erbB-3

    PubMed Central

    Offterdinger, Martin; Schöfer, Christian; Weipoltshammer, Klara; Grunt, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    c-erbB receptors are usually located in cell membranes and are activated by extracellular binding of EGF-like growth factors. Unexpectedly, using immunofluorescence we found high levels of c-erbB-3 within the nuclei of MTSV1-7 immortalized nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells. Nuclear localization was mediated by the COOH terminus of c-erbB-3, and a nuclear localization signal was identified by site-directed mutagenesis and by transfer of the signal to chicken pyruvate kinase. A nuclear export inhibitor caused accumulation of c-erbB-3 in the nuclei of other mammary epithelial cell lines as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and biochemical cell fractionation, suggesting that c-erbB-3 shuttles between nuclear and nonnuclear compartments in these cells. Growth of MTSV1-7 on permeable filters induced epithelial polarity and concentration of c-erbB-3 within the nucleoli. However, the c-erbB-3 ligand heregulin β1 shifted c-erbB-3 from the nucleolus into the nucleoplasm and then into the cytoplasm. The subcellular localization of c-erbB-3 obviously depends on exogenous stimuli and on the stage of epithelial polarity and challenges the specific function of c-erbB-3 as a transmembrane receptor protein arguing for additional, as yet unidentified, roles of c-erbB-3 within the nucle(ol)us of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:12045181

  1. Proviral-activated c-erbB is leukemogenic but not sarcomagenic: characterization of a replication-competent retrovirus containing the activated c-erbB.

    PubMed Central

    Pelley, R J; Moscovici, C; Hughes, S; Kung, H J

    1988-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces erythroblastosis in chickens by integrating its DNA into the host c-erbB locus and by activating expression of truncated c-erbB transcripts. Although there is a 100% correlation of c-erbB activation with ALV-induced erythroblastosis, direct evidence that the activated c-erbB is oncogenic has not been established. We have constructed a replication-competent retrovirus containing the activated c-erbB to investigate its transforming potential. The Rous c-erbB virus (REB-c) was constructed by inserting the activated c-erbB cDNA into a Rous sarcoma virus vector in place of src. When transfected into transformed quail fibroblasts (QT6), the REB-c construct stably integrates and expresses c-erbB-specific transcripts and produces infectious virus. The REB-c retrovirus produces short-latency polyclonal erythroblastosis in chickens. However, in contrast to avian erythroblastosis virus which contains v-erbB, the REB-c construct does not transform chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro, nor does the REB-c virus produce sarcomas when injected into the wing web of chickens. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the activated c-erbB which lacks the amino-terminal extracellular domain but which retains the entire carboxy-terminal sequences is leukemogenic but not sarcomagenic. Images PMID:2833627

  2. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2A - Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c). 1.666(c)-2A Section 1.666(c)-2A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-2A...

  3. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2A - Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c). 1.666(c)-2A Section 1.666(c)-2A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-2A...

  4. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2A - Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c). 1.666(c)-2A Section 1.666(c)-2A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-2A...

  5. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2A - Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c). 1.666(c)-2A Section 1.666(c)-2A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-2A...

  6. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2A - Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 666 (a), (b), and (c). 1.666(c)-2A Section 1.666(c)-2A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-2A Illustration of...

  7. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    PubMed Central

    Song, JaeHyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, JeongHoon; Jeong, HyeonGun; Kwon, YongSoo; Kim, HyunPyo; Lee, SangWon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells. In the current study, the antiviral activity of hederasaponin B against EV71 C3 and C4a was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method and western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that hederasaponin B and 30% ethanol extract of Hedera helix containing hederasaponin B showed significant antiviral activity against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a by reducing the formation of a visible CPE. Hederasaponin B also inhibited the viral VP2 protein expression, suggesting the inhibition of viral capsid protein synthesis.These results suggest that hederasaponin B and Hedera helix extract containing hederasaponin B can be novel drug candidates with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various subgenotypes of EV71. PMID:24596620

  8. Application of the invariant line model for B. C. C. /H. C. P. couples: A criterion based on surface variations

    SciTech Connect

    Duly, D. )

    1993-05-01

    The problem of the physical meaning of the invariant line, which is generally encountered during precipitation reactions involving b.c.c/h.c.p. couples, is reconsidered. The applicability of various criterions for the selection of a specific invariant line and for the precipitate morphology in these systems is tested in view of the experimental data available. It is shown that energetic considerations are not sufficient to account for the experimental results whereas criterions based on consideration of surface variations are in good agreement with observations.

  9. Review of magnetic features observed in (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznietz, Moshe; Gonçalves, António P.; Almeida, Manuel

    2002-08-01

    The nickel-borocarbides ANi 2B 2C [A=Y, Ln (lanthanide), An(actinide)], crystallizing in the body-centred tetragonal LuNi 2B 2C-type structure, are classified according to the existence or coexistence of superconducting and antiferromagnetic states (AF). The magnetic features observed in polycrystalline (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions, adopting the same crystal structure, are reviewed and discussed. Published data on the magnetism in (A,Ln)Ni 2B 2C systems (ANi 2B 2C nonmagnetic, A=Y,La,Lu) indicate a gradual rise in the threshold content, x( m), in (Y 1- xLn x)Ni 2B 2C (Ln=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) for the establishment of AF states. (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems with magnetic end compounds show gradual variation in magnetic features when A and A' are both heavy Ln. The behaviour of (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems of light A (Pr or U) and heavy A' (Dy or Tm) depends on the magnetic structures of the end compounds. In intermediate compositions, incomplete moment compensation in (Pr,Dy)Ni 2B 2C decreases TN, while different moment directions in the end compounds in (U,Dy)Ni 2B 2C lead to a directional frustration of ordered moments. Such a frustration in (U,Tm)Ni 2B 2C is related to different magnetic structures of the end compounds.

  10. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

  11. Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A vac- cine, you should also get hepatitis B vaccine. www. immunize. org/ catg. d/ p4075. pdf • Item #P4075 (3/14) Immunization Action Coalition • Saint Paul, Minnesota • (651) 647-9009 • www. immunize. org • www. vaccineinformation. org What treatment helps ? How is it prevented ?

  12. 10B areal density: A novel approach for design and fabrication of B4C/6061Al neutron absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuli; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Peng

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to evaluate the neutron shielding performance of a boron-containing neutron absorbing material was proposed for the first time through the establishment of a direct relationship between 10B areal density (10BAD) of the material and its neutron absorption ratio. It is found when the 10BAD of a material is greater than 0.034 g/cm2, the material will achieve a good neutron shielding performance. Based on this proposed approach, B4C/6061Al composite plates with different B4C content (10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%) were successfully fabricated using vacuum hot pressing followed by hot-extrusion. The characteristics of the B4C/Al interface were studied in details using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the effects of B4C particle content on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al matrix were investigated. Through current studies, B4C/6061Al composite plates possessing good neutron shielding performance and tensile strength are found to be able to be fabricated using either 20 wt% of B4C content with a plate thickness of 4.5 mm or 30 wt% B4C content with a plate thickness of 3 mm.

  13. A new tetragonal structure type for Li2B2C.

    PubMed

    Pavlyuk, Volodymyr; Milashys, Viktoriya; Dmytriv, Grygoriy; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The ternary dilithium diboron carbide, Li2B2C (tetragonal, space group P-4m2, tP10), crystallizes as a new structure type and consists of structural fragments which are typical for structures of elemental lithium and boron or binary borocarbide B13C2. The symmetries of the occupied sites are .m. and 2mm. for the B and C atoms, and -4m2 and 2mm. for the Li atoms. The coordination polyhedra around the Li atoms are cuboctahedra and 15-vertex distorted pseudo-Frank-Kasper polyhedra. The environment of the B atom is a ten-vertex polyhedron. The nearest neighbours of the C atom are two B atoms, and this group is surrounded by a deformed cuboctahedron with one centred lateral facet. Electronic structure calculations using the TB-LMTO-ASA method reveal strong B...C and B...B interactions.

  14. Monoclonal antipeptide antibodies against amino acid residues 1101-1106 of human C4 distinguish C4A from C4B.

    PubMed

    Reilly, B D; Levine, P; Rothbard, J; Skanes, V M

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequences of the alpha-chain fragment of human C4, C4d, has shown C4A- and C4B-specific sequences at residues 1101-1106 in which the aspartic acid-histidine substitution at position 1106 may be related to the amide and ester bond forming properties of these molecules. Peptides containing twelve amino acid residues of the C4A- or C4B-specific sequences were synthesized and injected into female Balb/c mice. Serum from 2 mice, one immunized with the C4A-specific peptide and the other with the C4B-specific peptide, gave strong isotype-specific responses in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against affinity-purified C4A3 and C4B2B1. Spleen cells from these mice were fused with the mouse myeloma SP2/0-Ag 14, and two cloned cell lines, AII-1 and BII-1, were established from hybrids. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting of monoclonal antibodies AII-1 and BII-1 show that the former reacts with the C4A but not with the C4B alpha-chain and the latter with C4B but not with the C4A alpha-chain. Furthermore, immunoblotting of C4 allelic variants showed that AII-1 reacted with all C4A allotypes tested, including A6, A4, A3 and A2, whereas BII-1 reacted with all C4B allotypes tested, including B5, B3, B2, and B1.

  15. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  16. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  17. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  18. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  19. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  20. Microphase separation through competitive hydrogen bonding in self-assembled A-b-B/C diblock copolymer/homopolymer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Nishar; Salim, Nisa V.; Guo, Qipeng

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of microphase separation induced by competitive hydrogen bonding in A-b-B/C diblock copolymer/homopolymer complexes where the diblock copolymer A-b-B is immiscible and the homopolymer C can interact unequally with both A and B blocks through hydrogen bonding. A model system containing poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (P2VP-b-PMMA) and poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVPh) in tetrahydrofuran was investigated. In these self-assembled complexes, microphase separation takes place due to the disparity in intermolecular interactions. Specifically, PVPh and P2VP blocks interact strongly to form complex, whereas PVPh and PMMA blocks interact weakly. The hydrogen bonding interactions were revealed by infrared spectroscopy and analyzed in terms of the difference in interassociation constants (K), i.e., interaction parameters of each blocks of the block copolymer to the homopolymer and according to the random phase approximation. The phase behavior of the complexes was investigated with small-angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. A series of morphologies including lamellae, hexagonal cylinders, wormlike microdomains, and hierarchical structures was documented as a function of the copolymer concentration. Moreover, we outlined how hydrogen bonding determines the self-assembly and causes morphological transitions in different A-b-B/C diblock copolymer/homopolymer systems with respect to the K values.

  1. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO22+) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO22+ is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD = 10 μM), cyt c (KD = 87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD = 30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  2. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-24

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO2(2+) is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD=10 μM), cyt c (KD=87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD=30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  3. Interfacial microstructure in a B{sub 4}C/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Z.; Song, Y.; Zhang, S.; Miller, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, B{sub 4}C particulate-reinforced Al composite was fabricated by a pressureless infiltration technique, and its interfacial microstructure was studied in detail by X-ray diffraction as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The B{sub 4}C phase was unstable in Al melt during the infiltration process, forming AlB{sub 10}-type AlB{sub 24}C{sub 4} or Al{sub 2.1}B{sub 51}C{sub 8} as a major reactant phase. The Al matrix was large grains (over 10 {micro}m), which had no definite orientation relationships (ORs) with the randomly orientated B{sub 4}C or its reactant particles, except for possible nucleation sites with {l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub B{sub 4}C} almost parallel to {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub Al} at a deviation angle of 1.5 deg. Both B{sub 4}C-Al and reactant-Al interfaces are semicoherent and free of other phases. A comparison was made with the SiC/Al composite fabricated similarly by the pressureless infiltration. It was suggested that the lack of ORs between the Al matrix and reinforced particles, except for possible nucleation sites, is the common feature of the composites prepared by the infiltration method.

  4. Palladium mediated intramolecular multiple C-X/C-H cross coupling and C-H activation: synthesis of carbazole alkaloids calothrixin B and murrayaquinone A.

    PubMed

    Kaliyaperumal, Srinivasan A; Banerjee, Shyamapada; U K, Syam Kumar

    2014-08-28

    Straightforward palladium mediated syntheses of calothrixin B and murrayaquinone A are described. Regioselective palladium mediated intramolecular multiple C-X/C-H cross coupling reaction on N-(4-((2-bromophenyl)amino)-2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)-N-(2-iodophenyl)acetamide followed by CAN oxidation afforded calothrixin B in excellent yield in two steps. A linear synthesis has also been developed for calothrixin B. Utilizing C-H functionalization as well as palladium mediated intramolecular C-X/C-H cross coupling reaction, murrayaquinone A synthesis was achieved. Overall, these synthetic methodologies provide an expedient entry to these biologically active alkaloids in a short reaction sequence.

  5. A revised mechanism for the activation of complement C3 to C3b: a molecular explanation of a disease-associated polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J

    2015-01-23

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg(102). In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg(102)) and disease-linked C3F (Gly(102)) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time.

  6. Karlotoxin synthetic studies: concise synthesis of a C(42–63) B-ring tetrahydropyran fragment

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Takashi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Maejima, Toshihide; Yabe, Yuki; Iwata, Hiroki; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from natural D-mannose, a C(42–63) B-ring tetrahydropyran fragment in karlotoxin 2 has been prepared via a common THP intermediate in a concise manner. E-selective Julia–Kocienski olefination efficiently assembled a C(51–63) chlorodiene subunit and a C(42–50) tetrahydropyran segment. PMID:24376284

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  8. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ikonomovic, Milos D; Abrahamson, Eric E; Price, Julie C; Hamilton, Ronald L; Mathis, Chester A; Paljug, William R; Debnath, Manik L; Cohen, Anne D; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T; Lopez, Oscar L; Klunk, William E

    2012-03-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(-)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(-) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (< 100 pmol/g) and Aβ1-42 (< 500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1-42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800-1, 700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(-) case, Aβ1-40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1-40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1-42 only in the [C-11]PiB(-) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(-) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11]PiB PET signal.

  9. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  10. R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor control logic, computer software description. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.E.

    1995-06-08

    This document provides an updated computer software description for the software used on the FFTF R-1 (C-620-A) and R-2 (C-620-B) air compressor programmable controllers. Logic software design changes were required to allow automatic starting of a compressor that had not been previously started.

  11. Association between C4, C4A, and C4B copy number variations and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Zhang, Jun; Liao, Dan; Yang, Lu; Wang, Yingxiong; Hou, Shengping

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated the association between C4, C4A, and C4B gene copy number variations (CNVs) and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, the results remain inconsistency for those diseases. Thus, in this study, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to assess the role of C4, C4A, and C4B CNVs in autoimmune diseases in different ethnic groups. A total of 16 case-control studies described in 12 articles (8663 cases and 11099 controls) were included in this study. The pooled analyses showed that a low C4 gene copy number (GCN) (<4) was treated as a significant risk factor (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–1.78) for autoimmune diseases compared with a higher GCN (>4). The pooled statistical results revealed that low C4 (<4) and low C4A (<2) GCNs could be risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Caucasian populations. Additionally, the correlation between C4B CNVs and all type of autoimmune diseases could not be confirmed by the current meta-analysis (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.93–1.24). These data suggest that deficiency or absence of C4 and C4A CNVs may cause susceptibility to SLE. PMID:28205620

  12. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth...

  14. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b binding to group B Streptococcus in paired mother and baby serum samples in a refugee population on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T; Gorringe, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations.

  15. Antibody-Mediated Complement C3b/iC3b Binding to Group B Streptococcus in Paired Mother and Baby Serum Samples in a Refugee Population on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T.; Gorringe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  16. Applied Number Curriculum Guide, Sections A, B, C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    The course in Applied Number is designed to be covered with the course in Pure Number (see SE 012 723 to 725). The aims of this course are stated to be: "the development of (1) comparison: as exemplified by measurement; (2) exploration of the environment; (3) skills: among these, estimation and computation; and (4) language: as a medium for…

  17. 75 FR 11428 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... equipped with General Electric engines. Investigation of these findings indicates that this problem is... A300-600 aircraft equipped with General Electric engines. Investigation of these findings indicates... A300-600 aircraft equipped with General Electric engines. Investigation of these findings...

  18. 75 FR 16657 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C, B2-203, B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... to have induced excessive loads into the gear train, leading to collapse of one bearing on a shaft of...., Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dan Rodina, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM... induced excessive loads into the gear train, leading to collapse of one bearing on a shaft of the...

  19. Optimal Concentration Configuration of Consecutive Chemical Reaction ABC for Minimum Entropy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-10-01

    A consecutive chemical reaction A Leftrightarrow B Leftrightarrow C is studied in this paper. The optimal concentration configuration of the reaction for minimum entropy generation with fixed yield of aimed product B is derived. The optimal concentration configuration with different initial conditions and the optimal initial concentration {C_{C0}}_{{{, opt}}} of the by-product C are obtained numerically. Compared with the control method that the concentration of A increases linearly, the entropy production is reduced by more than 90 %. The minimum entropy generation and optimal configuration of elementary reaction A Leftrightarrow B are studied by using variational method and nonlinear programming method. The validity of the nonlinear programming method is verified. The reaction rate of elementary reaction A Leftrightarrow B is in proportion to the square root of the concentration of A when entropy generation of the reaction process is minimum. The results obtained can help one to find the realizable regimes for a chemical reactor.

  20. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  1. Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing (the Company) is located in Arnold, Missouri. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  2. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Sun, Min; Zheng, Lemin; Yao, Yuanqing

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.

  3. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All......

  4. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a... be used in Subcategory I-C mines. (c)(1) If electrically......

  8. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a... be used in Subcategory I-C mines. (c)(1) If electrically......

  9. The Counterarc to MS 1512-cB58 and a Companion Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Malkan, Matthew A.; McLean, Ian S.

    2004-06-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of ``A2,'' the primary counterarc to the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512-cB58. The spectra show redshifted Hα, [N II], [O III], and Hβ at z=2.729+/-0.001. We observe the same Hα/[O III] ratio as cB58, which together with the redshift confirms that A2 is indeed another image of a single background galaxy. Published lensing reconstruction reports that A2 is a magnification of the entire source, while cB58 is an image of only a part. At marginal significance, A2 shows higher line-to-continuum ratios than cB58 (by a factor of ~2), suggesting a nonuniform ratio of young to old stars across the galaxy. We observe a second emission-line source in the slit. This object, ``W5,'' is predicted to be a lensed image of another galaxy at a redshift similar to cB58. W5 is blueshifted from cB58 by ~400 km s-1 and has a significantly lower Hα/[O III] ratio, confirming that it is an image of a different background galaxy in a group with cB58. The Hα emission line in W5 implies a star formation rate of 6 Msolar yr-1 (H0=70 km s-1 Mpc-1, ΩM=0.3,ΩΛ=0.7), after correcting for lensing magnification. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. C-Myc dysregulation is a co-transforming event for NF-κB activated B-cells.

    PubMed

    David, Amandine; Arnaud, Nicolas; Fradet, Magali; Lascaux, Hélène; Ouk-Martin, Catherine; Gachard, Nathalie; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Feuillard, Jean; Faumont, Nathalie

    2017-02-23

    While c-Myc dysregulation is constantly associated with highly proliferating B-cell tumors, NF-κB addiction is found in indolent lymphomas as well as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas either with an activated B-cell like phenotype or associated with Epstein-Barr virus. We raised the question of the effect of c-Myc in B-cells with NF-κB activated by three different inducers: Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III program, TLR-9 and CD40. Induction of c-Myc overexpression increased proliferation of Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III immortalized B-cells, an effect that was dependent on NF-κB. Results from transcriptomic signatures and functional studies showed that c-Myc over-expression increased Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III driven proliferation depending on NF-κB. In vitro, induction of c-Myc increased proliferation of B-cell with TLR9 dependant activation of Myd88, with decreased apoptosis. In the transgenic λc-Myc mouse model with c-Myc over expression in B-cells, in vivo activation of Myd88 by TLR9 induced splenomegaly related to increased S-phase entry of B-cells. Transgenic mice with both continuous CD40 signaling in B-cells and the λc-Myc transgene developed very aggressive lymphomas with characteristics of activated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The main characteristic gene expression profile signatures of these tumors were those of proliferation and energetic metabolism. These results suggest that c-Myc is an NF-κB co-transforming event in aggressive lymphomas with an activated phenotype, activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This would explain why NF-κB is associated with both indolent and aggressive lymphomas and opens new perspectives on the possibility of combinatory therapies targeting both c-Myc proliferating program and NF-κB activation pathways in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

  11. Crystallization of an amorphous B-C-N precursor with a Li-B-N catalyst at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dongxu; Yu Dongli; Wang Peng; Li Yingmei; He Julong; Xu Bo; Liu Zhongyuan; Tian Yongjun

    2009-11-15

    An orthorhombic B-C-N compound was synthesized using an amorphous B-C-N precursor and a Li-B-N catalyst at 6 GPa and 1773 K. The results of energy dispersive spectrometry and electronic energy loss spectrometry suggest a stoichiometry of B:C:N = 1:3.3:1. In addition, the Li-B-N catalyst improves the crystallizations of the B-C-N compound, graphite and BN and therefore might be a profitable catalyst in ultrahigh pressure experiments.

  12. PP2B-mediated Dephosphorylation of c-Jun C Terminus Regulates Phorbol Ester-induced c-Jun/Sp1 Interaction in A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ben-Kuen; Huang, Chi-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chen, Yun-Ju; Kikkawa, Ushio; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2007-01-01

    The c-Jun/Sp1 interaction is essential for growth factor- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced genes expression, including human 12(S)-lipoxygenase, keratin 16, cytosolic phospholipase A2, p21WAF1/CIP1, and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β4. Here, we examined the mechanism underlying the PMA-induced regulation on the interaction between c-Jun and Sp1. We found that treatment of cells with PMA induced a dephosphorylation at the C terminus of c-Jun at Ser-243 and a concomitant inhibition of PP2B by using PP2B small interfering RNA, resulting in reduction of PMA-induced gene expression as well as the c-Jun/Sp1 interaction. The c-Jun mutant TAM-67-3A, which contains three substitute alanines at Thr-231, Ser-243, and Ser-249 compared with TAM-67, binds more efficaciously with Sp1 and is about twice as efficacious as TAM-67 in inhibiting the PMA-induced activation of the 12(S)-lipoxygenase promoter. Importantly, PP2B not only dephosphorylates the c-Jun at Ser-243 but also interacts with c-Jun in PMA-treated cells. PMA stimulates the association of the PP2B/c-Jun/Sp1 complex with the promoter. These findings indicate the dephosphorylation of c-Jun C terminus is required for the c-Jun/Sp1 interaction and reveal that PP2B plays an important role in regulating c-Jun/Sp1 interaction in PMA-induced gene expression. PMID:17215518

  13. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  14. Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in 1 2Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible Spectrophotometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a), b (chl b), c + c 1 2 (chl c + c ) and pheopigments of chlorophyll a (pheo a) 1 2 found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Chlorophyllide a is determined as chl a. Visible wavelength spectrophotomet...

  15. Hepatitis C virus has a genetically determined lymphotropism through co-receptor B7.2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Lin; Huang, Jeffrey Y.; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Tahara, Stanley M; Zhou, Lin; Kondo, Yasuteru; Schechter, Joel; Su, Lishan; Lai, Michael M C.; Wakita, Takaji; Cosset, François-Loïc; Jung, Jae U; Machida, Keigo

    2017-01-01

    B-cell infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been a controversial topic. To examine whether HCV has a genetically determined lymphotropism through a co-receptor specific for the infection by lymphotropic HCV, we established an infectious clone and chimeric virus of hepatotropic and lymphotropic HCV strains derived from an HCV-positive B-cell lymphoma. The viral envelope and 5′-UTR sequences of the lymphotropic HCV strain were responsible for the lymphotropism. Silencing of the virus sensor, RIGI, or overexpression of microRNA-122 promoted persistent viral replication in B cells. By cDNA library screening, we identified an immune cell-specific, co-stimulatory receptor B7.2 (CD86) as a co-receptor of lymphotropic HCV. Infection of B cells by HCV inhibited the recall reaction to antigen stimulation. Together, a co-receptor B7.2 enabled lymphotropic HCV to infect memory B cells, leading to inhibition of memory B-cell function and persistent HCV infection in HCV-infected hosts. PMID:28067225

  16. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  17. IRF4 is a suppressor of c-Myc induced B cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Simanta; Ma, Shibin; Trinh, Long; Eudy, James; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Joshi, Shantaram S; Lu, Runqing

    2011-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator in B cell development and function. We have previously shown that IRF4, together with IRF8, orchestrates pre-B cell development by limiting pre-B cell expansion and by promoting pre-B cell differentiation. Here, we report that IRF4 suppresses c-Myc induced leukemia in EμMyc mice. Our results show that c-Myc induced leukemia was greatly accelerated in the IRF4 heterozygous mice (IRF4(+/-)Myc); the average age of mortality in the IRF4(+/-)Myc mice was only 7 to 8 weeks but was 20 weeks in the control mice. Our results show that IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells were derived from large pre-B cells and were hyperproliferative and resistant to apoptosis. Further analysis revealed that the majority of IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells inactivated the wild-type IRF4 allele and contained defects in Arf-p53 tumor suppressor pathway. p27(kip) is part of the molecular circuitry that controls pre-B cell expansion. Our results show that expression of p27(kip) was lost in the IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells and reconstitution of IRF4 expression in those cells induced p27(kip) and inhibited their expansion. Thus, IRF4 functions as a classical tumor suppressor to inhibit c-Myc induced B cell leukemia in EμMyc mice.

  18. Where is the Best Site on Earth? Domes A, B, C, and F, and Ridges A and B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suanders, Will; Lawrence, Jon S.; Storey, John W. V.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Kato, Seiji; Minnis, Patrick; Winker, David M.; Liu, Guiping; Kulesa, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic plateau contains the best sites on earth for many forms of astronomy, but none of the existing bases were selected with astronomy as the primary motivation. In this paper, we try to systematically compare the merits of potential observatory sites. We include South Pole, Domes A, C and F, and also Ridge B (running NE from Dome A), and what we call Ridge A (running SW from Dome A). Our analysis combines satellite data, published results and atmospheric models, to compare the boundary layer, weather, free atmosphere, sky brightness, pecipitable water vapour, and surface temperature at each site. We find that all Antarctic sites are likely compromised for optical work by airglow and aurorae. Of the sites with existing bases, Dome A is the best overall; but we find that Ridge A offers an even better site. We also find that Dome F is a remarkably good site. Dome C is less good as a thermal infrared or terahertz site, but would be able to take advantage of a predicted OH hole over Antarctica during Spring.

  19. Preferentially grown nanostructured MgB2C2: A new material for lightening applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Bikmramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kaur, Manjot; Kumar, Manjeet; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Bala, Rajni; Kumar, Akshay

    2017-03-01

    Nanostructured MgB2C2 is a promising candidate as functional material. High Temperature synthesis conditions were the limitations for its exploitation in materials research. Present study deals with the synthesis of specifically oriented nanostructured MgB2C2 at relatively low temperature by solvothermal route. The synthesis conditions are modified to grow these nanostructures in least dense plane (002). Optical properties are explored for the first time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of MgB2C2 phase. Morphological analysis (Transmission/Scanning Electron Microscopy) indicated that the synthesized material is in nano range. Photoluminescence study shows that the synthesized material emits light in visible spectrum when excited at 380 nm. The quantum efficiency of synthesized material calculated by De Mello's method is approximately 23% which makes the material efficient enough for lightening applications.

  20. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  1. On a minimum tetrahedron in a three-dimensional lattice. Part I. Lattices with a shortest basis fulfilling b x c > or = 0, a x c > or = 0, a x b > or = 0.

    PubMed

    Gruber, B

    2009-07-01

    The problem of a representative body of a three-dimensional lattice is considered. The cell fulfilling a + b + c = min is clearly not unique: even five mutually non-congruent such cells can exist in some lattices [Gruber (1973). Acta Cryst. A29, 433-440]. The idea that this number could be reduced by replacing the cell (i.e. a parallelepiped) by another, possibly more suitable, geometrical object is considered. For this object a lattice tetrahedron fulfilling the condition a + b + c + d + e + f = min is chosen, a to f being the lengths of its edges. It is called the minitetrahedron of the lattice. In this article, the problem is solved in detail for lattices that can be generated by a basis a, b, c fulfilling |a| + |b| + |c| = min, b x c > or = 0, a x c > or = 0, a x b > or = 0. It turns out that in this case not more than two mutually non-congruent minitetrahedra can exist. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness are found. They have the form of inequalities between the lengths of the edges and diagonals of the parallelepiped formed by the vectors a, b, c. A procedure for determining all minitetrahedra of a given lattice is shown. Some results are illustrated graphically and all assertions are proved mathematically.

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Marco Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+)-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste. PMID:26664632

  3. A New Solution to the Matrix Equation X−AX¯B=C

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the matrix equation X−AX¯B=C. For convenience, the matrix equation X−AX¯B=C is named as Kalman-Yakubovich-conjugate matrix equation. The explicit solution is constructed when the above matrix equation has unique solution. And this solution is stated as a polynomial of coefficient matrices of the matrix equation. Moreover, the explicit solution is also expressed by the symmetric operator matrix, controllability matrix, and observability matrix. The proposed approach does not require the coefficient matrices to be in arbitrary canonical form. At the end of this paper, the numerical example is shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25133243

  4. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  5. A C-terminal di-leucine motif controls plasma membrane expression of PMCA4b.

    PubMed

    Antalffy, Géza; Pászty, Katalin; Varga, Karolina; Hegedűs, Luca; Enyedi, Agnes; Padányi, Rita

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidences show that the localization of different plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCAs) is regulated in various complex, cell type-specific ways. Here we show that in low-density epithelial and endothelial cells PMCA4b localized mostly in intracellular compartments and its plasma membrane localization was enhanced upon increasing density of cells. In good correlation with the enhanced plasma membrane localization a significantly more efficient Ca(2+) clearance was observed in confluent versus non-confluent HeLa cell cultures expressing mCherry-PMCA4b. We analyzed the subcellular localization and function of various C-terminally truncated PMCA4b variants and found that a truncated mutant PMCA4b-ct24 was mostly intracellular while another mutant, PMCA4b-ct48, localized more to the plasma membrane, indicating that a protein sequence corresponding to amino acid residues 1158-1181 contained a signal responsible for the intracellular retention of PMCA4b in non-confluent cultures. Alteration of three leucines to alanines at positions 1167-1169 resulted in enhanced cell surface expression and an appropriate Ca(2+) transport activity of both wild type and truncated pumps, suggesting that the di-leucine-like motif (1167)LLL was crucial in targeting PMCA4b. Furthermore, upon loss of cell-cell contact by extracellular Ca(2+) removal, the wild-type pump was translocated to the early endosomal compartment. Targeting PMCA4b to early endosomes was diminished by the L(1167-69)A mutation, and the mutant pump accumulated in long tubular cytosolic structures. In summary, we report a di-leucine-like internalization signal at the C-tail of PMCA4b and suggest an internalization-mediated loss of function of the pump upon low degree of cell-cell contact.

  6. C 1Σ+ , A 1Σ+ , and b 3Π0+ states of LiRb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, I. C.; Blasing, D. B.; Chen, Y. P.; Elliott, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic studies of the C 1Σ+ electronic state and the A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex in 7Li-85Rb. Using resonantly enhanced, two-photon ionization, we observed v =7 , 9, 12, 13, and 26-45 of the C 1Σ+ state. We augment the REMPI data with a form of depletion spectra in regions of dense spectral lines. The A 1Σ+ -b 3Π0+ complex was observed with depletion spectroscopy, depleting to vibrational levels v =0 →29 of the A 1Σ+ state and v =8 →18 of the b 3Π0+ state. For all three series, we determine the term energy and vibrational constants. Finally, we outline several possible future projects based on the data presented here.

  7. MTR WING, TRA604. SECTIONS A, B, AND C SHOW CORRIDOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. SECTIONS A, B, AND C SHOW CORRIDOR ARRANGEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS TO MTR BUILDING. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-6, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-00-098-100631, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 48 CFR 1827.303 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d)) 1827.303 Section 1827.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....303(d)(1) (i) through (iv) is met, the contracting officer shall consult with the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  10. The bacterial DnaC helicase loader is a DnaB ring breaker

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dedicated AAA+ ATPases help deposit hexameric ring-shaped helicases onto DNA to promote replication in cellular organisms. To understand how loading occurs, we used negative-stain electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering to determine the ATP-bound structure of the intact E. coli DnaB•DnaC helicase/loader complex. The 480 kDa dodecamer forms a three-tiered assembly, in which DnaC adopts a spiral configuration that remodels N-terminal scaffolding and C-terminal motor regions of DnaB to produce a clear break in the helicase ring. Surprisingly, DnaC’s AAA+ fold is dispensable for ring remodeling, as the isolated helicase-binding domain of DnaC can both load DnaB onto DNA and increase the efficiency by which the helicase acts on substrates in vitro. Our data demonstrate that DnaC opens DnaB by a mechanism akin to that of polymerase clamp loaders, and indicate that bacterial replicative helicases, like their eukaryotic counterparts, possess auto-regulatory elements that influence how the hexameric motor domains are loaded onto and unwind DNA. PMID:23562643

  11. C-terminal truncation of a bovine B(12) trafficking chaperone enhances the sensitivity of the glutathione-regulated thermostability.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jinju; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Dong-Yeon; Kim, Jihoe

    2013-03-01

    The human B(12) trafficking chaperone hCblC is well conserved in mammals and non-mammalian eukaryotes. However, the C-terminal ~40 amino acids of hCblC vary significantly and are predicted to be deleted by alternative splicing of the encoding gene. In this study, we examined the thermostability of the bovine CblC truncated at the C-terminal variable region (t-bCblC) and its regulation by glutathione. t-bCblC is highly thermolabile (T(m) = ~42(o)C) similar to the full-length protein (f-bCblC). However, t-bCblC is stabilized to a greater extent than f-bCblC by binding of reduced glutathione (GSH) with increased sensitivity to GSH. In addition, binding of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) destabilizes t-bCblC to a greater extent and with increased sensitivity as compared to f-bCblC. These results indicate that t-bCblC is a more sensitive form to be regulated by glutathione than the full-length form of the protein.

  12. Complement C4 maintains peripheral B-cell tolerance in a myeloid cell-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Alimzhanov, Marat B.; Degn, Soren; Tsiftsoglou, Stefanos A.; Alicot, Elisabeth; Jones, Sarah A.; Ma, Minghe; Carroll, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    The factors that allow self-reactive B cells to escape negative selection and become activated remain poorly defined. Using a B-cell receptor-knock-in mouse strain, we identify a pathway by which B-cell selection to nucleolar self-antigens is complement-dependent. Deficiency in complement component C4 led to a breakdown in the elimination of autoreactive B-cell clones at the transitional stage, characterized by a relative increase in their response to a range of stimuli, entrance into follicles and a greater propensity to form self-reactive germinal centers. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we found that the myeloid compartment was sufficient to restore negative selection in the auto-reactive mice. A model is proposed in which in the absence of complement C4, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic debris promotes chronic activation of myeloid cells, allowing the maturation and activation of self-reactive B-cell clones leading to increased spontaneous formation of germinal centers. PMID:23749435

  13. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B......

  14. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B......

  15. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). 1827.302 Section 1827.302 Federal Acquisition... paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to any.... (c) Government license. For each subject invention made in the performance of work under a...

  16. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Stoian, Dana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy.

  17. Crosstalk between Vitamins A, B12, D, K, C, and E Status and Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality. The present paper reviews the main vitamins related to arterial stiffness and enabling destiffening, their mechanisms of action, providing a brief description of the latest studies in the area, and their implications for primary cardiovascular prevention, clinical practice, and therapy. Despite inconsistent evidence for destiffening induced by vitamin supplementation in several randomized clinical trials, positive results were obtained in specific populations. The main mechanisms are related to antiatherogenic effects, improvement of endothelial function (vitamins A, C, D, and E) and metabolic profile (vitamins A, B12, C, D, and K), inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (vitamin D), anti-inflammatory (vitamins A, D, E, and K) and antioxidant effects (vitamins A, C, and E), decrease of homocysteine level (vitamin B12), and reversing calcification of arteries (vitamin K). Vitamins A, B12, C, D, E, and K status is important in evaluating cardiovascular risk, and vitamin supplementation may be an effective, individualized, and inexpensive destiffening therapy. PMID:28167849

  18. Evidence for New Madrid earthquakes in A.D. 300 and 2350 B.C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E. S.; Campbell, J.; Thomas, P.M.; Sims, J.D.; Lafferty, R. H.

    2005-01-01

    Six episodes of earthquake-induced liquefaction are associated with soil horizons containing artifacts of the Late Archaic (3000-500 B.C.) and Early to Middle Woodland (500 B.C.-A.D. 400) cultural periods at the Burkett archaeological site in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone, where little information about prehistoric earthquakes has been available. Radiocarbon dating of organic material and analysis of artifacts are used to estimate the ages of the liquefaction features and times of the causative earthquakes. The most recent episode of liquefaction occurred after A.D. 1670, produced small sand dikes, and is probably related to the 1895 Charleston, Missouri earthquake. The preceding episode struck the area in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years and generated a sand blow that contains Late Woodland artifacts and buries an Early to Middle Woodland cultural horizon. Four older episodes of liquefaction occurred in 2350 B.C. ?? 200 years and may have been produced by a sequence of closely timed earthquakes. The four earlier episodes produced graben structures, sand dikes, and associated sand blows on which a cultural mound was constructed. The Burkett liquefaction features that formed about 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300 are relatively large and similar in age to other liquefaction features in northeastern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri, respectively. If the prehistoric features at the Burkett site and those of similar age elsewhere in the region are the result of the same earthquakes, then this suggests that they were similar in size to the three largest (M 7-8) 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. A New Madrid-type earthquake in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years would support an average recurrence time of 500 years. Although this study extends the earthquake chronology back to 2500 B.C., it is uncertain that the record of New Madrid events is complete for the period between 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300. As demonstrated by this study, information about other prehistoric earthquakes may be

  19. Short communication: Pasteurization as a means of inactivating staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C in milk.

    PubMed

    Necidova, Lenka; Bogdanovicova, Katerina; Harustiakova, Danka; Bartova, Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of pasteurization temperature on inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). Milk samples were inoculated with log 4.38 to 5.18cfu/mL of 40 different Staphylococcus aureus strains having the ability to produce types A, B, or C SE and incubated at 37°C for 24h to develop SE. This incubation was followed by heat treatment for 15 s at 72, 85, and 92°C. Samples were analyzed for Staph. aureus count by plate method and, specifically, for SE presence. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay on a MiniVIDAS analyzer (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France) was used to detect SE, which were determined semiquantitatively based on test values. The Staph. aureus count in milk before pasteurization did not affect the amount of SE. Before pasteurization, SEB was detected in the lowest amount compared with other SE types. Staphylococcal enterotoxins were markedly reduced with pasteurization and inactivated at pasteurization temperatures to an extent depending on the amount in the sample before pasteurization. After pasteurization at 72°C, SE were detected in 87.5% of samples (35/40), after pasteurization at 85°C in 52.5% of samples (21/40), and after pasteurization at 92°C in 45.0% of samples (18/40). We determined that SE may still persist in milk even when Staph. aureus bacteria are inactivated through pasteurization. Although pasteurization may partially inactivate SE in milk, a key measure in the prevention of staphylococcal enterotoxicosis linked to pasteurized milk consumption is to avoid any cold chain disruption during milk production and processing.

  20. Criticality of colloids with three distinct interaction patches: As simple as A ,B ,C ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, J. M.; Teixeira, P. I. C.

    2017-01-01

    We systematically study the phase behavior of a simple model of associating fluids which consists of hard spherical particles with three short-ranged attractive sites on their surfaces (sticky spots or patches), of types A ,B , and C , that can form bonds with energy ɛi j (i ,j =A ,B ,C ). We consider realizations of the model with one, two, or three nonzero ɛi j. Using Wertheim's first order perturbation theory of association, we establish the minimum requirements on the bond energies for the model to exhibit a liquid-vapor critical point, and investigate the nature of criticality in each case. As a preliminary, we rigorously show that, within this theory, particles with M identical sites do not condense if M <3 , a result that was previously conjectured, but never proved.

  1. Serum Cystatin C as a Biomarker in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Nada E; Salah El-Din, Manal A; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M; El-Gayar, Amal M

    2017-03-08

    Elevated serum levels of cystatin C are found to be related to poor outcome and metastatic potential of some malignant disorders. To evaluate the clinical prominence of serum cystatin C in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), blood samples were obtained from 58 patients at the time of diagnosis and paired blood samples were obtained from 22 patients at the time of remission. Also, serum cystatin C level was measured in matched healthy controls. Serum cystatin C levels were significantly more elevated in DLBCL patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, paired-sample analysis revealed that pretreatment cystatin C levels were reduced significantly in patients who achieved remission after therapy (p = 0.016). High serum cystatin C levels were correlated with age over 60 years (p = 0.049), extra-nodal involvement (p = 0.005) and with high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p < 0.013). Elevated serum cystatin C levels were associated with extra-nodal involvement and they were significantly reduced to normal range after the remission. However, Kaplan-Meier curves revealed no survival difference in the pretreatment serum cystatin C levels. Therefore, serum cystatin C may be a novel biomarker that reflects tumor burden in DLBCL but bears no prognostic significance regarding survival.

  2. Effect of competition between catalytic particles C on the rate of the reversible diffusion-controlled reaction A+C⇌B+C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderhof, B. U.; Jones, R. B.

    1999-11-01

    The effect of competition between catalytic particles C on the rate of the reversible diffusion-controlled reaction A+C⇌B+C is studied in a self-consistent approximation. The C-particles are assumed static with random configuration. The A- and B-particles diffuse in a fluid or solid background medium. Frequency-dependent effective rate coefficients are calculated as a function of the volume fraction of C-particles.

  3. The prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C infection among different ethnic groups in Belize.

    PubMed

    Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E

    1993-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.

  4. Ca2+ Regulates the Drosophila Stoned-A and Stoned-B Proteins Interaction with the C2B Domain of Synaptotagmin-1

    PubMed Central

    Soekmadji, Carolina; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Kelly, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The dicistronic Drosophila stoned gene is involved in exocytosis and/or endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Mutations in either stonedA or stonedB cause a severe disruption of neurotransmission in fruit flies. Previous studies have shown that the coiled-coil domain of the Stoned-A and the µ-homology domain of the Stoned-B protein can interact with the C2B domain of Synaptotagmin-1. However, very little is known about the mechanism of interaction between the Stoned proteins and the C2B domain of Synaptotagmin-1. Here we report that these interactions are increased in the presence of Ca2+. The Ca2+-dependent interaction between the µ-homology domain of Stoned-B and C2B domain of Synaptotagmin-1 is affected by phospholipids. The C-terminal region of the C2B domain, including the tryptophan-containing motif, and the Ca2+ binding loop region that modulate the Ca2+-dependent oligomerization, regulates the binding of the Stoned-A and Stoned-B proteins to the C2B domain. Stoned-B, but not Stoned-A, interacts with the Ca2+-binding loop region of C2B domain. The results indicate that Ca2+-induced self-association of the C2B domain regulates the binding of both Stoned-A and Stoned-B proteins to Synaptotagmin-1. The Stoned proteins may regulate sustainable neurotransmission in vivo by binding to Ca2+-bound Synaptotagmin-1 associated synaptic vesicles. PMID:22701718

  5. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for...

  8. Junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) distinguishes CD27+ germinal center B lymphocytes from non-germinal center cells and constitutes a new diagnostic tool for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ody, C; Jungblut-Ruault, S; Cossali, D; Barnet, M; Aurrand-Lions, M; Imhof, B A; Matthes, T

    2007-06-01

    Differentiation of naïve B cells into plasma cells or memory cells occurs in the germinal centers (GCs) of lymph follicles or alternatively via a GC- and T-cell-independent pathway. It is currently assumed that B-cell lymphomas correlate to normal B-cell differentiation stages, but the precise correlation of several B-cell lymphomas to these two pathways remains controversial. In the present report, we describe the junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C), currently identified at the cell-cell border of endothelial cells, as a new B-cell marker with a tightly regulated expression during B-cell differentiation. Expression of JAM-C in tonsils allows distinction between two CD27+ B-cell subpopulations: JAM-C- GC B cells and JAM-C+ non-germinal B cells. The expression of JAM-C in different B-cell lymphomas reveals a disease-specific pattern and allows a clear distinction between JAM-C- lymphoproliferative syndromes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma) and JAM-C+ ones (hairy cell leukemia, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma). Therefore, we propose JAM-C as a new identification tool in B-cell lymphoma diagnosis.

  9. Infection with hepatitis A, B, C, and delta viruses among patients with acute hepatitis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia.

  10. Construction of the Tricyclic A-B-C Core of the Veratrum Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Berry, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Organocatalyzed enantioselective allylation of 2-iodocyclohexenone followed by methylation and oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered enantiomerically-enriched 2-methyl 3-allyl cyclohexanone, that engaged in acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation to give the bicyclic enone. Subsequent elaboration of the pendant allyl group into an α-diazo β-keto ester set the stage for Rh-mediated cyclization to deliver the tricyclic A-B-C core of the Veratrum alkaloids. PMID:23859604

  11. Polyketide-nonribosomal peptide epothilone antitumor agents: the EpoA, B, C subunits.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christopher T; O'Connor, Sarah E; Schneider, Tanya L

    2003-08-01

    The epothilones are a family of macrolactone natural products from the myxobacterial species Sorangium cellulosum. Similar to taxol, they are of current clinical interest as anticancer agents. Sequence analysis of the epothilone gene cluster allowed the identification of polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules involved in catalyzing epothilone biosynthesis. Given this information, it has been possible to test the predicted functions of several modules to date. EpoA ACP, EpoB, and EpoC have been overproduced in Escherichia coli, allowing in vitro reconstitution of the EpoA/B/C interface and production of the expected epothilone precursor. Further experiments probed the tolerance of EpoB and EpoC for unnatural substrates. These studies of the first three modules of the epothilone biosynthetic cluster suggest that combinatorial biosynthesis may lead to the production of a variety of epothilone analogs that incorporate diversity into the heterocycle starter unit. Additional efforts with the remaining modules, coupled with increased understanding of the macrocyclizing thioesterase domain, may lead to the production of epothilone variants with improved clinical properties.

  12. On the antithrombogenic action of low molecular weight heparins and of chondroitins A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Copley, A L; King, R G; Chien, S

    1983-01-01

    Hemorheological studies were made on surface layers of solutions of highly purified human fibrinogen, to which low molecular weight (LMW) heparins, as well as chondroitins A, B and C were added. The surface viscous (eta's) and elastic (Gs) moduli of these fibrinogen systems were measured with a modified Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. Our findings show that n's and Gs of these heparin-fibrinogen and chondroitin-fibrinogen surface systems were markedly decreased as compared to the fibrinogen control. Heparin of MW 4400 exhibited about 30 per cent decrease, while heparins of MW 5300 and 5900 had decreases of approximately 75 per cent in n's and Gs. The three chondroitins A, B and C were found to reduce the n's and Gs by about 40 per cent. The surface layers of fibrinogen, which are surface gels, constitute the clotting of fibrinogen without thrombin participation. Such so-called 'fibrinogenin' formation is considered by Copley to initiate thrombosis. The LMW heparins and the chondroitins tested, which we found to inhibit fibrinogen formation, may therefore be expected to act as antithrombotic agents. Thus, LMW heparins and chondroitins A, B and C may play important roles in the prevention of thrombosis.

  13. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-4 Section 15.403-4 Federal Acquisition... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (a)(1) The contracting officer shall obtain certified cost or pricing data only if...

  14. 48 CFR 15.403-4 - Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). 15.403-4 Section 15.403-4 Federal Acquisition... NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.403-4 Requiring certified cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b). (a)(1) The contracting officer shall obtain certified cost or pricing data only if...

  15. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK: Second generation hardware and latest scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Kreuzberg, K.

    A second version of the C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK laboratory prototype was developed which includes a new water recycling system and a "Botanical Component" with higher water plants for nitrate elimination. It was a modified by a compact commercial filter system which involves a semi-biological coarse filter, a bacteria filter, gas and heat exchangers and a UV sterilization device. A highly sophisticated process control system offers all possiblities to implement robotics and telescience. With the installation of the Botanical component into the system the first step of the realisation of the conception of a "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" is performed. In the scientific frame program the reproductive biology of the main experimental animal, Xiphophorus helleri, plays an important role. After the establishment of a morphological reference system of the stages of sexual maturity in both sexes this is correlated with relevant physiological data as concentrations of sexual steroids in gonadal tissue and plasma. On the brain-pituitary level the ontogeny of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin (GtH) systems were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly gonadotropin was not only localized in the pituitary gland but also in brain neurons and fibers which undergo a distinct ontogenetic development and a maior part of which are in close structural relation to the GnRH system. A special chapter pays attention to the role of the C.E.B.A.S.-system in C.E.L.S.S. research.

  16. Machine Learning Energies of 2 Million Elpasolite (A B C2D6) Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Felix A.; Lindmaa, Alexander; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Armiento, Rickard

    2016-09-01

    Elpasolite is the predominant quaternary crystal structure (AlNaK2F6 prototype) reported in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. We develop a machine learning model to calculate density functional theory quality formation energies of all ˜2 ×106 pristine A B C2D6 elpasolite crystals that can be made up from main-group elements (up to bismuth). Our model's accuracy can be improved systematically, reaching a mean absolute error of 0.1 eV /atom for a training set consisting of 10 ×103 crystals. Important bonding trends are revealed: fluoride is best suited to fit the coordination of the D site, which lowers the formation energy whereas the opposite is found for carbon. The bonding contribution of the elements A and B is very small on average. Low formation energies result from A and B being late elements from group II, C being a late (group I) element, and D being fluoride. Out of 2 ×106 crystals, 90 unique structures are predicted to be on the convex hull—among which is NFAl2Ca6, with a peculiar stoichiometry and a negative atomic oxidation state for Al.

  17. Sulfated steroids: ptilosteroids A-C and ptilosaponosides A and B from the Solomon Islands marine sponge Ptilocaulis spiculifer.

    PubMed

    Gabant, Marion; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Gallard, Jean-François; Menou, Jean-Louis; Laurent, Dominique; Debitus, Cécile; Al-Mourabit, Ali

    2009-04-01

    Three new pregnanes, ptilosteroid A (1), ptilosteroid B (2), and ptilosteroid C (3), and two new pregnane glycosides, ptilosaponoside A (4) and ptilosaponoside B (5), were isolated from the marine sponge Ptilocaulis spiculifer collected in the Solomon Islands. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Biological tests of these compounds showed that they are not cytotoxic against KB cells.

  18. Variability of the preC/C region of hepatitis B virus genotype A from a South African cohort predominantly infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mayaphi, Simnikiwe H; Martin, Desmond J; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T; Bowyer, Sheila M

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem, and HBV genotype is an important determinant of disease progression and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to assess variations of the precore/core (preC/C) region in HBV genotype A. Sequencing of the preC/C and surface (S) genes of HBV was performed on plasma samples from 20 HBV/HIV co-infected and 5 HBV mono-infected individuals. All preC/C study sequences clustered with subgenotype A1, except for two which clustered with subgenotype D4 reference strains. The nucleotide and amino acid variability was far higher in the preC/C region than in the S region. Mutations associated with reduction or failure of HBV e-antigen (HBeAg) production were observed, with a preC start codon mutation being common (24%). Other mutations (e.g., P5H/L and I97L) associated with severe liver disease were also noticed, some of which were located in the major histocompatibility restricted sites. PreC/C intergenotype nucleotide divergence was >7%, while subgenotypes differed by 2.5-7%. Several study sequences were highly divergent from other African subgenotype A1 strains. This study showed that HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B is underestimated in subgenotype A1, and also highlighted the variant South African A1 strains. The major advantage of preC/C sequencing is that it informs patient management as HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B responds poorly to conventional interferon-α therapy, and some guidelines treat HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B differently from HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. These data suggest that subgenotype A1 may be more involved in severe HBV-related diseases.

  19. 48 CFR 1827.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) 1827.409 Section 1827... provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) (a) The..., Rights in Data—Special Works by adding paragraph (f) as set forth in 1852.227-17. (k)(i) The...

  20. 48 CFR 1827.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) 1827.409... Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k.... (k)(i) The contracting officer shall add paragraph (e) as set forth in 1852.227-19(a) to the...

  1. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153.486 Section 153.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153.486 Section 153.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153.486 Section 153.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If NLS... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153.486 Section 153.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Physangulidines A, B, and C: three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhuang; Mashuta, Mark S; Stolowich, Neal J; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Stivers, Nicole S; Bates, Paula J; Lewis, Walter H; Hammond, Gerald B

    2012-03-02

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the whole plant of Physalis angulata L. afforded three new antiproliferative withanolides with an unusual carbon framework: physangulidines A (1), B (2), and C (3). Structures of the three isomeric withanolides were determined by a combination of HRMS, NMR spectroscopic, and X-ray crystallographic methods. Each has shown significant antiproliferative activity against DU145 prostate cancer cells. Physangulidine A (1) was further tested against a wide range of additional cancer cell lines and found to exhibit significant antiproliferative activity.

  6. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Notices for Appendixes A and B C Appendix C to Part 2634 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF... Appendixes A and B Privacy Act Statement Section 102(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 as...

  7. Search for Bbar to Lambda_c+ X l- nu Decays in Events with a Fully Reconstructed B Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Tanabe, T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-19

    We present a search for semileptonic B decays to the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} based on 420 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. By fully reconstructing the recoiling B in a hadronic decay mode, we reduce non-B backgrounds and determine the flavor of the signal B. We statistically correct the flavor for the effect of the B{sup 0} mixing. We obtain a 90% confidence level upper limit of {Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X) < 3.5%.

  8. Coumarins and a naphthyl labdanoate diarabinoside from the fruits of Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed; Dayal, Rameshwar; Javed, Kalim

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the methanolic extract of the fruits of Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) led to the identification of three coumarins and a naphthyl labdanoate diarabinoside characterized as 5-hydroxy-6-isopranyl coumarin (1), 5,6-furanocoumarin (2), 7-methoxy-5,6-furanocoumarin (3), and labdanyl-3alpha-ol-18-(3'"-methoxy-2"'-naphthyl-oate)-3alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(2'-->1")-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. The methanolic extract and 4 showed nephroprotective activity against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats.

  9. A second case of human C3b inhibitor (KAF) deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R A; Lachmann, P J

    1977-01-01

    The second case of C3b inhibitor deficiency is described in an 11-year-old girl who presented with recurrent attacks of meningitis, in between which she was well. Her serum showed all of the complement component changes noted in the first described case, although showing only a relatively slight defect in its ability to opsonize bacteria for phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. This correlated with the patient's freedom from other infections. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:849647

  10. Crystal structure features in a new compound C4B25Mg1.42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The composition of C4B25Mg1.42 crystal obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis was determined using X-ray diffraction. This is the first crystalline structure where all boron atoms in the В12 icosahedron occupy crystallographically independent positions; this circumstance allowed us to analyze the effect of substituents on bond lengths in the icosahedron. The crystal structure features, including the channels filled with disordered Mg atoms and the spread of В—В endo- and exo-bond lengths in the icosahedra, are described. A crystallochemical analysis of pair bonds has been performed for the first time.

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of cadiolides A, B and C and analogues.

    PubMed

    Boulangé, Agathe; Parraga, Javier; Galán, Abraham; Cabedo, Nuria; Leleu, Stéphane; Sanz, Maria Jesus; Cortes, Diego; Franck, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    The one-pot multicomponent synthesis of natural butenolides named cadiolides A, B, C and analogues has been realized. The antibacterial structure activity relationship shows that the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups and the number and position of bromine atoms on the different aromatic rings are important features for antibacterial activity, besides it was demonstrated the tolerance of both benzene and furan ring at position 3 of the butenolide nucleus. Furthermore, none of the most relevant antibacterial compounds showed any cytotoxicity in freshly isolated human neutrophils.

  12. Genicunolide A, B and C: three new triterpenoids from Euphorbia geniculata

    PubMed Central

    Farozi, Alia; Shah, Shakeel Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Three new triterpenoids, designated as genicunolide A (1), B (2) and C (3), along with friedelin (4) and friedelinol (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia geniculata. They were characterized as 1β-acetoxy-3β-hydroxy-11α,12α-oxidotaraxer-14-ene, 1β,3β-diacetoxy-21α-hydroxy-11α,12α-oxidotaraxer-14-ene and 3β,9α,20α-trihydroxy-Ψ-taraxast-5-ene, respectively, by spectral and chemical methods. PMID:26877792

  13. Crispene A, B, C and D, Four New Clerodane Type Furanoid Diterpenes from Tinospora crispa (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossen, Farhad; Ahasan, Rubaida; Haque, Mohammad Rashedul; Begum, Bilkis; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinospora crispa (L.) is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. It is also used for hypertension and to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhea, and as vermifuge. Materials and Methods: Stems of T. crispa were collected, sun dried for several days followed by oven dried for 24 h at a considerably low temperature and then ground into coarse powder. The powdered stems were soaked in methanol at room temperature for 14 days with occasional shaking. The extract was collected by filtration, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator to obtain a solid residue which was then subjected to fractionation using the modified Kupchan partitioning method into n-hexane, CCl4, CHCl3 and aqueous soluble fractions. The n-hexane soluble fraction was chromatographed over sephadex (LH-20) and the column was eluted with n-hexane: CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:5:1) followed by CH2Cl2:MeOH (9:1) and MeOH (100%) in order to increase the polarities. The column fractions were then concentrated and subjected to thin layer chromatography screening and the fractions with a satisfactory resolution of compounds were rechromatographed over silica gel to isolate the pure compounds. Results: Four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, Crispene A, B, C, and D (1–4), including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside, borapetoside E (5), were isolated from the stems of T. crispa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with closely related compounds. Conclusion: We have reported four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside. This is the first report of any clerodane diterpene having olefinic bond between C-6 and C-7. SUMMARY Crispene A, B, C, and D, four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types from Tinospora crispaCrispene C, an unusual furanoid diterpene with olifinic bond between C-6 and C

  14. Risk factors for hepatitis A, B and C virus infection among Swedish expatriates.

    PubMed

    Struve, J; Norrbohm, O; Stenbeck, J; Giesecke, J; Weiland, O

    1995-11-01

    The influence of different risk factors for viral hepatitis A, B and C, particularly if sexual contact with the indigenous population was related to an increased risk of having hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers, was assessed by multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model in a prospectively enrolled series of 563 adult Swedish expatriates. The most frequently reported recognised risk factors for the acquisition of viral hepatitis (as reported in a self-administered questionnaire) were having received an inoculation during medical or dental treatment, reported by 45% of all subjects, and having had sexual contact with the indigenous population, reported by 35%. Whilst the prevalences of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers in these expatriates were of the same magnitude as previously reported in the general Swedish population, 8% and 0.3%, respectively, the prevalence of markers for a past or present HBV infection was about twice as high (5%). The presence of HBV markers was associated with being a health care professional or having received inoculations during medical or dental treatment in Africa. No significant association was found between having HBV markers and having had sexual contact with the indigenous population.

  15. t-C8B2N2: A potential superhard material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Rui; Gan, Li-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A potential superhard material C8B2N2 with I-4m2 space group is found and confirmed to be stable with first-principles calculations. The results show that its structure is highly incompressible with bulk modulus of 383.4 GPa and shear modulus of 383.0 GPa. It shows that this material is nearly isotropy with universal anisotropy index of 0.056, and its fractional anisotropy ratio of shear modulus and bulk modulus are 0.0055 and 0.0, respectively. Interestingly, its theoretical bulk modulus, shear modules, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and Vickers hardness are almost same to those of well-known superhard material c-BN.

  16. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: a technical study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO3) and Fe (existing as Fe2O3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  17. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  18. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of Four Models of Outboard Floats : (N.A.C.A. Models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Four models of outboard floats (N.A.C.A. models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D) were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank to determine their hydrodynamic characteristics and in the 20-foot wind tunnel to determine their aerodynamic drag. The results of the tests, together with comparisons of them, are presented in the form of charts. From the comparisons, the order of merit of the models is estimated for each factor considered. The best compromise between the various factors seems to be given by model 51-D. This model is the only one in the series with a transverse step.

  19. Degos disease: a C5b-9/interferon-α-mediated endotheliopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magro, Cynthia M; Poe, Jonathan C; Kim, Connie; Shapiro, Lee; Nuovo, Gerard; Crow, Mary K; Crow, Yanick J

    2011-04-01

    Degos disease is a lethal small vessel angiopathy targeting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system, potentially developing in the setting of known autoimmune disease, although forme fruste primary variants exist. Its pathogenetic basis is unknown. Four cases of Degos disease were encountered in archival material, representing 2 men, ages 38 and 43 years, and 2 females, ages 48 and 2 years; 3 patients died of disease. All had characteristic skin lesions with gastrointestinal involvement; other affected organs included brain in one and pericardium and pleura in another. Skin biopsies showed pauci-inflammatory thrombogenic microangiopathy with endothelial cell injury. Extracutaneous organs demonstrated fibromucinous occlusive arteriopathy. Prominent vascular C5b-9 was seen in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. All cases had evidence of high expression of interferon-α (based on tissue expression of MXA, a type I interferon-inducible protein), endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions, and an interferon gene signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The MXA expression paralleled the pattern of C5b-9 deposition. Degos disease is a distinct vascular injury syndrome whereby a dysregulated interferon-α response in concert with membranolytic attack complex deposition may contribute to the unique vascular changes. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process could lead to more directed therapies, including terminal complement inhibition with agents such as eculizumab.

  20. Novel tryptophan metabolites, chromoazepinone A, B and C, produced by a blocked mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum, the biosynthetic implications and the biological activity of chromoazepinone A and B.

    PubMed

    Mizuoka, Takaaki; Toume, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Masami; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2010-07-21

    Chromobacterium violaceum produces tryptophan metabolites, purple pigments of violacein and deoxyviolacein. A blocked mutant was prepared with N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine to gain insights into the biosynthetic mechanisms of the pigments. Five tryptophan metabolites were isolated: three novel compounds, named chromoazepinone A, B and C and two known compounds, chromopyrrolic acid and arcyriarubin A. The structure determinations of the three novel compounds are described. The biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are proposed on the basis of the findings about violacein biosynthesis. Chromoazepinone A and B were found to have an interesting effect of inhibition of Wnt signal transcriptional activity, which is implicated in the formation of numerous tumors when aberrantly activated.

  1. Shewanella oneidensis FabB: A β-ketoacyl-ACP Synthase That Works with C16:1-ACP.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qixia; Li, Meng; Fu, Huihui; Meng, Qiu; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-01

    It is established that Escherichia coli β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) I (encoded by EcfabB) is the primary, if not exclusive, factor for elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP (C10:1-ACP) but not effective with C16:1- or longer-chain-ACPs. To test the extent to which these features apply to KAS I proteins in other species, in this study, we examined the physiological role of FabB in Shewanella oneidensis, an excellent model for researching type II fatty acid synthetic (FAS) system and its regulation. We showed that the loss of either FabA (the enzyme that introduces double bond) or FabB, in the absence of DesA which desaturizes C16 and C18 to generate respective C16:1 and C18:1, leads to a UFA auxotroph. However, fatty acid profiles of membrane phospholipid of the fabA and fabB mutants are significantly different, suggesting that FabB participates in steps beyond elongation of C10:1-ACP. Further analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis FabB differs from EcFabB in that (i) it is not the only enzyme capable of catalyzing elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA, (ii) it plays a critical role in elongation of C16:1- and longer-chain-ACPs, and (iii) its overproduction is detrimental.

  2. Biotransformation of Flavokawains A, B, and C, Chalcones from Kava (Piper methysticum), by Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Katharina; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Kraus, Birgit

    2015-07-22

    The in vitro metabolism of flavokawains A, B, and C (FKA, FKB, FKC), methoxylated chalcones from Piper methysticum, was examined using human liver microsomes. Phase I metabolism and phase II metabolism (glucuronidation) as well as combined phase I+II metabolism were studied. For identification and structure elucidation of microsomal metabolites, LC-HRESIMS and NMR techniques were applied. Major phase I metabolites were generated by demethylation in position C-4 or C-4' and hydroxylation predominantly in position C-4, yielding FKC as phase I metabolite of FKA and FKB, helichrysetin as metabolite of FKA and FKC, and cardamonin as metabolite of FKC. To an even greater extent, flavokawains were metabolized in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronic acid by microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases. For all flavokawains, monoglucuronides (FKA-2'-O-glucuronide, FKB-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-4-O-glucuronide) were found as major phase II metabolites. The dominance of generated glucuronides suggests a role of conjugated chalcones as potential active compounds in vivo.

  3. A Study on the Age-Related Changes in Hepatitis B and C Virus Serology

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Ogutlu, Aziz; Karabay, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are a limited number of studies on the seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Turkey. This study aimed to compare HBV and HCV seroprevalence rates before and after the implementation of national hepatitis B vaccination program (NHPVP) and to explore age-related changes in the seroprevalences. Materials and Methods: Results of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis B virus surface antibody (antiHBs) and anti-HCV tests performed during 2009 and 2010 in a state hospital laboratory were reviewed retrospectively. As NHPVP was started in 1998, 12 years of age and younger children were considered post- NHPVP period subjects. Results: A total of 3280 HBsAg, 2444 antiHBs and 3188 anti-HCV test results were reviewed, representing approximately 3% of the population of the city where the study was conducted. HBsAg, antiHBs and anti-HCV positivity were 3.2%, 36.12% and 0.97%, respectively. HBsAg and antiHBs positivity were higher among males (p<0.001). When assessed by age groups, HBsAg positivity was found to be the lowest in the age group 0–12 and highest in the age group 51–60. HBsAg positivity was lower in the post-NHPVP period versus pre-NHPVP period (p=0.01). Anti-HCV positivity was similar for pre- and post- NHPVP periods (p>0.05). Conclusion: Owing to the use of NHPVP, HBsAg seropositivity has decreased, and it is expected to decrease further in the next years with a wider implementation of the program. Efforts should be continued to increase the level of awareness in the community for HBV and the importance of immunization. PMID:27026763

  4. L1599B: Cloud Envelope and C+ Emission in a Region of Moderately Enhanced Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Langer, William D.; Liu, Tie; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Ricken, Oliver; Riquelme, Denise

    2016-06-01

    We study the effects of an asymmetric radiation field on the properties of a molecular cloud envelope. We employ observations of carbon monoxide (12CO and 13CO), atomic carbon, ionized carbon, and atomic hydrogen to analyze the chemical and physical properties of the core and envelope of L1599B, a molecular cloud forming a portion of the ring at ≃27 pc from the star Λ Ori. The O8 star provides an asymmetric radiation field that produces a moderate enhancement of the external radiation field. Observations of the [C ii] fine structure line with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA indicate a significant enhanced emission on the side of the cloud facing the star, while the [C i], 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 and 2-1, and 12CO J = 3-2 data from the Purple Mountain Observatory and APEX telescopes suggest a relatively typical cloud interior. The atomic, ionic, and molecular line centroid velocities track each other very closely, and indicate that the cloud may be undergoing differential radial motion. The H i data from the Arecibo GALFA survey and the SOFIA/GREAT [C ii] data do not suggest any systematic motion of the halo gas, relative to the dense central portion of the cloud traced by 12CO and 13CO.

  5. Human VAP-B is involved in hepatitis C virus replication through interaction with NS5A and NS5B.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Okamoto, Toru; Aizaki, Hideki; Liu, Minyi; Mori, Yoshio; Abe, Takayuki; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Lai, Michael M C; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Moriishi, Kohji; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2005-11-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS) 5A is a phosphoprotein that associates with various cellular proteins and participates in the replication of the HCV genome. Human vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) subtype A (VAP-A) is known to be a host factor essential for HCV replication by binding to both NS5A and NS5B. To obtain more information on the NS5A protein in HCV replication, we screened human brain and liver libraries by a yeast two-hybrid system using NS5A as bait and identified VAP-B as an NS5A-binding protein. Immunoprecipitation and mutation analyses revealed that VAP-B binds to both NS5A and NS5B in mammalian cells and forms homo- and heterodimers with VAP-A. VAP-A interacts with VAP-B through the transmembrane domain. NS5A interacts with the coiled-coil domain of VAP-B via 70 residues in the N-terminal and 341 to 344 amino acids in the C-terminal polyproline cluster region. NS5A was colocalized with VAP-B in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The specific antibody to VAP-B suppressed HCV RNA replication in a cell-free assay. Overexpression of VAP-B, but not of a mutant lacking its transmembrane domain, enhanced the expression of NS5A and NS5B and the replication of HCV RNA in Huh-7 cells harboring a subgenomic replicon. In the HCV replicon cells, the knockdown of endogenous VAP-B by small interfering RNA decreased expression of NS5B, but not of NS5A. These results suggest that VAP-B, in addition to VAP-A, plays an important role in the replication of the HCV genome.

  6. First syntheses of the biologically active fungal metabolites pestalotiopsones A, B, C and F.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Andrew Michael; Castillo Martinez, Edwin; Barrow, Russell Allan

    2013-02-21

    A synthetic approach accessing the pestalotiopsones, fungal chromones possessing a rare skeletal subtype, is reported for the first time. The synthesis of pestalotiopsone A (1) has been achieved in 7 linear steps (28%), from commercially available 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid and subsequently the first syntheses of pestalotiopsone B (2), C (3) and F (4) were performed utilising this chemistry. The key steps include a newly described homologation of a substituted benzoic acid to afford phenylacetate derivatives utilising Birch reductive alkylation conditions, a microwave mediated chromanone formation proceeding through an oxa-Michael cyclisation, and an IBX induced dehydrogenation to the desired chromone skeleton. The synthetic natural products were completely characterised for the first time, confirming their structures and their biological activities evaluated against a panel of bacterial pathogens.

  7. German CELSS research with emphasis on the C.E.B.A.S.-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Bluem; Karlheinz, Kreuzberg

    In general the German CELSS research program covers both animal and plant systems. In the field of botany a higher plant growth unit is disposed. The construction of a continuous culture device for unicellular algae in long-term multi-generation experiments will start in 1990. In zoology an experimental system for multi-generation experiments, the AQUARACK is already under construction and a running laboratory prototype is sorrounded by a wide-spread ground research program. The combination of the algae system with AQUARACK will result in a combined animal-plant system, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System", C.E.B.A.S. which may be the origin for further interdisciplinary research leading to an aquatic plant-animal-CELSS This research field is closely associated with cybernetical science because the development of the combined systems need simulation processes and highly sophisticated electronical control. A further point in the CELSS program is the study of biological waste management.

  8. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) is petroleum derivatives which were manufactured or produced in the...

  9. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) is petroleum derivatives which were manufactured or produced in the...

  10. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) is petroleum derivatives which were manufactured or produced in the...

  11. HLA class I antigen and HLA-A, -B, and -C haplotype frequencies in Uruguayans.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ines; Bengochea, Milka; Toledo, Roberto; Carretto, Elena; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2006-08-01

    HLA class I antigens were determined for 959 unrelated Uruguayans. The predominant HLA alleles were A2, Cw4, and B35, and the most frequently observed two-loci haplotypes were A2-B44 and B35-Cw4. The most frequent three-loci HLA haplotype was A2-Cw5-B44. We compared the Uruguayan sample with similar data from other populations.

  12. Simple assay for staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C: modification of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Stiffler-Rosenberg, G; Fey, H

    1978-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) introduced for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins by Saunders et al., Simon and Terplan, and ourselves has proved to be a simple, reliable, and sensitive test. A new modification is described that uses polystyrene balls (diameter, 6 mm) coated individually with antibody against one of the toxins A, B, or C. In a single tube, 20 ml of the food extract was incubated with the three balls differently stained, which were then each tested for the uptake of enterotoxin by a competitive ELISA. A concentration of 0.1 ng or less of enterotoxin per ml can be measured, making tedious concentration procedures of the extracts superfluous. Culture supernatants and extracts from foods artificially or naturally contaminated with toxin were successfully examined. Cross-reactions did not occur, and nonspecific interfering substances did not create serious problems. PMID:365877

  13. HST observations of 3C 66B - A double-stranded optical jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    The central region of the synchrotron jet in 3C 66B imaged with ultrahigh spatial resolution by the Faint Object Camera on the HST is discussed. A close correspondence between the general characteristics of the smoothed optical image and the radio map is observed, implying that the young and old relativistic particles occupy similar regions to within about 130 pc. Focus is placed on the double-stranded filamentary nature of the jet, and it is speculated that this could reflect edge-brightening effects due to enhanced radiation from a skinlike structure surrounding the jet. It is noted that the similarity of optical and radio morphologies points to the fact that localized particle acceleration occurs along the jet; however, the filamentary structure and a low filling factor of radiation agree with a model in which the electrons are accelerated within the nucleus and are transported along the jet in a channel having low magnetic field.

  14. Modelling the B2C Marketplace: Evaluation of a Reputation Metric for e-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowska, Anna; Sloane, Andrew

    This paper evaluates recently developed novel and comprehensive reputation metric designed for the distributed multi-agent reputation system for the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-commerce applications. To do that an agent-based simulation framework was implemented which models different types of behaviours in the marketplace. The trustworthiness of different types of providers is investigated to establish whether the simulation models behaviour of B2C e-Commerce systems as they are expected to behave in real life.

  15. [MAVS protein and its interactions with hepatitis A, B and C viruses].

    PubMed

    Wyżewski, Zbigniew; Gregorczyk, Karolina P; Struzik, Justyna; Niemiałtowski, Marek; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia

    2016-01-26

    Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) transmits activation signal of type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription in the molecular intracellular pathway, which depends on the protein encoded by retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5). MAVS, as a signal molecule, performs an essential function in the development of an antiviral immune response. The molecule of MAVS consists of two domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal end of MAVS contains the caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). CARD is responsible for MAVS interaction with RIG-I and MDA-5, which act as cytosolic sensors detecting foreign viral genetic material in the host cell. After binding to viral RNA, RIG-I or MDA-5 activates MAVS and transmits the signal of IFN type I gene expression. The C-terminal transmembrane domain (TM) of MAVS anchors the protein to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this paper interactions between MAVS and hepatitis virus type A (HAV), type B (HBV) and type C (HCV) are presented. Mechanisms of indirect activation of MAVS by viral DNA and RNA, as well as the strategies of HAV, HBV and HCV for blocking of the intracellular signaling pathway at the level of MAVS, are described.

  16. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. J.; Luby, S. P.; Fikree, F.; Karim, A.; Obaid, S.; Dellawala, S.; Mirza, S.; Malik, T.; Fisher-Hoch, S.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were interviewed as they left each of the 18 area clinics. Practitioners were interviewed and three consecutive injections were observed at each clinic. Eighty-one per cent of patients received an injection on the day of the interview. Of the 135 patients who provided a serum sample, 59 (44%) had antibodies against hepatitis C virus and 26 (19%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus. Patients who received more injections were more likely to be infected with hepatitis C. If oral and injected medications were equally effective, 44% of patients preferred injected medication. None of the practitioners knew that hepatitis C could be transmitted by injections. Non-sterile syringes and needles that had been used earlier in the day on other patients were used for 94% of the observed injections. Interventions to limit injections to those which are safe and clinically indicated are needed to prevent injection-associated infections in Pakistan and other low-income countries. PMID:10994278

  17. Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A, B, and C in Colloidal Dispersions1

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Margy; Morita, Toshiko N.; Venn, Sharon Zipperer

    1973-01-01

    Larger amounts of enterotoxin were produced when Staphylococcus aureus S-6 was grown under still (nonshaken) conditions in a medium that was a paste or gel than were produced in a liquid dispersion with the same colloidal ingredient or in control basal broth (4% NZ Amine-NAK containing 50 μg of thiamine per 100 ml and 1 mg of niacin per 100 ml). Four colloidal ingredients were used which had been previously demonstrated to not support enterotoxin production in buffer. The effect of the type of dispersion occurred earlier than that of the colloidal ingredient, but interactions were found. This effect was not observed when the cells were grown with aeration (shaken). Four other strains of S. aureus followed a similar pattern for enterotoxins A, B, and C, although liquid and paste with cornstarch and carrageenan were the only media compared to the control broth. Enterotoxins A and B were produced earlier by S. aureus S-6, and much greater quantities of enterotoxins were produced for all strains when incubated shaken. PMID:4197641

  18. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript form. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B.C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific researcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Schaperclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies:

  19. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  20. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D. 1923

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript:fbrm. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B. C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific re"searcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Scha'perclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies

  1. New structural determinants for c-Myc specific heterodimerization with Max and development of a novel homodimeric c-Myc b-HLH-LZ.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; McDuff, François-Olivier; Frappier, Vincent; Montagne, Martin; Naud, Jean-François; Lavigne, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    c-Myc must heterodimerize with Max to accomplish its functions as a transcription factor. This specific heterodimerization occurs through the b-HLH-LZ (basic region, helix 1-loop-helix 2-leucine zipper) domains. In fact, many studies have shown that the c-Myc b-HLH-LZ (c-Myc'SH) preferentially forms a heterodimer with the Max b-HLH-LZ (Max'SH). The primary mechanism underlying the specific heterodimerization lies on the destabilization of both homodimers and the formation of a more stable heterodimer. In this regard, it has been widely reported that c-Myc'SH has low solubility and homodimerizes poorly and that repulsions within the LZ domain account for the homodimer instability. Here, we show that replacing one residue in the basic region and one residue in Helix 1 (H(1)) of c-Myc'SH with corresponding residues conserved in b-HLH proteins confers to c-Myc'SH a higher propensity to form a stable homodimer in solution. In stark contrast to the wild-type protein, this double mutant (L362R, R367L) of the c-Myc b-HLH-LZ (c-Myc'RL) shows limited heterodimerization with Max'SH in vitro. In addition, c-Myc'RL forms highly stable and soluble complexes with canonical as well as non-canonical E-box probes. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time that structural determinants driving the specific heterodimerization of c-Myc and Max are embedded in the basic region and H(1) of c-Myc and that these can be exploited to engineer a novel homodimeric c-Myc b-HLH-LZ with the ability of binding the E-box sequence autonomously and with high affinity.

  2. Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, M C; Fathallah, D M; Bergamaschini, L; Alicot, E M; Isenman, D E

    1990-01-01

    The C4B isotype of the fourth component of human complement (C4) displays 3- to 4-fold greater hemolytic activity than does its other isotype C4A. This correlates with differences in their covalent binding efficiencies to erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement C1. C4A binds to a greater extent when C1 is on IgG immune aggregates. The differences in covalent binding properties correlate only with amino acid changes between residues 1101 and 1106 (pro-C4 numbering)--namely, Pro-1101, Cys-1102, Leu-1105, and Asp-1106 in C4A and Leu-1101, Ser-1102, Ile-1105, and His-1106 in C4B, which are located in the C4d region of the alpha chain. To more precisely identify the residues that are important for the functional differences, C4A-C4B hybrid proteins were constructed by using recombinant DNA techniques. Comparison of these by hemolytic assay and binding to IgG aggregates showed that the single substitution of aspartic acid for histidine at position 1106 largely accounted for the change in functional activity and nature of the chemical bond formed (ester vs. amide). Surprisingly, substitution of a neutral residue, alanine, for histidine at position 1106 resulted in an increase in binding to immune aggregates without subsequent reduction in the hemolytic activity. This result strongly suggests that position 1106 is not "catalytic" as previously proposed but interacts sterically/electrostatically with potential acceptor sites and serves to "select" binding sites on potential acceptor molecules. Images PMID:2395880

  3. Institutional Controls and Transfer of Real Property under CERCLA Section 120(h)(3)(A), (B) or (C)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides guidance to the EPA on the exercise of EPA's discretion under CERCLA section 120(h)(3)(A),(B), or (C) when EPA is called upon to evaluate institutional controls as part of a remedial action.

  4. Production of charmed tetraquarks from B c and B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Rui-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic states composed of multi-quark flavors may exist in reality since they are not prohibited by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Compact four-quark systems of a color singlet are classified as tetraquarks. To understand the properties of these states, more theoretical and experimental efforts are needed. In this work, we study charmed tetraquarks with three light flavors using flavor SU(3) symmetry. States with three different light quarks must be in a \\bar{{6}} or a {{15}} multiplet. We investigate the production of charmed tetraquarks X c in B\\to {X}c({\\overline{X}}c)P and {B}c\\to {X}cP decays. Whether the states with three light quarks belong to \\bar{{6}} or {{15}} can be determined by studying various tetraquark B and B c decays. We demonstrate that the decay amplitudes for these decays can be parametrized by a few irreducible SU(3) invariant amplitudes. We then derive relations for decay widths and charge-parity-violating rate difference, which can be examined experimentally. Although no experimental measurements are available yet, they might be accessed at the ongoing and forthcoming experiments such as LHCb and Belle-II. Measurements of these observables can not only provide useful information for the study of exotics spectroscopy but also provide valuable information towards a better understanding of some non-perturbative aspects of QCD.

  5. A new isolate of hepatitis B virus from the Philippines possibly representing a new subgenotype C6.

    PubMed

    Cavinta, Lolita; Sun, Jianguang; May, Anja; Yin, Jianhua; von Meltzer, Markus; Radtke, Monika; Barzaga, Nina G; Cao, Guangwen; Schaefer, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes show distinct geographical prevalence. A genotyping analysis of 28 samples from asymptomatic HBV carriers from the Philippines gave a distribution of HBV genotypes as expected from a previous study: 54% B (15/28), C5 18% (5/28), 14% D (4/28), 7% A1 (2/28). In addition, 7% (2/28) of the samples showed a double infection with genotypes B and D. One of the isolates sequenced completely, ph105, did not group into one of the known subgenotypes after phylogenetic analysis. Ph105 formed a separate clade in genotype C. With a genome length of 3,215 nt. and a serological subtype adr, ph105 exhibited the main features of most genotype C strains. However, ph105 differed by 4.1-7.2% from HBV subgenotypes C1 to C5 when comparing the nucleotide sequence of whole genomes. With only 4.1% difference ph105 was most closely related to subgenotype C2. SimPlot analysis gave no indication for recombination with known HBV genotypes. Ph105 fulfils all criteria for a new subgenotype C6.

  6. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 2; Appendixes A, B, C and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Volume 2 of the report includes the following appendices: Appendix A: Heater Head Development (Starfish Heater Head Program, 1/10th Segment and Full-Scale Heat Pipes, and Sodium Filling and Processing); Appendix B: Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) Component Development (High-temperature Organic Materials, Heat Exchanger Fabrication, Beryllium Issues, Sodium Issues, Wear Couple Tests, Pressure Boundary Penetrations, Heating System Heaters, and Cooler Flow Test); Appendix C: Udimet Testing (Selection of the Reference Material for the Space Stirling Engine Heater Head, Udimet 720LI Creep Test Result Update, Final Summary of Space Stirling Endurance Engine Udimet 720L1 Fatigue Testing Results, Udimet 720l1 Weld Development Summary, and Udimet 720L1 Creep Test Final Results Summary), and Appendix D: CTPC Component Development Photos.

  7. Serological survey of viral hepatitis A, B, and C at Thai Central Region and Bangkok: a population base study.

    PubMed

    Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sonji, Areeua; Tiengrim, Surapee; Techasathit, Wichai; Suwanagool, Surapol

    2004-06-01

    Hepatitis A, B, and C are important viral hepatitis infections in the Thai population. Hepatitis B vaccination was included in the Thai Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) 10 years ago. In addition, the seroprevalence of hepatitis A has significantly changed in the last two decades. This study was done to evaluate current risk groups for hepatitis A and B infections and identify the magnitude of hepatitis C infection in the general population of Bangkok and six provinces in the Central Region of Thailand, during the period October 2000 to January 2002. This study revealed that the prevalence of anti-HAV in people younger than 25 years was low but very high in people older than 25 years. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 1.95% in Bangkok and 12.7% in other provinces in people younger than 25 years (p<0.001) while 90.9% in Bangkok and 88.2% in other provinces among people older than 25 years. Therefore, people who are older than 25 years should have a blood test for anti-HAV before getting a hepatitis A vaccination. Approximately 80% of people who are not covered by hepatitis B vaccination from EPI are at risk of hepatitis B infection and its complications. This group of people should receive hepatitis B vaccination. For hepatitis C, the prevalence is lower than 2% across age groups and areas. Therefore, current good primary prevention via blood donor screening and health education must be maintained.

  8. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  9. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Registration. (b) In accordance with FAR 32.1106(b), the use of a nondomestic EFT mechanism is authorized. When a nondomestic EFT mechanism is used, the contracting officer shall replace the paragraph at FAR 52.232-34(c) with a description of the EFT mechanism that will be used for the contract....

  10. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Registration. (b) In accordance with FAR 32.1106(b), the use of a nondomestic EFT mechanism is authorized. When a nondomestic EFT mechanism is used, the contracting officer shall replace the paragraph at FAR 52.232-34(c) with a description of the EFT mechanism that will be used for the contract....

  11. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Registration. (b) In accordance with FAR 32.1106(b), the use of a nondomestic EFT mechanism is authorized. When a nondomestic EFT mechanism is used, the contracting officer shall replace the paragraph at FAR 52.232-34(c) with a description of the EFT mechanism that will be used for the contract....

  12. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Registration. (b) In accordance with FAR 32.1106(b), the use of a nondomestic EFT mechanism is authorized. When a nondomestic EFT mechanism is used, the contracting officer shall replace the paragraph at FAR 52.232-34(c) with a description of the EFT mechanism that will be used for the contract....

  13. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Registration. (b) In accordance with FAR 32.1106(b), the use of a nondomestic EFT mechanism is authorized. When a nondomestic EFT mechanism is used, the contracting officer shall replace the paragraph at FAR 52.232-34(c) with a description of the EFT mechanism that will be used for the contract....

  14. A Qualitative Study of Recovery from Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418

  15. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  16. Antibodies to chondroitin sulfates A, B, and C: clinico-pathological correlates in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Briani, C; Santoro, M; Latov, N

    2000-08-01

    Anti-chondroitin sulfates (ChSs) antibodies have been reported in neuropathy and neurodegenerative diseases. Differences in specificities may account for their association with different diseases. Sera from 303 neurological patients were tested for antibodies to ChSs A, B, C. Titers >/=51,200 were found in 16 patients (eight peripheral neuropathy, three motor neuron disease, four multiple sclerosis, one myelitis). Three patients also had anti-sulfatides antibodies, which in two cases cross-reacted with ChSs. By indirect immunofluorescence, positive sera stained nuclei on normal human peripheral nerve sections. These findings indicate that human anti-ChSs antibodies are broadly reactive and not specific to any neurological disease.

  17. A facile and chemoselective conjugate reduction using polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) and catalytic B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Srivari; Chandrashekar, Gudise; Reddy, Marepally Srinivasa; Srihari, Pabbaraja

    2006-05-07

    A highly chemoselective conjugate reduction of electron-deficient Michael acceptors, including alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, carboxylic esters, nitriles and nitro compounds with PMHS in the presence of catalytic B(C6F5)3 is described.

  18. B_c Meson Production Around the Z^0 Peak at a High Luminosity e^+ e^- Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Chen, Gu; Liao, Qi-Li; Zhang, Jia-Wei; /Chongqing U.

    2012-05-22

    Considering the possibility to build an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the energies around the Z{sup 0}-boson resonance with a planned luminosity so high as L {proportional_to} 10{sup 34} {approx} 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (super Z-factory), we make a detailed discussion on the (c{bar b})-quarkonium production through e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (c{bar b})[n] + b + {bar c} within the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Here [n] stands for the Fock-states |(c{sub b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>, |(c{bar b})8[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]g>, |(c{bar b} ){sub 1}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]>, |(c{bar b}){sub 8}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]g>, |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}P{sub 1}]> and |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 3}P{sub J}]> (with J = (1, 2, 3)) respectively. To simplify the hard-scattering amplitude as much as possible and to derive analytic expressions for the purpose of future events simulation, we adopt the 'improved trace technology' to do our calculation, which deals with the hard scattering amplitude directly at the amplitude level other than the conventional way at the squared-amplitude level. Total cross-section uncertainties caused by the quark masses are predicted by taking m{sub c} = 1.50 {+-} 0.30 GeV and m{sub b} = 4.90 {+-} 0.40 GeV. If all higher (c{bar b})-quarkonium states decay to the ground state B{sub c} (|(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>) with 100% efficiency, we obtain {sigma}{sub e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}B{sub c}+b+{bar c}} = 5.190{sub -2.419}{sup +6.222} pb, which shows that about 10{sup 5} {approx} 10{sup 7} B{sub c} events per operation year can be accumulated in the super Z-factory. If taking the collider energy runs slightly off the Z{sup 0}-peak, i.e. {radical}S = (1.00 {+-} 0.05)m{sub Z}, the total cross-section shall be lowered by about one-order from its peak value. Such a super Z-factory shall provide another useful platform to study the properties of B{sub c} meson, or even the properties of its excited P-wave states, in addition to its production at the hadronic colliders

  19. Morphological differences of the carotid body among C57/BL6 (B6), A/J, and CSS B6A1 mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Chai, Sam; Gillombardo, Carl B; Donovan, Lucas; Strohl, Kingman P

    2011-08-15

    The C57/BL6 (B6) mouse strain exhibits post-hypoxic frequency decline and periodic breathing, as well as greater amount of irregular breathing during rest in comparison to the A/J and to the B6a1, a chromosomal substitution strain whereby the A/J chromosome 1 is bred onto the B6 background (Han et al., 2002; Yamauchi et al., 2008a,b). The hypothesis was that morphological differences in the carotid body would associate with such trait variations. After confirming strain differences in post-hypoxic ventilatory behavior, histological examination (n=8 in each group) using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed equivalent, well-defined tissue structure at the bifurcation of the carotid arteries, an active secretory parenchyma (type I cells) from the supportive stromal tissue, and clustering of type I cells in all three strains. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical staining revealed a typical organization of type I cells and neurovascular components into glomeruli in all three strains. Image analysis from 5 μm sections from each strain generated a series of cytological metrics. The percent carotid body composition of TH+ type I cells in the A/J, B6 and B6a1 was 20±4%, 39±3%, and 44±3%, respectively (p=0.00004). However, cellular organization in terms of density and ultrastructure in the B6a1 is more similar to the B6 than to the A/J. These findings indicate that genetic mechanisms that produce strain differences in ventilatory function do not associate with carotid body structure or tyrosine hydroxylase morphology, and that A/J chromosome 1 does not contribute much to B6 carotid body morphology.

  20. The histone demethylases Jhdm1a/1b enhance somatic cell reprogramming in a vitamin-C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Keshi; Zeng, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianguo; Wu, Yun; Shi, Xi; Qin, Baoming; Zeng, Lingwen; Esteban, Miguel Angel; Pan, Guangjin; Pei, Duanqing

    2011-12-02

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resets the epigenome to an embryonic-like state. Vitamin C enhances the reprogramming process, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that the histone demethylases Jhdm1a/1b are key effectors of somatic cell reprogramming downstream of vitamin C. We first observed that vitamin C induces H3K36me2/3 demethylation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts in culture and during reprogramming. We then identified Jhdm1a/1b, two known vitamin-C-dependent H3K36 demethylases, as potent regulators of reprogramming through gain- and loss-of-function approaches. Furthermore, we found that Jhdm1b accelerates cell cycle progression and suppresses cell senescence during reprogramming by repressing the Ink4/Arf locus. Jhdm1b also cooperates with Oct4 to activate the microRNA cluster 302/367, an integral component of the pluripotency machinery. Our results therefore reveal a role for H3K36me2/3 in cell fate determination and establish a link between histone demethylases and vitamin-C-induced reprogramming.

  1. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  6. A population-based prevalence study of hepatitis A, B and C virus using oral fluid in Flanders, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, Sophie; Hutse, Veronik; Vandenberghe, Hans; Claeys, Françoise; Verhaegen, Els; De Cock, Liesbet; Van Loock, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre; Vranckx, Robert; Van Oyen, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Ten years after the first seroprevalence study performed in Flanders, the aim of this cross sectional study was to follow the evolution of hepatitis A, B and C prevalence. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies was measured in oral fluid samples collected by postal survey. Using the National Population Register, an incremental sampling plan was developed to obtain a representative sampling of the general population. A total of 24,000 persons were selected and 6,000 persons among them contacted in a first wave. With 1834 participants a response rate of 30.6% was achieved. The prevalence was weighted for age and was 20.2% (95% CI 19.43-21.08) for hepatitis A, 0.66% (95% CI 0.51-0.84) for hepatitis B surface antigen and 0.12% (95% CI 0.09-0.39) for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis A and C in the Flemish population is lower in 2003 compared with the results of the study performed in 1993. The difference may be due to a real decrease of the diseases but also to differences in the methodology. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains stable. Considering the 30% response rate and the high quality of the self-collected samples as reflect of a good participation of the general population, saliva test for prevalence study is a good epidemiological monitoring tool.

  7. New strategies for the synthesis of biologically important tetrapyrroles. The "B,C + D + A" approach to linear tetrapyrroles.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, P A; Coutts, L D; Guo, J; Hauck, S I; Leung, S H

    2000-01-14

    Linear tetrapyrroles related to phytochrome (1) were prepared in enantiospecific fashion by a new strategy beginning with ring-B,C synthons of type 19 (bis-iododipyrrins). Rings A and D were elaborated by Pd(0)-mediated coupling of 19a with the appropriate alkyne acid or amide derivatives 9 and 20, followed by intramolecular cyclization (method C: BC + D + A --> ABCD).

  8. Carcinogenicity of bisphenol-A in Fischer rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Huff, J

    2001-11-01

    Bisphenol-A (BP-A; 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol) is a monomer of plastics commonly used in various consumer products, and is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of epoxy, polycarbonate, and polyester-styrene resins. A National Toxicology Program carcinogenesis bioassay of BP-A (>98% pure) was conducted by feeding diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm BP-A to groups of 50 male and 50 female Fischer (F)344 rats; 0, 1000, or 5000 ppm to groups of 50 male B6C3F1 mice; and 0, 5000, or 10,000 ppm to groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 103 weeks. The mean body weights of the low- and high-dose rats and of female mice and high-dose male mice were lower than those of the controls throughout much of the study. Lower body weight gains in rats were likely caused by reduced food consumption. Survivals were comparable among groups. Regarding neoplasia, leukemias occurred at increased incidences in BP-A-dosed rats of both sexes: male, 13/50 controls vs 12/50 low-dose and 23/50 high-dose (P < 0.03); in females, the respective findings were 7/50, 13/50, and 12/50. Interstitial-cell tumors of the testes were increased in BP-A-dosed male rats: 35/49 controls vs 48/50 (P < 0.01) and 46/49 (P < 0.01); and an increasing trend was observed for mammary gland fibroadenomas in male rats (P < 0.05, 0/50 controls vs 0/50 and 4/50). In male mice, lymphomas/leukemias were increased: 2/49 controls vs 9/50 (P < 0.05) and 5/50. Multinucleated giant hepatocytes were observed in male mice (1/49 controls vs 41/49 and 41/50), whereas there was no increase of liver tumors. In their BP-A bioassay report, the National Toxicology Program concluded that there was no convincing evidence that BP-A was carcinogenic for rats or mice. However, the marginal increases in leukemias in male and female rats, along with increases in the combined incidence of lymphomas and leukemias in male mice, suggest that BP-A may be associated with increased cancers of the hematopoietic system. Increases in interstitial

  9. C3b deposition on human erythrocytes induces the formation of a membrane skeleton–linked protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Karnchanaphanurach, Pallop; Mirchev, Rossen; Ghiran, Ionita; Asara, John M.; Papahadjopoulos-Sternberg, Brigitte; Nicholson-Weller, Anne; Golan, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked (GPI-linked) plasma membrane protein, protects autologous cells from complement-mediated damage by inhibiting complement component 3 (C3) activation. An important physical property of GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins such as DAF is their ability to translate laterally in the plasma membrane. Here, we used single-particle tracking and tether-pulling experiments to measure DAF lateral diffusion, lateral confinement, and membrane skeletal associations in human erythrocyte membranes. In native membranes, most DAF molecules exhibited Brownian lateral diffusion. Fluid-phase complement activation caused deposition of C3b, one of the products of C3 cleavage, onto erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA). We then determined that DAF, C3b, GPA, and band 3 molecules were laterally immobilized in the membranes of complement-treated cells, and GPA was physically associated with the membrane skeleton. Mass spectrometry analysis further showed that band 3, α-spectrin, β-spectrin, and ankyrin were present in a complex with C3b and GPA in complement-treated cells. C3b deposition was also associated with a substantial increase in erythrocyte membrane stiffness and/or viscosity. We therefore suggest that complement activation stimulates the formation of a membrane skeleton–linked DAF-C3b-GPA–band 3 complex on the erythrocyte surface. This complex may promote the removal of senescent erythrocytes from the circulation. PMID:19258706

  10. Frequency of Hepatitis-B and C in patients undergoing cataract surgery in a tertiary care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Cheema, Alyscia; Tareen, Saifullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the frequency of hepatitis B and C in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at department of Ophthalmology Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre. The duration of study was seven months from May 2013 to November 2013. After taking informed consent from the patient and hospital ethical committee all patients presenting with cataract and undergoing cataract surgery were evaluated for the existence of hepatitis C and B. Diagnosis of hepatitis C or B was made on the criteria that a patient must be positive for either Anti-HCV or HBsAg or both. Proformas were filled and data was collected and analysis was done. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated to calculate the occurrence of hepatitis C and B in general population undergoing cataract surgery. Results: Six hundred and forty-eight patients were operated on for cataract surgery at Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre during the study period. Mean age of patients was 63 years, 300 (46.29%) were male and 348 (53.70%) female. Out of them 57 (8.79%) patients were carriers of either Hepatitis C or B. Hepatitis B accounted for 17 cases (2.62%) however Hepatitis C positive were 40 cases (6.17%). Nobody was simultaneously affected by both hepatitis C and B. Conclusion: Significant number of asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis C and B were found in preoperative cataract patients. It is recommended that preoperative screening of all cataract patients should be done so that asymptomatic carriers might not become a threat for spread of disease. PMID:26430425

  11. Enzymatic assembly of epothilones: the EpoC subunit and reconstitution of the EpoA-ACP/B/C polyketide and nonribosomal peptide interfaces.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E; Chen, Huawei; Walsh, Christopher T

    2002-04-30

    The biosynthesis of epothilones, a family of hybrid polyketide (PK)/nonribosomal peptide (NRP) antitumor agents, provides an ideal system to study a hybrid PK/NRP natural product with significant biomedical value. Here the third enzyme involved in epothilone production, the five domain 195 kDa polyketide synthase (PKS) EpoC protein, has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. EpoC was combined with the first two enzymes of the epothilone biosynthesis pathway, the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of EpoA and EpoB, to reconstitute the early steps in epothilone biosynthesis. The acyltransferase (AT) domain of EpoC transfers the methylmalonyl moiety from methylmalonyl-CoA to the holo HS-acyl carrier protein (ACP) in an autoacylation reaction. The ketosynthase (KS) domain of EpoC decarboxylates the methylmalonyl-S-EpoC acyl enzyme to generate the carbon nucleophile that reacts with methylthiazolylcarboxyl-S-EpoB. The resulting condensation product can be reduced in the presence of NADPH by the ketoreductase (KR) domain of EpoC and then dehydrated by the dehydratase (DH) domain to produce the methylthiazolylmethylacrylyl-S-EpoC acyl enzyme intermediate that serves as the acyl donor for subsequent elongation of the epothilone chain. The acetyl-CoA donor can be replaced with propionyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, and benzoyl-CoA and the acyl chains accepted by both EpoB and EpoC subunits to produce ethyl-, isopropyl-, and phenylthiazolylmethylacrylyl-S-EpoC acyl enzyme intermediates, suggesting that future combinatorial biosynthetic variations in epothilone assembly may be feasible. These results demonstrate in vitro reconstitution of both the PKS/NRPS interface (EpoA-ACP/B) and the NRPS/PKS interface (EpoB/C) in the assembly line for this antitumor natural product.

  12. Analysis of a cDNA from the neurologically active locus shaking-B (Passover) of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Crompton, D E; Griffin, A; Davies, J A; Miklos, G L

    1992-12-15

    We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA from the shaking-B locus of Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA contains an open reading frame with extensive homology to another D. melanogaster gene, l(1)ogre. This suggests the existence of a new family of proteins required for the development and maintenance of the D. melanogaster nervous system.

  13. Hepatitis C virus upregulates B-cell receptor signaling: a novel mechanism for HCV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dai, B; Chen, A Y; Corkum, C P; Peroutka, R J; Landon, A; Houng, S; Muniandy, P A; Zhang, Y; Lehrmann, E; Mazan-Mamczarz, K; Steinhardt, J; Shlyak, M; Chen, Q C; Becker, K G; Livak, F; Michalak, T I; Talwani, R; Gartenhaus, R B

    2016-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for the development of B cells and has a critical role in B-cell neoplasia. Increasing evidence indicates an association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell lymphoma, however, the mechanisms by which HCV causes B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder are still unclear. Herein, we demonstrate the expression of HCV viral proteins in B cells of HCV-infected patients and show that HCV upregulates BCR signaling in human primary B cells. HCV nonstructural protein NS3/4A interacts with CHK2 and downregulates its activity, modulating HuR posttranscriptional regulation of a network of target mRNAs associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Interestingly, the BCR signaling pathway was found to have the largest number of transcripts with increased association with HuR and was upregulated by NS3/4A. Our study reveals a previously unidentified role of NS3/4A in regulation of host BCR signaling during HCV infection, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HCV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26434584

  14. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C virus infection in Amsterdam, 2004.

    PubMed

    Baaten, G G G; Sonder, G J B; Dukers, N H T M; Coutinho, R A; Van den Hoek, J A R

    2007-12-01

    In order to enhance screening and preventive strategies, this study investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis A, B, and C in the general adult urban population and in subgroups. In 2004, sera from 1,364 adult residents of Amsterdam were tested for viral markers. Sociodemographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire. For hepatitis A, 57.0% was immune. Of first-generation immigrants from Turkey and Morocco, 100% was immune. Of all Western persons and second-generation non-Western immigrants, approximately half was still susceptible. For hepatitis B, 9.9% had antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and 0.4% had hepatitis B surface antigen. Anti-HBc seroprevalences were highest among first-generation immigrants from Surinam, Morocco, and Turkey, and correlated with age at the time of immigration, and among men with a sexual preference for men. Seroprevalence among second-generation immigrants was comparable to Western persons. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 0.6%. In conclusion, a country with overall low endemicity for viral hepatitis can show higher endemicity in urban regions, indicating the need for differentiated regional studies and prevention strategies. More prevention efforts in cities like Amsterdam are warranted, particularly for hepatitis A and B among second-generation immigrants, for hepatitis B among men with a sexual preference for men, and for hepatitis C. Active case finding strategies are needed for both hepatitis B and C.

  15. Role for zinc in a cellular response mediated by protein kinase C in human B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, I.J.; Zalewski, P.D.; Giannakis, C. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested a role for Zn{sup 2+}, distinct from that of CA{sup 2+}, in the subcellular distribution and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here the author show that Zn{sup 2+} is required for a cellular response mediated by PKC, the rapid loss of expression of a human B cell receptor MER, detected by resetting with mouse erythrocytes. Zn{sup 2+}, in the presence of the Zn{sup 2+} ionophore pyrithione, caused rapid inhibition of MER rosetting at concentrations which induce the translocation and activation of PKC. This required cellular uptake of Zn{sup 2+} and was blocked by 1,10-phenanthroline and TPEN which chelate Zn{sup 2+} but not Ca{sup 2+}. Gold, a metal with similar properties, also induced translocation of PKC and inhibition of MER. Phenanthroline and TPEN also blocked the inhibition of MER induced by the PKC activators phorbol ester and sodium fluoride, suggesting that endogenous cellular Zn{sup 2+} is required. They propose that some cellular actions of PKC require a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent event and that these may be a target for gold during chrysotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Endemic prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Mongolia: A nationwide survey among Mongolian adults.

    PubMed

    Dashtseren, Bekhbold; Bungert, Andreas; Bat-Ulzii, Purevjargal; Enkhbat, Maralmaa; Lkhagva-Ochir, Oyungerel; Jargalsaikhan, Ganbolor; Enkhbat, Anir; Oidovsambuu, Odgerel; Klemen, Jane; Dashdorj, Naranbaatar; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Genden, Zulkhuu; Yagaanbuyant, Dahgwahdorj

    2017-02-17

    In this study a representative group of Mongolian adults was tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Screening was conducted at 17 different locations on a randomly sampled group, representative of the Mongolian adult population. A total of 1158 adults, 500 (43.1%) men and 659 (56.9%) women were included. The prevalence estimates of HBV and HCV among the general Mongolian adult population were found to be 11.1%± 1% (SE) and 8.5% ± 0.7% or 207,418 and 160,228 cases, respectively. For HCV the majority of cases are concentrated in older age groups with a prevalence of 25.8% among those aged 50 years and above, while the prevalence of HBV does not vary significantly among age groups. For both, HBV and HCV, the data indicates a higher risk of infection and a higher mortality due to hepatitis among men than among women. This study is the first nationwide estimate of the prevalence of HBV in Mongolia and the first for HCV since 2005 and confirm the position of Mongolia as one of the hotspots of chronic hepatitis infection in the world with about 19.4% of the adult population being infected with either HBV or HCV. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R

    2002-07-01

    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in the top dose (20 mg/kg) group of male and female mice relative to controls. The incidence of forestomach papillomas and carcinomas was increased in mice of both sexes in association with an increase in forestomach epithelial hyperplasia. The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas and carcinomas was also markedly increased in the acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6

  18. A Study of b to c and b to u Interference in the Decay B- to [K+ pi-]_D K*-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-08-04

    Using a sample of 232 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory we study the decay B{sup -} {yields} [K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}]{sub D}K*{sup -} where the K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is either from a Cabibbo-favored {bar D}{sup 0} decay or doubly-suppressed D{sup 0} decay. We measure two observables that are sensitive to the CKM angle {gamma}; the ratio R of the charge-averaged branching fractions for the suppressed and favored decays; and the charge asymmetry A of the suppressed decays: R = 0.046 {+-} 0.031(stat.) {+-} 0.008(syst.); A = -0.22 {+-} 0.61(stat.) {+-} 0.17(syst.).

  19. Hepatitis B and C in pregnancy: a review and recommendations for care

    PubMed Central

    Dunkelberg, JC; Berkley, EMF; Thiel, KW; Leslie, KK

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge regarding pregnancy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as recent efforts to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Maternal infection with either HBV or HCV has been linked to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, including MTCT. MTCT for HBV has been reduced to approximately 5% overall in countries including the US that have instituted postpartum neonatal HBV vaccination and immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. However, the rate of transmission of HBV to newborns is nearly 30% when maternal HBV levels are greater than 200 000 IU ml−1 (>6 log10 copies ml−1). For these patients, new guidelines from the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) indicate that, in addition to neonatal vaccination and immunoprophylaxis, treating with antiviral agents such as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or telbivudine during pregnancy beginning at 32 weeks of gestation is safe and effective in preventing MTCT. In contrast to HBV, no therapeutic agents are yet available or recommended to further decrease the risk of MTCT of HCV, which remains 3 to 10%. HCV MTCT can be minimized by avoiding fetal scalp electrodes and birth trauma whenever possible. Young women with HCV should be referred for treatment post delivery, and neonates should be closely followed to rule out infection. New, better-tolerated treatment regimens for HCV are now available, which should improve outcomes for all infected individuals. PMID:25233195

  20. Unusual Multiple Production of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones a by Burkholderia sp. Strain C10B Isolated from Dentine Caries

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Share Yuan; Tan, Wen-Si; Khan, Saad Ahmed; Chew, Hooi Pin; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria realize the ability to communicate by production of quorum sensing (QS) molecules called autoinducers, which regulate the physiological activities in their ecological niches. The oral cavity could be a potential area for the presence of QS bacteria. In this study, we report the isolation of a QS bacterial isolate C10B from dentine caries. Preliminary screening using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor showed that isolate C10B was able to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). This bacterium was further identified as a member of Burkholderia, an opportunistic pathogen. The isolated Burkholderia sp. was confirmed to produce N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL). PMID:24854358

  1. A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Julien; Wakeford, Hannah R; Gillon, Michaël; Lewis, Nikole K; Valenti, Jeff A; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Burgasser, Adam J; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Here we report observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016. The lack of features in the combined spectrum rules out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Many denser atmospheres remain consistent with the featureless transmission spectrum-from a cloud-free water-vapour atmosphere to a Venus-like one.

  2. A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Julien; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Gillon, Michaël; Lewis, Nikole K.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M.; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Here we report observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016. The lack of features in the combined spectrum rules out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Many denser atmospheres remain consistent with the featureless transmission spectrum—from a cloud-free water-vapour atmosphere to a Venus-like one.

  3. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  4. Relative 11C-PiB Delivery as a Proxy of Relative CBF: Quantitative Evaluation Using Single-Session 15O-Water and 11C-PiB PET

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin J.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Laymon, Charles M.; Lu, Xueling; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.; Lopresti, Brian J.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the suitability of 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) blood–brain barrier delivery (K1) and relative delivery (R1) parameters as surrogate indices of cerebral blood flow (CBF), with a secondary goal of directly examining the extent to which simplified uptake measures of 11C-PiB retention (amyloid-β load) may be influenced by CBF, in a cohort of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Nineteen participants (6 controls, 5 AD, 8 MCI) underwent MR imaging, 15O-water PET, and 11C-PiB PET in a single session. Fourteen regions of interest (including cerebellar reference region) were defined on MR imaging and applied to dynamic coregistered PET to generate time–activity curves. Multiple analysis approaches provided regional 15O-water and 11C-PiB measures of delivery and 11C-PiB retention that included compartmental modeling distribution volume ratio (DVR), arterial- and reference-based Logan DVR, simplified reference tissue modeling 2 (SRTM2) DVR, and standardized uptake value ratios. Spearman correlation was performed among delivery measures (i.e., 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1, relative K1 normalized to cerebellum [Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB], and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1) and between delivery measures and 11C-PiB retention, using the Bonferroni method for multiple-comparison correction. Results Primary analysis showed positive correlations (ρ ≈0.2–0.5) between 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1 that did not survive Bonferroni adjustment. Significant positive correlations were found between Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB and between Rel-K1-Water and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1 (ρ ≈0.5–0.8, P < 0.0036) across primary cortical regions. Secondary analysis showed few significant correlations between 11C-PiB retention and relative 11C-PiB delivery measures (but not 15O-water delivery measures) in primary cortical areas that arose only after accounting for cerebrospinal fluid dilution

  5. Key roles of vitamins A, C, and E in aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Lokman; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins (Aspergillus flavus toxins) are one of the natural toxic molecules which are produced by a group of fungi called Aspergillus. Foods and drinks contaminated with aflatoxins cause global health and environmental problems. Today in many developing countries, these toxins are leading cause of some liver cancers and serious gastrointestinal problems. Aflatoxins, which are well known to be mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive, exert inhibitory effects on biological processes including DNA synthesis, DNA-dependent RNA synthesis, DNA repair, and protein synthesis. Aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)) is the most widespread oxidative agent of the aflatoxins. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts have been reported to reduce the aflatoxins induced oxidative stress in the body. Most of these inhibitors including phenylpropanoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and vitamins are originally derived from plants. Among these, being essential biomolecules, vitamins are used as coenzymes in very significant biological reactions. They also function as nonenzymatic antioxidative agents protecting the cells from oxidative stress-induced toxicity and transformation. This chapter reviews the mechanism of AFB(1)-induced oxidative stress and focuses on the protective effects of vitamins A, C, and E on reducing this stress.

  6. Soret-excited Raman spectroscopy of the spinach cytochrome b6f complex. Structures of the b- and c-type hemes, chlorophyll a, and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Picaud, T; Le Moigne, C; Gomez de Gracia, A; Desbois, A

    2001-06-19

    Soret-excited resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the spinach cytochrome b6f complex (cyt b6f) are reported for the oxidized, native, ascorbate-reduced, and dithionite-reduced forms. Using excitations at 441.6, 413.1, and 406.7 nm, RR contributions of chlorophyll a, beta-carotene, the c-type heme of cytochrome f, and the b-type hemes of cytochrome b6 of the b6f complex were identified and the data compared to those previously obtained for the Rhodospirillum rubrum bc1 complex [Le Moigne, C., Schoepp, B., Othman, S., Verméglio, A., and Desbois, A. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 1066-1076]. RR bands arising from the b(6)f-associated chlorophyll a and beta-carotene pigments were found to be particularly intense in the spectra excited at 441.6 nm. The frequencies of the phorbin skeleton of chlorophyll a at 1606, 1552, and 1525 cm(-1) are typical of a Mg atom with a single axial ligand. Strong RR bands corresponding to stretching or deformation modes of beta-carotene were detected at 1137, 1157, 1191, 1216, and 1531 cm(-1) in the different forms of cyt b6f. This set of frequencies is assigned to an all-trans configuration of the polyene chain. The redox titrations of the b(6)f complex allow the characterization of RR bands of the three hemes. The nu10, nu2, nu3, and nu8 modes of reduced cyt f are detected at 1619, 1591, 1492, and 356 cm(-1), respectively. From this set of frequencies, one can conclude that the particular histidine/amine heme coordination found in the truncated soluble domain of cyt f is a specific feature of the entire cyt f included in the b6f complex. The frequencies of the nu2, nu8, and nu10 marker modes are consistent with different conformations for the two b-type hemes of cyt b6f. One of these hemes is strongly distorted (nu2, nu8, and nu10 at 1581, 351, and 1610 cm(-1), respectively), while the other one is planar (1586, 345, and 1618 cm(-1), respectively). Largely different structures for the b-type hemes appear to be a common property for the bc1/b6f

  7. Enantioselective Synthesis of Cephalimysins B and C.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, David; Vojáčková, Petra; Partl, Jiří; Pavlović, Dražen; Nečas, Marek; Švenda, Jakub

    2017-02-17

    The first synthesis of cephalimysins B and C is reported. The route features a Ni(II)-diamine-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of a densely substituted 3(2H)-furanone and an efficient dihydroxylation-lactonization sequence as key steps in the assembly of the spirocyclic core. The fully synthetic strategy is amenable to analog preparation.

  8. Planning a distribution automation pilot project at B.C. Hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Benedictson, E.; Dwyer, A.; Herejk, I.

    1994-12-31

    In 1989, a small team of engineers and managers from B.C. Hydro`s Customer Services Group made an exploratory partnership trip to a DA product supplier. While the partnership initiative failed, it served to raise corporate awareness of the need for a comprehensive DA approach. Shortly thereafter, the Window 2000 Project name were formulated. From the inception of the Window 2000 Project, it was clear that the team faced a major strategy challenge, due to recent corporate history. The corporation had just completed a major generation and transmission system expansion program, and enjoyed a considerable energy and capacity surplus, coupled with increased debt load. Concurrently, a select segment of the corporation was developing what was to become the internationally successful Power Smart energy conservation initiative. The team developed a communication plan based on several key principles. Presentations were made to various stakeholders including Customer Services and Corporate Management committees. Permission to proceed with the Window 2000 project was obtained in 1990. A multi-disciplined team of employees representing Customer Services, Power Smart, Production, System Planning, and Stations Engineering was assembled. Leadership was provided by a full-time project leader, and by a senior management steering committee. In addition, the project leader assembled an informal group of advisors for the purpose of defining alternative approaches, generating new information, and testing of ideas. The team members were encouraged to avoid concentrating on corporate or personal turf issues, and the team environment was maintained free of {open_quotes}politics{close_quotes}. This fostered cooperation and objectivity in idea generation and evaluation. The team was given an open mandate to define and to recommend DA functions for implementation.

  9. Deletion of the late cornified envelope LCE3B and LCE3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    de Cid, Rafael; Riveira-Munoz, Eva; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Robarge, Jason; Liao, Wilson; Dannhauser, Emma N; Giardina, Emiliano; Stuart, Philip E; Nair, Rajan; Helms, Cynthia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ballana, Ester; Martín-Ezquerra, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Kamsteeg, Marijke; Joosten, Irma; Eichler, Evan E; Lázaro, Conxi; Pujol, Ramón M; Armengol, Lluís; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Elder, James T; Novelli, Giuseppe; Armour, John A L; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Bowcock, Anne; Schalkwijk, Joost; Estivill, Xavier

    2009-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a prevalence of 2-3% in individuals of European ancestry. In a genome-wide search for copy number variants (CNV) using a sample pooling approach, we have identified a deletion comprising LCE3B and LCE3C, members of the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster. The absence of LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3C_LCE3B-del) is significantly associated (P = 1.38E-08) with risk of psoriasis in 2,831 samples from Spain, The Netherlands, Italy and the United States, and in a family-based study (P = 5.4E-04). LCE3C_LCE3B-del is tagged by rs4112788 (r(2) = 0.93), which is also strongly associated with psoriasis (P < 6.6E-09). LCE3C_LCE3B-del shows epistatic effects with the HLA-Cw6 allele on the development of psoriasis in Dutch samples and multiplicative effects in the other samples. LCE expression can be induced in normal epidermis by skin barrier disruption and is strongly expressed in psoriatic lesions, suggesting that compromised skin barrier function has a role in psoriasis susceptibility.

  10. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  11. A Novel Complex A/C/G Intergenotypic Recombinant of Hepatitis B Virus Isolated in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Heling; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhihui; Cheng, Shuquan; Ye, Haiyan; Xu, Qing; Liu, Qingbo; Tan, Shuhong; Xu, Dongping; Liu, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes may vary in geographical distribution and virological features. Previous investigations, including ours, showed that HBV genotypes B and C were respectively predominant in South and North China, while genotypes A and D were infrequently detected and genotype G was not found. In this study, a novel A/C/G intergenotype was identified in patients with chronic HBV infection in Guilin, a city in southern China. Initial phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene suggested the HBV recombinant to be genotype G. However, extended genotyping based on the entire HBV genome indicated it to be an A/C/G intergenotype with a closer relation to genotype C. Breakpoint analysis using the SIMPLOT program revealed that the recombinant had a recombination with a arrangement of genotypes A, G, A and C fragments. Compared with the HBV recombinants harboring one or two genotype G fragments found in Asian countries, this Guilin recombinant was highly similar to the Vietnam (98–99%) and Long An recombinants (96–99%), but had a relatively low similarity to the Thailand one (89%). Unlike those with the typical genotype G of HBV, the patients with the Guilin recombinant were seropositive for HBeAg. Moreover, a relatively high HBV DNA viral load (>2×106 IU/ml) was detected in the patients, and the analysis of viral replication capacity showed that the Guilin recombinant strains had a competent replication capacity similar to genotypes B and C strains. These findings can aid in not only the clarification of the phylogenetic origin of the HBV recombinants with the genotype G fragment found in Asian countries, but also the understanding of the virological properties of these complicated HBV recombinants. PMID:24475029

  12. Occult hepatitis B virus infection increases hepatocellular carcinogenesis by eight times in patients with non-B, non-C liver cirrhosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Kobayashi, M; Someya, T; Saitoh, S; Hosaka, T; Akuta, N; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, Y; Arase, Y; Kumada, H

    2009-06-01

    An impact of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA on hepatocarcinogenesis has not been investigated in a cohort of patients with non-B, non-C cirrhosis. Eighty-two consecutive Japanese patients with cirrhosis, who showed negative hepatitis B surface antigen and negative anti-hepatitis C virus, were observed for a median of 5.8 years. Hepatitis B virus core (HBc) region and HBx region were assayed with nested polymerase chain reaction. Both of HBc and HBx DNA were positive in 9 patients (11.0%) and both were negative in 73. Carcinogenesis rates in the whole patients were 13.5% at the end of the 5th year and 24.6% at the 10th year. The carcinogenesis rates in the patients with positive DNA group and negative DNA group were 27.0% and 11.8% at the end of the 5th year, and 100% and 17.6% at the 10th year, respectively (P = 0.0078). Multivariate analysis showed that men (P = 0.04), presence of HBc and HBx DNA (hazard ratio: 8.25, P = 0.003), less total alcohol intake (P = 0.010), older age (P = 0.010), and association of diabetes (P = 0.005) were independently associated with hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Existence of serum HBV DNA predicted a high hepatocellular carcinogenesis rate in a cohort of patients with non-B, non-C cirrhosis.

  13. A Genetic Interaction between Hepatitis C Virus NS4B and NS3 Is Important for RNA Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Anne M.; Blight, Keril J.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), a poorly characterized integral membrane protein, is thought to function as a scaffold for replication complex assembly; however, functional interactions with the other HCV nonstructural proteins within this complex have not been defined. We report that a Con1 chimeric subgenomic replicon containing the NS4B gene from the closely related H77 isolate is defective for RNA replication in a transient assay, suggesting that H77 NS4B is unable to productively interact with the Con1 replication machinery. The H77 NS4B sequences that proved detrimental for Con1 RNA replication resided in the predicted N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains as well as the central transmembrane region. Selection for Con1 derivatives that could utilize the entire H77 NS4B or hybrid Con1-H77 NS4B proteins yielded mutants containing single amino acid substitutions in NS3 and NS4A. The second-site mutations in NS3 partially restored the replication of Con1 chimeras containing the N-terminal or transmembrane domains of H77 NS4B. In contrast, the deleterious H77-specific sequences in the C terminus of NS4B, which mapped to a cluster of four amino acids, were completely suppressed by second-site substitutions in NS3. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence for a genetic interaction between NS4B and NS3 important for productive HCV RNA replication. PMID:18715921

  14. Synthesis and supercapacitor electrode of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites with a pseudocapacitance in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Jiqi; Hu, Tao; Tian, Fuping; Meng, Changgong

    2016-05-01

    VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were successfully prepared using commercial V2O5, glucose and water as the starting materials by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The composition of the products was characterized by the techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and elemental analysis. The morphology of the products was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tests. The results showed the products consisted of the crystal VO2(B) phase and the amorphous carbon phase. The amorphous carbon contained lots of organic groups, such as sbnd OH, Csbnd H, Cdbnd O and Cdbnd C, etc., which suggested that the carbon here was organic carbon. The morphology of the as-obtained VO2(B)/C composites was well-defined nanobelts, and each VO2(B) core was encapsulated into carbon. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results showed the measured capacitance of VO2(B)/C composites was mainly based on the pseudocapacitance. VO2(B)/C composites displayed the specific capacitance of 203, 190, 182, 173, 164, and 147 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 A g-1, respectively. They also showed an excellent energy density of 198.9 W h kg-1 at a power density of 504.5 W kg-1 and a rapidly reversible redox Faraday response.

  15. Specificity of the hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease: effects of substitutions at the 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B cleavage sites on polyprotein processing.

    PubMed Central

    Kolykhalov, A A; Agapov, E V; Rice, C M

    1994-01-01

    Cleavage at four sites (3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B) in the hepatitis C virus polyprotein requires a viral serine protease activity residing in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein. Sequence comparison of the residues flanking these cleavage sites reveals conserved features including an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) at the P6 position, a Cys or Thr residue at the P1 position, and a Ser or Ala residue at the P1' position. In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the importance of these and other residues for NS3 protease-dependent cleavages. Substitutions at the P7 to P2' positions of the 4A/4B site had varied effects on cleavage efficiency. Only Arg at the P1 position or Pro at P1' substantially blocked processing at this site. Leu was tolerated at the P1 position, whereas five other substitutions allowed various degrees of cleavage. Substitutions with positively charged or other hydrophilic residues at the P7, P3, P2, and P2' positions did not reduce cleavage efficiency. Five substitutions examined at the P6 position allowed complete cleavage, demonstrating that an acidic residue at this position is not essential. Parallel results were obtained with substrates containing an active NS3 protease domain in cis or when the protease domain was supplied in trans. Selected substitutions blocking or inhibiting cleavage at the 4A/4B site were also examined at the 3/4A, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites. For a given substitution, a site-dependent gradient in the degree of inhibition was observed, with a 3/4A site being least sensitive to mutagenesis, followed by the 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites. In most cases, mutations abolishing cleavage at one site did not affect processing at the other serine protease-dependent sites. However, mutations at the 3/4A site which inhibited cleavage also interfered with processing at the 4B/5A site. Finally, during the course of these studies an additional NS3 protease-dependent cleavage site has been identified in the NS4B

  16. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinway, Steven N.; Dang, Hien; You, Hanning; Rountree, C. Bart; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance. Methods We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+) HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells) were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses. Results We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate

  17. A photo Lewis acid generator (PhLAG): controlled photorelease of B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Khalimon, Andrey Y; Piers, Warren E; Blackwell, James M; Michalak, David J; Parvez, Masood

    2012-06-13

    A molecule that releases the strong organometallic Lewis acid B(C(6)F(5))(3) upon irradiation with 254 nm light has been developed. This photo Lewis acid generator (PhLAG) now enables the photocontrolled initiation of several reactions catalyzed by this important Lewis acid. Herein is described the synthesis of the triphenylsulfonium salt of a carbamato borate based on a carbazole function, its establishment as a PhLAG, and the application of the photorelease of B(C(6)F(5))(3) to the fabrication of thin films of a polysiloxane material.

  18. Therapy for treatment-refractory chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cindoruk, Mehmet; Karakan, Tarkan; Unal, Selahattin

    2005-01-01

    Background: The most effective current therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the combination of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). Objective: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to determine the rateof response to this therapy, and the factors affecting outcome, in patients with treatment-refractory chronic HCV genotype l b. Methods: The records of patients with chronic HCV infection and HCV geno-type1b who failed (nonresponse or relapse) previous treatment with standard interferon (IFN) + RSV were retrospectively analyzed for demographic data, virologic load, liver histology, biochemistry, treatment-related adverse effects (AEs), and the effects of dose reduction during treatment with peg-IFN + RBV for 48 weeks. Early virologic response (EVR) was defined as ≥2-log (copies/mL) decrease from baseline in serum HCV RNA concentration or the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA at treatment week 12. End-of-treatment response (ETR) was defined as the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA at treatment week 48. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as the absence of detectable serum HCV RNA 24 weeks after treatment was discontinued. Factors affecting treatment outcome were determined using correlation analyses. Results: Data from the files of 17 patients (12 men, 5 women; mean [SD] age, 48 [2] years) were analyzed. EVR was achieved in 7 patients; however, viral breakthrough occurred in 2 of these patients during the treatment period, and 5 of these patients discontinued treatment because of severe treatment-related AEs (depression [1 patient] and neutropenia [4]). Seven patients achieved ETR, but HCV infection relapsed during the follow-up period. Three (18%) patients achieved SVR. Data concerning previous patterns of response to IFN + RBV therapy were available in 10 patients. Of these, 3 of 6 patients who had experienced relapse with the previous treatment achieved SVR with peg-IFN + RBV; neither of the 2 patients with

  19. Plasmin(ogen) acquisition by group A Streptococcus protects against C3b-mediated neutrophil killing.

    PubMed

    Ly, Diane; Taylor, Jude M; Tsatsaronis, James A; Monteleone, Mercedes M; Skora, Amanda S; Donald, Cortny A; Maddocks, Tracy; Nizet, Victor; West, Nicholas P; Ranson, Marie; Walker, Mark J; McArthur, Jason D; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2014-01-01

    The globally significant human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) sequesters the host protease plasmin to the cell surface during invasive disease initiation. Recent evidence has shown that localized plasmin activity prevents opsonization of several bacterial species by key components of the innate immune system in vitro. Here we demonstrate that plasmin at the GAS cell surface resulted in degradation of complement factor C3b, and that plasminogen acquisition is associated with a decrease in C3b opsonization and neutrophil-mediated killing in vitro. Furthermore, the ability to acquire cell surface plasmin(ogen) correlates directly with a decrease in C3b opsonization, neutrophil phagocytosis, and increased bacterial survival in a humanized plasminogen mouse model of infection. These findings demonstrate that localized plasmin(ogen) plays an important role in facilitating GAS escape from the host innate immune response and increases bacterial virulence in the early stages of infection.

  20. Detection of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC genes in Campylobacter jejuni by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Irati; Mateo, Estibaliz; Churruca, Estibaliz; Girbau, Cecilia; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2006-02-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed for simultaneous detection of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes of Campylobacter jejuni. Three primer pairs targeting each one of the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC genes were designed and combined in the same PCR reaction. The assay was evaluated with 100 C. jejuni strains recovered from humans and animals and it was found to be rapid and specific. Two isolates presented several deletions affecting both cdtA and cdtB genes. High prevalence (98%) of the three cdt genes was found among isolates of different geographic origins.

  1. Orbital motion in the radio galaxy 3C 66B: evidence for a supermassive black hole binary.

    PubMed

    Sudou, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Satoru; Murata, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2003-05-23

    Supermassive black hole binaries may exist in the centers of active galactic nuclei such as quasars and radio galaxies, and mergers between galaxies may result in the formation of supermassive binaries during the course of galactic evolution. Using the very-long-baseline interferometer, we imaged the radio galaxy 3C 66B at radio frequencies and found that the unresolved radio core of 3C 66B shows well-defined elliptical motions with a period of 1.05 +/- 0.03 years, which provides a direct detection of a supermassive black hole binary.

  2. The Lifetime of a beautiful and charming meson: Bc lifetime measured using the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine

    2008-09-01

    Using approximately 1.3 fb-1 of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the lifetime of the Bc± meson is studied in the Bc± → J/Ψμ± + X final state. Using an unbinned likelihood simultaneous fit to J/Ψ + μ invariant mass and lifetime distributions, a signal of 810 ± 80(stat.) candidates is estimated and a lifetime measurement made of: τ(Bc±) = 0.448-0.036+0.038(stat) ± 0.032(sys) ps.

  3. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Nuermberger, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB). Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF), rifapentine (RPT), pyrazinamide (PZA), linezolid (LZD), sutezolid (PNU) or metronidazole (MTZ) for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU) counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes. PMID:26035868

  4. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Lenaerts, Anne J; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-06-01

    Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB). Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF), rifapentine (RPT), pyrazinamide (PZA), linezolid (LZD), sutezolid (PNU) or metronidazole (MTZ) for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU) counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes.

  5. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  6. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  7. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  8. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  9. Historic volcanism, European dry fogs, and greenland Acid precipitation, 1500 B.C. To a.d. 1500.

    PubMed

    Stothers, R B; Rampino, M R

    1983-10-28

    Historic dry fogs in Europe, acid precipitation in Greenland, and major explosive volcanic eruptions correlate well with each other between 1500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. European (Mediterranean and Icelandic) volcanic eruptions appear to be the source of at least five of the nine largest acidity signals found in Greenland ice for this period. Between 152 B.C. and A.D. 43, eruptions of sulfur-rich Mount Etna probably supplied about 15 percent of the smaller acidity signals.

  10. Activation of the endothelium by IL-1 alpha and glucocorticoids results in major increase of complement C3 and factor B production and generation of C3a.

    PubMed Central

    Coulpier, M; Andreev, S; Lemercier, C; Dauchel, H; Lees, O; Fontaine, M; Ripoche, J

    1995-01-01

    Constitutive secretion of complement C3 and factor B by the endothelial cell (EC) is lowered by therapeutic concentrations of glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone or dexamethasone, whereas regulatory protein factor H production is increased by these hormones. In contrast, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 alpha has a stimulatory effect on C3 and factor B secretion by the endothelium and an inhibitory effect on factor H secretion. In this study, we examined the combined effect of IL-1 alpha and glucocorticoids on C3 and factor B expression by the endothelial cell. When dexamethasone or hydrocortisone were added to IL-1 alpha, significant potentialization of IL-1 alpha-induced stimulation of C3 and factor B production was observed, occurring at various concentrations of either stimuli. Dose-response experiments indicate that, in vitro, optimal concentrations are in the range of 10(-7) to 10(-5) M for dexamethasone and 50-200 U for IL-1 alpha. In contrast, dexamethasone counteracts, in an additive way, the inhibitory effect of IL-1 alpha on regulatory complement protein factor H production by EC. Such a potentialization between glucocorticoids and IL-1 alpha was not observed for another marker of endothelial activation, IL-1 alpha-induced stimulation of coagulation tissue factor expression. The association of glucocorticoids and IL-1 alpha therefore appears to be a specific and major stimulus for the secretion of complement C3 and factor B, two acute-phase proteins, by the endothelium. As a result of the in vitro endothelium stimulation by glucocorticoids and IL-1 alpha, C3a is generated in the vicinity of the endothelial cell. This study further suggests that complement activation, with its deleterious consequences, may result from the stimulation of endothelium in situations where high levels of IL-1 alpha and endogenous glucocorticoids coexist, such as in septic shock. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:7621583

  11. Genomic sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C and its comparison with haplotype A and B genomes

    PubMed Central

    Haapalainen, Minna; Schott, Thomas; Thompson, Sarah M.; Smith, Grant R.; Nissinen, Anne I.; Pirhonen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes A and B of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (CLso) are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso. These two genomic sequences of haplotype C, FIN114 (1.24 Mbp) and FIN111 (1.20 Mbp), were obtained from carrot psyllids (Trioza apicalis) harboring CLso. Genomic comparisons between the haplotypes A, B and C revealed that the genome organization differs between these haplotypes, due to large inversions and other recombinations. Comparison of protein-coding genes indicated that the core genome of CLso consists of 885 ortholog groups, with the pan-genome consisting of 1327 ortholog groups. Twenty-seven ortholog groups are unique to CLso haplotype C, whilst 11 ortholog groups shared by the haplotypes A and B, are not found in the haplotype C. Some of these ortholog groups that are not part of the core genome may encode functions related to interactions with the different host plant and psyllid species. PMID:28158295

  12. Importance of hydrophobic interaction between a SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidase with its natural substrate cytochrome c-551 and its mutants.

    PubMed

    Kagekawa, Sayaka; Mizukami, Makoto; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Junshi; Sone, Nobuhito

    2002-08-01

    Cytochrome c-551, the electron donor of SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidase in thermophilic bacilli, can be over-expressed in Bacillus thermodenitrificans cells by tranformation with pSTEc551. Several mutant cytochromes c-551 were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis to this expression plasmid. Among them, several Lys residues were changed to Ala/Ser, and we found that these mutant cytochromes retained their activity as substrates, although their K(m) values were 0.04-0.12 microM, depending on the site replaced. In contrast, the C19A mutant cytochrome, which was produced in Brevibacillus choshinensis as a secretion protein, lost its activity as a substrate, suggesting that the fatty acyl-glyceryl residue covalently bound to the cysteine residue of the wild-type c-551 plays a very important role in the activity. The importance of the hydrophobic fatty acid residue for the binding of cytochrome c-551 to the oxidase was also shown by the loss of substrate activity in deacylated cytochrome c-551. These results show the importance of the hydrophobic interaction between this cytochrome and SoxB-type oxidase, despite the fact that the importance of an electrostatic interaction between cytochrome c and mitochondrial cytochrome aa(3) oxidase has already been established.

  13. Cloning of Bacillus subtilis leucina A, B and C genes with Escherichia coli plasmids and expression of the leuC gene in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nagahari, K; Sakaguchi, K

    1978-01-17

    The leucine genes of Bacillus subtilis have been cloned directly from the chromosomal DNA into Escherichia coli leuB cells by selection for the Leu+ phenotype using RSF2124 as a vector plasmid. The hybrid plasmid designated RSF2124-B.leu contained a 4.2 megadalton fragment derived from B. subtilis DNA, including the leu genes. The fragment had one site susceptible to EcoRI* and another site susceptible to BamNI endonuclease. Among the three fragments produced by EcoRI* and BamNI endonucleases, the 1.2 megadalton fragment had the ability to transform B. subtilis leuA, leuB and leuC auxotrophs to leu+. However, B. subtilis ilvB and ilvc auxotrophs were not rescued even by the whole 4.2 megadalton fragment present in the hybrid plasmid. beta-Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (leuB gene product) activity found in E. coli cells containing the hybrid plasmid was about 60% of that in E. coli wild type cells, despite the high copy number (7.8) of the plasmid per chromosome observed.

  14. β1-C121W Is Down But Not Out: Epilepsy-Associated Scn1b-C121W Results in a Deleterious Gain-of-Function

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Larisa C.; O'Malley, Heather A.; Hull, Jacob M.; Kleeman, Amanda; Patino, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) β subunits signal through multiple pathways on multiple time scales. In addition to modulating sodium and potassium currents, β subunits play nonconducting roles as cell adhesion molecules, which allow them to function in cell–cell communication, neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth, neuronal pathfinding, and axonal fasciculation. Mutations in SCN1B, encoding VGSC β1 and β1B, are associated with epilepsy. Autosomal-dominant SCN1B-C121W, the first epilepsy-associated VGSC mutation identified, results in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). This mutation has been shown to disrupt both the sodium-current-modulatory and cell-adhesive functions of β1 subunits expressed in heterologous systems. The goal of this study was to compare mice heterozygous for Scn1b-C121W (Scn1b+/W) with mice heterozygous for the Scn1b-null allele (Scn1b+/−) to determine whether the C121W mutation results in loss-of-function in vivo. We found that Scn1b+/W mice were more susceptible than Scn1b+/− and Scn1b+/+ mice to hyperthermia-induced convulsions, a model of pediatric febrile seizures. β1-C121W subunits are expressed at the neuronal cell surface in vivo. However, despite this, β1-C121W polypeptides are incompletely glycosylated and do not associate with VGSC α subunits in the brain. β1-C121W subcellular localization is restricted to neuronal cell bodies and is not detected at axon initial segments in the cortex or cerebellum or at optic nerve nodes of Ranvier of Scn1bW/W mice. These data, together with our previous results showing that β1-C121W cannot participate in trans-homophilic cell adhesion, lead to the hypothesis that SCN1B-C121W confers a deleterious gain-of-function in human GEFS+ patients. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms underlying genetic epilepsy syndromes are poorly understood. Closing this gap in knowledge is essential to the development of new medicines to treat epilepsy. We have used mouse models to

  15. Pain regulation of endokinin A/B or endokinin C/D on chimeric peptide MCRT in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Chunbo; Gong, Junbin; Yang, Lixia; Zhang, Hongwei; Dong, Shouliang; Zhou, Lanxia

    2016-09-01

    The present study focused on the interactive pain regulation of endokinin A/B (EKA/B, the common C-terminal decapeptide in EKA and EKB) or endokinin C/D (EKC/D, the common C-terminal duodecapeptide in EKC and EKD) on chimeric peptide MCRT (YPFPFRTic-NH2, based on YPFP-NH2 and PFRTic-NH2) at the supraspinal level in mice. Results demonstrated that the co-injection of nanomolar EKA/B and MCRT showed moderate regulation, whereas 30 pmol EKA/B had no effect on MCRT. The combination of EKC/D and MCRT produced enhanced antinociception, which was nearly equal to the sum of the mathematical values of single EKC/D and MCRT. Mechanism studies revealed that pre-injected naloxone attenuated the combination significantly compared with the equivalent analgesic effects of EKC/D alone, suggesting that EKC/D and MCRT might act on two totally independent pathways. Moreover, based on the above results and previous reports, we made two reasonable hypotheses to explain the cocktail-induced analgesia, which may potentially pave the way to explore the respective regulatory mechanisms of EKA/B, EKC/D, and MCRT and to better understand the complicated pain regulation of NK1 and μ opioid receptors, as follows: (1) MCRT and endomorphin-1 possibly activated different μ subtypes; and (2) picomolar EKA/B might motivate the endogenous NPFF system after NK1 activation.

  16. 46 CFR 153.1120 - Procedures for tank prewash: Categories A, B, and C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... stripping equipment, during washing or during discharge of tank washings. (4) The tank washing machine must... is a solidifying cargo, all floating and suspended NLS must be discharged. (6) The washing machine...) Except as required in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, the number of washing machine cycles specified...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1120 - Procedures for tank prewash: Categories A, B, and C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stripping equipment, during washing or during discharge of tank washings. (4) The tank washing machine must... is a solidifying cargo, all floating and suspended NLS must be discharged. (6) The washing machine...) Except as required in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, the number of washing machine cycles specified...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1120 - Procedures for tank prewash: Categories A, B, and C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stripping equipment, during washing or during discharge of tank washings. (4) The tank washing machine must... is a solidifying cargo, all floating and suspended NLS must be discharged. (6) The washing machine...) Except as required in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, the number of washing machine cycles specified...

  19. HAT-P-17b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT SATURN AND A LONG-PERIOD, COLD JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Beky, B.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Perumpilly, G.; Shporer, A.; Mazeh, T.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I. E-mail: gbakos@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-04-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-17b,c, a multi-planet system with an inner transiting planet in a short-period, eccentric orbit and an outer planet in a 4.4 yr, nearly circular orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-17b, transits the bright V = 10.54 early K dwarf star GSC 2717-00417, with an orbital period P = 10.338523 {+-} 0.000009 days, orbital eccentricity e = 0.342 {+-} 0.006, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454801.16943 {+-} 0.00020 (BJD: barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1690 {+-} 0.0009 days. HAT-P-17b has a mass of 0.534 {+-} 0.018 M{sub J} and radius of 1.010 {+-} 0.029 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.64 {+-} 0.05 g cm{sup -3}. This planet has a relatively low equilibrium temperature in the range 780-927 K, making it an attractive target for follow-up spectroscopic studies. The outer planet, HAT-P-17c, has a significantly longer orbital period P{sub 2} = 1610 {+-} 20 days and a minimum mass m{sub 2}sin i{sub 2} = 1.31{sup +0.18}{sub -0.15} M{sub J}. The orbital inclination of HAT-P-17c is unknown as transits have not been observed and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.84 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5246 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.00 {+-} 0.08. HAT-P-17 is the second multi-planet system detected from ground-based transit surveys.

  20. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2.

  1. Anisotropic superconducting gaps in YNi2B2C : A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Akashi, Ryosuke; Tsuneyuki, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    We calculate superconducting gaps and quasiparticle density of states of YNi2B2C in the framework of the density functional theory for superconductors to investigate the origin of highly anisotropic superconducting gaps in this material. Calculated phonon frequencies, the quasiparticle density of states, and the transition temperature show good agreement with experimental results. From our calculation of superconducting gaps and orbital character analysis, we establish that the orbital character variation of the Fermi surface is the key factor of the anisotropic gap. Since the electronic states that consist of mainly Ni 3 d orbitals couple weakly with phonons, the superconducting gap function is suppressed for the corresponding states, which results in the anisotropy observed in the experiments. These results are hints to increase the transition temperature of materials in the borocarbide family.

  2. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.302 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to...

  3. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.302 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to...

  4. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.302 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to...

  5. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  6. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  7. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  8. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  9. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  10. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.302 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to...

  11. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  12. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  13. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  14. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  15. 17 CFR 240.3a12-11 - Exemption from sections 8(a), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), 14(a), 14(b), and 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. 240.3a12-11... 14(c) for debt securities listed on a national securities exchange. (a) Debt securities that are listed for trading on a national securities exchange shall be exempt from the restrictions on...

  16. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive.

  17. Complexation of AB+, AB+C, ACB+, and A(B+-stat-C) block copolymer micelles with poly(styrene sulfonate) as models for tunable gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laaser, Jennifer; Jiang, Yaming; Lohmann, Elise; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    We investigate the complexation of poly(styrene sulfonate) with micelles with mixed cationic/hydrophilic coronas as models for tunable gene delivery vectors. The micelles are self-assembled from AB+, AB+C, ACB+, and A(B+-stat-C) block polymer architectures, where the hydrophobic A blocks (poly(styrene)) form the micelle cores, and the cationic B blocks (poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophilic, nonionic C blocks (poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)) form the coronas. We find that hydrophilic units do not change the colloidal stability of the complexes, and complexes based on all four micelle architectures form broad, multimodal size distributions. While complexes based on the AB+, AB+C, and ACB+polymer architectures are kinetically trapped at low ionic strength, however, those based on the A(B+-stat-C) architecture rapidly rearrange into single-micelle complexes when the linear polyanion is in excess. This suggests that the randomly-placed hydrophilic units break up the ion pairing between the cationic and anionic chains and promote formation of over-charged complexes. Design of the micelle architecture may thus provide a powerful way control the structure and stability of micelle-polyelectrolyte complexes for gene delivery applications.

  18. DYGABCD: A program for calculating linear A, B, C, and D matrices from a nonlinear dynamic engine simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geyser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    A digital computer program, DYGABCD, was developed that generates linearized, dynamic models of simulated turbofan and turbojet engines. DYGABCD is based on an earlier computer program, DYNGEN, that is capable of calculating simulated nonlinear steady-state and transient performance of one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines. Most control design techniques require linear system descriptions. For multiple-input/multiple-output systems such as turbine engines, state space matrix descriptions of the system are often desirable. DYGABCD computes the state space matrices commonly referred to as the A, B, C, and D matrices required for a linear system description. The report discusses the analytical approach and provides a users manual, FORTRAN listings, and a sample case.

  19. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z.; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J.; Hirakis, Sophia P.; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2016-09-05

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ~90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant ‘reading head’ in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M–C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design.

  20. 76 FR 39254 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... prompted by a locknut working loose from a bolt attaching the tailboom support strut at the aft cluster... attaching the tailboom support strut at the aft cluster fitting. Further investigation revealed that the... helicopters with an Aft Cluster Fitting Modification Kit, part number (P/N) SA-269K-106,...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... Residue § 153.1132 Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. The...

  2. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... Residue § 153.1132 Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. The...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... Residue § 153.1132 Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. The...

  4. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... Residue § 153.1132 Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. The...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS... Residue § 153.1132 Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. The...

  6. Institutionalized Facilities Program, 1983-84. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In 1983-84, the Education Consolidation Improvement Act (E.C.I.A.), Chapter 1, Part B Institutionalized Facilities Program was sponsored jointly by the Division of Special Education and, for the first time, the Division of the High Schools of the New York City Public Schools. The program provided supplementary career education and daily living…

  7. E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B. Institutionalized Facilities Program, Summer 1983. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; And Others

    The 1983 summer E.C.I.A. Chapter 1, Part B Institutionalized Facilities Program provided supplementary career education and daily living skills instruction to 780 students residing in facilities for neglected and delinquent children and youth. Analyses of the pupil achievement data indicated that the program was highly effective: nearly all…

  8. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-10 DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL EMPLOYMENT TESTING BATTERY FOR INFANTRY SOLDIERS: 11B INFANTRYMAN AND 11C...62 Study 3: Predictor Test Development .......................................................................... 72 Methods...112 D. Pre- Testing Training Schedule for Potential Study 1 Participants ............. 120 iv E. Minutes of the Infantry Subject Matter

  9. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on the GapC protein of Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhou, Xue; Fan, Ziyao; Tang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Dai, Jian; Wei, Yuhua; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Xijing; Liu, Daolong; Yu, Liquan; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Sun, Hunan; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactia) GapC is a highly conserved surface dehydrogenase among the streptococcus spp., which is responsible for inducing protective antibody immune responses in animals. However, the B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactia GapC have not been well characterized. In this study, a monoclonal antibody 1F2 (mAb1F2) against S. dysgalactiae GapC was generated by the hybridoma technique and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12) for mapping the linear B-cell epitope. The mAb1F2 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif TRINDLT. Amino acid sequence of the motif exactly matched (30)TRINDLT(36) of the S. dysgalactia GapC. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenic analysis further demonstrated that residues R31, I32, N33, D34 and L35 formed the core of (30)TRINDLT(36), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1F2. The epitope (30)TRINDLT(36) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Overall, our findings characterized a conserved B-cell epitope, which will be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines.

  10. 46 CFR 153.470 - System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.470 System for discharge of NLS residue to the sea: Categories A, B, C, and D. Unless waived under § 153.491, each...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  15. 31 CFR 501.807 - Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter. 501.807 Section 501.807 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Terrorist Material Support: An Overview of 18 U.S.C. 2339A and 2339B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-19

    part of a wide-ranging crime package, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.3 Almost immediately thereafter, Congress amended...Section 2339A and supplemented it with Section 2339B as part of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA).4 As the House...Prohibition Improvements Act : Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, 109th Cong., 1st Sess. 45 (2005)(statement of

  17. Development of a Magnetospheric Specification Model. Volume 2: Appendices A, B, C, D, E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-30

    Heppner-Maynard empirical model) XCO E field coefficients AHM Radius of ellipse measured in x (sunward) direction from Heppner-Maynard ModelBHM Modeius...3), DX(3), DY(3) MSM14980 DIMENSION XCO(18,18), AHM (2,7),BHM(2,7),DXHM(2,7) MSM14990 DIMENSION DYHM(2,7),VMIN(7),VMAX(7) MSM15000 C MSM15010 C...7 MSM15180 NNMAX - 16 MSM15190 EPS - .01 MSM15200 G - 1. MSM15210 IEFF - IMAX MSM15220 CALL INPUT(NTAPE,COEF, IPATT,XCO, AHM ,BHM,DXHM,DYHM,VMIN

  18. A Naturally-Derived Compound Schisandrin B Enhanced Light Sensation in the pde6c Zebrafish Model of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyun; Xiang, Lue; Liu, Yiwen; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Chong, Leelyn; Cho, Jin; Bonilla, Sylvia; Jin, Zi-Bing; Pang, Chi Pui; Ko, Kam Ming; Ma, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants’ eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend

  19. Catalytically Relevant Electrostatic Interactions of Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1) and Cytochrome b5*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hwei-Ming; Liu, Jiayan; Forsberg, Sarah E.; Tran, Hong T.; Anderson, Sean M.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Two acidic residues, Glu-48 and Glu-49, of cytochrome b5 (b5) are essential for stimulating the 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1). Substitution of Ala, Gly, Cys, or Gln for these two glutamic acid residues abrogated all capacity to stimulate 17,20-lyase activity. Mutations E49D and E48D/E49D retained 23 and 38% of wild-type activity, respectively. Using the zero-length cross-linker ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, we obtained cross-linked heterodimers of b5 and CYP17A1, wild-type, or mutations R347K and R358K. In sharp contrast, the b5 double mutation E48G/E49G did not form cross-linked complexes with wild-type CYP17A1. Mass spectrometric analysis of the CYP17A1-b5 complexes identified two cross-linked peptide pairs as follows: CYP17A1-WT: 84EVLIKK89-b5: 53EQAGGDATENFEDVGHSTDAR73 and CYP17A1-R347K: 341TPTISDKNR349-b5: 40FLEEHPGGEEVLR52. Using these two sites of interaction and Glu-48/Glu-49 in b5 as constraints, protein docking calculations based on the crystal structures of the two proteins yielded a structural model of the CYP17A1-b5 complex. The appositional surfaces include Lys-88, Arg-347, and Arg-358/Arg-449 of CYP17A1, which interact with Glu-61, Glu-42, and Glu-48/Glu-49 of b5, respectively. Our data reveal the structural basis of the electrostatic interactions between these two proteins, which is critical for 17,20-lyase activity and androgen biosynthesis. PMID:25315771

  20. The ``C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE'': A self-sustaining closed aquatic ecosystem for spaceflight experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE is the miniaturized space flight version of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.). It fits into a large middeck locker tray and is scheduled to be flown in the STS 85 and in the NEUROLAB missions. Its volume is about 9 liters and it consists of two animal tanks, a plant cultivator, and a bacteria filter in a monolithic design. An external sensor unit is connected to a data acquisition/control unit. The system integrates its own biological life support. The CO2 exhaled by the consumers (fishes, snails, microorganisms) is assimilated by water plants (Ceratophyllum demersum) which provide them with oxygen. The products of biomass degradation and excretion (mainly ammonia ions) are converted by bacteria into nitrite and nitrate. The latter is taken up by the plants as a nitrogen source together with other ions like phosphate. The plants convert light energy into chemical energy and their illumination is regulated via the oxygen concentration in the water by the control unit. In ground laboratory tests the system exhibited biological stability up to three month. The buffer capacity of the biological filter system is high enough to eliminate the degradation products of about one half of the dead animal biomass as shown in a ``crash test''. A test series using the laboratory model of the flight hardware demonstrated the biological stability and technical reliability with mission-identical loading and test duration. A comprehensive biological research program is established for the C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE in which five German and three U.S.-American universities as well as the Russian Academy of Sciences are involved.

  1. Changes in the loco-regional cerebral blood flow (r.C.B.F.) during a simulation of weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guell, A.; Dupui, Ph.; Barrere, M.; Fanjaud, G.; Bes, A.; Kotowskaia, A.

    Experiments of prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position are conducted in order to simulate cardio-circulatory modifications observed in weightlessness. Until now, no studies of r.C.B.F. have been effected in these conditions. Six young, healthy volunteers (average age 23.8) were placed in strict bedrest and in antiorthostatic position -4° for 7 days. The r.C.B.F. measurements were studied by 133Xe inhalation method using a 32 detectors system. Studies were made first in basal conditions, then between the 6th and 12th hr, and finally between the 72nd and the 78th hr after the beginning of the experiment. Three of the subjects received 0.450 mg of Clonidine daily during the experiment. In the subjects having taken no Clonidine, we observed a constant increase in r.C.B.F. (12, 17 and 16% respectively) in the first 12 hr; at the 72nd hour, all values had returned to basal state. This findings agrees with the well known notion of a rapid correction of hemodynamic disturbances observed in the first days of weightlessness. In the subjects treated with Clonidine, the increase of r.C.B.F. did not occur. Several mechanicsms of action are possible; the Clonidine affecting either the heart by inhibiting volemic atrial receptors, or the brain by direct vasoconstriction.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the PreA/PreB (QseB/QseC) regulon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Salmonella PreA/PreB two-component system (TCS) is an ortholog of the QseBC TCS of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella and E. coli, this system has been shown to affect motility and virulence in response to quorum-sensing and hormonal signals, and to affect the transcription of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) pmrAB operon, which encodes an important virulence-associated TCS. Results To determine the PreA/PreB regulon in S. Typhimurium, we performed DNA microarrays comparing the wild type strain and various preA and/or preB mutants in the presence of ectopically expressed preA (qseB). These data confirmed our previous findings of the negative effect of PreB on PreA gene regulation and identified candidate PreA-regulated genes. A proportion of the activated loci were previously identified as PmrA-activated genes (yibD, pmrAB, cptA, etc.) or were genes located in the local region around preA, including the preAB operon. The transcriptional units were defined in this local region by RT-PCR, suggesting three PreA activated operons composed of preA-preB, mdaB-ygiN, and ygiW-STM3175. Several putative virulence-related phenotypes were examined for preAB mutants, resulting in the observation of a host cell invasion and slight virulence defect of a preAB mutant. Contrary to previous reports on this TCS, we were unable to show a PreA/PreB-dependent effect of the quorum-sensing signal AI-2 or of epinephrine on S. Typhimurium with regard to bacterial motility. Conclusion This work further characterizes this unorthadox OmpR/EnvZ class TCS and provides novel candidate regulated genes for further study. This first in-depth study of the PreA/PreB regulatory system phenotypes and regulation suggests significant comparative differences to the reported function of the orthologous QseB/QseC in E. coli. PMID:19236707

  3. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C I emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C I-C II using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C I and C II in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A- and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10 500 K depending on log g in the C I 8335, 9405 Å singlet lines and at Teff> 15 000 K (log g = 4) in the C I 9061-9111 Å, 9603-9658 Å triplet lines. A pre-requisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C I to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C I 2479, 1930, and 1657 Å. We analysed the lines of C I and C II in Vega, HD 73666, Sirius, 21 Peg, π Cet, HD 22136, and ι Her taking advantage of their observed high-resolution spectra. The C I emission lines were detected in the four hottest stars, and they were well reproduced in our NLTE calculations. For each star, the mean NLTE abundances from lines of the two ionization stages, C I and C II, including the C I emission lines, were found to be consistent. We show that the predicted C I emission phenomenon depends strongly on whether accurate or approximate electron-impact excitation rates are applied.

  4. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole C3103 Located in the 216-B-7A Crib Near the B Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes data collected from samples in borehole C3103. Borehole C3103 was completed to further characterize the nature and extent of vadose zone contaminants supplied by intentional liquid discharges into the crib 216-B7A/7B between 1954 and 1967. These cribs received dilute waste streams from the bismuth phosphate fuel reprocessing program in the 1950's and decontamination waste in the 1960's. Elevated concentrations of several constituents were primarily measured at different depth intervals. The primary radionuclides present in this borehole are cesium-137 and uranium near the top of the borehole. Chemical characteristics attributed to wastewater-soil interaction at different locations within this zone are elevated pH, sodium, fluoride, carbonate nitrate, and sulphate

  5. Transforming Region of Group A, B, and C Adenoviruses: DNA Homology Studies with Twenty-Nine Human Adenovirus Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Jesse K.; Wold, William S. M.; Rigden, Patricia; Green, Maurice

    1979-01-01

    The 31 human adenovirus (Ad) serotypes form five groups based upon DNA genome homologies: group A (Ad12, 18, 31), group B (Ad3, 7, 11, 14, 16, 21), group C (Ad1, 2, 5, 6), group D (Ad8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 22-30), and group E (Ad4) (M. Green, J. Mackey, W. Wold, and P. Rigden, Virology, in press). Group A Ads are highly oncogenic in newborn hamsters, group B Ads are weakly oncogenic, and other Ads are nononcogenic. However, most or all Ads transform cultured cells. We have studied the homology of Ad5, Ad7, and Ad12 transforming restriction endonuclease DNA fragments with DNAs of 29 Ad types. Ad5 HindIII-G (map position 0-7.3), Ad7 XhoI-C (map position 0-10.8), and Ad12 (strain Huie) EcoRI-C (map position 0-16) and SalI-C (map position 0-10.6) fragments were purified, labeled in vitro (nick translation), and annealed with DNAs of Ad1 to Ad16, Ad18 to Ad24, and Ad26 to Ad31. Hybrids were assayed by using hydroxylapatite. Ad5 HindIII-G hybridized 98 to 100% with DNAs of group C Ads, but only 1 to 15% with DNAs of other types. Ad7 XhoI-C fragment hybridized 85 to 99% with DNAs of group B Ads, but only 6 to 21% with DNAs of other types. Ad12 (Huie) EcoRI-C hybridized 53 to 68% with DNAs of five other Ad12 strains, 53% with Ad18 DNA, 56% with Ad31 DNA, but only 3 to 13% with DNAs of other types. In vitro-labeled Ad12 (Huie) SalI-C hybridized 35 to 71% with DNAs of 6 other Ad12 strains, 44% with Ad18 DNA, 52% with Ad31 DNA, but only 2 to 7% with DNAs Ad7, Ad2, Ad26, or Ad4. When assayed using S-1 nuclease, SalI-C annealed 17 to 44% with DNAs of group A Ads. The melting temperatures of the hybrids of Ad5 HindIII-G with all group C Ad DNAs were 84°C in 0.12 M sodium phosphate (pH 6.8). The melting temperature of the Ad12 (Huie) EcoRI-C hybrid with Ad12 (Huie) DNA was 83°C, but was only 71 to 77°C with DNAs of other group A Ads. Thus, group C and group B Ads both have very homologous transforming regions that are not represented in DNAs of non-group C Ads or non

  6. Enhanced recognition of plasma proteins in a non-native state by complement C3b. A possible clearance mechanism for damaged proteins in blood.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kew, Richard R

    2015-03-01

    Complement C3 is a key fluid-phase protein of the immune system that covalently tags pathogenic cells and molecules for subsequent clearance. Previously, we reported that complement activation results in the formation of multiple C3b:plasma protein complexes in serum. However, it is not known if C3b attaches to any plasma protein in close proximity or preferentially binds damaged proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if C3b couples to plasma proteins in a non-native state and if this could be a potential mechanism to detect and clear damaged proteins from the blood. Using a purified in vitro system with alternative pathway proteins C3, factors B and D it was observed that guanidinium-HCl denaturation of three purified plasma proteins (albumin, alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, vitamin D binding protein) greatly increased their capacity to form covalent complexes with C3b. However, native vitamin D binding protein, covalently attached to C3b, still retained the ability to bind its natural ligand G-actin, indicating that C3b links to plasma proteins in their native configuration but denaturation substantially increases this interaction. Serum complement activation generated a large number of C3b:plasma protein complexes that bound red blood cell membranes, suggesting a CR1-mediated clearance mechanism. Thermally denatured (60°C) serum activated the alternative pathway when added to fresh serum as evidenced by factor B cleavage and iC3b generation, but this heat-treated serum could not generate the pro-inflammatory peptide C5a. These results show that C3 recognizes and tags damaged plasma proteins for subsequent removal from the blood without triggering proinflammatory functions.

  7. A synthetic multi-epitope antigen enhances hepatitis C virus-specific B- and T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guimei; Chen, Shuwen; Zhu, Xiangying; Liang, Shenghua; Liu, Longding; Ren, Daming

    2011-04-01

    Combining results from previous studies, a multi-epitope antigen PCXZ against the hepatitis C virus was synthesized in this study. The antigenic specificity of PCXZ was determined by recognizing antibodies in serum samples from hepatitis C virus patients, but not from healthy subjects or subjects who had the hepatitis B virus. The characteristics of PCXZ immunogenicity were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Strong antibody responses were generated in mice immunized with either naked PCXZ or PCXZ in Freund's adjuvant. As for the T-cell responses, Freund's adjuvant significantly increased interferon-γ secretion and enhanced the lytic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The epitope Pa, one component of PCXZ, made the most significant contribution to specific CTL lysis; this epitope was also a B-cell epitope and was able to induce high IgG titers. In summary, PCXZ was found to be highly immunogenic, and elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

  8. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139... (h) 1. Passenger revenue L. 1 2. Special bus revenue L. 2 3. Baggage revenue L. 3 4. Mail revenue...

  9. The interaction between the hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication.

    PubMed

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H

    2015-01-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B-NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits.

  10. Methods to produce B-C, B-P, B-N and B-S bonds in boron clusters.

    PubMed

    Olid, David; Núñez, Rosario; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc

    2013-04-21

    Boranes, heteroboranes and metallacarboranes, all named as boron clusters, offer an alternative to typical organic molecules or organic molecular materials. Carbon and boron share the important property of self-catenation thus these elements can produce individually large and sophisticated molecules. Boron clusters and organic molecules display electronic, physical, chemical and geometrical characteristics manifestly different. These differences highlight the complementarity of organic molecules and boron clusters, and therefore the feasibility or necessity to produce hybrid molecules incorporating both types of fragments. To join these two types of fragments, or alternatively these two types of molecular compounds, tools are needed. In this review the current methods of producing boron clusters with carbon, B-C, nitrogen, B-N, phosphorus, B-P and sulphur bonds, B-S, are indicated. As there are many existing borane clusters of different sizes, heteroboranes and metallacarboranes, the revision of methods to generate the B-C, B-P, B-S, and B-N bonds has been restricted to the most widely used boron clusters; [B12H12](2-), dianionic and an example of a borane, 1,2-C2B10H12, neutral and an example of a heteroborane, and [Co(C2B9H11)2](-), monoanionic and an example of a metallacarborane.

  11. TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Michael D.; Suh, Eunran; Grossman, Murray; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Van Swieten, John C.; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Neumann, Manuela; Gelpi, Ellen; Ghetti, Bernardino; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Halliday, Glenda; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Seilhean, Danielle; Shaw, Pamela J.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.Y.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) have recently been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and may be the most common genetic cause of both neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variants at TMEM106B influence risk for the most common neuropathological subtype of FTLD, characterized by inclusions of TAR DNA binding protein of 43kDa (FTLD-TDP). Previous reports have shown that TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD-TDP caused by progranulin (GRN) mutations, with the major (risk) allele of rs1990622 associating with earlier age at onset of disease. Here we report that rs1990622 genotype affects age at death in a single-site discovery cohort of FTLD patients with C9orf72 expansions (n=14), with the major allele correlated with later age at death (p=0.024). We replicate this modifier effect in a 30-site international neuropathological cohort of FTLD-TDP patients with C9orf72 expansions (n=75), again finding that the major allele associates with later age at death (p=0.016), as well as later age at onset (p=0.019). In contrast, TMEM106B genotype does not affect age at onset or death in 241 FTLD-TDP cases negative for GRN mutations or C9orf72 expansions. Thus, TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD with C9orf72 expansions. Intriguingly, the genotype that confers increased risk for developing FTLD-TDP (major, or T, allele of rs1990622) is associated with later age at onset and death in C9orf72 expansion carriers, providing an example of sign epistasis in human neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24442578

  12. c-erbB-2/c-erbA co-amplification indicative of lymph node metastasis, and c-myc amplification of high tumour grade, in human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M.; Quirke, P.; Farzaneh, F.; Lock, N. J.; Mayne, L. V.; Kirkham, N.

    1989-01-01

    A panel of 73 samples, including 52 primary breast carcinomas, 10 normal breast tissues and 11 axillary lymph nodes, has been analysed for the presence of amplifications and gross structural alterations, in the oncogenes c-erbB-2, c-erbA, c-myc, N-myc, c-mos and c-Ha-ras. The tumours were also classified, graded and staged histopathologically and their DNA ploidy (42 samples) was determined by flow cytometry. Three breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, ZR-75-1 and T47D) were also included in the study. Amplification of c-erbB-2 was detected in 28% of the tumours, of which 91% had an increased steady-state level of c-erbB-2 mRNA. Amplification of c-erbA was found in 23% of tumours and was always associated with the amplification of c-erbB-2. Ten out of 12 (83%) tumours which had c-erbB-2 and c-erbA co-amplification had metastasised to axillary lymph nodes (P less than 0.006). However, the human thymidine kinase gene, which is present at the same chromosomal location as these two oncogenes (17q21-22), was amplified in only tw tumours. Amplification of c-myc was detected in 21% of the tumours studied, of which 82% (P less than 0.005) were of histopathological grade 3 and none were of grade 1. Flow cytometry showed that 90% (P less than 0.01) of the analysed tumours with c-erbB-2 and c-erbA co-amplification, and 70% (P less than 0.1) of those with c-myc amplification were DNA aneuploid. This study demonstrates the potential value of c-myc amplification in the assessment of the tumour grade, rather than metastatic potential; and of the co-amplification of c-erbB-2 and c-erbA as a strong indicator of metastatic potential, rather than tumour grade. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2572268

  13. Synthesis of C-11-{beta}-aminoisobutyric acid (C-11-{beta}-AlB): A major in vivo catabolite of [methyl-C-11]thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Alauddin, M.M.; Conti, P.S.; Fissekis, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) is being used for brain tumor imaging in patients with PET. Following clearance of 5-methyl C-11 TdR from plasma in humans, there is a progressive increase of C-11 activity in normal brain and tumor presumably secondary to accumulation of C-11 beta-AIB, a major by-product of thymidine catabolism in vivo. Canine studies have demonstrated that the major radiolabeled species in acid soluble extracts of brain and tumor tissues during C-14 TdR studies is beta-AIB. The previously reported synthesis of beta-AIB is not suitable for incorporation of carbon-11. A convenient method of synthesis of C-11 beta-AIB was developed where commercially available beta-alanine ethyl ester was converted to the cold precursor reagent, benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester, in 87% yield. Treatment of the imine derivative with LDA (1.1 eq) in THF at -78{degrees} C, followed by addition of iodomethane (1.1 eq) produced the alpha-methylated benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester in 73% chemical yield. Deprotection of the amino group by acidic hydrolysis followed by basic hydrolysis of the ester group produced the desired product in 50% chemical yield. Chemical structures of unlabeled intermediates and product were confirmed by H-1 NMR and CI mass spectrometry. Labeling was accomplished using C-11-methyl iodide prepared from C-11-CO{sub 2} according to literature methods. After removal of protecting groups and neutralization, the enatiomeric mixture was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative reverse phase C-18 column and PBS as eluent. The desired compound was eluted at 8.26 minutes. In preliminary runs, the synthesis time was 39 minutes including HPLC purification, with radiochemical yields of 5-6% (EOB). Radiochemical purity was >99%

  14. C.E.B.A.S. mini module: Test results of an artificial (man-made) aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Kreuzberg, K.; Stretzke, E.

    1994-11-01

    The original Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is a long-term multi-generation research facility for experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station the development of which is surrounded by a large international scientific program. In addition, a miniaturized laboratory prototype, the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE, with a total volume of about 10 - 12 liters for a Spacelab middeck locker was developed and a first version was tested successfully for two weeks with a population of fishes (Xiphophorus helleri) in the animal tank and a Ceratophyllum spec. in the illuminated higher plant growth chamber. The water recycling system consisted of a bacteria filter and a mechanical filter and the silastic tubing gas exchanger was separated by valves for the utilization in emergency cases only. Data were collected with the acquisition module of the original C.E.B.A.S. process control system. In addition, an optimized version was tested for 7 weeks with fishes and plants and thereafter with fish and with plants only for 2 and 1 weeks, resp.. The paper presents the relevant water parameters (e. g., pH, pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation, flow rate, ion concentrations) during the test period as well as morphological and physiological data of the enclosed animals and plants. On the basis of the given results the possible role of the C.E.B.A.S. system as a scientific tool in artificial ecosystem research and for the development of a combined animal-plant intensive aquaculture system and its utilization in bioregenerative life support is discussed.

  15. A Cultural Resources Survey of the C. B. Maery Jr., L’Anguille River - 23 Permit Area, Cross County, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    increase in the number of ceremonial centers accompanied by a highly developed ceremonialism. Earthen mound building remained a trait, with mounds...10.000 - 8.000 B. C. This period is considered the earliest for human habitation in the Mississippi Valley. During this stage humans pursued a...Cache River (Smith and Saucier 1971). The human population during this stage was probably organized on a band level (Lee and DeVore 1969: Service 1966

  16. An Experimental Study of Water Injection into a Rolls-Royce Model 250-C20B Turboshaft Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-06

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Experimental Study of Water Injection into a Rolls- Royce Model 250-C20B Turboshaft Gas Turbine 6. AUTHOR(S) Golden...ABSTRACT Environmental responsibility is a focus of researchers in many fields. In the field of engine and propulsion research this is manifested in a focus...on minimization of emissions while maximizing efficiency and performance. Water Fog Injection (WFI) has been suggested as a method for the

  17. SiC or B4C-B/low strategic element content composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Advancements in materials technologies are needed to provide the aerospace industry with alternate material options in the event of future strategic metal shortages and to optimize performance of engines. Composite materials are promising candidates for such an application. The potential of SiC and B4C-B filament reinforced low strategic element iron-base alloy content composites or use at 760 to 870 C is considered. A limiting factor towards developing this material for high temperature use has been the reaction between the filament and matrix material during fabrication and service which degrades filament strength. A low temperature fabrication process to limit filament/matrix reaction is being developed which involves the use of hollow cathode sputtering to coat the filaments with iron-base alloys of various compositions. An investigation is being conducted to determine the interfacial reaction effects of SiC and B4C-B filaments with iron-base alloys to develop an understanding of filament/matrix alloy compatibility for 760 to 870 C service.

  18. [Hepatitis A-, B- and C-markers among Norwegian drug addicts in the period 1975-89].

    PubMed

    Kielland, K B; Siebke, J C

    1991-03-10

    The prevalence of hepatitis A-, B- and C-markers has been studied in patients at a Norwegian rehabilitation centre for drug addicts. The prevalence of hepatitis C-antibodies was fairly constant in the years 1976 (56%), 1985 (78%) and 1988-89 (73%), but may be decreasing in younger addicts. The data suggest a highly variable incidence of HAV with few infections in recent years. The prevalence of hepatitis B-markers, which has been calculated from 1975 to 1988-89, reached a maximum of 93% in 1986. Since then a significant decrease in prevalence has been observed among younger patients, suggesting that the HIV campaign has led to improved hygiene precautions among intravenous drug addicts. A strong correlation was observed between positive markers for HBV and presence of anti-HCV, and, similarly, between the presence of anti-HAV and markers for HBV and HCV. Anti-HCV was significantly associated with pathological ALT-values.

  19. Interfacial properties and electron structure of Al/B4C interface: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Yajiang; Qiu, Ruizhi; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    This research aims at investigating the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the Al (111)/B4C (0001) interface by first-principles calculations. This model geometry Al (111)/B4C (0001) is chosen because the close-packed planes of Al and B4C have the (111) and (0001) orientation, respectively, and the lattice mismatch is only ∼2.1%. Among four B4C (0001) surfaces with different terminations, our calculation of surface free energies predicted that C-terminated B4C (0001) surface is the most stable one. Relaxed atomic geometries, the work of adhesion and interfacial free energies were calculated for three C-terminated B4C (0001)/Al (111) interfaces with different stacking sequences (top-site, hollow-site, and bridge-site). Results reveal that the relaxed top-site (hollow-site-like) Al/B4C interface has the best adhesion force and also be the most stable. The interfacial electron structure including charge density difference, Bader charge and density of states (DOS) is analyzed to determine the nature of metal/carbide bonding and we find the formation of Alsbnd C bond and possibly the formation of Al4C3 in the interface.

  20. Crystallographic identification of a noncompetitive inhibitor binding site on the hepatitis C virus NS5B RNA polymerase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Love, Robert A; Parge, Hans E; Yu, Xiu; Hickey, Michael J; Diehl, Wade; Gao, Jingjin; Wriggers, Hilary; Ekker, Anne; Wang, Liann; Thomson, James A; Dragovich, Peter S; Fuhrman, Shella A

    2003-07-01

    The virus-encoded nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and is absolutely required for replication of the virus. NS5B exhibits significant differences from cellular polymerases and therefore has become an attractive target for anti-HCV therapy. Using a high-throughput screen, we discovered a novel NS5B inhibitor that binds to the enzyme noncompetitively with respect to nucleotide substrates. Here we report the crystal structure of NS5B complexed with this small molecule inhibitor. Unexpectedly, the inhibitor is bound within a narrow cleft on the protein's surface in the "thumb" domain, about 30 A from the enzyme's catalytic center. The interaction between this inhibitor and NS5B occurs without dramatic changes to the structure of the protein, and sequence analysis suggests that the binding site is conserved across known HCV genotypes. Possible mechanisms of inhibition include perturbation of protein dynamics, interference with RNA binding, and disruption of enzyme oligomerization.

  1. A Novel Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem in B2C E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chao; Sheng, Ying; Jiang, Zhong-Zhong; Tan, Chunqiao; Huang, Min; He, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a novel discrete differential evolution (DDE) algorithm is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problems (VRP) in B2C e-commerce, in which VRP is modeled by the incomplete graph based on the actual urban road system. First, a variant of classical VRP is described and a mathematical programming model for the variant is given. Second, the DDE is presented, where individuals are represented as the sequential encoding scheme, and a novel reparation operator is employed to repair the infeasible solutions. Furthermore, a FLOYD operator for dealing with the shortest route is embedded in the proposed DDE. Finally, an extensive computational study is carried out in comparison with the predatory search algorithm and genetic algorithm, and the results show that the proposed DDE is an effective algorithm for VRP in B2C e-commerce.

  2. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  3. A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Penalba, M.C.; Rylander, K.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The axial ligands of heme in cytochromes: a near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism study of yeast cytochromes c, c1, and b and spinach cytochrome f.

    PubMed

    Simpkin, D; Palmer, G; Devlin, F J; McKenna, M C; Jensen, G M; Stephens, P J

    1989-10-03

    Room temperature near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism and low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have been used to characterize the ligands of the heme iron in mitochondrial cytochromes c, c1, and b and in cytochrome f of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The MCD data show that methionine is the sixth ligand of the heme of oxidized yeast cytochrome c1; the identify of this residue is inferred to be the single conserved methionine identified from a partial alignment of the available cytochrome c1 amino acid sequences. A different residue, which is most likely lysine, is the sixth heme ligand in oxidized spinach cytochrome f. The data for oxidized yeast cytochrome b are consistent with bis-histidine coordination of both hemes although the possibility that one of the hemes is ligated by histidine and lysine cannot be rigorously excluded. The neutral and alkaline forms of oxidized yeast cytochrome c have spectroscopic properties very similar to those of the horse heart proteins, and thus, by analogy, the sixth ligands are methionine and lysine, respectively.

  5. Molecular Tracing of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Isolates in Iran: A NS5B Phylogenetic Analysis with Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharafi, Heidar

    2016-01-01

    Context Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is characterized by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and classified into 7 genotypes and different subtypes. It heterogeneously distributed through various risk groups and geographical regions. A well-established phylogenetic relationship can simplify the tracing of HCV hierarchical strata into geographical regions. The current study aimed to find genetic phylogeny of subtypes 1a and 1b of HCV isolates based on NS5B nucleotide sequences in Iran and other members of Eastern Mediterranean regional office of world health organization, as well as other Middle Eastern countries, with a systematic review of available published and unpublished studies. Evidence Acquisition The phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the nucleotide sequences of NS5B gene of HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1), which were registered in the GenBank database. The literature review was performed in two steps: 1) searching studies evaluating the NS5B sequences of HCV-1, on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and 2) Searching sequences of unpublished studies registered in the GenBank database. Results In this study, 442 sequences from HCV-1a and 232 from HCV-1b underwent phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of all sequences revealed different clusters in the phylogenetic trees. The results showed that the proportion of HCV-1a and -1b isolates from Iranian patients probably originated from domestic sources. Moreover, the HCV-1b isolates from Iranian patients may have similarities with the European ones. Conclusions In this study, phylogenetic reconstruction of HCV-1 sequences clearly indicated for molecular tracing and ancestral relationships of the HCV genotypes in Iran, and showed the likelihood of domestic origin for HCV-1a and various origin for HCV-1b. PMID:28123445

  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype, tissue HCV antigens, hepatocellular expression of HLA-A,B,C, and intercellular adhesion-1 molecules. Clues to pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage and response to interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed Central

    Ballardini, G; Groff, P; Pontisso, P; Giostra, F; Francesconi, R; Lenzi, M; Zauli, D; Alberti, A; Bianchi, F B

    1995-01-01

    To obtain information on the mechanisms of hepatocellular damage and the determinants of response to interferon, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype, tissue HCV antigens, hepatocellular expression of HLA-A,B,C and intercellular adhesion-1 molecules, and the number of lobular T lymphocytes were studied in 38 anti-HCV-positive patients. 14 patients did not show a primary response to interferon treatment. HCV genotype 1b was detected in 11 of them. They displayed higher scores of HCV-positive hepatocytes, HLA-A,B,C, and ICAM-1 molecules expression than with the responders. HCV-infected hepatocytes maintained the capacity to express HLA-A,B,C and ICAM-1 molecules. CD8-positive T cells in contact with infected hepatocytes and Councilman-like bodies were observed. A significant correlation was found between the number of lobular CD8-positive T cells and alanine amino transferase levels. No differences were observed in clinical, biochemical, and histological features between patients with high and low number of hepatocytes containing HCV antigens. These data suggest a prominent role of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the genesis of hepatocellular damage. The high expression of interferon-inducible antigens like HLA-A,B,C molecules suggests the presence of strong activation of the interferon system possibly related to high HCV replication in nonresponder patients infected with genotype 1b. Images PMID:7738174

  7. Transmission of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection Through Body Piercing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shigui; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuelun; Yu, Chengbo; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kaijin; Deng, Min; Tian, Guo; Ding, Cheng; Cao, Qing; Li, Yiping; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Yao, Jun; Threapleton, Diane; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are 2 types of potentially life-threatening liver diseases with high infection rate. Body piercing represents a progressively popular sociocultural phenomenon which is also a potential exposure approach for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Conclusions from those researches with statistically risk assessment of body piercing on HBV and HCV transmission are contradictory.Systematically analyze the association between body piercing and the risk of transmitting hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus for general population. Make evidence-based recommendations to the current practice and wake up public awareness of this health-threatening behavior.Comprehensive and high sensitivity search strategies were performed to exhaustively search related studies before 15 January 2015 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, WANFANG, CNKI datasets for published literatures, and Google and Google scholars for related grey articles). Two authors identified relevant studies for the review, abstracted data, and assessed literature quality independently and critically according to the selection criteria and quality assessment standard. Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate risk of HBV and HCV infection in relation to body piercing status. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to examine the source of heterogeneity and test the robust of the results.A total of 40 studies were included in this systematic review (10 for Hep-B, 26 for Hep-C, 4 for both Hep-B and Hep-C), the pooled OR (95% CI) for the association between body piercing and transmission of HBV/HCV is 1.80 (1.18, 2.75) and 1.83 (1.27, 2.64), respectively. Subgroup analysis suggested that highest risk of body piercing related to hepatitis C infection was for former soccer and veterans with OR of 4.63 (2.65, 8.10), while strongest association between body piercing and hepatitis B was for samples derived from students/community with OR of

  8. Department of Defense Materiel Distribution System Study. Volume 3, Book 2. Appendices A, B and C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    DODMDS Transportation Data C-6.1 Performance Times by Priority C-7.1 Group DODMDS Distribution Facility C-8.1 Costs DODMDS Wholesale Asset Data C...by Priority 7-6 Overseas Intransit Times C-7.11 from East Coast Aerial Ports of Embarkation of DODMDS Overseas Customer Groupings 7-7...ADMINISTRATION The DODMDS Panel will submit periodic reports in accordance with operational instructions issued by the Joint Secretariat. Sufficient priorities

  9. Family screening for a novel ATP7B gene mutation, c.2335T>G, in the South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Manoochehri, J; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Faraji, H; Mohammadi, S; Dastsooz, H; Moradi, T; Rezaei, E; Sadeghi, Kh; Fardaei, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which leads to copper metabolism, due to mutations in ATP7B gene. The gene responsible for WD consists of 21 exons that span a genomic region of about 80 kb and encodes a copper transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B), a protein consisting of 1465 amino acids. Identifying mutation in ATP7B gene is important to find carrier individuals for proper counseling. A novel mutation in exon 8 of ATP7B gene, c.2335T>G (p.Trp779Gly), with severe neuropsychiatric condition in the South of Iran, was recently identified. The aim of this study was to screen 120 individuals from a large family using a simple amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) for carrier screening in the South of Iran. Materials and Methods 120 individuals from family relatives of an index case in the Nasr Abad, south of Iran, were studied for screening of the c.2335T>G mutation. One patient with homozygous mutation and one homozygous normal individual were used as controls in this experiment. Results Altogether, 16 out of 120 (13.3%) individuals within this region had heterozygous mutation. One individual with homozygote mutation was also identified. Conclusion Identification of carriers in families with affected individuals is of great importance for counseling before marriage. The results of this study can be used for further counseling programs in this population. PMID:24734161

  10. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  11. Prediction of ISO 9705 Room/Corner Test Results (Appendices A, B, and C). Volume II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    estimated from [ Seader & Einhorn, 1976] eg = 1- exp(- (0.33 + 0.47Cc)(H - Z1)) (A9) where C, is the concentration of soot particles (g/m3), H is the room...based on data by Seader and Einhorn for flaming wood and plastics fires [ Seader & Einhorn, 1976]. The layer depth was set equal to 1 mn, based on... Seader , J.D., and I.N. Einhom, 16th Symposium (Int) on Combustion, Pittsburg, PA, 1976. A-21 [This page intentionally left blank] A-22 ATTACHMENT A

  12. Guide to Simulation Scheduling. Appendices B and C,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    COKT’U CAL014bC * .RITE(6,850) CAL0 14SO 850 F0FI.A(/I.3X, @INPUT ALL PULILAY! (9THER THAN SUNCAYF9: Mp4 ,C[,lY./CAL0150C */93X96LN0 OF DATA PLEAIE PFESS... RAid 79C GC TO 1 GkACi e0C C CRAC181C 7 CENTISLE GRA01&82C C slior CAPACITY (THERE IS NC wORrCEINTE R-LEVEL CAP.) GRA0183C K ILL*C GRA0184C I TNN=C

  13. Fracture resistance of a TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Seshadri, Srinivasa G.

    1988-01-01

    The fracture resistance of a comercial TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 1400 C. A laser interferometric strain gauge (LISG) was used to continuously monitor the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of the chevron-notched and straight-notched, three-point bend specimens used. Crack growth resistance curves (R-curves) were determined from the load versus displacement curves and displacement calibrations. Fracture toughness, work-of-fracture, and R-curve levels were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Microstructure, fracture surface, and oxidation coat were examined to explain the fracture behavior.

  14. Fracture resistance of a TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Seshadri, Srinivasa G.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture resistance of a commercial TiB2 particle/SiC matrix composite was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 20 to 1400 C. A laser interferometric strain gauge (LiSG) was used to continuously monitor the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of the chevron-notched and straight-notched, three-point bend specimens used. Crack growth resistance curves (R-curves) were determined from the load versus displacement curves and displacement calibrations. Fracture toughness, work-of-fracture, and R-curve levels were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Microstructure, fracture surface, and oxidation coat were examined to explain the fracture behavior.

  15. Substructure Main Bridge, Piers B & C Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Substructure - Main Bridge, Piers B & C - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  16. The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B–NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits. PMID:25462354

  17. The response of aggregated Pseudomonas putida CP1 cells to UV-C and UV-A/B disinfection.

    PubMed

    Maganha de Almeida, Ana C; Quilty, Bríd

    2016-11-01

    UV radiation is a spread method used worldwide for the disinfection of water. However, much of the research on the disinfection of bacterial cells by UV has focused on planktonic cells. Many bacterial cells in nature are present in clumps or aggregates, and these aggregates, which are more resistant to disinfection than their planktonic counterparts, can be problematic in engineered water systems. The current research used Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) CP1, an environmental and non-pathogenic microorganism which autoaggregates when grown under certain conditions, as a model organism to simulate aggregated cells. The study investigated the response of both the planktonic and the aggregated forms of the bacterium to UV-C (λ = 253.7 nm) and UV-A/B (λ > 300 nm) disinfection at laboratory scale in a minimal medium. The planktonic cells of P. putida CP1 were inactivated within 60 s by UV-C and in 60 min by UV-A/B; however, the aggregated cells required 120 min of UV-C treatment and 240 min of UV-A/B radiation to become inactive. The size of the aggregate was reduced following UV treatment. Although all the cells had lost culturability, viability as measured by the LIVE/DEAD(®) stain and epifluorescence microscopy was not completely lost and the cells all demonstrated regrowth after overnight incubation in the dark.

  18. First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Alling, B.

    2014-07-01

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatom's picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R3¯m ) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational

  19. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  20. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2014-03-31

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  1. Rapid measurement of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, and moisture in Herba Epimedii using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Liu, Xuesong; Li, Weili; Jin, Ye; Wu, Yongjiang; Zheng, Jiyu; Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this work, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to determine the epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, and moisture contents of Herba Epimedii. The variable selection method genetic algorithm (GA) and regression tool support vector machine (SVM) were used to improve the model performance. Four different calibration models, namely Full-PLS, GA-PLS, Full-SVM, and GA-SVM, were established, and their performances in terms of prediction accuracy and model robustness were systemically studied and compared. In conclusion, the performances of the models based on the efficient variables selected through GA were better than those based on full spectra, and the nonlinear models were superior over the linear models. In addition, the GA-SVM model demonstrated the optimal performance in predicting five quality parameters (viz. epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, and moisture). For GA-SVM, the determination coefficient (Rp2), root-mean-square error (RMSEP), and residual predictive deviation (RPD) for the prediction set were 0.9015, 0.0268%, and 2.20 for epimedin A; 0.9089, 0.0656%, and 3.08 for epimedin B; 0.9056, 0.1787%, and 3.18 for epimedin C; 0.8192, 0.0657%, and 2.26 for icariin; and 0.9367, 0.2062%, and 4.12 for moisture, correspondingly. Results indicated that NIR spectroscopy coupled with GA-SVM calibration can be used as a reliable alternative strategy to measure the epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, and moisture contents of Herba Epimedii because this technique is fast, economic, and nondestructive compared with traditional chemical methods.

  2. (A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D)

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.

    1991-08-06

    A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper.

  3. [A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, H.W.

    1991-08-06

    A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper.

  4. Observation of the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-11-01

    The result of a search for the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0) π+ is presented, using the B(s)(0) → D(s)(-)π+ and B(s)(0) → J/ψ Ø channels. The analysis is based on a data sample of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 2 fb(-1) taken at 8 TeV. The decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+ is observed with significance in excess of 5 standard deviations independently in both decay channels. The measured product of the ratio of cross sections and branching fraction is [σ(B(c)(+))/σ(B(s)(0))] × B(B(c)(+)→ B(s)(0)π+) = [2.37 ± 0.31 (stat)± 0.11 (syst)(-0.13)(+0.17)(τ(B)(c)(+)))] × 10(-3), in the pseudorapidity range 2<η(B)<5, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on the B(c)(+) lifetime. This is the first observation of a B meson decaying to another B meson via the weak interaction.

  5. Circulating antibody and memory B-Cell responses to C. difficile toxins A and B in patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Tanya M; Robins, Adrian; Knox, Alan; Sewell, Herbert F; Mahida, Yashwant R

    2013-01-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is rarely reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients despite frequent hospitalisations and antibiotic usage. Conversely, the prevalence of CDI in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has received increased attention. We investigated components of the IgG-specific humoral immune response to C. difficile toxins A and B in patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), IBD patients with CDI, CF patients and healthy controls. Serum anti-toxin IgG was determined by ELISA. Circulating antigen-activated B-cells were investigated using Alexa Fluor 488-labelled toxin A and assessed by flow cytometry. Following induction of differentiation of memory B-cells, toxin A- and B-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) were quantified using ELISpot. We present the first data showing levels of serum anti-toxin A and B antibodies were significantly higher in patients with CF (without a history of CDI) than in CDAD patients and were stably maintained over time. Notably, the CDAD patients were significantly older than the CF patients. We also show that circulating toxin A-specific memory B-cells (IgD-negative) can be detected in CDAD patients [0.92 (0.09-1.78)%], and were prominent (5.64%, 1.14%) in two CF patients who were asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. There was correlation between toxin A- and B-specific ASCs, with significantly higher proportions of the latter seen. In some with CDAD, high serum antibody levels were seen to only one of the two toxins. Mucosal secretion of toxin-specific IgG was detected in an additional group of IBD patients with no history of CDI. We conclude that enhanced and stable humoral immune responses to toxins A and B may protect CF and some IBD patients against CDI. The impaired ability to generate strong and/or sustained toxin-specific antibody and memory B-cell responses may increase susceptibility of older patients to CDI and highlight the need to investigate the role of immune senescence in future studies.

  6. Density Functional Calculation of the Electronic Structures of Some A5B6C7-TYPE Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkus, Harun

    The electronic band structures of some A5B6C7-type ternary compounds, BiSeI, BiSI, BiSCl, BiSBr, BiSeBr and SbSeBr, are investigated using the density functional theory and pseudopotential theory under the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The electronic band structures obtained show that these crystals, except for BiSeI, have an indirect band gap.

  7. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath of Parent...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 68 Shipping COAST GUARD..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart A of Part 68—Oath of Parent or Subsidiary Corporation Act of September 2, 1958 (46 U.S.C. app. 883-1) Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard Oath of Parent...

  9. Near Full-Length Identification of a Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C Recombinant in Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Heng; Chen, Xin; Liang, Yue-Bo; Pang, Wei; Qin, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Chiyu; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-08-01

    The Myanmar-China border appears to be the "hot spot" region for the occurrence of HIV-1 recombination. The majority of the previous analyses of HIV-1 recombination were based on partial genomic sequences, which obviously cannot reflect the reality of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in this area well. Here, we present a near full-length characterization of a novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant isolated from a long-distance truck driver in Northern Myanmar. It is the first description of a near full-length genomic sequence in Myanmar since 2003, and might be one of the most complicated HIV-1 chimeras ever detected in Myanmar, containing four CRF01_AE, six B segments, and five C segments separated by 14 breakpoints throughout its genome. The discovery and characterization of this new CRF01_AE/B/C recombinant indicate that intersubtype recombination is ongoing in Myanmar, continuously generating new forms of HIV-1. More work based on near full-length sequence analyses is urgently needed to better understand the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in these regions.

  10. c.194 A>C (Q65P) mutation in the LMX1B gene in patients with nail-patella syndrome associated with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pablo; Sanhueza, Felipe; Lopez, Pamela; Reyes, Loreto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, ophthalmic, extraophthalmic, and genetic characteristics of nail-patella syndrome (NPS) in a Chilean family and to investigate the expressivity of open angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) in the family members. Methods Five family members affected with NPS and two unaffected members underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including computerized visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic disc and ultrasound pachymetry. Renal function was assessed by urinalysis and blood tests. Orthopedic evaluations were also performed, including radiological studies of the wrist, elbow and hip joints. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of the five affected and two unaffected family members. Exons 2–6 of the LIM homeobox transcription factor 1-beta (LMX1B) gene were screened for mutations by DNA sequencing of the proband. We also screened for mutations in exon 2 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the other participants and 91 blood donors. Results Five living family members from three generations were positively diagnosed with NPS, three of them with varying degrees of OAG and one with OHT. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral domain OCT was below normal values in three individuals. All subjects evaluated had normal nephrologic function. Orthopedic, clinical, and radiological alterations were compatible with NPS. Screening for mutations in exons 2- 6 of LMX1B showed a heterozygous missense mutation c.194 A>C changing glutamine to proline within exon 2 in codon 65 (Q65P) of the coding sequence. This mutation was present in all NPS subjects and absent in the unaffected family members and in 91 Chilean blood donors. Conclusions This is the first report of c.194 A>C mutation in LMX1B in a Chilean family with NPS and the second worldwide. The phenotype associated with this mutation is variable within the family

  11. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Kaul, Rashmi; Kaul, Anil; Khan, Khalid

    2007-03-28

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immigration and globalization have added to the challenges of public health concerns regarding chronic HBV and HCV infections worldwide. The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment. Extensive literature search was conducted to explore the HLA associations in HBV and HCV infections reported across global populations over the past decade to understand the knowledge status, weaknesses and strengths of this information in different ethnic populations. HLA DR13 is consistently associated with HBV clearance globally. HLADRB1*11/*12 alleles and DQB1*0301 are associated with HBV persistence but with HCV clearance worldwide. Consistent association of DRB1*03 and *07 is observed with HCV susceptibility and non-responsiveness to HBV vaccination across the population. HLA DR13 is protective for vertical HBV and HCV transmission in Chinese and Italian neonates, but different alleles are associated with their susceptibility in these populations. HLA class I molecule interactions with Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells modulate HCV infection outcome via regulating immune regulatory cells and molecules. HLA associations with HBV vaccination, interferon therapy in HBV and HCV, and with extra hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis are also discussed. Systematic studies in compliance with global regulatory standards are required to identify the HLA specific viral epitope, stage specific T cell populations interacting with different HLA alleles during disease progression and viral clearance of chronic HBV or HCV infections among different ethnic populations. These studies would facilitate stage specific

  12. A novel Hg2 +-selective fluorescent chemprobe based on thiooxorhodamine-B and β-C-glycoside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Fang, Zhijie

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, two novel easily available probes based on rhodamine B and β-C-glycoside were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Sensor 1 exhibited very high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg2 + over other metal ions, due to the opening of the spiro ring in thiooxorhodamine B caused by Hg2 + through desulfurization. The binding analysis using Job's plot suggested 1:1 stoichiometry for the complexes formed for Hg2 +. The fluorescent probe is pH independent in medium condition and common interferent ions do not show any interference with the Hg2 + determination. It is anticipated that 1 could be a good candidate probe and has potential application for Hg2 + determination.

  13. The A, B, C's of factitious disorder: a response to Turner.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, James C; Feldman, Marc D; Janata, Jeffrey W

    2009-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is being prepared, but little attention has been accorded the category of factitious disorder, despite its presence in the manual for almost 30 years. Among relevant articles that have appeared, Turner's publication advocates retention of the category, but with new criteria. In the current paper, we reject Turner's reformulation but use the identified diagnostic dilemmas to illuminate the phenomenology of factitious disorder. We also offer a reconceptualization of the diagnosis that should better inform the preparations for DSM-V.

  14. The A, B, C's of Factitious Disorder: A Response to Turner

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, James C.; Feldman, Marc D.; Janata, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is being prepared, but little attention has been accorded the category of factitious disorder, despite its presence in the manual for almost 30 years. Among relevant articles that have appeared, Turner's publication advocates retention of the category, but with new criteria. In the current paper, we reject Turner's reformulation but use the identified diagnostic dilemmas to illuminate the phenomenology of factitious disorder. We also offer a reconceptualization of the diagnosis that should better inform the preparations for DSM-V. PMID:19295948

  15. Urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is a marker of immune disease activity in autologous immune complex nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruchno, C J; Burns, M M; Schulze, M; Johnson, R J; Baker, P J; Alpers, C E; Couser, W G

    1991-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement correlates with glomerular deposition of antibody in the passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) model of membranous nephropathy (MN). To determine if this parameter can be correlated with antibody deposition in a model of MN induced by an autologous mechanism and thus more analogous to human MN, the relationship of urinary C5b-9 to ongoing glomerular immune complex formation late in autologous immune complex nephritis (AICN) was studied. Based on urinary C5b-9, the animals were divided into two groups at 12 weeks after induction of AICN, those with persistently high urinary C5b-9 excretion and those in whom urinary excretion of C5b-9 returned to undetectable levels. While all rats developed glomerular deposition of rat IgG and significant proteinuria, high C5b-9 excretors had greater proteinuria and prolonged positive staining for glomerular C3. When normal syngeneic kidneys were transplanted into rats (n = 3) from each group, only those with persistent C5b-9 excretion developed subepithelial immune deposits of rat IgG in the transplanted kidney. As in the PHN model of MN, proteinuria was dissociated widely from urinary C5b-9 excretion, glomerular C3 staining, and evidence of circulating antibody. Thus these findings demonstrate that urinary excretion of C5b-9 serves as an index of on-going immunologic disease activity in the AICN model of MN, while proteinuria does not.

  16. Epidemiological study of viral hepatitis types A, B, C, D and E among Inuits in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Langer, B C; Frösner, G G; von Brunn, A

    1997-09-01

    A descriptive study was performed to evaluate the relative frequencies and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis types A to E among the Inuit population in West Greenland. Serum samples were collected from 503 Inuits (186 males and 317 females; mean age 35 years; range 7-79 years) and were tested for markers of viral hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A prevalence averaged 54%, with a significant rise from 9% to 50% between the second and third decade of life. As for hepatitis B, 42% of the total study population showed serological evidence of current or past hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 7% were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. Among the carriers, 6% were also positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and HBV DNA could be detected in 49% of carriers by polymerase chain reaction. Typing of the HBV isolates revealed genomic group D in 83% (serotype ayw2) and group A in 17% (serotype adw 2). Less than 1% of the study population had antibodies to the hepatitis C virus. None were positive for HCV RNA. Serological evidence of hepatitis D infection was found in 7% of those with hepatitis B helper virus infection markers and in 40% of the HBsAg carriers. As for hepatitis E, 3% of the Inuits showed reactivity in an enzyme immunoassay that detected hepatitis E virus antibody. HEV RNA could not be detected.

  17. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-06

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  18. The antioxidant effects of vitamin A, C, and E on aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, L; Yildirim, A; Agar, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of vitamin A, C, and E on aflatoxin B(1)-induced in human lymphocytes using biochemical approaches. The control group received dimethyl sulfoxide, the second group of cultures were administered aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) at a dose of 5 muM. The other group of cultures were treated with AFB(1)+vitamin A (0.5 and 1.0 and 1.5 microM) and AFB(1)+vitamin C (25, 50, and 100 microM) and AFB(1)+vitamin E (40, 100, and 200 microM). The results of this experiment show that AFB(1) significantly decreased the level of GSH and the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx and increased level of malondialdehyde. Simultaneous supplementation with vitamin A, C, and E restored these parameters to that of normal range. In conclusion, vitamin A, C, and E exhibited protective effects in human lymphocytes by inhibiting AFB(1)-induced ROS generation.

  19. Sequence of a novel cytochrome CYP2B cDNA coding for a protein which is expressed in a sebaceous gland, but not in the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, T; Grassow, M A; Bartlomowicz-Oesch, B; Siegert, P; Arand, M; Adesnik, M; Oesch, F

    1992-01-01

    The major phenobarbital-inducible rat hepatic cytochromes P-450, CYP2B1 and CYP2B2, are the paradigmatic members of a cytochrome P-450 gene subfamily that contains at least seven additional members. Specific oligonucleotide probes for these genomic members of the CYP2B subfamily were used to assess their tissue-specific expression. In Northern-blot analysis a probe specific to gene 4 (which is designated now as CYP2B12) hybridized to a single mRNA present in the preputial gland, an organ which is used as a model for sebaceous glands, but did not hybridize to mRNA isolated from the liver or from five other tissues of untreated or Aroclor 1254-treated rats. The cDNA sequence for the CYP2B12 RNA was determined from overlapping cDNA clones and contained a long open reading frame of 1476 bp. The nucleotide sequence of the CYP2B12 cDNA was 85% similar to the sequence of the CYP2B1 cDNA in its coding region and was different from any CYP2B cDNA characterized until now. The cDNA-derived primary structure of the CYP2B12 protein contains a signal sequence for its insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum and the putative haem-binding site characteristic of cytochromes P-450. A part of the potential haem pocket of CYP2B12 was identical with a similar structure in a bacterial protocatechuate dioxygenase. In immunoblot analysis of preputial-gland microsomes, antibodies against CYP2B1 recognized a single abundant protein with a lower apparent molecular mass than that of CYP2B1. Our results demonstrate that the CYP2B12 protein has the potential to be enzymically active and are the first demonstration that a member of the CYP2B subfamily is expressed exclusively and at high levels in an extrahepatic organ. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1445240

  20. Total synthesis of the N,C-coupled naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids ancistrocladinium A and B and related analogues.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Gulder, Tanja; Hertlein, Barbara; Hemberger, Yasmin; Meyer, Frank

    2010-01-27

    The N,C-coupled naphthyldihydroisoquinoline alkaloids ancistrocladinium A (3) and B (4), which possess an unprecedented iminium-aryl axis and show high in vitro antileishmanial activities, have been synthesized via a short sequence of eight linear steps, without the need of protecting groups. Key steps were a Buchwald-Hartwig amination and a Bischler-Napieralski cyclization, preferentially leading to the naturally predominant M-atropo-diastereomer in the case of 3, while the N,C-axis is configurationally semistable in 4. The highly convergent first access to this type of alkaloids will now facilitate the preparation of structural analogues for structure-activity relationship studies. Its general applicability was shown by the preparation of the sterically even more congested, as yet unnatural N,3'- and N,1'-coupled analogues, ancistrocladinium C (5) and D (6).

  1. Confirmation of Y haplogroup tree topologies with newly suggested Y-SNPs for the C2, O2b and O3a subhaplogroups.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Yeun; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are useful markers for reconstructing male lineages through hierarchically arranged allelic sets known as haplogroups, and are thereby widely used in the fields such as human evolution, anthropology and forensic genetics. The Y haplogroup tree was recently revised with newly suggested Y-SNP markers for designation of several subgroups of haplogroups C2, O2b and O3a, which are predominant in Koreans. Therefore, herein we analyzed these newly suggested Y-SNPs in 545 unrelated Korean males who belong to the haplogroups C2, O2b or O3a, and investigated the reconstructed topology of the Y haplogroup tree. We were able to confirm that markers L1373, Z1338/JST002613-27, Z1300, CTS2657, Z8440 and F845 define the C2 subhaplogroups, C2b, C2e, C2e1, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2, respectively, and that markers F3356, L682, F11, F238/F449 and F444 define the O subhaplogroups O2b1, O2b1b, O3a1c1, O3a1c2 and O3a2c1c, respectively. Among six C2 subhaplogroups (C2b, C2e, C2e1*, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2), the C2e haplogroup and its subhaplogroups were found to be predominant, and among the four O2b subhaplogroups (O2b*, O2b1*, O2b1a and O2b1b), O2b1b was most frequently observed. Among the O3a subhaplogroups, O3a2c1 was predominant and it was further divided into the subhaplogroups O3a2c1a and O3a2c1c with a newly suggested marker. However, the JST002613-27 marker, which had been known to define the haplogroup C2f, was found to be an ancestral marker of the C2e haplogroup, as is the Z1338 marker. Also, the M312 marker for the O2b1 haplogroup designation was replaced by F3356, because all of the O2b1 haplotypes showed a nucleotide change at F3356, but not at M312. In addition, the F238 marker was always observed to be phylogenetically equivalent to F449, while both of the markers were assigned to the O3a1c2 haplogroup. The confirmed phylogenetic tree of this study with the newly suggested Y-SNPs could be valuable for anthropological and

  2. HLA-A, -B, -C expression in colon carcinoma mimics that of the normal colonic mucosa and is prognostically relevant.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Piperno, Giulia; Sperduti, Isabella; Cione, Antonio; Sibilio, Leonardo; Martayan, Aline; Donnorso, Raffaele Perrone; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2007-01-01

    Whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C expression has any predictive value on the prognosis of human malignancies remains controversial. Herein, monoclonal antibodies with preferential reactivity for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C (HCA2, HC10, and L31) were used to stain an archival collection of 291 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded tissues, comprising neoplastic lesions from stages II and III colon carcinoma patients (n=165), and the uninvolved, morphologically normal mucosae from a subset (n=126) of these patients. Marked staining variability was detected not only in the tumors as in previous studies, but also in the normal paired mucosae. HLA-A, -B, -C expression was similar in approximately two thirds of the available 126 normal/neoplastic pairs, confirming in vivo our previous observation that most tumor cells mimic the HLA phenotypes of their normal counterparts. Both up and down-regulation occurred in the remaining third of the pairs, but did not coincide with high and low expression, respectively, conventionally evaluated on the tumor lesion only. Remarkably, a "paired" evaluation, but not high or low expression in the tumor, was predictive of the clinical outcome. Deviations from the expression in the normal paired mucosa (both increases and decreases) of HCA2-reactive class I molecules (possibly HLA-A), and down-regulation of L31-reactive class I molecules (possibly HLA-C), particularly in tumors from stage II patients, correlated with poor 5-year overall and disease-free survival, hazard risk ranging from 2 to 6, approximately. Thus, a paired immunohistochemical comparison reveals a novel immune evasion strategy that may impact on the prognosis of colon carcinoma.

  3. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Simonov, Alexandr N.; Holien, Jessica K.; Yeung, Joyee Chun In; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Zheng, Jie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Conley, Alan J.; Bond, Alan M.; Parker, Michael W.; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1) is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions. PMID:26587646

  4. A Measurement of the B ---> Eta/C K Branching Fraction Using the BaBar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Frank; /Manchester U.

    2006-04-26

    The branching fraction is measured for the decay channels B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +} where {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}, using the BABAR detector. The {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decay channels are used, including non-resonant decays and possibly those through intermediate resonances.

  5. A Minute Dose of 14C-b-Carotene is Absorbed and Converted to Retinoids in Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We dosed 8 adults with 14C-all-trans [10,10',11,11'-14C]-B-carotene (1.01 nmol) to quantify its absorption and metabolism. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure 14C eliminated in feces over 14 days, in urine over 30 days, and that was retained in plasma over 166 days since dose. We...

  6. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sarah; Lillis, Darren; Cotter, Aoife; O’Dea, Siobhan; Tuite, Helen; Fleming, Catherine; Crowley, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Ian; Dalby, Linda; Barry, Helen; Shields, Darragh; Norris, Suzanne; Plunkett, Patrick K.; Bergin, Colm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population. Methods An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively. Results Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%), 44(0.49%) and 447(5.05%) HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%), 20(0.22%) and 58(0.66%) were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively. Conclusions Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted. PMID:26967517

  7. Discovery of a Novel Series of Potent Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus NS5B

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Ryan C.; Bourdet, David L.; Brameld, Ken A.; Chin, Elbert; de Vicente, Javier; Fung, Amy; Harris, Seth F.; Lee, Eun K.; Pogam, Sophie Le; Leveque, Vincent; Li, Jim; Lui, Alfred S-T.; Najera, Isabel; Rajyaguru, Sonal; Sangi, Michael; Steiner, Sandra; Talamas, Francisco X.; Taygerly, Joshua P.; Zhao, Junping

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global public health problem. While the current standard of care, a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) protease inhibitor taken in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, represents a major advancement in recent years, an unmet medical need still exists for treatment modalities that improve upon both efficacy and tolerability. Towards those ends, much effort has continued to focus on the discovery of new DAAs, with the ultimate goal to provide interferon-free combinations. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme NS5B represents one such DAA therapeutic target for inhibition which has attracted much interest over the past decade. Herein, we report the discovery and optimization of a novel series of inhibitors of HCV NS5B, through the use of structure-based design applied to a fragment-derived starting point. Issues of potency, pharmacokinetics and early safety were addressed in order to provide a clinical candidate in fluoropyridone 19. PMID:24069953

  8. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus at a Community Fair: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Garmen A.; Hill, Mary A.; de Medina, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recommendations for screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), most individuals are still unaware of their infection status. The disparities in screening for HBV and HCV can be attributed to lack of awareness, language barriers, and difficulty in accessing healthcare. To address these issues, an exhibit booth was set up at an annual cultural festival to promote awareness about HBV and HCV and also provide free screening for a local Floridian community. Recruitment was conducted in various languages by physicians and nurses who specialize in hepatology. All materials associated with the screening process were sponsored by the Schiff Center for Liver Diseases, which is located at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. In the first year of the screening initiative, 173 of 11,000 fair attendees were screened for HBV. Twenty-nine (17%) of those screened tested positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and only 1 individual tested positive for chronic HBV, with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Screening for HCV and an extended patient questionnaire were added to the screening program in the second year of the initiative. A total 231 of 9,000 fair attendees volunteered to be screened for both HBV and HCV. Twenty-nine (13%) of these people tested positive for anti-HBc, and 3 tested positive for HBsAg. Only 1 person tested positive for anti-HCV, but this individual had undetectable HCV RNA levels. Our single-center experience illustrates that, despite efforts to improve access to screening, only 2-3% of attendees at a cultural fair embraced the screening efforts. Other strategies will be required to enhance participation in screening programs for viral hepatitis. PMID:23943664

  9. A Novel Interaction between Complement Inhibitor C4b-binding Protein and Plasminogen That Enhances Plasminogen Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Talens, Simone; Grandits, Alexander M.; Blom, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    The complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems are crucial for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. To date numerous interactions and cross-talks have been identified between these cascades. In line with this, here we propose a novel, hitherto unknown interaction between the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and plasminogen of the fibrinolytic pathway. Binding of C4BP to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a known virulence mechanism of this pathogen and it was increased in the presence of plasminogen. Interestingly, the acute phase variant of C4BP lacking the β-chain and protein S binds plasminogen much stronger than the main isoform containing the β-chain and protein S. Indeed, the complement control protein (CCP) 8 domain of C4BP, which would otherwise be sterically hindered by the β-chain, primarily mediates this interaction. Moreover, the lysine-binding sites in plasminogen kringle domains facilitate the C4BP-plasminogen interaction. Furthermore, C4BP readily forms complexes with plasminogen in fluid phase and such complexes are present in human serum and plasma. Importantly, whereas the presence of plasminogen did not affect the factor I cofactor activity of C4BP, the activation of plasminogen by urokinase-type plasminogen activator to active plasmin was significantly augmented in the presence of C4BP. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel interaction between two proteins of the complement and fibrinolytic system. Most complexes might be formed during the acute phase of inflammation and have an effect on the homeostasis at the site of injury or acute inflammation. PMID:26067271

  10. Identification of a Bacillus anthracis specific indel in the yeaC gene and development of a rapid pyrosequencing assay for distinguishing B. anthracis from the B. cereus group.

    PubMed

    Ahmod, Nadia Z; Gupta, Radhey S; Shah, Haroun N

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a potential source of bioterrorism. The existing assays for its identification lack specificity due to the close genetic relationship it exhibits to other members of the B. cereus group. Our comparative analyses of protein sequences from Bacillus species have identified a 24 amino acid deletion in a conserved region of the YeaC protein that is uniquely present in B. anthracis. PCR primers based on conserved regions flanking this indel in the Bacillus cereus group of species (viz. Bacillus cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. weihenstephnensis and B. pseudomycoides) specifically amplified a 282 bp fragment from all six reference B. anthracis strains, whereas a 354 bp fragment was amplified from 15 other B. cereus group of species/strains. These fragments, due to large size difference, are readily distinguished by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. In contrast to the B. cereus group, no PCR amplification was observed with any of the non-B. cereus group of species/strains. This indel was also used for developing a rapid pyrosequencing assay for the identification of B. anthracis. Its performance was evaluated by examining the presence or absence of this indel in a panel of 81 B. cereus-like isolates from various sources that included 39 B. anthracis strains. Based upon the sequence data from the pyrograms, the yeaC indel was found to be a distinctive characteristic of various B. anthracis strains tested and not found in any other species/strains from these samples. Therefore, this B. anthracis specific indel provides a robust and highly-specific chromosomal marker for the identification of this high-risk pathogen from other members of the B. cereus group independent of a strain's virulence. The pyrosequencing platform also allows for the rapid and simultaneous screening of multiple samples for the presence of this B. anthracis-specific marker.

  11. Preparation of specifically activatable endopeptidase derivatives of Clostridium botulinum toxins type A, B, and C and their applications.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J Mark; Wayne, Jonathan; Scott-Tucker, Anthony; O'Brien, Susan M; Marks, Philip M H; Alexander, Frances C G; Shone, Clifford C; Chaddock, John A

    2005-03-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are potently toxic proteins of 150 kDa with specific endopeptidase activity for SNARE proteins involved in vesicle docking and release. Following treatment with trypsin, a fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A that lacks the C-terminal domain responsible for neuronal cell binding, but retains full catalytic activity, can be obtained. Known as the LH(N) fragment, we report the development of a recombinant expression and purification scheme for the isolation of comparable fragments of neurotoxin serotypes B and C. Expressed as maltose-binding protein fusions, both have specific proteolytic sites present between the fusion tag and the light chain to facilitate removal of the fusion, and between the light chain endopeptidase and the H(N) translocation domains to facilitate activation of the single polypeptide. We have also used this approach to prepare a new variant of LH(N)/A with a specific activation site that avoids the need to use trypsin. All three LH(N)s are enzymatically active and are of low toxicity. The production of specifically activatable LH(N)/A, LH(N)/B, and LH(N)/C extends the opportunities for exploitation of neurotoxin fragments. The potential utility of these fragments is discussed.

  12. [The female world in the Necropolis in Castellaccio (Rome, IV cent. B.C., IV A.C.)].

    PubMed

    Buccellato, Anna; Catalano, Paola; Coletti, Fulvio; Pantano, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The archaeological investigation carried out from 2003 in the Castellaccio locality, undertaken to realize the "Europarco" town planning, brought to light a part ofa road dated to the roman age, identified as the ancient via Laurentina. The road is oriented N/NE-S/SW, is 400 metres long and cross with a bridge the Fosso dell'Acqua Acetosa. Two buildings run alongside this trait of the ancient Laurentina: one can be interpreted as a rural structure, the other one as a mansio. A sidestreet starts from the final edge of the recovered road and run toward East, along the original route of the Fosso dell'Acqua Acetosa Ostiense: the historians recognized it as a boundary of the Ager Romanus Antiquus nearby the VI mile, place of the god Terminus sanctuary. A necropolis made up ofmore than 130 graves, mainly inhumations, was found in the southern part of the crossroads, near the oriental side of the Laurentina. The stratigraphical analysis and the examination of the grave goods allowed the characterization of three period of funerary use of the necropolis, between the middle republican age and the first two century of the Empire. In all three period stand out graves of infants and women, of extreme interest from the ritual point of view and supplied with rich grave goods.

  13. Phosphorylation statuses at different residues of lamin B2, B1, and A/C dynamically and independently change throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuga, Takahisa; Nozaki, Naohito; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2010-08-15

    Lamins, major components of the nuclear lamina, undergo phosphorylation at multiple residues during cell cycle progression, but their detailed phosphorylation kinetics remain largely undetermined. Here, we examined changes in the phosphorylation of major phosphorylation residues (Thr14, Ser17, Ser385, Ser387, and Ser401) of lamin B2 and the homologous residues of lamin B1, A/C during the cell cycle using novel antibodies to the site-specific phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of these residues independently changed during the cell cycle. Thr14 and Ser17 were phosphorylated during G{sub 2}/M phase to anaphase/telophase. Ser385 was persistently phosphorylated during mitosis to G{sub 1} phase, whereas Ser387 was phosphorylated discontinuously in prophase and G{sub 1} phase. Ser401 phosphorylation was enhanced in the G{sub 1}/S boundary. Immunoprecipitation using the phospho-antibodies suggested that metaphase-phosphorylation at Thr14, Ser17, and Ser385 of lamins occurred simultaneously, whereas G{sub 1}-phase phosphorylation at Ser385 and Ser387 occurred in distinct pools or with different timings. Additionally, we showed that lamin B2 phosphorylated at Ser17, but not Ser385, Ser387 and Ser401, was exclusively non-ionic detergent soluble, depolymerized forms in growing cells, implicating specific involvement of Ser17 phosphorylation in lamin depolymerization and nuclear envelope breakdown. These results suggest that the phosphorylations at different residues of lamins might play specific roles throughout the cell cycle.

  14. Broadly targeted triplex real-time PCR detection of influenza A, B and C viruses based on the nucleoprotein gene and a novel "MegaBeacon" probe strategy.

    PubMed

    Muradrasoli, Shaman; Mohamed, Nahla; Belák, Sándor; Czifra, György; Herrmann, Björn; Berencsi, George; Blomberg, Jonas

    2010-02-01

    A PCR assay that covers animal and human influenza A, B and C viruses, i.e., most of Orthomyxoviridae, is needed. Influenza types are distinguished based on differences in the nucleoprotein (NP) present in the virus. Conserved NP regions were therefore used to design a TaqMan-based triplex reverse transcription real-time PCR method. Variability of influenza A within the probe target region mandated the development of a novel molecular beacon, the "Mega" molecular beacon (MegaBeacon; MegB), for the detection of influenza A with this method. MegaBeacon is a mismatch-tolerant molecular beacon that is also a TaqMan probe. The triplex method (3QPCR-MegB) was evaluated with influenza A isolates covering 18 HxNx combinations, two influenza B isolates, and five Japanese influenza C isolates, as well as influenza A, B and C synthetic DNA targets. One to ten viral RNA and cDNA genome equivalents were detected per PCR reaction for influenza A, B and C. Seventy-one human nasopharyngeal aspirates from respiratory infections yielded 30 influenza A, 11 influenza B and 0 influenza C with 3QPCR-MegB, where immunofluorescence (IF) found 28 influenza A and 10 influenza B. 3QPCR-MegB was more mismatch-tolerant than a variant PCR with an influenza A TaqMan probe (3QPCR) and is a sensitive and rational method to detect influenza viruses of animal and human origin. MegaBeacon probes hold promise for variable target nucleic acids.

  15. Photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment by sunlight and UV-A, -B and -C irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Kohei; Sugihara, Kazumi; Sanoh, Seigo; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of sunlight on the persistence and ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals contaminating the aquatic environment, we exposed nine pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen (AA), amiodarone (AM), dapsone (DP), dexamethasone (DX), indomethacin (IM), naproxen (NP), phenytoin (PH), raloxifene (RL), and sulindac (SL)) in aqueous media to sunlight and to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254, 302 or 365 nm (UV-C, UV-B or UV-A, respectively). Degradation of the pharmaceuticals was monitored by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sunlight completely degraded AM, DP and DX within 6 hr, and partly degraded the other pharmaceuticals, except AA and PH, which were not degraded. Similar results were obtained with UV-B, while UV-A was less effective (both UV-A and -B are components of sunlight). All the pharmaceuticals were photodegraded by UV-C, which is used for sterilization in sewage treatment plants. Thus, the photodegradation rates of pharmaceuticals are dependent on both chemical structure and the wavelength of UV exposure. Toxicity assay using the luminescent bacteria test (ISO11348) indicated that UV irradiation reduced the toxicity of some pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms by decreasing their amount (photodegradation) and increased the toxicity of others by generating toxic photoproduct(s). These results indicate the importance of investigating not only parent compounds, but also photoproducts in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments.

  16. Study of the baryonic B decay B-→Σc++p¯π-π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.

    2012-11-01

    We report the measurement of the baryonic B decay B-→Σc++p¯π-π-. Using a data sample of 467×106 BB¯ pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at SLAC, the measured branching fraction is (2.98±0.16(stat)±0.15(syst)±0.77(Λc))×10-4, where the last error is due to the uncertainty in B(Λc+→pK-π+). The data suggest the existence of resonant subchannels B-→Λc(2595)+p¯π- and, possibly, B-→Σc++Δ¯--π-. We see unexplained structures in m(Σc++π-π-) at 3.25GeV/c2, 3.8GeV/c2, and 4.2GeV/c2.

  17. PENTACHLOROPHENOL POTENTIATES BENZO[A]PYRENE DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN ADULT BUT NOT INFANT B6C3F1 MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The objective of this study is to determine whether pentachlorophenol (PCP) alters benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced DNA adduct formation in infant and adult B6C3Fl mice. Mice were exposed to 55 ug B[a]P/g body weight (BW) alone and in combination with several dose...

  18. Double N,B-Type Bidentate Boryl Ligands Enabling a Highly Active Iridium Catalyst for C-H Borylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghui; Xu, Liang; Li, Pengfei

    2015-07-01

    Boryl ligands hold promise in catalysis due to their very high electron-donating property. In this communication double N,B-type boryl anions were designed as bidentate ligands to promote an sp(2) C-H borylation reaction. A symmetric pyridine-containing tetraaminodiborane(4) compound (1) was readily prepared as the ligand precursor that could be used, in combination with [Ir(OMe)(COD)]2, to in situ generate a highly active catalyst for a broad range of (hetero)arene substrates including highly electron-rich and/or sterically hindered ones. This work provides the first example of a bidentate boryl ligand in supporting homogeneous organometallic catalysis.

  19. First report of severe parainfluenza virus 4B and rhinovirus C coinfection in a liver transplant recipient treated with immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Luk, Hayes K H; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-12-01

    We describe the first reported case of severe pneumonia due to coinfection by parainfluenza virus type 4B and rhinovirus C in a liver transplant recipient. The patient responded promptly to intravenous immunoglobulin and timely infection control measures prevented spreading of the infections. This report highlights respiratory viral coinfections as a possible cause of severe morbidity in transplant recipients and the importance of efficient molecular diagnostic technologies with major impact on clinical practice in a transplant center. It also describes a potential therapeutic strategy for such patients.

  20. A review of the irradiation evolution of dispersed oxide nanoparticles in the b.c.c. Fe-Cr system: Current understanding and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharry, Janelle P.; Swenson, Matthew J.; Yano, Kayla H.

    2017-04-01

    Thus far, a number of studies have investigated the irradiation evolution of oxide nanoparticles in b.c.c. Fe-Cr based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. But given the inconsistent experimental conditions, results have been widely variable and inconclusive. Crystal structure and chemistry changes differ from experiment to experiment, and the total nanoparticle volume fraction has been observed to both increase and decrease. Furthermore, there has not yet been a comprehensive review of the archival literature. In this paper, we summarize the existing studies on nanoparticle irradiation evolution. We note significant observations with respect to oxide nanoparticle crystallinity, composition, size, and number density. We discuss four possible contributing mechanisms for nanoparticle evolution: ballistic dissolution, Ostwald ripening, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, and homogeneous nucleation. Finally, we propose future directions to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of irradiation effects on oxide nanoparticles in ODS alloys.

  1. Extreme projection of a proton into the pi-cloud of an aromatic ring: record shielding of an aromatic proton in trans-10b-methyl-10c-(1-naphthyl)-10b,10c-dihydropyrene.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yuhua; Lai, Yee-Hing

    2004-01-28

    A synthetic sequence involving dithiametacyclophane --> metacyclophanediene --> dihydropyrene was employed to prepare trans-10b-methyl-10c-(2-naphthyl)- and trans-10b-methyl-10c-(1-naphthyl)-10b,10c-dihydropyrene 5 and 6, respectively. Both exhibit a strong diamagnetic ring current despite the introduction of an internal bulky substituent within the pi-electron cloud. Their electronic spectra suggest interaction between the two near-perpendicular naphthyl and dihydropyrenyl pi systems, resulting in red shift and band broadening. All naphthyl protons are well resolved in their 1H NMR spectra due to a strong shielding effect of the dihydropyrene ring. The most shielded protons in 5 and 6 are H1' and H2' at delta 2.47 and 1.42, respectively, being 5.25 and 5.95 ppm shifted from those of reference protons. There is evidence for free rotation on the NMR time scale of the 2-naphthyl ring in 5 with a preference for a particular conformer, whereas the 1-naphthyl ring in 6 is conformationally rigid with its H2' projecting deeply into the pi-cloud, thus accounting for the most shielded aromatic proton (H2' in 6) reported to date.

  2. Performance and Operational Characteristics of AEDC/VKF Tunnels A, B, and C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Beattie - Bridgeman equation of state (Ref. D-2) in which the thermal and caloric imperfections as well as energy exchanges between...conditions, it was necessary to calculate corrective factors for determining the free-stream conditions in the tunnel. The Beattie - Bridgeman equation of...from the Beattie -B’hdgeman Equation of State Assuming Variable Specific Heats." .𔃾’t AEDC-TR-57’:2g (AD135331), August 1957. D-3. Erickson, W.

  3. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    PubMed

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research.

  4. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  5. Decays ηc-->γγ and ηb-->γγ: A test for potential models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmady, Mohammad R.; Mendel, Roberto R.

    1995-01-01

    We use a simple perturbation theory argument and measurements of charmonium leptonic widths Γ(ψNS-->e+e-) to estimate the ratio R0≡||Ψηc1S(0)||2/||Ψψ1S(0)||2 in the general context of nonrelativistic potential models. We obtain R0=1.4+/-0.1. We then apply well known potential model formulas, which include lowest order QCD corrections, to find Γ(ηc-->γγ)/Γ(ψ1S-->e+e-)~=2.2+/-0.2. The central value for Γ(ψ1S-->e+e-) in the 1992 Particle Data Group Tables then leads to a (nonrelativistic) prediction Γ(ηc-->γγ)~=11.8+/-0.8 keV. This prediction is in good agreement with a recent measurement by the ARGUS Collaboration, is consistent with a recent measurement by the L3 Collaboration, but is significantly higher than several other measurements and previous theoretical estimates, which usually assume R0=1. The correction to R0=1 is estimated to be smaller but non-negligible for the bb¯ system. Using the current central measurement for Γ(Υ1S-->e+e-) we find Γ(ηb-->γγ)~=0.58+/-0.03 keV. A rough estimate of relativistic corrections reduces the expected two photon rates to about 8.8 and 0.52 keV for the ηc and ηb mesons, respectively. Such corrections, however, are not expected to significantly affect our estimates of R0. An estimate of Γ(ηc(2S)-->γγ) is given as well.

  6. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B{sub 4}C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B{sub 4}C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of {approximately} 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B{sub 4}C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ``Gelcasting`` developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ``gelled`` in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B{sub 4}C and ``conventionally`` die-pressed B{sub 4}C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B{sub 4}C specimens are discussed.

  7. 75 FR 81424 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S76A, B, and C Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... directive (EAD) for the specified Sikorsky model helicopters. The EAD requires inspecting the LITEF Attitude..., B, and C helicopters, with LITEF LCR-100, Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) Unit,...

  8. Serological markers of hepatitis A, B and C viruses in rural communities of the semiarid Brazilian northeast.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Delvone; Tavares-Neto, José; Vitvitski, Ludmila; Almeida, Alessandro; Mello, Caroline; Santana, Diana; Tatsch, Fernando; Paraná, Raymundo

    2006-10-01

    In the village of Cavunge, located in a dry tropical, semiarid rural region of the state of Bahia, Brazil, a sentinel study on viral hepatitis is underway. We report on the first part of the study. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C in the village. Cross sectional study. Blood samples were tested for serological markers of hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV) and C (HCV) through ELISA-III assay. In HBsAg and anti-HCV carriers, HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were checked by PCR. The prevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 83.3% (1,210/1,452), being higher among residents from the village (87.4%) than in residents from the rural area (79.5%); it also higher among individuals older than 10 years of age. The prevalence of HBsAg was 2.6% (38/1,476), 9.3% anti-HBc (137/1,476) and 10.5% (155/1,476) anti-HBs of. In more than half (58.1%; 90/155) of anti-HBs carriers, this was the only serological marker found. In 3.7% of the population, (55/1,476), anti-HBc was the only serological marker found. All HBV carriers were infected by genotype A. Only 0.4% (6/1,536) presented anti-HCV antibodies and only one of them was viremic, being infected with genotype 1. The prevalence of patients with antibodies against hepatitis A virus in the village of Cavunge was high, but the prevalence of B virus was moderate, with only genotype A among HBV carriers. The prevalence of C virus was very low, contrasting with the situation in large Brazilian urban centers.

  9. Taming B.C. Hydro: Site C and the implementation of the B.C. Utilities Commission Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. Graham

    1988-07-01

    Public policy making in resources management is greatly influenced by the institutional arrangements that arise out of the legal powers, administrative structures, and financial provisions of the decision system. In British Columbia, the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province have been greatly altered by the passage of the Utilities Commission Act in 1980. This act redefines the policy implementation process for energy in British Columbia and provides for the regulation of the province's power utility, B.C. Hydro. This is the first time that the hitherto autonomous utility has been subject to regulation and the Utilities Commission Act represents a major reform in the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. The article evaluates the effectiveness of the 1980 B.C. Utilities Commission Act and assesses the impact of the legislation upon the institutional arrangements for energy planning in the province. Data for the article were derived from written sources and a series of personal interviews with key participants involved with energy planning in B.C. It is shown that the act represented a major departure in the management of energy resources in B.C. Moreover the implementation of the act's provisions, particularly in regard to B.C. Hydro, had a dramatic impact on the development of new energy projects in the province. It is suggested that while the political and economic climate during the period also favored restraint, the major influence on “taming” the utility was passage of the Utilities Commission Act. The article concludes by exploring the implications of policy changes that have occurred as a consequence of the act's impact on B.C. Hydro.

  10. Notch Sensitivity of Fatigue Behavior of a Hi-Nicalon™/SiC-B4C Composite at 1,200 °C in Air and in Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.; Kurtz, G.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of holes on the fatigue life of a non-oxide ceramic composite processed via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) was examined at 1,200 °C in laboratory air and in steam. The effect of holes on tensile strength at 1,200 °C was also evaluated. The composite comprised laminated woven Hi-Nicalon™ fibers in an oxidation inhibited matrix, which consisted of alternating layers of silicon carbide and boron carbide. Fiber preforms had pyrolytic carbon fiber coating with boron carbon overlay applied. Unnotched specimens and specimens with a center hole having a radius to width ratio of 0.24 were tested in tension-tension fatigue at 0.1 Hz and at 1.0 Hz. The fatigue stresses ranged from 100 to 140 MPa in air and in steam. Fatigue run-out was defined as 105 cycles at 0.1 Hz and as 2 × 105 cycles at 1.0 Hz. The net-section strength was less than the unnotched ultimate tensile strength. Comparison of notched and unnotched data also revealed that the fatigue performance was notch insensitive in both air and steam environments. Composite microstructure, as well as damage and failure mechanisms were investigated.

  11. Tenascin-X: a novel extracellular matrix protein encoded by the human XB gene overlapping P450c21B

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A human gene termed XB overlaps the P450c21B gene encoding steroid 21- hydroxylase and encodes a protein that closely resembles extracellular matrix proteins. Sequencing of phage and cosmid clones and of cDNA fragments shows that the XB gene spans 65 kb of DNA, consisting of 39 exons that encode a 12-kb mRNA. The predicted protein of over 400 kD consists of five distinct domains: a signal peptide, a hydrophobic domain containing three heptad repeats, a series of 18.5 EGF-like repeats, 29 fibronectin type III repeats, and a carboxy-terminal fibrinogen-like domain. Because the structure of the protein encoded by the XB gene closely resembles tenascin, we term this protein tenascin-X (TN-X), and propose a simplified nomenclature system for the family of tenascins. RNase protection experiments show that the TN-X transcript is expressed ubiquitously in human fetal tissues, with the greatest expression in the fetal testis and in fetal skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. Two adrenal-specific transcripts, P450c21B (steroid 21- hydroxylase) and Y (an untranslated transcript) overlap the XB gene on the complementary strand of DNA, yielding a unique array of overlapping transcripts: a "polygene." In situ hybridization histochemistry experiments show that the TN-X transcript and the P450c21 and Y transcripts encoded on the complementary DNA strand are all expressed in the same cells of the human adrenal cortex. Genetic data suggest that TN-X may be essential for life. PMID:7686164

  12. RECEPTOR FOR SOLUBLE C3 AND C3b ON HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID (RAJI) CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.; Bokisch, Viktor A.; Dixon, Frank J.

    1974-01-01

    This study describes the presence of a receptor for fluid phase human C3 and C3b on Raji cell membranes. The binding of C3 and C3b was demonstrated indirectly by a fluoresceinated anti-C3 serum and directly by using radioiodinated proteins. No other complement proteins or serum factors were needed to mediate binding of C3 and C3b to the receptor. The possibility of enzymatic cleavage of C3 before or after its attachment on the cell membrane was ruled out by the demonstration of antigenically intact C3 on Raji cells. Inhibition and dissociation of Raji cell-EAC1423 rosettes by C3 and C3b indicated that both of these proteins bind to the same receptor site or closely associated receptor sites on Raji cells. C3b-bearing Raji cells were immune adherence negative, indicating that C3b binding to the receptor is brought about through the immune adherence region of the molecule and not the C3d portion. The C3 receptor on Raji cell membranes is uniformly distributed and can move on the membrane plane. Approximately 4 x 105 molecules of C3 or C3b bind per Raji cell. The receptor had a higher affinity for C3 than C3b, as was shown by uptake experiments and inhibition of Raji cell-EAC1423 rosette formation. Apart from the described receptor for C3 and C3b another specific receptor for C3b inactivator-cleaved C3b (C3d) bound to red cells was shown to be present on Raji cells. Raji cells cultured in medium containing fresh normal human serum and cobra venom factor were lysed. Similar results were obtained when C3b-bearing Raji cells were cultured in medium with fresh normal human serum. The lytic effect could be abolished by inactivating serum C3 proactivator (C3PA) and required C6. It was concluded that C3b bound to the Raji cell membrane activates the complement system through the alternate pathway and results in membrane damage and cytolysis. It is postulated that cell destruction by this mechanism may play an important role in vivo in controlling cell growth. PMID:4591176

  13. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jessica L; King, Lindsay Y; Johnson, Kara B; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A; Fuchs, Bryan C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Gordon, Fredric D; Curry, Michael P; Chung, Raymond T

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93-4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis.

  14. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jessica L.; King, Lindsay Y.; Johnson, Kara B.; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D.; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E.; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M. Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Gordon, Fredric D.; Curry, Michael P.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93–4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis. PMID:26854475

  15. Downregulation of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A Models of ALS: A Novel Mechanism of Neuroprotective Effect of Lithium and Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Zhi; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Xiang; Jiang, Hong-Quan; Wang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Tian-Hang; Qi, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qing; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Ting; Feng, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Homer family protein Homer1b/c is expressed widely in the central nervous system and plays important roles in neurological diseases. In this study, we explored whether Homer1b/c was involved in SOD1 mutation-linked ALS. Results: In vitro studies showed that the SOD1 G93A mutation induced an increase of Homer1b/c expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in NSC34 cells. Knockdown of Homer1b/c expression using its short interfering RNA (siRNA) (si-Homer1) protected SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells from apoptosis. The expressions of Homer1b/c and apoptosis-related protein Bax were also suppressed, while Bcl-2 was increased by lithium and valproic acid (VPA) in SOD1 G93A NSC34 cells. In vivo, both the mRNA and protein levels of Homer1b/c were increased significantly in the lumbar spinal cord in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, lithium and VPA treatment suppressed the expression of Homer1b/c in SOD1 G93A mice. Conclusion: The suppression of SOD1 G93A mutation-induced Homer1b/c upregulation protected ALS against neuronal apoptosis, which is a novel mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of lithium and VPA. This study provides new insights into pathogenesis and treatment of ALS. PMID:27999308

  16. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  17. Cyclic sulfoxides garlicnins B2, B3, B4, C2, and C3 from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kohtaro; Ono, Masateru; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-01-01

    Several novel sulfides, called garlicnins B2 (1), B3 (2), B4 (3), C2 (4), and C3 (5), were isolated from acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum L. and characterized. These garlicnins are capable of suppressing M2 macrophage activation and they have a novel skeleton of cyclic sulfoxide. The structures of the former 3 and latter of 2 were deduced to be 2-(sulfenic acid)-5-(allyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides and 2-(allyldithiine)-5-(propenylsulfoxide)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides, respectively. The mechanism of the proposed production of these compounds is discussed. The identification of these novel sulfoxides from garlic accumulates a great deal of new chemistry in the Allium sulfide field, and future pharmacological investigations of these compounds will aid the development of natural, healthy foods and anti-cancer agents that may prevent or combat disease.

  18. Protein kinase A-dependent and -independent stimulation of exocytosis by cAMP in mouse pancreatic B-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Renström, E; Eliasson, L; Rorsman, P

    1997-01-01

    1. The mechanisms by which cAMP stimulates Ca(2+)-dependent insulin secretion were investigated by combining measurements of whole-cell Ca2+ currents, the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and membrane capacitance in single mouse B-cells maintained in tissue culture. 2. Cyclic AMP stimulated exocytosis > 4-fold in whole-cell experiments in which secretion was evoked by intracellular dialysis with a Ca(2+)-EGTA buffer with a [Ca2+]i of 1.5 microM. This effect was antagonized by inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA). 3. Photorelease of cAMP from a caged precursor potentiated exocytosis at Ca2+ concentrations which were themselves stimulatory (> or = 60 nM), but was without effect in the complete absence of Ca2+. 4. Elevation of intracellular cAMP (by exposure to forskolin) evoked a 6-fold PKA-dependent enhancement of the maximal exocytotic response (determined as the maximum increase in cell capacitance that could be elicited by a train of depolarizations) in perforated-patch whole-cell recordings. 5. Exocytosis triggered by single depolarizations in standard whole-cell recordings was strongly potentiated by cAMP, but in this case the effect was unaffected by PKA inhibition. 6. When exocytosis was triggered by Ca2+ released from Ca(2+)-NP-EGTA ('caged Ca2+'), cAMP exerted a dual stimulatory effect on secretion: a rapid (initiated within 80 ms) PKA-independent phase and a late PKA-dependent component. 7. We conclude that cAMP stimulates insulin secretion both by increasing the release probability of secretory granules already in the readily releasable pool and by accelerating the refilling of this pool. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9234200

  19. Primary structures of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2, B1, and C2 proteins: a diversity of RNA binding proteins is generated by small peptide inserts.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, C G; Swanson, M S; Görlach, M; Dreyfuss, G

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated cDNAs for the major heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2, B1, and C2 proteins and determined their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. The A2 and B1 cDNAs are identical except for a 36-nucleotide in-frame insert in B1. Similarly, the sequence of the C2 protein cDNA is related to that of C1 in that C2 contains an extra 39 in-frame nucleotides. Therefore, the B1 amino acid sequence is identical to A2 except for the insertion of 12 amino acids near its amino terminus, and C1 and C2 are also identical to each other except for an extra 13 amino acids near the middle of C2. All three proteins are members of a large family of RNA binding proteins that contain the consensus sequence-type RNA binding domain (CS-RBD). The A2 and B1 proteins have a modular structure similar to that of the hnRNP protein A1: they contain two CS-RBDs and a glycine-rich auxiliary domain at the carboxyl terminus. The CS-RBDs of A2 and B1 have approximately 80% amino acid identity with those of A1, whereas the glycine-rich auxiliary domain is considerably more divergent with less than 30% of the amino acids being identical. These findings indicate that the addition of small peptides, probably by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, generates some of the diversity apparent among hnRNP proteins. Images PMID:2557628

  20. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycohemoglobin test; Hemoglobin A1C; Diabetes - A1C; Diabetic - A1C ... gov/pubmed/26696680 . Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c - blood. ...

  1. EscC is a chaperone for the Edwardsiella tarda type III secretion system putative translocon components EseB and EseD.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Nan; Tan, Yuen Peng; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Mo, Zhao Lan; Leung, Ka Yin

    2007-06-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative enteric pathogen that causes disease in both humans and animals. Recently, a type III secretion system (T3SS) has been found to contribute to Ed. tarda pathogenesis. EseB, EseC and EseD were shown to be secreted by the T3SS and to be the major components of the extracellular proteins (ECPs). Based on sequence similarity, they have been proposed to function as the 'translocon' of the T3SS needle structure. In this study, it was shown that EseB, EseC and EseD formed a protein complex after secretion, which is consistent with their possible roles as translocon components. The secretion of EseB and EseD was dependent on EscC (previously named Orf2). EscC has the characteristics of a chaperone; it is a small protein (13 kDa), located next to the translocators in the T3SS gene cluster, and has a coiled-coil structure at the N-terminal region as predicted by coils. An in-frame deletion of escC abolished the secretion of EseB and EseD, and complementation of DeltaescC restored the export of EseB and EseD into the culture supernatant. Further studies showed that EscC is not a secreted protein and is located on the membrane and in the cytoplasm. Mutation of escC did not affect the transcription of eseB but reduced the amount of EseB as measured by using an EseB-LacZ fusion protein in Ed. tarda. Co-purification studies demonstrated that EscC formed complexes with EseB and EseD. The results suggest that EscC functions as a T3SS chaperone for the putative translocon components EseB and EseD in Ed. tarda.

  2. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adpated at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICASL COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90 spaceshuttle missions and the

  3. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology [correction of biotechnilogy].

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adapted at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICAL (correction of ZOOLOGICASL) COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90

  4. Near full-length genome identification of a novel HIV type 1 B'/C recombinant isolate JL100091 in Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chuanyi; Li, Xingguang; He, Xiang; Xing, Hui; Hong, Kunxue; Yang, Rongge; Shao, Yiming

    2013-12-01

    We report here a novel HIV-1 B'/C recombinant isolate JL100091, identified from an HIV-positive female subject infected through heterosexual transmission in Jilin in 2006. The near full-length genome analyses of the novel recombinant (JL10091) showed that one subtype B' region (3,085 bp) was inserted into the subtype C backbone, with two breakpoints observed in gag and pol genes. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of a novel HIV-1 B'/C recombinant in Jilin, which indicates ongoing transmission of networks among the heterosexual population in the region. The novel HIV-1 B'/C recombinant (JL10091) in Jilin originated from India subtype C and China subtype B' may suggest potential transmission routes of HIV-1 in China. Further monitoring of the molecular epidemiology of the HIV-1 epidemic in Jilin will provide critical information for designing effective control and prevention measures against HIV transmission in the region.

  5. Tongue hyperpigmentation resulting from peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin treatment in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Souvik; Duseja, Ajay; Dhiman, Radha Krishan; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with several cutaneous diseases such as lichen planus, porphyria cutanea tarda, chronic pruritus, and cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (Doutre, Arch Dermatol 135:1401-1403, 1999). The antiviral treatment for chronic HCV with interferon alfa (INF) or peginterferon alfa (PEG-INF) combined with rivabirin also leads to many skin side effects including injection site reaction, generalized skin rashes, pruritus, dry skin, alopecia, and exacerbation of autoimmune processes, particularly psoriasis, lichen planus or vitiligo (Dalekos et al., Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:933-939, 1998; Sookoian et al., Arch Dermatol 135:1000-1000, 1999). There are case reports of tongue hyperpigmentation during combination therapy of PEG IFN and RBV in chronic hepatitis C both in dark-skined as well as Caucasian. We report the first case of tongue hyperpigmentation associated with PEG-INF-2b plus ribavirin administration in a non-Caucasian patient with genotype 4.

  6. Tomato SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3 and SlERF.A3, Members of B3 Group of ERF Family, Are Required for Resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lihong; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    The Ethylene-Responsive Factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcriptional factors that play critical roles in plant immunity. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, a typical necrotrophic fungal pathogen, is the serious disease that threatens tomato production worldwide. However, littler is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the immunity to B. cinerea in tomato. In the present study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based functional analyses of 18 members of B3 group (also called Group IX) in tomato ERF family were performed to identify putative ERFs that are involved in disease resistance against B. cinerea. VIGS-based silencing of either SlERF.B1 or SlERF.C2 had lethal effect while silencing of SlERF.A3 (Pit4) significantly suppressed vegetative growth of tomato plants. Importantly, silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 resulted in increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, attenuated the B. cinerea-induced expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signaling responsive defense genes and promoted the B. cinerea-induced H2O2 accumulation. However, silencing of SlERF.A3 also decreased the resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 but silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4 or SlERF.C3 did not affect the resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Expression of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 was induced by B. cinerea and by defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an ethylene precursor). SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3, and SlERF.A3 proteins were found to localize in nucleus of cells and possess transactivation activity in yeasts. These data suggest that SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, and SlERF.C3, three previously uncharacterized ERFs in B3 group, and SlERF.A3, a previously identified ERF with function in immunity to Pst DC3000, play important roles in resistance against B. cinerea in tomato. PMID:28083004

  7. Tomato SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3 and SlERF.A3, Members of B3 Group of ERF Family, Are Required for Resistance to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhigang; Liu, Shixia; Huang, Lihong; Hong, Yongbo; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    The Ethylene-Responsive Factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcriptional factors that play critical roles in plant immunity. Gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, a typical necrotrophic fungal pathogen, is the serious disease that threatens tomato production worldwide. However, littler is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the immunity to B. cinerea in tomato. In the present study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based functional analyses of 18 members of B3 group (also called Group IX) in tomato ERF family were performed to identify putative ERFs that are involved in disease resistance against B. cinerea. VIGS-based silencing of either SlERF.B1 or SlERF.C2 had lethal effect while silencing of SlERF.A3 (Pit4) significantly suppressed vegetative growth of tomato plants. Importantly, silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 resulted in increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, attenuated the B. cinerea-induced expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-mediated signaling responsive defense genes and promoted the B. cinerea-induced H2O2 accumulation. However, silencing of SlERF.A3 also decreased the resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 but silencing of SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4 or SlERF.C3 did not affect the resistance to this bacterial pathogen. Expression of SlERF.A1, SlERF.A3, SlERF.B4, or SlERF.C3 was induced by B. cinerea and by defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an ethylene precursor). SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, SlERF.C3, and SlERF.A3 proteins were found to localize in nucleus of cells and possess transactivation activity in yeasts. These data suggest that SlERF.A1, SlERF.B4, and SlERF.C3, three previously uncharacterized ERFs in B3 group, and SlERF.A3, a previously identified ERF with function in immunity to Pst DC3000, play important roles in resistance against B. cinerea in tomato.

  8. Former-Student Perceptions of B.C.C. and Their Post B.C.C. Academic and Employment Experiences--A Follow-up Study for the Years of 1975-76. Research Report: 1-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    As part of an on-going study, all 1,818 graduates and 6,847 non-graduates who left Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1975-76 were surveyed by mail, with a return of 1,681 responses representing 52.4% of graduate and 20% of the non-graduate sample. Findings included the following: (1) 63% of graduates and 48% of non-graduates responding continued…

  9. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen. PMID:27158348

  10. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen.

  11. Risk of pancreatic cancer among individuals with hepatitis C or hepatitis B virus infection: a nationwide study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Magnusson, M; Törner, A; Ye, W; Duberg, A-S

    2013-01-01

    Background: A few studies indicated that hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus (HCV/HBV) might be associated with pancreatic cancer risk. The aim of this nationwide cohort study was to examine this possible association. Methods: Hepatitis C virus- and hepatitis B virus-infected individuals were identified from the national surveillance database from 1990 to 2006, and followed to the end of 2008. The pancreatic cancer risk in the study population was compared with the general population by calculation of Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs), and with a matched reference population using a Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results: In total 340 819 person-years in the HCV cohort and 102 295 in the HBV cohort were accumulated, with 34 and 5 pancreatic cancers identified, respectively. The SIRHCV was 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4, 2.9) and the SIRHBV was 1.4 (0.5, 3.3). In the Cox model analysis, the HR for HCV infection was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.7), diminishing to 1.6 (1.04, 2.4) after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion: Our results indicated that HCV infection might be associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer but further studies are needed to verify such association. The results in the HBV cohort indicated an excess risk, however, without statistical significance due to lack of power. PMID:24178755

  12. 76 FR 64798 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203, and B4-2C Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    .... Consequently, this AD also requires the repetitive lubrication task. For A300-600 and A300-600ST aeroplanes... applicable replacements required by paragraphs (i) and (j) of this AD are done. Lubrication of the MLG... April 1, 2010. Repeat the cleaning and lubrication thereafter at intervals not to exceed 1,500...

  13. 76 FR 33176 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203, and B4-2C Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    .... Consequently, this AD also requires the repetitive lubrication task. For A300-600 and A300-600ST aeroplanes... replacements required by paragraphs (i) and (j) of this AD are done. Lubrication of the MLG Assembly (l) Within... 1, 2010. Repeat the cleaning and lubrication thereafter at intervals not to exceed 1,500...

  14. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alice C.; Perin, Paula M. S.; Purim, Sheila G.; Silbiger, Vivian N.; Genvigir, Fabiana D. V.; Willrich, Maria Alice V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Hirata, Mario H.; Bernik, Marcia M. S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Santos, Carla; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria V.; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Hirata, Rosario D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA) estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C) and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C) gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034). Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G) variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05). Conclusion SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:22016628

  15. Llama antibody fragments recognizing various epitopes of the CD4bs neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 subtypes A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Strokappe, Nika; Szynol, Agnieszka; Aasa-Chapman, Marlèn; Gorlani, Andrea; Forsman Quigley, Anna; Hulsik, David Lutje; Chen, Lei; Weiss, Robin; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Many of the neutralising antibodies, isolated to date, display limited activities against the globally most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes A and C. Therefore, those subtypes are considered to be an important target for antibody-based therapy. Variable domains of llama heavy chain antibodies (VHH) have some superior properties compared with classical antibodies. Therefore we describe the application of trimeric forms of envelope proteins (Env), derived from HIV-1 of subtype A and B/C, for a prolonged immunization of two llamas. A panel of VHH, which interfere with CD4 binding to HIV-1 Env were selected with use of panning. The results of binding and competition assays to various Env, including a variant with a stabilized CD4-binding state (gp120(Ds2)), cross-competition experiments, maturation analysis and neutralisation assays, enabled us to classify the selected VHH into three groups. The VHH of group I were efficient mainly against viruses of subtype A, C and B'/C. The VHH of group II resemble the broadly neutralising antibody (bnmAb) b12, neutralizing mainly subtype B and C viruses, however some had a broader neutralisation profile. A representative of the third group, 2E7, had an even higher neutralization breadth, neutralizing 21 out of the 26 tested strains belonging to the A, A/G, B, B/C and C subtypes. To evaluate the contribution of certain amino acids to the potency of the VHH a small set of the mutants were constructed. Surprisingly this yielded one mutant with slightly improved neutralisation potency against 92UG37.A9 (subtype A) and 96ZM651.02 (subtype C). These findings and the well-known stability of VHH indicate the potential application of these VHH as anti-HIV-1 microbicides.

  16. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK project: The mini-module as tool in artificial ecosystem research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Stretzke, E.; Kreuzberg, K.

    The evolution of the C.E.B.A.S-AQUARACK project including results of the scientific frame program was frequently presented at the IAA Man in Space Symposia 1989 and 1991 and the IAF/IAA congresses since 1990. C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a combined animal/plant system for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in ground laboratories and in a space station. For short-term missions a miniaturized version was developed which fits into a spacelab middeck locker together with all surrounding equipment. The latest development is an optimized prototype with a total volume of about 11 liters which consists of a main animal tank (Zoological Component) with integrated bacteria filter, a semibiological coarse filter, an illuminated higher plant container (Botanical Component) and combined small animal and electrode compartment. A silastic tubing gas exchanger in a closed side-loop serves as an emergency unit in case of the malfunction of the Botanical Component and the water is driven through the system by rotatory pumps. It is operative for several weeks in closed state. This C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module also represents an aquatic artificial ecosystem in which basic scientific problems of component interactions and system theory can be solved with the side aspects of combined production of animal and plant food in bioregenerative life support systems. The paper presents details of the current statuts of the hardware development and data about the function of the fully biological life support of the system, e. g. mid-term registrations of water parameters. Moreover, morphological and pysiological data of the experimental animals (-the teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri-) and plants (-a tropical Ceratophyllum species-) demonstrate the biological stability of the system. These are used to elaborate first details of population interactions and inter-dependencies as a basis of a disposed comprehensive system analysis which is the

  17. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK project: the Mini-Module as tool in artificial ecosystem research.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Stretzke, E; Kreuzberg, K

    1994-07-01

    The evolution of the C.E.B.A.S-AQUARACK project including results of the scientific frame program was frequently presented at the IAA Man in Space Symposia 1989 and 1991 and the IAF/IAA congresses since 1990. C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a combined animal/plant system for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in ground laboratories and in a space station. For short-term missions a miniaturized version was developed which fits into a spacelab middeck locker together with all surrounding equipment. The latest development is an optimized prototype with a total volume of about 11 liters which consists of a main animal tank (Zoological Component) with integrated bacteria filter, a semibiological coarse filter, an illuminated higher plant container (Botanical Component) and combined small animal and electrode compartment. A silastic tubing gas exchanger in a closed side-loop serves as an emergency unit in case of the malfunction of the Botanical Component and the water is driven through the system by rotatory pumps. It is operative for several weeks in closed state. This C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module also represents an aquatic artificial ecosystem in which basic scientific problems of component interactions and system theory can be solved with the side aspects of combined production of animal and plant food in bioregenerative life support systems. The paper presents details of the current status of the hardware development and data about the function of the fully biological life support of the system, e. g. mid-term registrations of water parameters. Moreover, morphological and physiological data of the experimental animals (-the teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri-) and plants (-a tropical Ceratophyllum species-) demonstrate the biological stability of the system. These are used to elaborate first details of population interactions and inter-dependencies as a basis of a disposed comprehensive system analysis which is the

  18. The effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin a1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein a-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, a total of 41 type 2 diabetic patients randomly were assigned to ginger or placebo groups (22 in ginger group and 19 in control group), received 2 g/day of ginger powder supplement or lactose as placebo for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde were analyzed before and after the intervention. Ginger supplementation significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in ginger group in comparison to baseline, as well as control group, while it increased the level of apolipoprotein A-I (p<0.05). It seems that oral administration of ginger powder supplement can improves fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. So it may have a role in alleviating the risk of some chronic complications of diabetes.

  19. The 23 K superconducting phase YPd 2B 2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Rusakova, I.; Meng, R. L.; Cao, Y.; Gautier-Picard, P.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-09-01

    We have carried out a systematic structural, electric, and magnetic study on YPdBC samples with different compositions with emphasis on the as-cast and annealed YPd 5B 3C 0.3 which was first reported to superconduct at ∼ 23 K by Cava et al. We found that the tetragonal body-centered YPd 2B 2C with lattice parameters a=3.71 Å and c=10.81 Å is the phase responsible for the 23 K superconductivity and that YPd 2B 2C is metastable, which is consistent with the suggestion made by Cava et al. [1]: it is not stable at high temperatures nor stabilizable by Ni doping, although its isostructural compound, YNi 2B 2C, exists. Two new phases with Y:Pd ratios of 1:7 and 2:3, respectively, have also bee detected.

  20. A VERY CLOSE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY 3C 66B AND ITS BLACK HOLE MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Satoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Sudou, Hiroshi E-mail: okuda@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational results provide possible evidence that binary black holes (BBHs) exist in the center of giant galaxies and may merge to form a supermassive black hole in the process of their evolution. We first detected a periodic flux variation on a cycle of 93 {+-} 1 days from the 3 mm monitor observations of a giant elliptical galaxy 3C 66B for which an orbital motion with a period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr had been already observed. The detected signal period being shorter than the orbital period can be explained by taking into consideration the Doppler-shifted modulation due to the orbital motion of a BBH. Assuming that the BBH has a circular orbit and that the jet axis is parallel to the binary angular momentum, our observational results demonstrate the presence of a very close BBH that has a binary orbit with an orbital period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr, an orbital radius of (3.9 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -3} pc, an orbital separation of (6.1{sup +1.0} {sub -0.9}) x 10{sup -3} pc, a larger black hole mass of (1.2{sup +0.5} {sub -0.2}) x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, and a smaller black hole mass of (7.0{sup +4.7} {sub -6.4}) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. The BBH decay time of (5.1{sup +60.5} {sub -2.5}) x 10{sup 2} yr provides evidence for the occurrence of black hole mergers. This Letter will demonstrate the interesting possibility of black hole collisions to form a supermassive black hole in the process of evolution, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the universe.

  1. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Figures C-1 through C-16

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures C-1 through C-16 B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 1928 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR AGRICULTURE Roll-Over Protective Structures Pt. 1928, Subpt. C, App....

  2. Transient expression of RhoA, -B, and -C GTPases in HeLa cells potentiates resistance to Clostridium difficile toxins A and B but not to Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Giry, M; Popoff, M R; von Eichel-Streiber, C; Boquet, P

    1995-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficle synthesizes two high-molecular-weight toxins (A and B), which exhibit toxic effects in vivo and in vitro. Here, we present evidence that the major intracellular targets of these two toxins are the Rho GTPases. Overexpression of RhoA, RhoB, or RhoC GTPases in transfected HeLa cells conferred an increased resistance to toxins A and B, indicating that these toxins cause their cytopathic effects primarily by affecting Rho proteins. In addition, toxin A and B treatment appeared to result in modification of Rho, since Rho isolated from toxin-treated cells had a decreased ability to be ADP-ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme. In contrast, the lethal toxin (LT) of Clostridium sordellii, although structurally and immunologically related to C. difficile toxin B, appeared to induce cytopathic effects independently of the Rho GTPases. Overexpression of RhoA in transfected HeLa cells did not protect them from the effect of LT, and Rho isolated from lysates of LT-treated cells was not resistant to modification by C3. Immunofluorescence studies showed that LT treatment caused a cytopathic effect that was very different from those described for C. difficile toxins A and B, resulting in an increase in cortical F-actin, with a concomitant decrease in the number of stress fibers, and in the formation of numerous microvilli containing the actin-bundling protein fimbrin/plastin. PMID:7558320

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  4. Observation of the Decay B+-(c) ---> J/psi pi+- and Measurement of the B+-(c) Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2007-12-01

    The B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is observed through the decay B{sub c}{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi} {pi}{sup {+-}}, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 fb{sup -1} recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108 {+-} 15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8{sigma}. The mass of the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is measured to be 6275.6 {+-} 2.9(stat.) {+-} 2.5(syst.) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  5. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael J.; Lee, Shernita L.; Marklew, Abigail J.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F.; Gray, Michael A.; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR’s function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR’s PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  6. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael J; Lee, Shernita L; Marklew, Abigail J; Gilmore, Rodney C; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F; Gray, Michael A; Tarran, Robert

    2016-06-09

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs.

  7. Comparison of the toxicity of several fumonisin derivatives in a 28-day feeding study with female B6C3F(1) mice.

    PubMed

    Howard, Paul C; Couch, Letha H; Patton, Ralph E; Eppley, Robert M; Doerge, Daniel R; Churchwell, Mona I; Marques, M Matilde; Okerberg, Carlin V

    2002-12-15

    Fumonisinmycotoxins are produced by Fusaria fungi that grow worldwide primarily on corn. Fumonisin B(1), the most predominant form in corn samples, is a renal carcinogen in male F344/N rats and a hepatocarcinogen in female B6C3F(1) mice when fed at concentrations higher than 50 ppm (70 micromol/kg) in the diet for 2 years. We sought to determine the relative toxicities of several naturally occurring fumonisin derivatives when included in the diet of female B6C3F(1) mice. Mice were fed diets containing fumonisin B(1), fumonisin B(2), fumonisin B(3), fumonisin P1, hydrolyzed-fumonisin B(1), N-(acetyl)fumonisin B(1), or N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1) (approximately 0, 14, 70, and 140 micromol/kg diet) for 28 days. None of the doses used caused a decrease in body weight gain over the 28 days. Serum levels of total bile acids, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase were increased only in mice receiving 72 and 143 micromol/kg fumonisin B(1), suggesting that only fumonisin B(1) was hepatotoxic in the mice. Corroborating this observation, the liver weight, relative to body weight, was decreased only in the mice that consumed 143 micromol/kg fumonisin B(1). Consistent with fumonisin B(1) inhibition of ceramide synthase, the liver sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio was increased and the liver ceramide levels were decreased only in the mice receiving 72 and 143 micromol/kg fumonisin B(1). Increased hepatocellular apoptosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, and macrophage pigmentation were detected in the mice consuming 72 and 143 micromol/kg fumonisin B(1). The other fumonisin derivatives did not alter serum analytes, organ weights, or hepatic structure. These results suggest that, of the naturally occurring fumonisins, fumonisin B(1) is the principal hepatotoxic derivative in the B6C3F(1) mouse.

  8. A method of semi-quantifying β-AP in brain PET-CT 11C-PiB images.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Lin, Xiaoman; Wen, Junlin; Huang, Zhemin; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem for elderly populations. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)11C-PiB for beta-P (amyloid-β peptide, β-AP) imaging is an advanced method to diagnose AD in early stage. However, in practice radiologists lack a standardized value to semi-quantify β-AP. This paper proposes such a standardized value: SVβ-AP. This standardized value measures the mean ratio between the dimension of β-AP areas in PET and CT images. A computer aided diagnosis approach is also proposed to achieve SVβ-AP. A simulation experiment was carried out to pre-test the technical feasibility of the CAD approach and SVβ-AP. The experiment results showed that it is technically feasible.

  9. Fission products measured from highly-enriched uranium irradiated under 10B4C in a research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Wall, Donald E.

    2016-03-01

    Critical assemblies provide one method of achieving a fast neutron spectrum that is close to a 235U fission-energy neutron spectrum for nuclear data measurements. Previous work has demonstrated the use of a natural boron carbide capsule for spectral-tailoring in a mixed spectrum reactor as an alternate and complementary method for performing fission-energy neutron experiments. Previous fission products measurements showed that the neutron spectrum achievable with natural boron carbide was not as hard as what can be achieved with critical assemblies. New measurements performed with the Washington State University TRIGA reactor using a boron carbide capsule 96% enriched in 10B for irradiations resulted in a neutron spectrum very similar to a critical assembly and a pure 235U fission spectrum. The current work describes an experiment involving a highly-enriched uranium target irradiated under the new 10B4C capsule. Fission product yields were measured following radiochemical separations and are presented here. Reactor dosimetry measurements for characterizing neutron spectra and fluence for the enriched boron carbide capsule and critical assemblies are also discussed.

  10. Familial C4B Deficiency and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K; Wu, YL; Ortiz, A; Aparício, SR; Yu, CY

    2010-01-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient’s deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits. PMID:20580617

  11. Familial C4B deficiency and immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Soto, K; Wu, Y L; Ortiz, A; Aparício, S R; Yu, C Y

    2010-10-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient's deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits.

  12. 75 FR 26885 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A, B, and C Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... inspecting the hydraulic fluid for contamination; removing the requirement to reduce the interval for...: ``When checking servo actuators for contamination and leakage, the inspections must be redundant enough... ``inspection'' that must be performed by a mechanic, not a ``check'' that we sometimes allow a pilot to...

  13. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. Here we report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. These results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25775123

  14. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.

  15. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; ...

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex.more » We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less

  16. FOXM1b, which is present at elevated levels in cancer cells, has a greater transforming potential than FOXM1c

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Andy K. Y.; Ngan, Adaline W. L.; Leung, Man-Hong; Kwok, Davis C. T.; Liu, Vincent W. S.; Chan, David W.; Leung, Wai Y.; Yao, Kwok-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box (FOX) M1 transcription factor is required to maintain the proliferation of cancer cells. Two transcriptionally active isoforms of FOXM1, FOXM1b and FOXM1c, have been identified, but their functional differences remain unclear. FOXM1c is distinguished from FOXM1b by an extra exon (exon Va) that contains an ERK1/2 target sequence. Based on a literature search and quantitative PCR analysis, we concluded that FOXM1b is the predominant isoform that is overexpressed in cancers. The further characterization of FOXM1b and FOXM1c revealed two interesting differences. First, FOXM1b exhibited a higher transforming ability than FOXM1c in a soft agar assay. Second, the transactivating activity of FOXM1c, but not that of FOXM1b, was sensitive to activation by RAF/MEK/MAPK signaling. Importantly, the MEK1 activation of FOXM1c was associated with proteolytic processing to generate short forms that might represent constitutively active forms missing the N-terminal inhibitory domain; in contrast, the proteolytic processing of FOXM1b did not require MEK1 activation. Our findings suggest that FOXM1b is functionally more active. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of FOXM1 activity and its role in tumorigenesis. PMID:23386997

  17. HD 164492C: a rapidly rotating, Hα-bright, magnetic early B star associated with a 12.5 d spectroscopic binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Shultz, M.; Sikora, J.; Bernier, M.-É.; Rivinius, Th.; Alecian, E.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J. H.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We employ high-resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry to derive the physical properties and magnetic characteristics of the multiple system HD 164492C, located in the young open cluster M20. The spectrum reveals evidence of three components: a broad-lined early B star (HD 164492C1), a narrow-lined early B star (HD 164492C2) and a late B star (HD 164492C3). Components C2 and C3 exhibit significant (>100 km s-1) bulk radial velocity variations with a period of 12.5351(7) d that we attribute to eccentric binary motion around a common centre-of-mass. Component C1 exhibits no detectable radial velocity variations. Using constraints derived from modelling the orbit of the C2+C3 binary and from synthesis of the combined spectrum, we determine the approximate physical characteristics of the components. We conclude that a coherent evolutionary solution consistent with the published age of M20 implies a distance to M20 of 0.9 ± 0.2 kpc, corresponding to the smallest published values. We confirm the detection of a strong magnetic field in the combined spectrum. The field is clearly associated with the broad-lined C1 component of the system. Repeated measurement of the longitudinal magnetic field allows the derivation of the rotation period of the magnetic star, Prot = 1.369 86(6) d. We derive the star's magnetic geometry, finding i=63± 6°, β =33± 6° and a dipole polar strength B_d=7.9^{+1.2}_{-1.0} kG. Strong emission - varying according to the magnetic period - is detected in the Hα profile. This is consistent with the presence of a centrifugal magnetosphere surrounding the rapidly rotating magnetic C1 component.

  18. The reaction of iodine and thiol-blocking reagents with human complement components C2 and factor B. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a peptide from C2a containing a free thiol group.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, C; Gagnon, J; Kerr, M A

    1983-01-01

    Human complement components C2 and Factor B each contain one free thiol group/molecule. Reaction with p-chloromercuribenzoate destroyed the haemolytic activity of C2 but had no effect on Factor B. Reaction of C2 with I2 gave a 16-fold enhancement of its haemolytic activity. The pH optimum for the reaction was 7.0. The I2 reacted at the thiol group in C2 with a stoicheiometry of 1 mol of I2/mol of C2. The product of the reaction was unaffected by millimolar concentrations of dithiothreitol; however, azide and cyanide were inhibitory. Reaction with azide did not result in re-expression of the thiol group. Mild oxidation of the thiol group with m-chloroperbenzoic acid did not enhance the haemolytic activity. The results suggest that reaction with I2 causes intramolecular covalent, but not disulphide, bond formation. I2 reacted with Factor B at the free thiol group without affecting the haemolytic activity. A CNBr-cleavage peptide from C2a (obtained by cleavage of C2 by subcomponent C1s) containing the free thiol group was isolated. Automated Edman degradation of the peptide showed that it was the N-terminal peptide of C2a. The free thiol group was identified at position 18. PMID:6555044

  19. Chemistry and the Periodic Table: Teacher's Guide Levels A, B, and C. Preliminary Limited Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Physics Outlet, Woburn, MA. Education Programs Dept.

    This is a two-part curriculum package for the teaching of chemistry and the periodic table. The first part, the Teacher's Guide, contains information necessary for using the equipment in a typical classroom including learning goals, vocabulary, math skills, and sample data for each activity. The second part of the package consists of photocopy…

  20. Basic design studies for a 600 MWe CFB boiler (270b, 2 x 600 C)

    SciTech Connect

    Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Commercial CFB boilers are currently available in the 300 MWe equivalent range for use with international coal. Retrofitting of Provence 4 with a 250 MWe CFB boiler was an important step in CFB development. In light of the results obtained from two large French units--Emile Huchet 4 (125 MWe) and Provence 4 (250 MWe)--this paper focuses on the main technical points which are currently being studied in relation to the basic design of a 600 MWe CFB boiler, a project that has been undertaken by EDF. The general aim of this project is to demonstrate the competitiveness of a CFB boiler compared with a PF boiler. The main areas of focus in the design of this large CFB boiler with advanced steam conditions are described. These points are subjected to particular analysis from a design standpoint. The objective is to prepare the precise specifications needed to ensure a product which is optimized in terms of quality/cost or service/cost. Due to the present lack of theoretical understanding of the refined and complex two-phase flow, design is a challenge which has to be based on reliable and comprehensive data obtained from large plants in commercial operation. This will ensure that the advantages of CFB which arise from the hydrodynamics within the circulation loop are maintained. The major goals of maintaining good particle residence time and concentration in the furnace are described. Misunderstanding of CFB furnace bottom conditions is also pointed out, with cost reduction and better NO{sub x} capture certainly among the major new targets in relation to bottom furnace design. General problems associated with the heat exchanger arrangement, principally those linked to high steam conditions and, especially, the vaporization system, are discussed. Once again, comparison with PF in this area showed that CFB boilers appear more competitive. Finally, the main area in which there is a need for sharing of CFB experience among CFB users is pointed out.

  1. Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C

    PubMed Central

    FIGUEROA, JUAN J.; BASFORD, JEFFREY R.; LOW, PHILLIP A.

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension is a chronic, debilitating illness that is difficult to treat. The therapeutic goal is to improve postural symptoms, standing time, and function rather than to achieve upright normotension, which can lead to supine hypertension. Drug therapy alone is never adequate. Because orthostatic stress varies with circumstances during the day, a patient-oriented approach that emphasizes education and nonpharmacologic strategies is critical. We provide easy-to-remember management recommendations, using a combination of drug and non-drug treatments that have proven efficacious. PMID:20439562

  2. TC1(C8orf4) is a novel endothelial inflammatory regulator enhancing NF-kappaB activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Yunlim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Kim, Dong Wook; Ha, Yunhi; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Inchul; Song, Kyuyoung

    2009-09-15

    Endothelial inflammation is regulated by a complex molecular mechanism. TC1(C8orf4) is a novel regulator implicated in cancer and inflammation. It is a small protein conserved well among vertebrates. In zebrafish embryos, it is mostly expressed in angio-hematopoietic system and the overexpression induces edema. In human aortic endothelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells, TC1 transfection up-regulates key inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and adhesion proteins including IL-6, IL-1alpha, COX-2, CXCL1, CCL5, CCL2, IL-8, ICAM1, VCAM1, and E-selectin, while TC1 knockdown down-regulates them. TC1 also enhances inflammatory parameters such as monocyte-endothelial adhesion and endothelial monolayer permeability. TC1 is up-regulated by IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, LPS, and phorbol ester, and the up-regulation is inhibited by I-kappaB-kinase inhibitors. TC1, in turn, enhances the nuclear translocation of RelA and the DNA binding activity, suggesting a biological role of amplifying NF-kappaB signaling via a positive feedback. Our findings suggest that TC1 is a novel endothelial inflammatory regulator that might be implicated in inflammatory vascular diseases.

  3. Separation of beta-lactoglobulin A, B and C variants of bovine whey using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Paterson, G R; Hill, J P; Otter, D E

    1995-05-12

    beta-Lactoglobulin is a whey protein that affects milk composition and product functionality and which can be present in up to eight genetic variant forms. A free zone capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to separate and identify the beta-lactoglobulin A, B and C variants. Three buffer systems [borate, 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulphonic acid (MES) and bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane (Bistris)] were examined over a range of pH values and with the addition of the separation buffer modifiers Tween 20 and/or ethanolamine. The most successful combination of these was 50 mM MES at pH 8.0 with the addition of 0.1% Tween 20 which clearly resolved the three variants from both each other and from the other whey proteins even though the MES buffer was acting well outside its pKa range (pH 5.3-7.3). The retention times and identification of the individual variants were verified by spiking with commercially purified beta-lactoglobulin A and B proteins and a beta-lactoglobulin AC whey. The method was then used to phenotype beta-lactoglobulin in a sample population of New Zealand Jersey cows.

  4. Recovering the observed b/c ratio in a dynamic spiral-armed cosmic ray model

    SciTech Connect

    Benyamin, David; Piran, Tsvi; Shaviv, Nir J.; Nakar, Ehud

    2014-02-10

    We develop a fully three-dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way. It includes the nuclear spallation chain up to oxygen, and allows the study of various CR properties, such as the CR age, grammage traversed, and the ratio between secondary and primary particles. This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the CR acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms that are dynamic. We show that the effect of having dynamic spiral arms is to limit the age of CRs at low energies. This is because at low energies the time since the last spiral arm passage governs the CR age, and not diffusion. Using the model, the observed spectral dependence of the secondary to primary ratio is recovered without requiring any further assumptions such as a galactic wind, re-acceleration or various assumptions on the diffusivity. In particular, we obtain a secondary to primary ratio which increases with energy below about 1 GeV.

  5. Social Studies. The Development of Europe: 1000 B. C. - 1000 A. D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Joan

    This quinmester curriculum guide for grades 10-12 provides a framework for studying ancient history through medieval history. Emphasis is upon examining the formation and evolution of Western Civilization and considering the political, philosophical, and cultural impact that these periods exerted in the past and how they affect the present. How…

  6. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  7. Does Nationality Matter in the B2C Environment? Results from a Two Nation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Different studies have explored the relations between different dimensions of e-commerce transactions and lots of models and findings have been proposed to the academic and business worlds. However, there is a doubt on the applications and generalization of such models and findings in different countries and nations. In other words, this study argues that the relations among the variables of a model ay differ in different countries, which raises questions on the findings of researchers collecting data in one country to test their hypotheses. This study intends to examine if different nations have different perceptions toward the elements of Website interface, security and purchase intention on Internet. Moreover, a simple model was developed to investigate whether the independent variables of the model are equally important in different nations and significantly influence the dependent variable in such nations or not. Since majority of the studies in the context of e-commerce were either focused on the developed countries which have a high e-readiness indices and overall ranks, two developing countries with different e-readiness indices and ranks were selected for the data collection. The results showed that the samples had different significant perceptions of security and some of the Website interface factors. Moreover, it was found that the significance of relations among the independent variables ad the dependent variable are different between the samples, which questions the findings of the researchers testing their model and hypotheses only based on the data collected in one country.

  8. Banned Books; 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Anne Lyon; Grannis, Chandler B.

    The first half of this volume presents an introductory essay defining the First Amendment and the legal aspects of censorship, and offers an annotated list of books that have been banned at various times throughout history. The annotations, arranged according to the birth dates of the authors, include a chronological account of the censorship…

  9. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of neurotoxin genes of Clostridium botulinum types A, B and C in equine samples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy L; McAdams-Gallagher, Susan C; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2014-01-01

    Botulism in horses in the USA is attributed to Clostridium botulinum types A, B or C. In this study, a duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for detection of the neurotoxin genes of C. botulinum types A and B, and a singleplex qPCR for detection of the neurotoxin gene of C. botulinum type C, were optimized and validated for equine gastrointestinal, faecal and feed samples. The performance of these assays was evaluated and compared to the standard mouse bioassay (MBA) using 148 well-characterized samples, most of which were acquired from a repository of veterinary diagnostic samples from cases of botulism: 106 samples positive for C. botulinum (25 type A, 27 type B, 28 type C, 1 type D and 25 type E) and 42 negative samples. The sensitivities of the qPCR assays were 89%, 86% and 96% for C. botulinum types A, B and C, respectively. The overall sensitivity of the mouse bioassay for types A, B and C was 81%. The specificities of the qPCR assays were 99-100% and the specificity of the mouse bioassay was 95%.

  10. Recipient HLA-C Haplotypes and microRNA 148a/b Binding Sites Have No Impact on Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Gretchen A; Fischer, Johannes C; Hsu, Katharine; Cooley, Sarah; Miller, Jeffrey S; Wang, Tao; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen; Lee, Stephanie J; Uhrberg, Markus; Venstrom, Jeffrey M; Verneris, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important in graft-versus-leukemia responses after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A variety of surface receptors dictates natural killer cell function, including killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor recognition of HLA-C. Previous single-center studies show that HLA-C epitopes, designated C1 and C2, were associated with allogeneic HCT outcomes; specifically, recipients homozygous for the C1 epitope (C1/C1) experienced a survival benefit. Additionally, mismatching at HLA-C was beneficial in recipients possessing at least 1 C2 allele, whereas the opposite was true for homozygous C1 (C1/C1) recipients where HLA-C mismatching resulted in worse outcomes. In this analysis we aimed to validate these findings in a large multicenter study. We also set out to determine whether surface expression of recipient HLA-C, determined by polymorphism in a microRNA (miR-148a/b) binding site within the 3'-region of the HLA-C transcript, was associated with transplant outcomes. In this large registry cohort, we were unable to confirm the prior findings regarding recipient HLA-C epitope status and outcome. Additionally, HLA-C surface expression (ie, surface density), as predicted by the miR-148a/b binding single nucleotide polymorphism, was also not with associated transplant outcomes. Collectively, neither HLA-C surface expression, as determined by miR-148a/b, nor recipient HLA-C epitopes (C1, C2) are associated with allogeneic HCT outcomes.

  11. Aircraft Fire Sentry. Volume 2. Appendices A, B, C and D

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    detector. To open the detector cover, insert a small screw- driver (3/16* blade) or ballpoint pen into the slot shown in Figure 3 (pg. 12) and gently...CHARACTERISTICS Approx. Specific Lethsl Agent Boiling Gravity Conce>nt. Halon Formula Type Temp (F) @70F PPN...aircraft. 50 REFERENCES Information used in the preparation of this report was obtained from the following documents. SPECIFICATIONS Air Force

  12. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  13. Magnitudes and Sources of Catchment Sediment: When A + B Doesn't Equal C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The export of land-based sediments to receiving waters can cause degradation of water quality and habitat, loss of reservoir capacity and damage to reef ecosystems. Predictions of sources and magnitudes generally come from simulations using catchment models that focus on overland flow processes at the expense of gully and channel processes. This is not appropriate for many catchments where recent research has shown that the dominant erosion sources have shifted from the uplands and fields following European Settlement, to the alluvial valleys today. Still, catchment models which fail to adequately address channel and bank processes are still the overwhelming choice by resource agencies to help manage sediment export. These models often utilize measured values of sediment load at the river mouth to "calibrate" the magnitude of loads emanating from uplands and fields. The difference between the sediment load at the mouth and the simulated upland loading is then proportioned to channel sources.Bank erosion from the Burnett River (a "Reef Catchment" in eastern Queensland) was quantified by comparisons of bank-top locations and by numerical modeling using BSTEM. Results show that bank-derived sediment contributes between 44 and 73% of the sediment load being exported to the Coral Sea. In comparison reported results from a catchment model showed bank contributions of 8%. In absolute terms, this is an increase in the reported average, annual rate of bank erosion from 0.175 Mt/y to 2.0 Mt/y.In the Hoteo River, New Zealand, a rural North Island catchment characterized by resistant cohesive sediments, bank erosion was found to contribute at least 48% of the total specific yield of sediment. Combining the bank-derived, fine-grained loads from some of the major tributaries gives a total, average annual loading rate for fine material of about 10,900 t/y for the studied reaches in the Hoteo River System. If the study was extended to include the lower reaches of the main stem

  14. Radiation experiments on Cosmos 2044: K-7-41, parts A, B, C, D, E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 deg and attitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10(exp -4) and 3.05 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm/s/sr, of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(sub infinity)-H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mrem/d in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra were compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 deg) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCRs, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  15. Hofbauer cells of M2a, M2b and M2c polarization may regulate feto-placental angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loegl, J; Hiden, U; Nussbaumer, E; Schliefsteiner, C; Cvitic, S; Lang, I; Wadsack, C; Huppertz, B; Desoye, G

    2016-11-01

    The human placenta comprises a special type of tissue macrophages, the Hofbauer cells (HBC), which exhibit M2 macrophage phenotype. Several subtypes of M2-polarized macrophages (M2a, M2b and M2c) exist in almost all tissues. Macrophage polarization depends on the way of macrophage activation and leads to the expression of specific cell surface markers and the acquisition of specific functions, including tissue remodeling and the promotion of angiogenesis. The placenta is a highly vascularized and rapidly growing organ, suggesting a role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. We here aimed to characterize the specific polarization and phenotype of HBC and investigated the role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. Therefore, HBC were isolated from third trimester placentas and their phenotype was determined by the presence of cell surface markers (FACS analysis) and secretion of cytokines (ELISA). HBC conditioned medium (CM) was analyzed for pro-angiogenic factors, and the effect of HBC CM on angiogenesis, proliferation and chemoattraction of isolated primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) was determined in vitro Our results revealed that isolated HBC possess an M2 polarization, with M2a, M2b and M2c characteristics. HBC secreted the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF2. Furthermore, HBC CM stimulated the in vitro angiogenesis of fpEC. However, compared with control medium, chemoattraction of fpEC toward HBC CM was reduced. Proliferation of fpEC was not affected by HBC CM. These findings demonstrate a paracrine regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis by HBC in vitro Based on our collective results, we propose that the changes in HBC number or phenotype may affect feto-placental angiogenesis.

  16. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Side Cuts (Rectangular Cut) 18a, Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  17. Glucocorticoid regulates TrkB protein levels via c-Cbl dependent ubiquitination: a decrease in c-Cbl mRNA in the prefrontal cortex of suicide subjects.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Chirayu; Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Turecki, Gustavo; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2014-07-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through its receptor TrkB plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment and plasticity. Stress and glucocorticoids have been shown to alter TrkB signaling in neurons, and defects in TrkB expression have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of suicide subjects. Glucocorticoid treatment has been shown to induce deleterious effects on the neuronal maturation. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of TrkB by glucocorticoid during neurodevelopment are not clear. Here we show that acute corticosterone exposure induced posttranslational upregulation of TrkB in primary cortical neurons (days in vitro 4, DIV4), which was blocked by the proteasome inhibitors. Acute corticosterone-induced increase in TrkB protein levels was dependent on glucocorticoid receptor (GR). At the cellular level, ubiquitin E3 ligase c-Cbl mediates TrkB stabilization and corticosterone-induced TrkB levels. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase binding domain in c-Cbl plays a critical role in corticosterone-induced TrkB levels. Chronic treatment of neurons with corticosterone induced significant decreases in both TrkB and c-Cbl protein levels. Acute corticosterone treatment failed to induce any significant change in TrkB and c-Cbl protein levels in mature neurons (DIV 12), where as chronic corticosterone exposure reduced TrkB levels. Under an in vivo condition, chronic corticosterone exposure induced down-regulation of c-Cbl in mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time a significant decrease in c-Cbl mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex of suicide subjects indicating the possible role of c-Cbl in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Thus, ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated TrkB regulation may be an important mechanism for improving BDNF signaling and maintaining neuroplasticity in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. MglC, a Paralog of Myxococcus xanthus GTPase-Activating Protein MglB, Plays a Divergent Role in Motility Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McLoon, Anna L.; Wuichet, Kristin; Häsler, Michael; Keilberg, Daniela; Szadkowski, Dobromir

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to optimize interactions with their environment and one another, bacteria regulate their motility. In the case of the rod-shaped cells of Myxococcus xanthus, regulated motility is essential for social behaviors. M. xanthus moves over surfaces using type IV pilus-dependent motility and gliding motility. These two motility systems are coordinated by a protein module that controls cell polarity and consists of three polarly localized proteins, the small G protein MglA, the cognate MglA GTPase-activating protein MglB, and the response regulator RomR. Cellular reversals are induced by the Frz chemosensory system, and the output response regulator of this system, FrzZ, interfaces with the MglA/MglB/RomR module to invert cell polarity. Using a computational approach, we identify a paralog of MglB, MXAN_5770 (MglC). Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that MglC functions in the same pathway as MglA, MglB, RomR, and FrzZ and is important for regulating cellular reversals. Like MglB, MglC localizes to the cell poles asymmetrically and with a large cluster at the lagging pole. Correct polar localization of MglC depends on RomR and MglB. Consistently, MglC interacts directly with MglB and the C-terminal output domain of RomR, and we identified a surface of MglC that is necessary for the interaction with MglB and for MglC function. Together, our findings identify an additional member of the M. xanthus polarity module involved in regulating motility and demonstrate how gene duplication followed by functional divergence can add a layer of control to the complex cellular processes of motility and motility regulation. IMPORTANCE Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence of the duplicated genes are important evolutionary mechanisms for increasing both biological complexity and regulation of biological processes. The bacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium with an unusually large genome that carries out several social processes, including

  19. Dichotomous electrophoretic taxonomic key for identification of sibling species A, B, and C of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Narang, S K; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A

    1989-03-01

    Samples of 17 populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say from Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, New York, and New Jersey were analyzed for genetic variability at 33 enzyme loci. Statistical analysis of electromorph frequency distributions indicated that sympatric sibling (morphologically indistinguishable) species occurred in about 59% of the populations tested. The association of polytene chromosome and electrophoretic patterns of individual field-collected females confirmed species-specific diagnostic allozymes, which were useful in identifying sibling species A, B, and C and in estimating the proportions of each species at the 17 collection sites. A dichotomous electrophoretic key is presented for the identification of sibling species of the An. quadrimaculatus complex. The electrophoretic method is better than the ovarian polytene chromosome method, because mosquitoes of both sexes and females irrespective of their gonotrophic condition can be identified.

  20. Basal and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced expression of cytochrome P450 1A, 1B and 1C genes in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E. . E-mail: mjonsson@whoi.edu; Orrego, Rodrigo; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2007-05-15

    The cytochrome P4501C (CYP1C) gene subfamily was recently discovered in fish, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP1C1 transcript has been cloned. Here we cloned the paralogous CYP1C2, showing that the amino acid sequence is 78% identical to CYP1C1, and examined gene structure and expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2. Xenobiotic response elements were observed upstream of the coding regions in all four genes. Zebrafish adults and embryos were exposed (24 h) to 100 nM 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126) or 20 ppm acetone and subsequently held in clean water for 24 h (adults) or 48 h (embryos). All adult organs examined (eye, gill, heart, liver, kidney, brain, gut, and gonads) and embryos showed basal expression of the four genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in liver, whereas CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were most strongly expressed in heart and eye. CYP1B1 and the CYP1C genes showed an expression pattern similar to one another and to mammalian CYP1B1. In embryos CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 tended to have a higher basal expression than CYP1A and CYP1B1. PCB126 induced CYP1A in all organs, and CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 in all organs except gonads, or gonads and brain, respectively. CYP1C2 induction was significant only in the liver. However, in embryos all four genes were induced strongly by PCB126. The results are consistent with CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, as well as CYP1A and CYP1B1, being regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. While CYP1A may have a protective role against AHR agonists in liver and gut, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 may also play endogenous roles in eye and heart and possibly other organs, as well as during development.

  1. The Burkholderia pseudomallei Proteins BapA and BapC Are Secreted TTSS3 Effectors and BapB Levels Modulate Expression of BopE

    PubMed Central

    Treerat, Puthayalai; Alwis, Priyangi; D’Cruze, Tanya; Cullinane, Meabh; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Devenish, Rodney J.; Prescott, Mark; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens use a type III secretion system (TTSS) for the injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. The injected effector proteins play direct roles in modulation of host cell pathways for bacterial benefit. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, expresses three different TTSSs. One of these systems, the TTSS3, is essential for escape from host endosomes and therefore intracellular survival and replication. Here we have characterized three putative TTSS3 proteins; namely BapA, BapB and BapC. By employing a tetracysteine (TC)-FlAsH™ labelling technique to monitor the secretion of TC-tagged fusion proteins, BapA and BapC were shown to be secreted during in vitro growth in a TTSS3-dependant manner, suggesting a role as TTSS3 effectors. Furthermore, we constructed B. pseudomallei bapA, bapB and bapC mutants and used the well-characterized TTSS3 effector BopE as a marker of secretion to show that BapA, BapB and BapC are not essential for the secretion process. However, BopE transcription and secretion were significantly increased in the bapB mutant, suggesting that BapB levels modulate BopE expression. In a BALB/c mouse model of acute melioidosis, the bapA, bapB and bapC mutants showed a minor reduction of in vivo fitness. Thus, this study defines BapA and BapC as novel TTSS3 effectors, BapB as a regulator of BopE production, and all three as necessary for full B. pseudomallei in vivo fitness. PMID:26624293

  2. Protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of transmembrane signalling through CCK(A) and CCK(B) receptors.

    PubMed

    Smeets, R L; Fouraux, M A; van Emst-de Vries, S E; De Pont, J J; Willems, P H

    1998-03-01

    1. The rat CCK(A) and CCK(B) receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-09) cells in order to compare modes of signal transduction and effects of protein kinase C (PKC) thereupon. 2. Spectrofluorophotometry of Fura-2-loaded cells revealed that both receptors retained their pharmacological characteristics following expression in CHO cells. Sulphated cholecystokinin-(26-33)-peptide amide (CCK-8-S) increased the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in CCK(A) cells, measured as an increase in Fura-2 fluorescence emission ratio, 1000 fold more potently than its non-sulphated form (CCK-8-NS) (EC50 values of 0.19 nM and 0.18 microM, respectively). By contrast, CCK-8-S and CCK-8-NS were equally potent in CCK(B) cells (EC50 values of 0.86 nM and 1.18 nM, respectively). The CCK(A) receptor agonist JMV-180 increased [Ca2+]i only in CCK(A) cells. Likewise, pentagastrin increased [Ca2+]i only in CCK(B) cells. Finally, CCK-8-S-induced Ca2+ signalling through the CCK(A) receptor was most potently inhibited by the CCK(A) receptor antagonist L364,718, whereas the CCK(B) receptor antagonist L365,260 was more potent in CCK(B) cells. 3. Receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase was measured in the presence of the inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. CCK-8-S and, to a lesser extent, CCK-8-NS, but not JMV-180 or pentagastrin, stimulated the accumulation of cyclicAMP in CCK(A) cells. By contrast, none of these agonists increased cyclicAMP in CCK(B) cells. 4. Short-term (3 min) pretreatment with the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) evoked a rightward shift of the dose-response curve for the Ca2+ mobilizing effect of CCK-8-S in both cell lines. In addition, short-term TPA pretreatment markedly reduced CCK-8-S-induced cyclicAMP accumulation in CCK(A) cells. In both cases, the inhibitory effect of TPA was abolished by the PKC inhibitors, GF-109203X and staurosporine, whereas no inhibition

  3. THE DISCOVERY OF HD 37605c AND A DISPOSITIVE NULL DETECTION OF TRANSITS OF HD 37605b

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sharon Xuesong; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cochran, William; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard E-mail: jtwright@astro.psu.edu

    2012-12-10

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P {approx} 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of {approx}7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of {approx}3.4 M{sub Jup}. Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the >>10{sigma} level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5{sigma}. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC.

  4. MS 1512 cB58: A case study of star formation, metal enrichment and superwinds in Lyman break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Rix, Samantha A.; Steidel, Chuck C.; Hunt, Matthew P.; Shapley, Alice E.; Adelberger, Kurt L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z = 3, when the universe was still in its ‘teen years’. I illustrate recent progress in this field with the latest observations of the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512- cB58.

  5. A Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Small Business B2C E-Commerce Network Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the security vulnerability of the U.S. small companies' business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce network systems. Background: As the Internet technologies have been changing the way business is conducted, the U.S. small businesses are investing in such technologies and taking advantage of e-commerce to access global…

  6. A Genetic Analysis of the Rose-Gespleten Region (68c8-69b5) of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hoogwerf, A. M.; Akam, M.; Roberts, D.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a genetic analysis of the region 68C8-69B5 defined by Df(3L)vin-7. We have induced 35 new lethal mutations in this region, which together with 20 existing lethal mutations, visible mutations, genes identified by protein products and one gene deduced from complementation data fall into 37 complementation groups in this 35-band interval. Using existing and newly induced deficiencies we have assigned these to 11 intervals defined by deficiency breakpoints. Those mutations which fell in the same breakpoint interval as the Lsp-2 gene, which codes for the abundant larval serum protein 2, were the subject of detailed study. None was rescued by the active Lsp-2 gene transformed on to chromosome II and we conclude that, as yet, we have no lethal mutations of Lsp-2. PMID:3130292

  7. Acute lung inflammation in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Lungs play an important role in the body's defense against a variety of pathogens, but this network of immune system-mediated defense can be deregulated during acute pulmonary infections. The present study compares acute lung inflammation occurring during Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice. Pneumonia was induced by intranasal instillation of bacteria (10(4) cfu), while sepsis was developed by placing the fibrin-thrombin clot containing known amount of bacteria (10(2) cfu) into the peritoneal cavity of animals. Mice with sepsis showed 100% mortality within five post-infection days, whereas all the animals with pneumonia survived. In animals suffering from K. pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia, all the inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, IL-1α, MPO, MDA, and NO) were found to be maximum till third post-infection day, after that, a decline was observed, whereas in septic animals, all the above-mentioned markers of inflammation kept on increasing. Histopathological study showed presence of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages (or foam cells) in lungs of mice with pneumonia after third post-infection day, which might have contributed to the induction of resolution of inflammation, but no such observation was made in lungs of septic mice. Hence, during pneumonia, controlled activation of macrophages may lead to resolution of inflammation.

  8. A SEARCH FOR WATER IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HAT-P-26b USING LDSS-3C

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Gilbert, Gregory J.; Line, Michael R.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of a physically diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step toward establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. It is those planets with identifiable spectroscopic features that can most effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. The newly commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan provides enhanced sensitivity and suppressed fringing in the red optical, thus advancing the search for the spectroscopic signature of water in exoplanetary atmospheres from the ground. Using data acquired by LDSS-3C and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we search for evidence of water vapor in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Our measured spectrum is best explained by the presence of water vapor, a lack of potassium, and either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ∼10 mbar. The emergence of multi-scale-height spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet’s atmospheric chemical abundances. We also update HAT-P-26b’s transit ephemeris, t{sub 0} = 2455304.65218(25) BJD{sub TDB}, and orbital period, p = 4.2345023(7) days.

  9. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  11. 76 FR 6629 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Forms 325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C, Biographic...: Biographic Information. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the Department...

  12. Analysis of the syrB and syrC genes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae indicates that syringomycin is synthesized by a thiotemplate mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J H; Quigley, N B; Gross, D C

    1995-01-01

    The syrB and syrC genes are required for synthesis of syringomycin, a lipodepsipeptide phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and are induced by plant-derived signal molecules. A 4,842-bp chromosomal region containing the syrB and syrC genes of strain B301D was sequenced and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of syrB was 2,847 bp in length and was predicted to encode an approximately 105-kDa protein, SyrB, with 949 amino acids. Searches of databases revealed that SyrB shares homology with members of a superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes involved in peptide antibiotic and siderophore synthesis in a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. SyrB exhibited the highest degree of overall similarity (56.4%) and identity (33.8%) with the first amino acid-activating domain of pyoverdin synthetase, PvdD, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The N-terminal portion of SyrB contained a domain of approximately 600 amino acids that resembles the amino acid-activating domains of thiotemplate-employing peptide synthetases. The SyrB domain contained six signature core sequences with the same order and spacing as observed in all known amino acid-activating domains involved in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. Core sequence 6 of SyrB, for example, was similar to the binding site for 4'-phosphopantetheine, a cofactor required for thioester formation. The syrC ORF (1,299 bp) was located 175 bp downstream of the syrB ORF. Analysis of the transcriptional and translational relationship between the syrB and syrC genes demonstrated that they are expressed independently. The syrC ORF was predicted to encode an approximately 48-kDa protein product of 433 amino acids which is 42 to 48% similar to a number of thioesterases, including fatty acid thioesterases, haloperoxidases, and acyltransferases, that contain a characteristic GXS (C) XG motif. In addition, a zinc-binding motif was found near the C terminus of SyrC. The data suggest that SyrB and SyrC function as peptide

  13. 75 FR 14069 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 73 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-3005A, R-3305B, R-3005C, R-3005D and R-3005E; Fort Stewart, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action changes the using agency of restricted areas R- 3005A, R-3005B,...

  14. Delayed Viral Clearance after 6-Week Treatment with Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akira; Ishii, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sano, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Following interferon-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C, the negativity of hepatitis C virus RNA is essential to achieve viral clearance at the end of treatment. We report a case of clearance of chronic hepatitis C virus infection following early discontinuation (at 6 weeks) of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy, without negativity for hepatitis C virus RNA during the treatment period. The patient was a 76-year-old Japanese male infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and TT of IL28B rs8099917. Hepatitis C virus RNA remained positive at persistently low levels for more than 2 months after the cessation of therapy and became negative at 7 months after the discontinuation of therapy. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus RNA can occur following antiviral failure in patients with persistently low viral loads, and virological follow-up is therefore necessary in chronic hepatitis C virus infection, even after antiviral failure. PMID:27721727

  15. Study of infrared emission spectroscopy for the B1Δg-A1Πu and B'1Σg+-A1Πu systems of C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Bernath, Peter F.; Tang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen bands for the B1Δg-A1Πu system and eleven bands for the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system of C2 were identified in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. The B'1Σg+ v = 4 and the B1Δg v = 6, 7, and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B1Δg-A1Πu system except for a small perturbation in the B1Δg v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B1Δg v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B1Δg and d3Πg states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen forbidden transitions of the B1Δg-a3Πu transition were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant AdB between d3Πg and B1Δg was derived as 8.3(1) cm-1. For the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B'1Σg+ state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ωexe is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) potential curves for the B'1Σg+ and X1Σg+ states revealed that an avoided crossing or nearly avoided crossing may occur around 30 000 cm-1, which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states.

  16. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982. [Tests G10A; G11, A, B, C, D, E, F, G; G12, A; G12, A; G13; G14, A; G15, A; G16, A, B; G17, A, B, C, D, E, F; G18, A, B; G19 A, B

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Progress included improvements in the reliability of coal and char feeding systems, maintenance of slag tapping, durability of the char burners and removal of supplemental fuel gas. (Operations had previously been conducted using supplemental gas feed to insure a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier.) Durations of test runs using Montana Rosbud coal were increased, in some cases to over 150 hours without serious equipment problems. The process and equipment modifications which led to these improvements are discussed in the report. In addition, summaries of each gasifier test, major plant modifications and conclusions and recommendations are included. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of carbon in b.c.c. and f.c.c. iron-silicon-carbon solid solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chraska, P.; Mclellan, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    The equilibrium between hydrogen-methane gas mixtures and Fe-Si-C solid solutions has been investigated both as a function of temperature and carburizing gas composition. The thermodynamic properties of the carbon atoms in both b.c.c. and f.c.c. solid solution have been derived from the equilibrium measurements. The results found have been compared with those of earlier investigations and with the predictions of recent theoretical models on ternary solid solutions containing both substitutional and interstitial solute atoms.

  18. The epidemiology of TT virus (TTV) infection in a hepatitis C and B virus hyperendemic area of southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Dai, C Y; Yu, M L; Chuang, W L; Lu, S N; Wang, J H; Huang, J F; Hou, C; Chen, S C; Lin, Z Y; Hsieh, M Y; Wang, L Y; Tsai, J F; Chang, W Y

    2000-10-01

    TT virus (TTV) is a newly isolated DNA virus from the serum of a patient with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997. To evaluate the clinical and molecular characteristics of TT virus (TTV) in a hepatitis C virus (HCV) and B (HBV) hyperendemic area (Masago), 200 residents were enrolled in the study. The sera were tested for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HCV RNA and GB virus C/Hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA, TTV DNA, HBsAg, anti-HCV and antibodies to HGV E2-protein (anti-E2). TTV DNA was positive in 99 of the 200 sera with a prevalence rate of 49.5%. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HGV RNA, anti-E2 and HGV exposure (defined as positive for serum HGV RNA and/or anti-E2) was 38.9%, 69.5%, 64.5%, 17.0%, 25.5% and 39.5%, respectively. Neither clinical nor virological factors were associated with TTV viremia. The rate of ALT abnormality was significantly elevated in HCV RNA-positive (34.9%) than -negative (7.0%) residents (p < 0.001). HCV viremia was the only factor significantly associated with ALT elevation by multiple logistic regression (odds ratio: 6.96; 95% C.I.: 2.60-18.7). We concluded that in this HCV/HBV hyperendemic area, the prevalence of TTV DNA was high. No significant clinical factor was observed to be associated with TTV infection. TTV infection is not related to abnormal ALT levels and ALT abnormality was mainly attributable to HCV but not TTV, HBV or HGV infection.

  19. The regulation and function of miR-21-FOXO3a-miR-34b/c signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyan; Feng, Jie; Tang, Lili; Liao, Liqiu; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-01-30

    Upregulation of miR-21 (microRNA-21) and downregulation of miR-34b/c have been found in breast cancer (BC). However, their regulation mechanism and function roles in BC have not been fully addressed. Here, we report that miR-21 levels were inversely correlated with miR-34b/c levels in BC. MiR-21 upregulation contributes to PTEN downregulation, which is beneficial for the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. The activation of AKT phosphorylates FOXO3a, triggering relocalization of FOXO3a proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. FOXO3a is a newly identified transcription factor responsible for miR-34b/c expression. Downregulation of nuclear FOXO3a decreased the expression levels of miR-34b and miR-34c in breast cancer cells, in which p53 was mutated. We also found upregulation of circulating miR-21 and downregulation of circulating miR-34b/c in BC patients' serum. More importantly, we showed that systemic delivery of miR-34b/c or with anti-miR-21 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that high circulating levels of miR-21 and low levels of miR-34b/c may provide potential biomarkers for BC diagnosis, and systemic delivery of miR-34b/c has potential as a therapeutic option for BC treatment.

  20. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays.

  1. The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule: Behaviour of an Artificial Aquatic Ecological System During Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Andriske, M.; Paris, F.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule, a closed aquatic ecosystem integrated into a middeck locker and consisting of a Zoological (animal tanks), a Botanical (plant bioreactor), a Microbial (bacteria filter) and an Electronic Component (data acquisition/control system) was flown on the STS-89 spaceshuttle mission in January 1998 for 9 days. Preflight the plant bioreactor was loaded with 53 g of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and the animal tanks with 4 adult pregnant females of the fish, Xiphophorus helleri (sword-tails), 200 juveniles of the same species less than 1 week of age, 38 large and 30 juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata water snails. The filter compartment was filled with 200 g of lava grain inoculated with laboratory strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. A ground reference was undertaken with the same biological setup with a delay of 4 d. After an adaptation period of 5 d the system was closed and integrated into the spaceshuttle one day before launch. Video recordings of the animals were automatically taken for 10 minutes in 2-hour periods; the tapes were changed daily by the astronauts. The chemical and physical data for the aquatic system were within the expected range and were closely comparable in comparison to the ground reference. After 9 d under space conditions, the plant biomass increased to 117 g. The plants were all found in very good condition. All 4 adult female fish were retrieved in a good physiological condition. The juvenile fishes had a survival rate of about 33 %. Almost 97 % of the snails had survived and produced more than 250 neonates and 40 spawning packs. All samples were distributed according to a defined schedule and satisfied all scientific needs of the involved 12 principal investigators. This was the first successful spaceflight of an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing vertebrates, invertebrates, higher plants and microorganisms self-sustained by its inhabitants only. C.E.B.A.S. in a modified form and biological setup is a

  2. Structure of 14C and 14B from the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoor, S.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, Sergio; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Deibel, C. M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Mcneel, D. G.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 proton-removing reactions in inverse kinematics. The (d ,3He ) reaction probes the proton occupation of the target ground state, and also provides spectroscopic information about the final states in B,1413. The experiments were performed using C,1514 beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The reaction products were analyzed with the HELIOS device. Angular distributions were obtained for transitions from both reactions. The 14C-beam data reveal transitions to excited states in 13B that suggest configurations with protons outside the π (0 p3 /2) orbital, and some possibility of proton cross-shell 0 p -1 s 0 d excitations, in the 14C ground state. The 15C-beam data confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state in 14B. The experimental data are compared to the results of shell-model calculations.

  3. Potentiation of the synergistic activities of chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC from Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2 by chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Dunn, Michael F; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela; Guillén-Navarro, Karina

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the chitinolytic mechanism of the potential biological control strain Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2, genes encoding chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC, chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP) were cloned, the protein products overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 6His-Sumo fusion proteins and purified by affinity chromatography. Following affinity tag removal, the chitinolytic activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated individually and in combination using colloidal chitin as substrate. ChiB and ChiC were highly active while ChiA was inactive. Reactions containing both ChiB and ChiC showed significantly increased N-acetylglucosamine trimer and dimer formation, but decreased monomer formation, compared to reactions with either enzyme alone. This suggests that while both ChiB and ChiC have a general affinity for the same substrate, they attack different sites and together degrade chitin more efficiently than either enzyme separately. Chb and CBP in combination with ChiB and ChiC (individually or together) increased their chitinase activity. We report for the first time the potentiating effect of Chb on the activity of the chitinases and the synergistic activity of a mixture of all five proteins (the three chitinases, Chb and CBP). These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of the chitinases produced by strain CFFSUR-B2 and provide a molecular basis for its high potential as a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens.

  4. CaMsrB2, Pepper Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2, Is a Novel Defense Regulator against Oxidative Stress and Pathogen Attack1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Seong, Eun Soo; Joung, Young Hee; Choi, Gyung-Ja; Park, Jeong Mee; Cho, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sangku; Choi, Doil

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are inevitably generated in aerobic organisms as by-products of normal metabolism or as the result of defense and development. ROS readily oxidize methionine (Met) residues in proteins/peptides to form Met-R-sulfoxide or Met-S-sulfoxide, causing inactivation or malfunction of the proteins. A pepper (Capsicum annuum) methionine sulfoxide reductase B2 gene (CaMsrB2) was isolated, and its roles in plant defense were studied. CaMsrB2 was down-regulated upon inoculation with either incompatible or compatible pathogens. The down-regulation, however, was restored to the original expression levels only in a compatible interaction. Gain-of-function studies using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants transformed with CaMsrB2 resulted in enhanced resistance to Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora infestans. Inversely, loss-of-function studies of CaMsrB2 using virus-induced gene silencing in pepper plants (cv Early Calwonder-30R) resulted in accelerated cell death from an incompatible bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv vesicatoria (Xav) race 1, and enhanced susceptibility to a compatible bacterial pathogen, virulent X. axonopodis pv vesicatoria race 3. Measurement of ROS levels in CaMsrB2-silenced pepper plants revealed that suppression of CaMsrB2 increased the production of ROS, which in turn resulted in the acceleration of cell death via accumulation of ROS. In contrast, the CaMsrB2-transgenic tomato plants showed reduced production of hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, our results suggest that the plant MsrBs have novel functions in active defense against pathogens via the regulation of cell redox status. PMID:20643759

  5. The exosporium of B. cereus contains a binding site for gC1qR/p33: implication in spore attachment and/or entry.

    PubMed

    Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Tantral, Lee; Titmus, Mathew A; Panessa-Warren, Barbara J; Tortora, George T; Wong, Stanislaus S; Warren, John B

    2007-01-01

    B. cereus, is a member of a genus of aerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod-like bacilli, which includes the deadly, B. anthracis. Preliminary experiments have shown that gC1qR binds to B. cereus spores that have been attached to microtiter plates. The present studies were therefore undertaken, to examine if cell surface gC1qR plays a role in B. cereus spore attachment and/or entry. Monolayers of human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and lung cells were grown to confluency on 6 mm coverslips in shell vials with gentle swirling in a shaker incubator. Then, 2 microl of a suspension of strain SB460 B. cereus spores (3x10(8)/ml, in sterile water), were added and incubated (1-4 h; 36 degrees C) in the presence or absence of anti-gC1qR mAb-carbon nanoloops. Examination of these cells by EM revealed that: (1) When B. cereus endospores contacted the apical Caco-2 cell surface, or lung cells, gC1qR was simultaneously detectable, indicating upregulation of the molecule. (2) In areas showing spore contact with the cell surface, gC1qR expression was often adjacent to the spores in association with microvilli (Caco-2 cells) or cytoskeletal projections (lung cells). (3) Furthermore, the exosporia of the activated and germinating spores were often decorated with mAb-nanoloops. These observations were further corroborated by experiments in which B.cereus spores were readily taken up by monocytes and neutrophils, and this uptake was partially inhibited by mAb 60.11, which recognizes the C1q binding site on gC1qR. Taken together, the data suggest a role, for gC1qR at least in the initial stages of spore attachment and/or entry.

  6. Pseudo- in-situ stir casting: a new method for production of aluminum matrix composites with bimodal-sized B4C reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raei, Mohammad; Panjepour, Masoud; Meratian, Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    A new method was applied to produce an Al-0.5wt%Ti-0.3wt%Zr/5vol%B4C composite via stir casting with the aim of characterizing the microstructure of the resulting composite. For the production of the composite, large B4C particles (larger than 75 μm) with no pre-heating were added to the stirred melt. Reflected-light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, and image analysis using the Clemex software were performed on the cast samples for microstructural analysis and phase detection. The results revealed that as a consequence of thermal shock, B4C particle breakage occurred in the melt. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon is that the exerted thermal shock in combination with the low thermal shock resistance of B4C and large size of the added B4C particles were the three key parameters responsible for B4C particle breakage. This breakage introduced small particles with sizes less than 10 μm and with no contamination on their surfaces into the melt. The mean particle distance measured via image analysis was approximately 60 μm. The coefficient of variation index, which was used as a measure of particle distribution homogeneity, showed some variations, indicating a relatively homogeneous distribution.

  7. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  8. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  9. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  10. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  11. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 153.1120 using one washing machine cycle, and the tank washings discharged to a reception facility or... washed with one cycle of the tank washing machine, and the tank washings discharged to a reception... less than 1 ppm of the NLS. (2) Category B or C NLS residue resulting from washing a tank after...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 153.1120 using one washing machine cycle, and the tank washings discharged to a reception facility or... washed with one cycle of the tank washing machine, and the tank washings discharged to a reception... less than 1 ppm of the NLS. (2) Category B or C NLS residue resulting from washing a tank after...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 153.1120 using one washing machine cycle, and the tank washings discharged to a reception facility or... washed with one cycle of the tank washing machine, and the tank washings discharged to a reception... less than 1 ppm of the NLS. (2) Category B or C NLS residue resulting from washing a tank after...

  15. Near full-length genome identification of a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B'/C) among heterosexuals in Jilin, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingguang; Ning, Chuanyi; Chen, Yanli; Feng, Yi; Wei, Min; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant forms contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of HIV-1. Here we report a novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B'/C) detected from a comprehensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiologic study among heterosexuals in Jilin province of northeastern China. Recombinant analyses of the near full-length genome (NFLG) of the novel HIV-1 recombinant isolate (JL.RF01) showed that the backbone of the genome was CRF01_AE, and three insertions of subtype B' (242, 370, and 233 bp) and C (1142, 230, and 271 bp), respectively, were inserted along the genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the novel HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B'/C) more likely originated from Thailand subtype B' and CRF01_AE and India subtype C. We report a unique mosaic structure that is distinct to HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B'/C recombinant viruses reported to date. The emergence of this novel recombinant form (CRF01_AE/B'/C) suggests the increasing significance of heterosexual transmission contributing to the complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in northeastern China.

  16. ATG4B contains a C-terminal LIR motif important for binding and efficient cleavage of mammalian orthologs of yeast Atg8.

    PubMed

    Skytte Rasmussen, Mads; Mouilleron, Stéphane; Kumar Shrestha, Birendra; Wirth, Martina; Lee, Rebecca; Bowitz Larsen, Kenneth; Abudu Princely, Yakubu; O'Reilly, Nicola; Sjøttem, Eva; Tooze, Sharon A; Lamark, Trond; Johansen, Terje

    2017-02-15

    The cysteine protease ATG4B cleaves off one or more C-terminal residues of the inactive proform of proteins of the ortholog and paralog LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies of yeast Atg8 to expose a C-terminal glycine that is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine during autophagosome formation. We show that ATG4B contains a C-terminal LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif important for efficient binding to and cleavage of LC3 and GABARAP proteins. We solved the crystal structures of the GABARAPL1-ATG4B C-terminal LIR complex. Analyses of the structures and in vitro binding assays, using specific point mutants, clearly showed that the ATG4B LIR binds via electrostatic-, aromatic HP1 and hydrophobic HP2 pocket interactions. Both these interactions and the catalytic site-substrate interaction contribute to binding between LC3s or GABARAPs and ATG4B. We also reveal an unexpected role for ATG4B in stabilizing the unlipidated forms of GABARAP and GABARAPL1. In mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) atg4b knockout cells, GABARAP and GABARAPL1 were unstable and degraded by the proteasome. Strikingly, the LIR motif of ATG4B was required for stabilization of the unlipidated forms of GABARAP and GABARAPL1 in cells.

  17. Identification of a Conserved Linear B-Cell Epitope of Streptococcus dysgalactiae GapC Protein by Screening Phage-Displayed Random Peptide Library

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ziyao; Zhou, Xue; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Wang, Xintong; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    The GapC of Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) is a highly conserved surface protein that can induce protective humoral immune response in animals. However, B-cell epitopes on the S. dysgalactiae GapC have not been well identified. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb5B7) against the GapC1-150 protein was prepared. After passive transfer, mAb5B7 could partially protect mice against S. dysgalactiae infection. Eleven positive phage clones recognized by mAb5B7 were identified by screening phage-displayed random 12-peptide library, most of which matched the consensus motif DTTQGRFD. The motif sequence exactly matches amino acids 48-55 of the S. dysgalactiae GapC protein. In addition, the motif 48DTTQGRFD55 shows high homology among various streptococcus species. Site-directed mutagenic analysis further confirmed that residues D48, T50, Q51, G52 and F54 formed the core motif of 48DTTQGRFD55. This motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb5B7. As expected, epitope-peptide evoked protective immune response against S. dysgalactiae infection in immunized mice. Taken together, this identified conserved B-cell epitope within S. dysgalactiae GapC could provide very valuable insights for vaccine design against S. dysgalactiae infection. PMID:26121648

  18. 76 FR 41667 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Models B300 and B300C (C-12W) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Corporation Models B300 and B300C (C-12W) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Corporation Models B300 and B300C (C-12W) airplanes. This AD was prompted by an error found in the...

  19. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B) lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Nájera, José Luis; Gómez, Carmen E; Tewabe, Nolawit; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Calandra, Thierry; Roger, Thierry; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ΔC6L) had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ΔC6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-β and IFN-α/β-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ΔC6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-β-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines.

  20. Gene Copy-Number Variations (CNVs) and Protein Levels of Complement C4A and C4B as Novel Biomarkers for Partial Disease Remissions in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kingery, Suzanne E.; Wu, Yee Ling; Zhou, Bi; Hoffman, Robert P.; Yu, C. Yung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the roles of complement C4A and C4B gene CNVs and their plasma protein concentrations in residual insulin secretion and loss of pancreatic beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients. Methods We studied 34 patients of European ancestry with new-onset type 1 diabetes, aged between 3 and 17 years (10.7±3.45), at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Gene copy-number and size variations of complement C4A and C4B were determined by genomic Southern blot analyses. C4A and C4B protein phenotypes were elucidated by immunofixation and radial immunodiffusion. Two-digit HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined by sequence-specific PCR. At 1 month and 9-month post diagnosis, stimulated C-peptide levels were measured after a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test. Results The diploid gene copy-numbers of C4A varied from 0 to 4, and those of C4B from 0 to 3. Patients with higher copy-number of C4A or higher C4A plasma protein concentrations at diagnosis had higher C-peptide levels at 1 month post diagnosis (p=0.008; p=0.008). When controlled by the Z-score of body-mass index, C4A copy-numbers, C4A protein concentrations, the age of disease-onset, the number of HLA-DR3 but not DR4 alleles were significant parameters in determining C-peptide levels. At 9-month post diagnosis, 42.3% of patients remained in partial remission, and these patients were characterized by lower total C4B copy-numbers or lower C4B protein concentrations (p=0.02, p=0.0004). Conclusions C4A appears to associate with the protection of residual beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes; C4B is correlated with the end of disease remission at 9-month post diagnosis. PMID:22151770

  1. Downregulated miR-29a/b/c during Contact Inhibition Stage Promote 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis by Targeting DNMT3A

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yudong; Zhang, Ying; Tang, Yanfeng; Li, Wenlong; Fan, Yanan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Youwen

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes involves a highly-orchestrated series of events including contact inhibition (CI), clonal expansion, growth arrest, and terminal differentiation. Recent study demonstrated that 3T3-L1 preadipocytes will not be differentiated into mature adipocytes without CI stage, which indicated that CI stage plays an important role during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we found that the expression level of miR-29a/b/c was decreased and the expression of DNMT3A was up-regulated during CI stage, respectively. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-29a/b/c during CI stage inhibits adipogenesis significantly but not at other stages. In addition, miR-29a/b/c repressed DNMT3A expression by directly targeting its 3’ untranslated region (3’ UTR). Our data reveal a novel mechanism of miR-29a/b/c in the regulation of adipogenesis. PMID:28114345

  2. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.