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Sample records for a b c

  1. 75 FR 23572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... (75 FR 11428, March 11, 2010), for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4... B2-1C, B2-203, B2K- 3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C Airplanes; Model A310 Series Airplanes; and Model A300... applies to certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C airplanes; Model...

  2. 75 FR 11428 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2-203, B2K-3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... FR 48024). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... B2-1C, B2-203, B2K- 3C, B4-103, B4-203, B4-2C Airplanes; Model A310 Series Airplanes; and Model...

  3. Perpendicular lamellar-in-lamellar and other planar morphologies in A-b-(B-b-A)2-b-C and (B-b-A)2-b-C ternary multiblock copolymer melts.

    PubMed

    Markov, V; Kriksin, Y; Erukhimovich, I; ten Brinke, G

    2013-08-28

    Ordered planar morphologies in A-b-(B-b-A)2-b-C and (B-b-A)2-b-C terpolymer melts are studied within the framework of the self-consistent field theory for volume fractions of components A, B, and C in the ratio 1:1:2 and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters satisfying χ(AB) = 2χ(AC). The stable phases turn out to be the disordered, hexagonal, parallel lamellar-in-lamellar L∥ (including the simple lamellar) as well as non-shifted and shifted (L⊥ and SL⊥) perpendicular lamellar-in-lamellar morphologies. Depending on the value of the ratio r = Θ(AB)/Θ(BC), where Θ is a characteristic temperature of the units involved, different sequences of phase transitions are shown to occur. The hexagonal phase is characteristic for r ≅ 1. The L⊥ and SL⊥ morphologies occur at weak and intermediate segregations whereas the L∥ morphology appears for stronger degrees of segregation. For (B-b-A)2-b-C a reduction in r favors the shifted SL⊥ phase over the non-shifted L⊥ one, whereas for A-b-(B-b-A)2-b-C we find re-entrant phase transitions SL⊥ - L⊥. The physics determining the particular phase behavior is discussed. PMID:24007036

  4. Hadronic B{sub c} decays as a test of B{sub c} cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Rakitin, Alexander; Koshkarev, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on disagreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results of the production properties of B{sub c} meson. Hadronic decays of B{sub c} are used to separate predictions of production cross section and predictions of branching ratio. The branching ratios of B{sub c} decays to J/{psi}+{pi} and to J/{psi}+3{pi} are also presented.

  5. The A-B-C of Desalting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Office of Water Research and Technology.

    This publication provides a simple explanation of how various processes convert sea or brackish water to fresh water. Included are descriptions of the membrane processes (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, transport depletion, and piezodialysis); the distillation processes (multistage flash distillation, vertical tube distillation, multieffect…

  6. A, b, c's of wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Grutsch, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Tests by Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) over 15 mo showed greatly improved performance by operating the activated sludge process (ASP) at high sludge age (more than 100 days) and by adding powdered activated carbon (PAC) to further reduce residual soluble organics in the wastewater. When high sludge age was maintained by good filtration to eliminate influent solids, a 5000 mg/l. equilibrium mixed-liquor PAC concentration was maintained in a municipal plant with <5 mg/l. PAC makeup rate. This occurs because at high sludge age, bacteria in the sludge utilize organic wastes only for metabolism; growth is kept low enough to merely balance the inevitable sludge losses in the effluent so that there is no production of waste sludge. Maintenance of 45 day sludge age with 2400 mg/l. total suspended sludge solids in the aerator resulted in effluent solids of 4.2 mg/l. or 12.7 lb/day, of which 53% was PAC. A detailed description is given of the biological oxidation processes operative in the ASP.

  7. The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structure of C2b has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution, which reveals the arrangement of its three complement control protein (CCP) modules. A model for complement component C2 is presented and its conformational changes during the C3-convertase formation are also discussed. The second component of complement (C2) is a multi-domain serine protease that provides catalytic activity for the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical and lectin pathways of human complement. The formation of these convertases requires the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent binding of C2 to C4b and the subsequent cleavage of C2 by C1s or MASP2, respectively. The crystal structure of full-length C2 is not yet available, although the structure of its C-terminal catalytic segment C2a has been determined. The crystal structure of the N-terminal segment C2b of C2 determined to 1.8 Å resolution presented here reveals the arrangement of its three CCP domains. The domains are arranged differently compared with most other CCP-domain assemblies, but their arrangement is similar to that found in the Ba part of the full-length factor B structure. The crystal structures of C2a, C2b and full-length factor B are used to generate a model for C2 and a discussion of the domain association and possible interactions with C4b during formation of the C4b–C2 complex is presented. The results of this study also suggest that upon cleavage by C1s, C2a domains undergo conformational rotation while bound to C4b and the released C2b domains may remain folded together similar to as observed in the intact protein.

  8. ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS A, B, C, D, OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0640-00-279-111681. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 8952-CPP-640-A-5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Gramicidins A, B, and C form structurally equivalent ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, D B; Williams, L P; Whaley, W L; Koeppe, R E; Andersen, O S

    1990-01-01

    The membrane structure of the naturally occurring gramicidins A, B, and C was investigated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and single-channel recording techniques. All three gramicidins form channels with fairly similar properties (Bamberg, E., K. Noda, E. Gross, and P. Läuger. 1976. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 419:223-228.). When incorporated into lysophosphatidylcholine micelles, however, the CD spectrum of gramicidin B is different from that of gramicidin A or C (cf. Prasad, K. U., T. L. Trapane, D. Busath, G. Szabo, and D. W. Urry. 1983. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 22:341-347.). The structural identity of the channels formed by gramicidin B has, therefore, been uncertain. We find that when gramicidins A and B are incorporated into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles, their CD spectra are fairly similar, suggesting that the two channel structures could be similar. In planar bilayers, gramicidins A, B, and C all form hybrid channels with each other. The properties of the hybrid channels are intermediate to those of the symmetric channels, and the appearance rates of the hybrid channels (relative to the symmetric channels) corresponds to what would be predicted if all three gramicidin molecules were to form structurally equivalent channels. These results allow us to interpret the different behavior of channels formed by the three gramicidins solely on the basis of the amino acid substitution at position 11. PMID:1705449

  10. 24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW EAST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW WEST SHOWING BASCULE GIRDERS 'A', 'B', 'C', AND 'D'; DRIVE GEAR 'D' WITH GUARD IS LOCATED IN THE LOWER CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. REFER TO GEARING DIAGRAMS - STRAUSS SHEET #15 FOR POWER TRAIN RELATIONSHIPS. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. MEMS Pro Design Kit - Parts A, B, and C

    2006-06-15

    Part A: SUMMiT V design Kit components for use with MEMS Pro from SoftMEMS Part B: SUMMiT V remote DRC and gear generator source code for use with autocad visual basic Part C: SUMMiT V DRC rules source and test cases for Calibre DRC engine

  13. Lrrc75b is a novel negative regulator of C2C12 myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yuechun; Zou, Liyi; Wang, Zonggui; Pan, Yaqiong; Dai, Zhong; Liu, Xinguang; Cui, Liao; Zuo, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Many transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the guidance of myogenic differentiation have been investigated in previous studies. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of myogenic differentiation remain largely unknown. In the present study, by performing a meta-analysis of C2C12 myogenic differentiation microarray data, we found that leucine-rich repeat-containing 75B (Lrrc75b), also known as AI646023, a molecule of unknown biological function, was downregulated during C2C12 myogenic differentiation. The knockdown of Lrrc75b using specific siRNA in C2C12 myoblasts markedly enhanced the expression of muscle-specific myogenin and increased myoblast fusion and the myotube diameter. By contrast, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Lrrc75b in C2C12 cells markedly inhibited myoblast differentiation accompanied by a decrease in myogenin expression. In addition, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) was suppressed in the cells in which Lrrc75b was silenced. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Lrrc75b is a novel suppressor of C2C12 myogenic differentiation by modulating myogenin and Erk1/2 signaling. PMID:27633041

  14. Real-time PCR quantification of human complement C4A and C4B genes

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Agnes; Blasko, Bernadett; Szilassy, Denes; Fust, George; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2006-01-01

    Background The fourth component of human complement (C4), an essential factor of the innate immunity, is represented as two isoforms (C4A and C4B) in the genome. Although these genes differ only in 5 nucleotides, the encoded C4A and C4B proteins are functionally different. Based on phenotypic determination, unbalanced production of C4A and C4B is associated with several diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, several autoimmune diseases, moreover with higher morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and increased susceptibility for bacterial infections. Despite of this major clinical relevance, only low throughput, time and labor intensive methods have been used so far for the quantification of C4A and C4B genes. Results A novel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of the C4A and C4B genes applying a duplex, TaqMan based methodology. The reliable, single-step analysis provides the determination of the copy number of the C4A and C4B genes applying a wide range of DNA template concentration (0.3–300 ng genomic DNA). The developed qPCR was applied to determine C4A and C4B gene dosages in a healthy Hungarian population (N = 118). The obtained data were compared to the results of an earlier study of the same population. Moreover a set of 33 samples were analyzed by two independent methods. No significant difference was observed between the gene dosages determined by the employed techniques demonstrating the reliability of the novel qPCR methodology. A Microsoft Excel worksheet and a DOS executable are also provided for simple and automated evaluation of the measured data. Conclusion This report describes a novel real-time PCR method for single-step quantification of C4A and C4B genes. The developed technique could facilitate studies investigating disease association of different C4 isotypes. PMID:16403222

  15. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C: grown-up issues.

    PubMed

    Sharapov, Umid M; Hu, Dale J

    2010-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major global health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there are five major and distinct human hepatitis viruses characterized to date--referred to as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, respectively--only hepatitis A, B, and C are epidemiologically and clinically relevant for adolescents in North America. The clinical presentation of acute infection with each of these viruses is similar; thus, diagnosis depends on the use of specific serologic markers and viral nucleic acids. This review provides data on the epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of each of these three viral infections, along with points that are important or unique to adolescent patients.

  16. Callipeltosides A, B and C: Total Syntheses and Structural Confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James R; Pearson, Colin M; Snaddon, Thomas N; Booth, Richard A; Turner, Richard M; Gold, Johan; Shaw, David M; Gaunt, Matthew J; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Since their isolation almost 20 years ago, the callipeltosides have been of long standing interest to the synthetic community owing to their unique structural features and inherent biological activity. Herein we present our full research effort that has led to the synthesis of these molecules. Key aspects of our final strategy include 1) synthesis of the C1–C9 pyran core (5) using an AuCl3-catalysed cyclisation; 2) formation of C10–C22 vinyl iodide (55) by sequential bidirectional Stille reactions and 3) diastereoselective union of these advanced fragments by means of an alkenylzinc addition (d.r.=91:9 at C9). The common callipeltoside aglycon (4) was completed in a further five steps. Following this, all three sugar fragments were appended to provide the entire callipeltoside family. In addition to this, D-configured callipeltose B was synthesised and appended to the callipeltoside aglycon. The 1H NMR spectrum of this molecule was found to be significantly different to the natural isolate, further supporting our assignment of callipeltoside B (2). PMID:26230615

  17. Novel autophagy inducers lentztrehaloses A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Shun-ichi; Kubota, Yumiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Hatano, Masaki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Chigusa; Igarashi, Masayuki; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose has widespread use as a sweetener, humectant and stabilizer, and is now attracting attention as a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as it is an autophagy inducer and chemical chaperone. However, the bioavailability of trehalose is low because it is digested by the hydrolyzing enzyme trehalase, expressed in the intestine and kidney. Enzyme-stable analogs of trehalose would potentially solve this problem. We have previously reported an enzyme-stable analog of trehalose, lentztrehalose, and herein report two new analogs. The original lentztrehalose has been renamed lentztrehalose A and the analogs named lentztrehaloses B and C. Lentztrehalose B is a di-dehydroxylated analog and lentztrehalose C is a cyclized analog of lentztrehalose A. All the lentztrehaloses are only minimally hydrolyzed by mammalian trehalase. The production of the lentztrehaloses is high in rather dry conditions and low in wet conditions. Lentztrehalose B shows a moderate antioxidative activity. These facts suggest that the lentztrehaloses are produced as humectants or protectants for the producer microorganism under severe environmental conditions. All the lentztrehaloses induce autophagy in human cancer cells at a comparable level to trehalose. Considering the enzyme-stability, these lentztrehaloses can be regarded as promising new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and other autophagy-related diseases, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cancer and heart disease. PMID:25757606

  18. Novel autophagy inducers lentztrehaloses A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shun-ichi; Kubota, Yumiko; Sawa, Ryuichi; Umekita, Maya; Hatano, Masaki; Ohba, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Chigusa; Igarashi, Masayuki; Nomoto, Akio

    2015-08-01

    Trehalose has widespread use as a sweetener, humectant and stabilizer, and is now attracting attention as a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as it is an autophagy inducer and chemical chaperone. However, the bioavailability of trehalose is low because it is digested by the hydrolyzing enzyme trehalase, expressed in the intestine and kidney. Enzyme-stable analogs of trehalose would potentially solve this problem. We have previously reported an enzyme-stable analog of trehalose, lentztrehalose, and herein report two new analogs. The original lentztrehalose has been renamed lentztrehalose A and the analogs named lentztrehaloses B and C. Lentztrehalose B is a di-dehydroxylated analog and lentztrehalose C is a cyclized analog of lentztrehalose A. All the lentztrehaloses are only minimally hydrolyzed by mammalian trehalase. The production of the lentztrehaloses is high in rather dry conditions and low in wet conditions. Lentztrehalose B shows a moderate antioxidative activity. These facts suggest that the lentztrehaloses are produced as humectants or protectants for the producer microorganism under severe environmental conditions. All the lentztrehaloses induce autophagy in human cancer cells at a comparable level to trehalose. Considering the enzyme-stability, these lentztrehaloses can be regarded as promising new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and other autophagy-related diseases, such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cancer and heart disease. PMID:25757606

  19. 76 FR 39254 - Airworthiness Directives; Schweizer Aircraft Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Corporation (Schweizer) Model 269A, A-1, B, C, C-1, and TH-55 Series Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... reviewed Schweizer Service Bulletins No. B-295 for Model 269A, A-1, B, and C helicopters, and No....

  20. Structural organization of nuclear lamins A, C, B1, and B2 revealed by superresolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shimi, Takeshi; Kittisopikul, Mark; Tran, Joseph; Goldman, Anne E; Adam, Stephen A; Zheng, Yixian; Jaqaman, Khuloud; Goldman, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    The nuclear lamina is a key structural element of the metazoan nucleus. However, the structural organization of the major proteins composing the lamina is poorly defined. Using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy and computational image analysis, we characterized the supramolecular structures of lamin A, C, B1, and B2 in mouse embryo fibroblast nuclei. Each isoform forms a distinct fiber meshwork, with comparable physical characteristics with respect to mesh edge length, mesh face area and shape, and edge connectivity to form faces. Some differences were found in face areas among isoforms due to variation in the edge lengths and number of edges per face, suggesting that each meshwork has somewhat unique assembly characteristics. In fibroblasts null for the expression of either lamins A/C or lamin B1, the remaining lamin meshworks are altered compared with the lamin meshworks in wild-type nuclei or nuclei lacking lamin B2. Nuclei lacking LA/C exhibit slightly enlarged meshwork faces and some shape changes, whereas LB1-deficient nuclei exhibit primarily a substantial increase in face area. These studies demonstrate that individual lamin isoforms assemble into complex networks within the nuclear lamina and that A- and B-type lamins have distinct roles in maintaining the organization of the nuclear lamina.

  1. 75 FR 11435 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 Airplanes; and Model A300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55485). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 Airplanes; and Model A300 B4-601, B4-603, B4-620, B4-622, B4- 605R, and...

  2. Parallel versus perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar self-assembly of A-b-(B-b-A)(n)-b-C ternary multiblock copolymer melts.

    PubMed

    Subbotin, A; Markov, V; ten Brinke, G

    2010-04-29

    Different types of lamellar-within-lamellar structure formations in A-b-(B-b-A)(n)-b-C terpolymer melts, with a volume fraction of components A, B, and C in the ratio of 1:1:2, are analyzed in the strong segregation limit using a simple theoretical approach. We consider the lamellar, parallel lamellar-within-lamellar, and perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar self-assembled states. The influence of the copolymer chain length N, the value of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters chi(AB), chi(AC), and chi(BC), and the number of blocks n in the AB multiblock chain on the phase behavior is discussed. We show that in the limiting case of n > 1, the perpendicular lamellar-within-lamellar state becomes stable when the interaction parameters satisfy the relation 0 < chi(BC) < 0.22 chi(AC). PMID:20369859

  3. Proviral-activated c-erbB is leukemogenic but not sarcomagenic: characterization of a replication-competent retrovirus containing the activated c-erbB.

    PubMed Central

    Pelley, R J; Moscovici, C; Hughes, S; Kung, H J

    1988-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces erythroblastosis in chickens by integrating its DNA into the host c-erbB locus and by activating expression of truncated c-erbB transcripts. Although there is a 100% correlation of c-erbB activation with ALV-induced erythroblastosis, direct evidence that the activated c-erbB is oncogenic has not been established. We have constructed a replication-competent retrovirus containing the activated c-erbB to investigate its transforming potential. The Rous c-erbB virus (REB-c) was constructed by inserting the activated c-erbB cDNA into a Rous sarcoma virus vector in place of src. When transfected into transformed quail fibroblasts (QT6), the REB-c construct stably integrates and expresses c-erbB-specific transcripts and produces infectious virus. The REB-c retrovirus produces short-latency polyclonal erythroblastosis in chickens. However, in contrast to avian erythroblastosis virus which contains v-erbB, the REB-c construct does not transform chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro, nor does the REB-c virus produce sarcomas when injected into the wing web of chickens. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the activated c-erbB which lacks the amino-terminal extracellular domain but which retains the entire carboxy-terminal sequences is leukemogenic but not sarcomagenic. Images PMID:2833627

  4. Citrinolactones A, B and C, and Sclerotinin C, plant growth regulators from Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Kuramata, Masato; Fujioka, Shozo; Shimada, Atsumi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasuo

    2007-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named citrinolactones A (1), B (2) and C (3) and sclerotinin C (4), were isolated from Penicillium citrinum and their structures established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. Compounds 1 and 4 increased root growth in proportion to their concentration from 3 to 300 mg/l. In contrast, 2 completely inhibited root growth at a concentration of 300 mg/l and 3 did not show any effect on root growth in a concentration range of 3-300 mg/l.

  5. Complement fragments C3b and iC3b coupled to latex induce a respiratory burst in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M; Weening, R S; Hack, C E; Roos, D

    1990-02-01

    The complement fragments C3b and iC3b were purified from human serum by affinity chromatography with Sepharose-coupled monoclonal antibody against the C3d region of C3. The resulting preparations were more than 95% pure and contained less than 0.1% native IgG. Purified C3b and iC3b were coupled to latex beads (0.8 micron diameter) by means of F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies against the beta chain or the C3d region of C3, thus orienting the C3b and the iC3b on the latex with the C3b- and iC3b-specific regions outwards. These particles were found to activate the respiratory burst of freshly isolated human neutrophils to 20-30% of the maximal capacity. Latex particles randomly coated with C3b or iC3b were about 3 times less stimulatory. C3b, iC3b and IgG coupled to latex in an oriented fashion were about equally effective in stimulating the respiratory burst. Neutrophils from a patient with a total deficiency of CR3 responded normally to C3b-coated latex but did not respond to iC3b-coated latex. A monoclonal antibody against the alpha chain of CR3 inhibited the activation by iC3b-coated latex and a polyclonal antibody against CR1 partially inhibited the activation by C3b-coated latex. We found an additive effect between IgG-coated latex and C3b-coated latex, regardless of the presence of IgG and C3b on the same particle or on different particles. Thus, binding of ligands to either CR1 or CR3 per se is sufficient to induce an activating signal to the NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils.

  6. The genomic signature of human rhinoviruses A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Megremis, Spyridon; Demetriou, Philippos; Makrinioti, Heidi; Manoussaki, Alkistis E; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2012-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses that are presented in more than 50% of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Despite extensive studies on the genetic diversity of the virus, little is known about the forces driving it. In order to explain this diversity, many research groups have focused on protein sequence requirements for viable, functional and transmissible virus but have missed out an important aspect of viral evolution such as the genomic ontology of the virus. This study presents for the first time the genomic signature of 111 fully sequenced HRV strains from all three groups HRV-A, HRV-B and HRV-C. We observed an HRV genome tendency to eliminate CpG and UpA dinucleotides, coupling with over-representation of UpG and CpA. We propose a specific mechanism which describes how rapid changes in the HRV genomic sequence can take place under the strict control of conservation of the polypeptide backbone. Moreover, the distribution of the observed under- and over-represented dinucleotides along the HRV genome is presented. Distance matrice tables based on CpG and UpA odds ratios were constructed and viewed as heatmaps and distance trees. None of the suppressions can be attributed to codon usage or in RNA secondary structure requirements. Since viral recognition is dependent on RNA motifs rich in CpG and UpA, it is possible that the overall described genome evolution mechanism acts in order to protect the virus from host recognition.

  7. Antiviral Activity of Hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against Enterovirus 71 Subgenotypes C3 and C4a

    PubMed Central

    Song, JaeHyoung; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, JeongHoon; Jeong, HyeonGun; Kwon, YongSoo; Kim, HyunPyo; Lee, SangWon; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the predominant cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The antiviral activity of hederasaponin B from Hedera helix against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a was evaluated in vero cells. In the current study, the antiviral activity of hederasaponin B against EV71 C3 and C4a was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method and western blot assay. Our results demonstrated that hederasaponin B and 30% ethanol extract of Hedera helix containing hederasaponin B showed significant antiviral activity against EV71 subgenotypes C3 and C4a by reducing the formation of a visible CPE. Hederasaponin B also inhibited the viral VP2 protein expression, suggesting the inhibition of viral capsid protein synthesis.These results suggest that hederasaponin B and Hedera helix extract containing hederasaponin B can be novel drug candidates with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various subgenotypes of EV71. PMID:24596620

  8. Review of magnetic features observed in (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznietz, Moshe; Gonçalves, António P.; Almeida, Manuel

    2002-08-01

    The nickel-borocarbides ANi 2B 2C [A=Y, Ln (lanthanide), An(actinide)], crystallizing in the body-centred tetragonal LuNi 2B 2C-type structure, are classified according to the existence or coexistence of superconducting and antiferromagnetic states (AF). The magnetic features observed in polycrystalline (A,A')Ni 2B 2C solid solutions, adopting the same crystal structure, are reviewed and discussed. Published data on the magnetism in (A,Ln)Ni 2B 2C systems (ANi 2B 2C nonmagnetic, A=Y,La,Lu) indicate a gradual rise in the threshold content, x( m), in (Y 1- xLn x)Ni 2B 2C (Ln=Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er) for the establishment of AF states. (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems with magnetic end compounds show gradual variation in magnetic features when A and A' are both heavy Ln. The behaviour of (A,A')Ni 2B 2C systems of light A (Pr or U) and heavy A' (Dy or Tm) depends on the magnetic structures of the end compounds. In intermediate compositions, incomplete moment compensation in (Pr,Dy)Ni 2B 2C decreases TN, while different moment directions in the end compounds in (U,Dy)Ni 2B 2C lead to a directional frustration of ordered moments. Such a frustration in (U,Tm)Ni 2B 2C is related to different magnetic structures of the end compounds.

  9. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22611464

  10. Microbe-specific C3b deposition in the horseshoe crab complement system in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Keisuke; Yoshihara, Toyoki; Shibata, Toshio; Kitazaki, Kazuki; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Koshiba, Takumi; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Complement C3 plays an essential role in the opsonization of pathogens in the mammalian complement system, whereas the molecular mechanism underlying C3 activation in invertebrates remains unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of C3b deposition on microbes, we characterized two types of C2/factor B homologs (designated TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2) identified from the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. Although the domain architectures of TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were identical to those of mammalian homologs, they contained five-repeated and seven-repeated complement control protein domains at their N-terminal regions, respectively. TtC2/Bf-1 and TtC2/Bf-2 were synthesized and glycosylated in hemocytes and secreted to hemolymph plasma, which existed in a complex with C3 (TtC3), and their activation by microbes was absolutely Mg(2+)-dependent. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TtC3b deposition was Mg(2+)-dependent on Gram-positive bacteria or fungi, but not on Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, this analysis demonstrated that Ca(2+)-dependent lectins (C-reactive protein-1 and tachylectin-5A) were required for TtC3b deposition on Gram-positive bacteria, and that a Ca(2+)-independent lectin (Tachypleus plasma lectin-1) was definitely indispensable for TtC3b deposition on fungi. In contrast, a horseshoe crab lipopolysaccharide-sensitive protease factor C was necessary and sufficient to deposit TtC3b on Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that plasma lectins and factor C play key roles in microbe-specific TtC3b deposition in a C2/factor B-dependent or -independent manner.

  11. Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences

    MedlinePlus

    ... adoptee’s arrival in the U.S. • People with chronic liver disease, including HCV • People working with HAV in a ... Europe, or the Middle East); • People with chronic liver disease Who should be tested ? Hepatitis C caused by ...

  12. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  13. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  14. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  15. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  16. 31 CFR 315.32 - Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K.... SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Interest § 315.32 Series A, B, C, D, F, G, J, and K bonds. All bonds of these series have matured and no longer earn interest....

  17. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1104 - Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. 153... Draining of cargo hose: Categories A, B, C, and D. Before a cargo hose used in discharging an NLS from a ship's cargo tank is disconnected, the hose must be drained back to the transfer terminal unless...

  2. Identification of a negative regulatory role for spi-C in the murine B cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Li, Stephen K H; Solomon, Lauren A; Fulkerson, Patricia C; DeKoter, Rodney P

    2015-04-15

    Spi-C is an E26 transformation-specific family transcription factor that is highly related to PU.1 and Spi-B. Spi-C is expressed in developing B cells, but its function in B cell development and function is not well characterized. To determine whether Spi-C functions as a negative regulator of Spi-B (encoded by Spib), mice were generated that were germline knockout for Spib and heterozygous for Spic (Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-)). Interestingly, loss of one Spic allele substantially rescued B cell frequencies and absolute numbers in Spib(-/-) mouse spleens. Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) B cells had restored proliferation compared with Spib(-/-) B cells in response to anti-IgM or LPS stimulation. Investigation of a potential mechanism for the Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) phenotype revealed that steady-state levels of Nfkb1, encoding p50, were elevated in Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) B cells compared with Spib(-/-) B cells. Spi-B was shown to directly activate the Nfkb1 gene, whereas Spi-C was shown to repress this gene. These results indicate a novel role for Spi-C as a negative regulator of B cell development and function.

  3. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO22+) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO22+ is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD = 10 μM), cyt c (KD = 87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD = 30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  4. Identification and characterization of a natural inter-genotypic (2b/1b) recombinant hepatitis C virus in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Koji; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Jirintai, Suljid; Yotsumoto, Shigeru; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2011-09-01

    A hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain (HC10-0804) recovered from a 12-year-old Japanese female with chronic hepatitis C segregated into discordant genotypes, 2b and 1b, in the 5'UTR/core and NS5B regions, respectively, thus suggesting an inter-genotypic recombination. The HC10-0804 isolate had a genomic length of 9,423 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(U) tract at the 3' terminus, and encoded a single open reading frame (ORF) for a polyprotein of 3,014 amino acids (aa). Based on Simplot and Bootscan analyses, the crossover point from 2b to 1b was estimated at nt 3443/3444 (aa 1034/1035), just after the beginning of the NS3 region. Comparison of the entire genomic sequence showed that the HC10-0804 strain was only 90.2% identical to the previously reported 2b/1b recombinant strain (SE-03-07-1689) from the Philippines, whose putative crossover point was 24 nt downstream of that of HC10-0804. These results indicate the circulation of a novel inter-genotypic (2b/1b) recombinant HCV in Japan.

  5. Interfacial microstructure in a B{sub 4}C/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration.

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Z.; Song, Y.; Zhang, S.; Miller, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, B{sub 4}C particulate-reinforced Al composite was fabricated by a pressureless infiltration technique, and its interfacial microstructure was studied in detail by X-ray diffraction as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The B{sub 4}C phase was unstable in Al melt during the infiltration process, forming AlB{sub 10}-type AlB{sub 24}C{sub 4} or Al{sub 2.1}B{sub 51}C{sub 8} as a major reactant phase. The Al matrix was large grains (over 10 {micro}m), which had no definite orientation relationships (ORs) with the randomly orientated B{sub 4}C or its reactant particles, except for possible nucleation sites with {l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub B{sub 4}C} almost parallel to {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub Al} at a deviation angle of 1.5 deg. Both B{sub 4}C-Al and reactant-Al interfaces are semicoherent and free of other phases. A comparison was made with the SiC/Al composite fabricated similarly by the pressureless infiltration. It was suggested that the lack of ORs between the Al matrix and reinforced particles, except for possible nucleation sites, is the common feature of the composites prepared by the infiltration method.

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Nathalie R; van Helden, Suzanne F; Anthony, Eloise C; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  8. Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Eric E.; Price, Julie C.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Mathis, Chester A.; Paljug, William R.; Debnath, Manik L.; Cohen, Anne D.; Mizukami, Katsuyoshi; DeKosky, Steven T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11

  9. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b binding to group B Streptococcus in paired mother and baby serum samples in a refugee population on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T; Gorringe, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  10. Antibody-Mediated Complement C3b/iC3b Binding to Group B Streptococcus in Paired Mother and Baby Serum Samples in a Refugee Population on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny; Thomas, Stephen; Brookes, Charlotte; Turner, Claudia; Turner, Paul; Nosten, Francois; Le Doare, Kirsty; Hudson, Michael; Heath, Paul T.; Gorringe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In this study, we determined antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b onto the bacterial cell surface of GBS serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. This was determined for 520 mother and umbilical cord serum sample pairs obtained at the time of birth from a population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antibody-mediated deposition of complement C3b/iC3b was detected to at least one serotype in 91% of mothers, despite a known carriage rate in this population of only 12%. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition corresponded to known carriage rates, with the highest levels of complement deposition observed onto the most prevalent serotype (serotype II) followed by serotypes Ia, III, V, and Ib. Finally, neonates born to mothers carrying serotype II GBS at the time of birth showed higher antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against serotype II GBS than neonates born to mothers with no serotype II carriage. Assessment of antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition against GBS may provide insights into the seroepidemiology of anti-GBS antibodies in mothers and infants in different populations. PMID:25589553

  11. Immunochemical analysis of streptococcal group A, B, and C carbohydrates, with emphasis on group A.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, J C; Wicher, K; McCarty, M

    1982-01-01

    Streptococcal group A, B, and C carbohydrates were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and inhibition of immunoprecipitation. Extracts of streptococci group A or C were shown by counterimmunoelectrophoresis to contain both anodic and cathodic migrating components. In immunoelectrophoresis, group A and C substances formed a continuous precipitation line stretching from the anode to the cathode, suggesting a heterogeneous population of molecules with immunochemical identity. This identity was confirmed by inhibition of immunoprecipitation, in which both anodic and cathodic immunoprecipitates were inhibited by the same constituent sugars: group A-anti-A was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine, and group C-anti-C was inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine. Extracts of group B showed only anodic migration in counterimmunoelectrophoresis and a narrow, anodic arc in immunoelectrophoresis. The group B-anti-B reaction was inhibited by rhamnose. Carbohydrates of variant strains of group A streptococci were also analyzed by the same methods. The results suggest that the heterogeneity of group A carbohydrate may have resulted from attachment of various amounts of N-acetylglucosamine to the polyrhamnose backbone. Images PMID:7049950

  12. The a-B-C-ds of sensible sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gilchrest, B A

    2008-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a carcinogen that also compromises skin appearance and function. Since the UV action spectra for DNA damage, skin cancer, and vitamin D photosynthesis are identical, and vitamin D is readily available from oral supplements, why has sun protection become controversial? First, the media and, apparently, some researchers are hungry for a new message. They have also drawn attention to the emerging evidence of possible vitamin D benefits other than for bone health. Second, the controversy is fueled by a powerful special interest group: the tanning industry. This industry does not target the frail elderly or inner-city ethnic minorities, which are the groups at greatest risk of vitamin D deficiency, but rather fair-skinned teenagers and young adults, who are at highest risk of UV photodamage. Third, evolution does not keep pace with civilization. When nature gave humans the appealing capacity for cutaneous vitamin D photosynthesis, life expectancy was less than 40 years of age; long-term photodamage was not a concern, and vitamin D deficiency, with its resulting skeletal abnormalities (rickets), was likely to be fatal in early life. This article briefly reviews the pseudo-controversy , as well as the data supporting a revision of the recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. It concludes with a suggested message for patients, many of whom are understandably confused by recent media coverage of the topic. PMID:18648712

  13. The A [plus] B [double arrow] C of Chemical Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhartl, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    Basic chemical thermodynamics usually treats non-p,T reactions in a stepmotherly fashion. This paper covers the main aspects of the theoretical principles of reactions (p,T; V,T; p,H; and V,U) and offers results from the ABC computer program, which was designed to show the validity of the equilibrium theory to all types of reaction modes. (PVD)

  14. Demonstration in human plasma of a form of C3 that has the conformation of "C3b-like C3".

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Paardekooper, J; Van Milligen, F

    1990-06-01

    Disruption of the thioester in native C3 yields a C3 molecule that functionally resembles C3b. It has been proposed that this C3 molecule (iC3) plays a key role in initiation of the alternative pathway of the C system. However, its presence in plasma has never been demonstrated. We investigated the presence of iC3 in plasma, using mAb that recognize iC3 as well as C3 activation products but not native C3. One of these mAb, anti-C3-5, which binds iC3 via its C3a moiety, was used together with polyclonal 125I-anti-C3c to develop a RIA for iC3. Plasma incubated with methylamine yielded a strong response in this RIA, whereas neither fresh plasma nor serum in which the C system had been activated by incubation with aggregated IgG, did show this strong response. The specificity of this RIA was further demonstrated by additional experiments including experiments with purified preparations of the various forms of C3. Mean level of iC3 in freshly obtained plasma samples from 10 normal donors was 27 nmol/liter, which is 0.49% of total C3. Analysis by SDS-PAGE of C3 species that had been immunoprecipitated by mAb antiC3-5, revealed that some iC3 consisted of C3 molecules with an intact alpha-chain whereas another part consisted of iC3 molecules with an alpha-chain that had been cleaved by factor I. Thus, this study shows that fresh human plasma contains a C3 species with the conformation of "C3b-like C3" (iC3).

  15. Identifying the chromosomes of the A- and C-genome diploid Brassica species B. rapa (syn. campestris) and B. oleracea in their amphidiploid B. napus.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R. J.; Friedrich, T.; Friedt, W.; Köhler, W.

    2002-03-01

    Oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) is an amphidiploid species that originated from a spontaneous hybridisation of Brassica rapa L. (syn. campestris) and Brassica oleracea L., and contains the complete diploid chromosome sets of both parental genomes. The metaphase chromosomes of the highly homoeologous A genome of B. rapa and the C genome of B. oleracea cannot be reliably distinguished in B. napus because of their morphological similarity. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA probes to prometaphase chromosomes, in combination with DAPI staining, allows more dependable identification of Brassica chromosomes. By comparing rDNA hybridisation and DAPI staining patterns from B. rapa and B. oleracea prometaphase chromosomes with those from B. napus, we were able to identify the putative homologues of B. napus chromosomes in the diploid chromosome sets of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. In some cases, differences were observed between the rDNA hybridisation patterns of chromosomes in the diploid species and their putative homologue in B. napus, indicating locus losses or alterations in rDNA copy number. The ability to reliably identify A and C genome chromosomes in B. napus is discussed with respect to evolutionary and breeding aspects.

  16. 75 FR 16657 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C, B2-203, B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65699). That NPRM... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and...

  17. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  18. Complete sequence of HLA-B27 cDNA identified through the characterization of structural markers unique to the HLA-A, -B, and -C allelic series

    SciTech Connect

    Szoets, H.; Reithmueller, G.; Weiss, E.; Meo, T.

    1986-03-01

    Antigen HLA-B27 is a high-risk genetic factor with respect to a group of rheumatoid disorders, especially ankylosing spondylitis. A cDNA library was constructed from an autozygous B-cell line expressing HLA-B27, HLA-Cw1, and the previously cloned HLA-A2 antigen. Clones detected with an HLA probe were isolated and sorted into homology groups by differential hybridization and restriction maps. Nucleotide sequencing allowed the unambiguous assignment of cDNAs to HLA-A, -B, and -C loci. The HLA-B27 mRNA has the structure features and the codon variability typical of an HLA class I transcript but it specifies two uncommon amino acid replacements: a cysteine in position 67 and a serine in position 131. The latter substitution may have functional consequences, because it occurs in a conserved region and at a position invariably occupied by a species-specific arginine in humans and lysine in mice. The availability of the complete sequence of HLA-B27 and of the partial sequence of HLA-Cw1 allows the recognition of locus-specific sequence markers, particularly, but not exclusively, in the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains.

  19. The "A-B-C's" of the cluster B's: identifying, understanding, and treating cluster B personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Kraus, G; Reynolds, D J

    2001-04-01

    This article is a summary of some of the more recent research on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, histrionic, borderline, and narcissistic). Research on psychological, psychosocial, and biological perspectives of these disorders is presented. Individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and other forms of multi-person therapies are also discussed. Finally, perspectives on issues of countertransference when treating these personality-disordered patients are addressed.

  20. Regulators of complement activity mediate inhibitory mechanisms through a common C3b-binding mode.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Federico; Wu, Jin; Xue, Xiaoguang; Ricklin, Daniel; Lin, Zhuoer; Sfyroera, Georgia; Tzekou, Apostolia; Volokhina, Elena; Granneman, Joke Cm; Hauhart, Richard; Bertram, Paula; Liszewski, M Kathryn; Atkinson, John P; Lambris, John D; Gros, Piet

    2016-05-17

    Regulators of complement activation (RCA) inhibit complement-induced immune responses on healthy host tissues. We present crystal structures of human RCA (MCP, DAF, and CR1) and a smallpox virus homolog (SPICE) bound to complement component C3b. Our structural data reveal that up to four consecutive homologous CCP domains (i-iv), responsible for inhibition, bind in the same orientation and extended arrangement at a shared binding platform on C3b. Large sequence variations in CCP domains explain the diverse C3b-binding patterns, with limited or no contribution of some individual domains, while all regulators show extensive contacts with C3b for the domains at the third site. A variation of ~100° rotation around the longitudinal axis is observed for domains binding at the fourth site on C3b, without affecting the overall binding mode. The data suggest a common evolutionary origin for both inhibitory mechanisms, called decay acceleration and cofactor activity, with variable C3b binding through domains at sites ii, iii, and iv, and provide a framework for understanding RCA disease-related mutations and immune evasion. PMID:27013439

  1. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reverse airstream shall be approved by MSHA under the appliable requirements of 30 CFR part 18; (2) Drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on...

  5. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Sun, Min; Zheng, Lemin; Yao, Yuanqing

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.

  6. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or...

  12. Synthesis of ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC Powders Using a Sucrose-Containing System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingyu; Zhang, Yun; Li, Junping; Zhao, Bin; Li, Ruixing; Yin, Shu; Feng, Zhihai; Sato, Tsugio; Cai, Hongnian

    2015-09-01

    ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC powders are synthesized by a sol-gel method from zirconium n-propoxide, tetraethyl orthosilicate (only for ZrB2-SiC), boric acid, and sucrose. After reduction at 1550 degrees C, both ZrB2 and ZrB2-SiC are unconsolidated, soft gray powders. The ZrB2-SiC particles have an equiaxed shape with a diameter of about 800 nm and a uniform size distribution. The SiC may be very finely distributed, because we barely find SiC among ZrB2 particles when using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), although both ZrB2 and SiC are identified by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). PMID:26716344

  13. Active site labeling of the RNA polymerases A, B, and C from yeast.

    PubMed

    Riva, M; Schäffner, A R; Sentenac, A; Hartmann, G R; Mustaev, A A; Zaychikov, E F; Grachev, M A

    1987-10-25

    RNA polymerases A, B, and C from yeast were modified by reaction with 4-formylphenyl-gamma-ester of ATP as priming nucleotide followed by reduction with NaBH4. Upon phosphodiester bond formation with [alpha-32P]UTP, only the second largest subunit, A135, B150, or C128, was labeled in a template-dependent reaction. This indicates that these polypeptide chains are functionally homologous. The product covalently bound to B150 subunit was found to consist of a mixture of ApU and a trinucleotide. Enzyme labeling exhibited the characteristic alpha-amanitin sensitivity reported for A and B RNA polymerases. Labeling of both large subunits of enzyme A and B but not of any of the smaller subunits was observed when the reduction step stabilizing the binding of the priming nucleotide was carried out after limited chain elongation. These results illustrate the conservative evolution of the active site of eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

  14. B2C graphene, nanotubes, and nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Pei, Yong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2009-04-01

    We report a first-principles prediction of a new two-dimensional inorganic material, namely, the B(2)C graphene in which the boron and carbon atoms are packed into a mosaic of hexagons and rhombuses. In the B(2)C graphene, each carbon atom is bonded with four boron atoms, forming a planar-tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) moiety, a notion first conceived by Hoffmann et al. The B(2)C graphene is possibly a metal with a small overlap in the energy of conduction and valence bands. Like the carbon graphene and nanotubes, a B(2)C graphene sheet can be rolled into various forms of B(2)C nanotubes as well. Depending on the roll-up vector, the B(2)C nanotubes may become either a metal or a semiconductor. All B(2)C graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be uniformly metallic, regardless of their width and edge structure.

  15. Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in 1 2Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible Spectrophotometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a), b (chl b), c + c 1 2 (chl c + c ) and pheopigments of chlorophyll a (pheo a) 1 2 found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Chlorophyllide a is determined as chl a. Visible wavelength spectrophotomet...

  16. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  17. Atomic structure of icosahedral B4C boron carbide from a first principles analysis of NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Mauri, F; Vast, N; Pickard, C J

    2001-08-20

    Density functional theory is demonstrated to reproduce the 13C and 11B NMR chemical shifts of icosahedral boron carbides with sufficient accuracy to extract previously unresolved structural information from experimental NMR spectra. B4C can be viewed as an arrangement of 3-atom linear chains and 12-atom icosahedra. According to our results, all the chains have a CBC structure. Most of the icosahedra have a B11C structure with the C atom placed in a polar site, and a few percent have a B (12) structure or a B10C2 structure with the two C atoms placed in two antipodal polar sites.

  18. The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Changwoo; Choi, Hyung-Yun; Shim, Jae-Jun; Park, So-Youn; Lee, Kyung Suk; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis in South Korea is relatively high compared to that in other high-income countries. For this reason, viral hepatitis infection not only affects the population's health, but also impacts national healthcare costs. This study was performed in order to estimate the individual economic costs of the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses as well as to determine, using nationally representative data, the trends in South Korea with respect to these viruses during the 2008-2011 period. The study found that the prevalence of hepatitis A had decreased, but those of hepatitis B and C had increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis C was higher than that of the other two types. The mortality rate of hepatitis B had changed little, whereas that of hepatitis C had risen. The total cost of hepatitis A had decreased, from US $62.2 million to US $45.7 million, although a notable exception occurred in 2009, when the cost was US $126.6 million. Conversely, the total cost of hepatitis B had increased rapidly during the same period, from US $501.4 million to US $607.8 million. Finally, the total cost of hepatitis C had also increased from US $63.9 million to US $90.7 million. The direct costs of hepatitis A, B, and C were estimated to account for approximately 35.5%, 46.6%, and 58.0% of the total, respectively. These findings demonstrate the economic burden associated with hepatitis A, B, and C, and demonstrate the need to establish an effective prevention and management policy for future planning in South Korea.

  19. Heavy quark symmetry and weak decays of the b baryons in pentaquarks with a c c xAF component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ahmed; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Aslam, M. Jamil; Rehman, Abdur

    2016-09-01

    The discovery of the baryonic states Pc+(4380 ) and Pc+(4450 ) by the LHCb collaboration in the process p p →b b ¯→Λb0X , followed by the decay Λb0→J /ψ p K- has evoked a lot of theoretical interest. These states have the minimal quark content c c ¯u u d , as suggested by their discovery mode J /ψ p , and the preferred JP assignments are 5/2+ for the Pc+(4450 ) and 3/2- for the Pc+(4380 ). In the compact pentaquark hypothesis, in which they are interpreted as hidden charm diquark-diquark-antiquark baryons, the assigned spin and angular momentum quantum numbers are Pc+(4380 )={c ¯ [c u ]s =1[u d ]s =1;LP=0 ,JP=3/2-} and Pc+(4450 )={c ¯[c u ]s=1[u d ]s=0;LP=1 ,JP=5/2+}. The subscripts denote the spin of the diquarks and LP=0 , 1 are the orbital angular momentum quantum numbers of the pentaquarks. We point out that in the heavy quark limit, the spin of the light diquark in heavy baryons becomes a good quantum number, which has consequences for the decay Λb0→J /ψ p K-. With the quantum numbers assigned above for the two pentaquarks, this would allow only the higher mass pentaquark state Pc+(4450 ) having [u d ]s=0 to be produced in Λb0 decays, whereas the lower mass state Pc+(4380 ) having [u d ]s=1 is disfavored, requiring a different interpretation. Pentaquark spectrum is rich enough to accommodate a JP=3/2- state, which has the correct light diquark spin {c ¯[c u ]s=1[u d ]s=0;LP=0 ,JP=3/2-} to be produced in Λb0 decays. Assuming that the mass difference between the charmed pentaquarks which differ in the orbital angular momentum L by one unit is similar to the corresponding mass difference in the charmed baryons, m [Λc+(2625 );JP=3/2-]-m [Λc+(2286 );JP=1/2+]≃341 MeV , we estimate the mass of the lower pentaquark JP=3 /2- state to be about 4110 MeV and suggest to reanalyze the LHCb data to search for this third state. Extending these considerations to the pentaquark states having a c c ¯ pair and three light quarks (u , d , s ) in their

  20. Comparisons of subunit 5A and 5B isoenzymes of yeast cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Dodia, Raksha; Meunier, Brigitte; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Rich, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Subunit 5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is essential for assembly and has two isoforms, 5A and 5B. 5A is expressed under normoxic conditions, whereas 5B is expressed at very low oxygen tensions. As a consequence, COX5A-deleted strains (Δcox5A) have no or only low levels of CcO under normoxic conditions rendering them respiratory deficient. Previous studies have reported that respiratory growth could be restored by combining Δcox5A with mutations of ROX1 that encodes a repressor of COX5B expression. In these mutants, 5B isoenzyme expression level was 30–50% of wild-type (5A isoenzyme) and exhibited a maximum catalytic activity up to 3-fold faster than that of 5A isoenzyme. To investigate the origin of this effect, we constructed a mutant strain in which COX5B replaced COX5A downstream of the COX5A promoter. This strain expressed wild-type levels of the 5B isoenzyme, without the complication of additional effects caused by mutation of ROX1. When produced this way, the isoenzymes displayed no significant differences in their maximum catalytic activities or in their affinities for oxygen or cytochrome c. Hence the elevated activity of the 5B isoenzyme in the rox1 mutant is not caused simply by exchange of isoforms and must arise from an additional effect that remains to be resolved. PMID:25241981

  1. Detecting and preventing reversion to toxicity for a formaldehyde-treated C. difficile toxin B mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Su; Rustandi, Richard R; Wang, Feng; Mensch, Christopher D; Hong, Laura; Kristopeit, Adam; Secore, Susan; Dornadula, Geethanjali; Kanavage, Anthony; Heinrichs, Jon H; Mach, Henryk; Blue, Jeffrey T; Thiriot, David S

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of Clostridium difficile large clostridial toxin B (TcdB) can be reduced by many orders of magnitude by a combination of targeted point mutations. However, a TcdB mutant with five point mutations (referred to herein as mTcdB) still has residual toxicity that can be detected in cell-based assays and in-vivo mouse toxicity assays. This residual toxicity can be effectively removed by treatment with formaldehyde in solution. Storage of the formaldehyde-treated mTcdB as a liquid can result in reversion over time back to the mTcdB level of toxicity, with the rate of reversion dependent on the storage temperature. We found that for both the "forward" mTcdB detoxification reaction with formaldehyde, and the "reverse" reversion to toxicity reaction, mouse toxicity correlated with several biochemical assays including anion exchange chromatography retention time and appearance on SDS-PAGE. Maintenance of a low concentration of formaldehyde prevents reversion to toxicity in liquid formulations. However, when samples with 0.016% (v/v) formaldehyde were lyophilized and stored at 37 °C, formaldehyde continued to react with and modify the mTcdB in the lyophilized state. Lyophilization alone effectively prevented reversion to toxicity for formaldehyde-treated, formaldehyde-removed mTcdB samples stored at 37 °C for 6 months. Formaldehyde-treated, formaldehyde-removed lyophilized mTcdB showed no evidence of reversion to toxicity, appeared stable by several assays, and was immunogenic in mice, even after storage for 6 months at 37 °C.

  2. Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface antigen of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, T F; Streuli, M; Schlossman, S F; Saito, H

    1988-01-01

    The B1 (CD20) molecule is a Mr 33,000 phosphoprotein on the surface of human B lymphocytes that may serve a central role in the humoral immune response by regulating B-cell proliferation and differentiation. In this report, a cDNA clone that encodes the B1 molecule was isolated and the amino acid sequence of B1 was determined. B-cell-specific cDNA clones were selected from a human tonsillar cDNA library by differential hybridization with labeled cDNA derived from either size-fractionated B-cell mRNA or size-fractionated T-cell mRNA. Of the 261 cDNA clones isolated, 3 cross-hybridizing cDNA clones were chosen as potential candidates for encoding B1 based on their selective hybridization to RNA from B1-positive cell lines. The longest clone, pB1-21, contained a 2.8-kilobase insert with an 891-base-pair open reading frame that encodes a protein of 33 kDa. mRNA synthesized from the pB1-21 cDNA clone in vitro was translated into a protein of the same apparent molecular weight as B1. Limited proteinase digestion of the pB1-21 translation product and B1 generated peptides of the same sizes, indicating that the pB1-21 cDNA encodes the B1 molecule. Gel blot analysis indicated that pB1-21 hybridized with two mRNA species of 2.8 and 3.4 kilobases only in B1-positive cell lines. The amino acid sequence deduced from the pB1-21 nucleotide sequence apparently lacks a signal sequence and contains three extensive hydrophobic regions. The deduced B1 amino acid sequence shows no significant homology with other known proteins. Images PMID:2448768

  3. Where is the Best Site on Earth? Domes A, B, C, and F, and Ridges A and B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suanders, Will; Lawrence, Jon S.; Storey, John W. V.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Kato, Seiji; Minnis, Patrick; Winker, David M.; Liu, Guiping; Kulesa, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic plateau contains the best sites on earth for many forms of astronomy, but none of the existing bases were selected with astronomy as the primary motivation. In this paper, we try to systematically compare the merits of potential observatory sites. We include South Pole, Domes A, C and F, and also Ridge B (running NE from Dome A), and what we call Ridge A (running SW from Dome A). Our analysis combines satellite data, published results and atmospheric models, to compare the boundary layer, weather, free atmosphere, sky brightness, pecipitable water vapour, and surface temperature at each site. We find that all Antarctic sites are likely compromised for optical work by airglow and aurorae. Of the sites with existing bases, Dome A is the best overall; but we find that Ridge A offers an even better site. We also find that Dome F is a remarkably good site. Dome C is less good as a thermal infrared or terahertz site, but would be able to take advantage of a predicted OH hole over Antarctica during Spring.

  4. Successful treatment of activated occult hepatitis B in a non-responder chronic hepatitis C patient

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We reported a 23 years old male with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, discontinued from pegylated interferon/ribavirin combination therapy due to a lack of early virological response. He has developed activation of occult hepatitis B virus that was successfully treated by a one year of lamivudine therapy. PMID:22078891

  5. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Marco Giulio; Gatti, Francesco Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+)-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum-DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste. PMID:26664632

  6. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonti, Marco Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+)-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste. PMID:26664632

  7. Proinsulin C-peptide stimulates a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway to activate COX-2 gene transcription in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masashi; Shibata, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Seiichi; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2006-06-01

    Proinsulin C-peptide causes multiple molecular and physiological effects, and improves renal and neuronal dysfunction in patients with diabetes. However, whether C-peptide controls the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB)/NF-kappaB-dependent transcription of genes, including inflammatory genes is unknown. Here we showed that 1 nM C-peptide increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and its protein in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Consistently, C-peptide enhanced COX-2 gene promoter-activity, which was inhibited by GF109203X and Go6976, specific PKC inhibitors, and BAY11-7082, a specific nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) inhibitor, accompanied by increased phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB. These results suggest that C-peptide stimulates the transcription of inflammatory genes via activation of a PKC/IkappaB/NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

  8. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  9. The bacterial DnaC helicase loader is a DnaB ring breaker

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; O’Shea, Valerie L.; Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dedicated AAA+ ATPases help deposit hexameric ring-shaped helicases onto DNA to promote replication in cellular organisms. To understand how loading occurs, we used negative-stain electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering to determine the ATP-bound structure of the intact E. coli DnaB•DnaC helicase/loader complex. The 480 kDa dodecamer forms a three-tiered assembly, in which DnaC adopts a spiral configuration that remodels N-terminal scaffolding and C-terminal motor regions of DnaB to produce a clear break in the helicase ring. Surprisingly, DnaC’s AAA+ fold is dispensable for ring remodeling, as the isolated helicase-binding domain of DnaC can both load DnaB onto DNA and increase the efficiency by which the helicase acts on substrates in vitro. Our data demonstrate that DnaC opens DnaB by a mechanism akin to that of polymerase clamp loaders, and indicate that bacterial replicative helicases, like their eukaryotic counterparts, possess auto-regulatory elements that influence how the hexameric motor domains are loaded onto and unwind DNA. PMID:23562643

  10. Stability and structure of C12B24N24: A hybrid analog of buckminsterfullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Thomas F.; Bowser, James R.; Jelski, Daniel A.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study of the substituted buckminsterfullerene C12B24N24 are presented. Computational evidence is given for its stability, the molecular structure is discussed, and a possible synthetic route is proposed. The sixty-vertex, truncated icosahedral cluster system known as buckminsterfullerene has attracted increased attention following recent repairs of its laboratory-scale synthesis. Such large clusters provide a bridge between atomic and macroscopic species, and hence have considerable technological importance - for example, in electrochemistry, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. Various efforts to add heteroatoms (especially nucleophiles) to the periphery of C60 frameworks have been successful. Smalley and co-workers doped C60 with boron and nitrogen atoms, with mass spectral evidence for C59B, C59N, C58BN, etc. having been obtained. The C58BN cluster is especially intriguing. The isoelectronic relationship between boron-nitrogen and dicarbon molecular fragments is well documented, and is manifested in a variety of ways. For example, the structural chemistry of boron nitride closely parallels that of elemental carbon-hexagonal BN is an analog of graphite, while Beta-BN is isostructural with diamond.

  11. Genetic variants of surfactant proteins A, B, C, and D in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, J; Papagaroufalis, C; Xanthou, M; Liu, W; Fan, R; Thomas, N J; Apostolidou, I; Papathoma, E; Megaloyianni, E; DiAngelo, S; Floros, J

    2006-01-01

    BPD_28D (O2 dependency at 28 days of life) and BPD_36W (O2 dependency at 36 wks post-menstrual age) are diseases of prematurely born infants exposed to mechanical ventilation and/or oxygen supplementation. In order to determine whether genetic variants of surfactant proteins (SPs-A, B, C, and D) and SP-B-linked microsatellite markers are risk factors in BPD, we performed a family based association study using a Greek study group of 71 neonates (<30 wks gestational age) from 60 families with, 52 BPD_28D and 19 BPD_36W, affected infants. Genotyping was performed using newly designed pyrosequencing assays and previously published methods. Associations between genetic variants of SPs and BPD subgroups were determined using Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) and Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Significant associations (pB and SP-B-linked microsatellite markers, and haplotypes of SP-A, SP-D, and SP-B. Specifically, allele B-18_C associated with susceptibility in BPD_36W. Microsatellite marker AAGG_6 associated with susceptibility in BPD_28D/36W group. Haplotype analysis revealed ten susceptibility and one protective haplotypes for SP-B and SP-B-linked microsatellite markers and two SP-A-SP-D protective haplotypes. The data indicate that SP loci are linked to BPD. Studies in different study groups and/or of larger sample size are warranted to confirm these observations and delineate genetic background of BPD subgroups.

  12. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B...

  13. A novel antibody against human factor B that blocks formation of the C3bB proconvertase and inhibits complement activation in disease models.

    PubMed

    Subías, Marta; Tortajada, Agustín; Gastoldi, Sara; Galbusera, Miriam; López-Perrote, Andrés; Lopez, Lucia de Juana; González-Fernández, Fernando Ataúlfo; Villegas-Martínez, Ana; Dominguez, Mercedes; Llorca, Oscar; Noris, Marina; Morgan, B Paul; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2014-12-01

    The alternative pathway (AP) is critical for the efficient activation of complement regardless of the trigger. It is also a major player in pathogenesis, as illustrated by the long list of diseases in which AP activation contributes to pathology. Its relevance to human disease is further emphasized by the high prevalence of pathogenic inherited defects and acquired autoantibodies disrupting components and regulators of the AP C3-convertase. Because pharmacological downmodulation of the AP emerges as a broad-spectrum treatment alternative, there is a powerful interest in developing new molecules to block formation and/or activity of the AP C3-convertase. In this paper, we describe the generation of a novel mAb targeting human factor B (FB). mAb FB48.4.2, recognizing with high affinity an evolutionary-conserved epitope in the Ba fragment of FB, very efficiently inhibited formation of the AP C3-proconvertase by blocking the interaction between FB and C3b. In vitro assays using rabbit and sheep erythrocytes demonstrated that FB28.4.2 was a potent AP inhibitor that blocked complement-mediated hemolysis in several species. Using ex vivo models of disease we demonstrated that FB28.4.2 protected paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes from complement-mediated hemolysis and inhibited both C3 fragment and C5b-9 deposition on ADP-activated HMEC-1 cells, an experimental model for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Moreover, i.v. injection of FB28.4.2 in rats blocked complement activation in rat serum and prevented the passive induction of experimental autoimmune Myasthenia gravis. As a whole, these data demonstrate the potential value of FB28.4.2 for the treatment of disorders associated with AP complement dysregulation in man and animal models.

  14. Evidence for New Madrid earthquakes in A.D. 300 and 2350 B.C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Schweig, E. S.; Campbell, J.; Thomas, P.M.; Sims, J.D.; Lafferty, R. H.

    2005-01-01

    Six episodes of earthquake-induced liquefaction are associated with soil horizons containing artifacts of the Late Archaic (3000-500 B.C.) and Early to Middle Woodland (500 B.C.-A.D. 400) cultural periods at the Burkett archaeological site in the northern part of the New Madrid seismic zone, where little information about prehistoric earthquakes has been available. Radiocarbon dating of organic material and analysis of artifacts are used to estimate the ages of the liquefaction features and times of the causative earthquakes. The most recent episode of liquefaction occurred after A.D. 1670, produced small sand dikes, and is probably related to the 1895 Charleston, Missouri earthquake. The preceding episode struck the area in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years and generated a sand blow that contains Late Woodland artifacts and buries an Early to Middle Woodland cultural horizon. Four older episodes of liquefaction occurred in 2350 B.C. ?? 200 years and may have been produced by a sequence of closely timed earthquakes. The four earlier episodes produced graben structures, sand dikes, and associated sand blows on which a cultural mound was constructed. The Burkett liquefaction features that formed about 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300 are relatively large and similar in age to other liquefaction features in northeastern Arkansas and southeastern Missouri, respectively. If the prehistoric features at the Burkett site and those of similar age elsewhere in the region are the result of the same earthquakes, then this suggests that they were similar in size to the three largest (M 7-8) 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. A New Madrid-type earthquake in A.D. 300 ?? 200 years would support an average recurrence time of 500 years. Although this study extends the earthquake chronology back to 2500 B.C., it is uncertain that the record of New Madrid events is complete for the period between 2350 B.C. and A.D. 300. As demonstrated by this study, information about other prehistoric earthquakes may be

  15. Structural insights into ligand recognition and selectivity for class A, B, and C GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; Booe, Jason M.; Pioszak, Augen A.

    2015-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily constitutes the largest collection of cell surface signaling proteins with approximately 800 members in the human genome. GPCRs regulate virtually all aspects of physiology and they are an important class of drug targets with ~30% of drugs on the market targeting a GPCR. Breakthroughs in GPCR structural biology in recent years have significantly expanded our understanding of GPCR structure and function and ushered in a new era of structure-based drug design for GPCRs. Crystal structures for nearly thirty distinct GPCRs are now available including receptors from each of the major classes, A, B, C, and F. These structures provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of GPCR pharmacology. Here, we review structural mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity of GPCRs with a focus on selected examples from classes A, B, and C, and we highlight major unresolved questions for future structural studies. PMID:25981303

  16. Time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model for nonfrustrated linear A B C triblock terpolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, Paul C.

    2015-08-01

    A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model is proposed to simulate the ordering of linear A B C triblock terpolymers. The model, in its current form, is applicable to nonfrustrated triblock systems, with the specific condition that χA C≫χA B≈χB C . Simulations are presented that demonstrate the model's ability to evolve a wide variety of morphologies throughout time, including tetragonal, core-shell hexagonal, three-phase lamellar, and beads-in-lamellar phases. The model also incorporates an interaction term to study templated substrates for directed self-assembly. The efficiency of the TDGL model enables large-scale simulations that allow investigation of self-assembly, and directed self-assembly, processes that may exhibit very small defect concentrations.

  17. Relaxation response of A533B steel from 25 to 600/degree/C

    SciTech Connect

    Swindeman, R.W.; Bolling, E.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation tests were performed on A533B steel over the range 25 to 600/degree/C in order to examine the general features of time- dependent deformation. It was found that the relaxation strength increased with the flow stress at low temperatures and was relatively independent of history at high temperatures. In the temperature range 400 to 600/degree/C the inelastic strain rates calculated from the relaxation rates followed stress dependencies that were consistent with expectations based on a model proposed by Hart and coworkers for matrix deformation. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Influence of Marangoni flows on the dynamics of isothermal A + BC reaction fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiani, R.; Rongy, L.

    2016-09-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of A + BC fronts is analyzed both numerically and theoretically in the presence of Marangoni flows, i.e., convective motions driven by surface tension gradients. We consider horizontal aqueous solutions where the three species A, B, and C can affect the surface tension of the solution, thereby driving Marangoni flows. The resulting dynamics is studied by numerically integrating the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to reaction-diffusion-convection (RDC) equations for the three chemical species. We show that the dynamics of the front cannot be predicted solely on the basis of the one-dimensional reaction-diffusion profiles as is the case for buoyancy-driven convection around such fronts. We relate this observation to the structure of Marangoni flows which lead to more complex and exotic dynamics. We find in particular the surprising possibility of a reversal of the front propagation direction in time for some sets of Marangoni numbers, quantifying the influence of each chemical species concentration on the solution surface tension. We explain this reversal analytically and propose a new classification of the convective effects on A + BC reaction fronts as a function of the Marangoni numbers. The influence of the layer thickness on the RDC dynamics is also presented. Those results emphasize the importance of flow symmetry properties when studying convective front dynamics in a given geometry.

  19. Construction of the Tricyclic A-B-C Core of the Veratrum Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Berry, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Organocatalyzed enantioselective allylation of 2-iodocyclohexenone followed by methylation and oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered enantiomerically-enriched 2-methyl 3-allyl cyclohexanone, that engaged in acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation to give the bicyclic enone. Subsequent elaboration of the pendant allyl group into an α-diazo β-keto ester set the stage for Rh-mediated cyclization to deliver the tricyclic A-B-C core of the Veratrum alkaloids. PMID:23859604

  20. Evidence-based medicine in obstetrics: can levels B and C recommendations be elevated to level A recommendations?

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Chang, Eugene; Brost, Brian; Assel, Barbara; Baxter, Jason; Smith, James A; Grobman, Robert; Berghella, Vincenzo; Scardo, James A; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C

    2009-06-01

    In this study, 65% (132/195) of level B/C obstetric recommendations are amenable to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and seven were identified as most needed. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate levels B and C recommendations in obstetric practice bulletins (PBs) regarding the feasibility of performing RCT to elevate each subject to level A evidence. Eleven geographically dispersed physicians with experience in research reviewed levels B and C recommendations for the ethical and logistical feasibility of performing an RCT. In the 35 obstetric PBs, 195 level B/C recommendations were reviewed. The majority considered 47 (24%) topics unethical for an RCT and thought 16 (11%) did not need an RCT, thus leaving 132 (67%) levels B and C recommendations available for an RCT. Two-thirds of levels B and C recommendations in obstetric PB are amenable to RCTs and potentially becoming level A evidence. PMID:27582813

  1. Material Specific Rational Design of A1B2C3O7 High-Tc Superconductors without Copper [A, B, C = Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O'paul; Schaffer, Michael J.

    Soon after the discovery of YBa2Cu3O7 with Tc = 93K, a similar structured system with Ag replacing Cu was discovered with a Tc = 50K. Also, the discovery of Ba0 . 6 K0 . 4 BiO3 with Tc = 30K indicated that Cu was not indispensable for high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). Latter, the discoveries of the Pnictide and Chalcogenide high-Tc superconductors confirmed those earlier experimental indications. Using our recently developed Material Specific Characterization Dataset (MSCD) model for analysis and design of superconductors, we have computed many designs that satisfy the MSCD characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 as a design model. Our design recognizes the valence state characteristics that make YBa2Cu3O6 a semiconductor, while YBa2Cu3O7is a superconductor. Here we present ten material specific rational design examples of potential A1B2C3O7 HTSCs without Cu, using the YBa2Cu3O7 design model. This MSCD design model opens the possibility for search and discovery of high-Tc oxide superconductor systems without copper.

  2. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK: Second generation hardware and latest scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Kreuzberg, K.

    A second version of the C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK laboratory prototype was developed which includes a new water recycling system and a "Botanical Component" with higher water plants for nitrate elimination. It was a modified by a compact commercial filter system which involves a semi-biological coarse filter, a bacteria filter, gas and heat exchangers and a UV sterilization device. A highly sophisticated process control system offers all possiblities to implement robotics and telescience. With the installation of the Botanical component into the system the first step of the realisation of the conception of a "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" is performed. In the scientific frame program the reproductive biology of the main experimental animal, Xiphophorus helleri, plays an important role. After the establishment of a morphological reference system of the stages of sexual maturity in both sexes this is correlated with relevant physiological data as concentrations of sexual steroids in gonadal tissue and plasma. On the brain-pituitary level the ontogeny of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin (GtH) systems were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly gonadotropin was not only localized in the pituitary gland but also in brain neurons and fibers which undergo a distinct ontogenetic development and a maior part of which are in close structural relation to the GnRH system. A special chapter pays attention to the role of the C.E.B.A.S.-system in C.E.L.S.S. research.

  3. Interactions among LRF-1, JunB, c-Jun, and c-Fos define a regulatory program in the G1 phase of liver regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, J C; Bravo, R; Taub, R

    1992-01-01

    In regenerating liver, a physiologically normal model of cell growth, LRF-1, JunB, c-Jun, and c-Fos among Jun/Fos/LRF-1 family members are induced posthepatectomy. In liver cells, high levels of c-Fos/c-Jun, c-Fos/JunB, LRF-1/c-Jun, and LRF-1/JunB complexes are present for several hours after the G0/G1 transition, and the relative level of LRF-1/JunB complexes increases during G1. We provide evidence for dramatic differences in promoter-specific activation by LRF-1- and c-Fos-containing complexes. LRF-1 in combination with either Jun protein strongly activates a cyclic AMP response element-containing promoter which c-Fos/Jun does not activate. LRF-1/c-Jun, c-Fos/c-Jun, and c-Fos/JunB activate specific AP-1 and ATF site-containing promoters, and in contrast, LRF-1/JunB potently represses c-Fos- and c-Jun-mediated activation of these promoters. Repression is dependent on a region in LRF-1 that includes amino acids 40 to 84 (domain R) and the basic/leucine zipper domain. As the relative level of LRF-1/JunB complexes increases posthepatectomy, c-Fos/Jun-mediated ATF and AP-1 site activation is likely to decrease with simultaneous transcriptional activation of the many liver-specific genes whose promoters contain cyclic AMP response element sites. Thus, through complex interactions among LRF-1, JunB, c-Jun, and c-Fos, control of delayed gene expression may be established for extended times during the G1 phase of hepatic growth. Images PMID:1406655

  4. Machine Learning Energies of 2 Million Elpasolite (A B C2D6) Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Felix A.; Lindmaa, Alexander; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Armiento, Rickard

    2016-09-01

    Elpasolite is the predominant quaternary crystal structure (AlNaK2F6 prototype) reported in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. We develop a machine learning model to calculate density functional theory quality formation energies of all ˜2 ×106 pristine A B C2D6 elpasolite crystals that can be made up from main-group elements (up to bismuth). Our model's accuracy can be improved systematically, reaching a mean absolute error of 0.1 eV /atom for a training set consisting of 10 ×103 crystals. Important bonding trends are revealed: fluoride is best suited to fit the coordination of the D site, which lowers the formation energy whereas the opposite is found for carbon. The bonding contribution of the elements A and B is very small on average. Low formation energies result from A and B being late elements from group II, C being a late (group I) element, and D being fluoride. Out of 2 ×106 crystals, 90 unique structures are predicted to be on the convex hull—among which is NFAl2Ca6, with a peculiar stoichiometry and a negative atomic oxidation state for Al.

  5. Flexible structural and electronic properties of a pentagonal B2C monolayer via external strain: a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyu; Tu, Kaixiong; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the recent theoretical finding that penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons, is dynamically and mechanically stable [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2015, 112, 2372-2377], we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, a pentagonal B2C monolayer (penta-B2C), in which each pentagon contains three boron and two carbon atoms, the C atom is four-coordinated with four B atoms, and all the B atoms are three-coordinated with two C atoms and one B atom, forming a buckled 2D network. The pentagonal B2C monolayer is semiconducting with a wide indirect band gap of 2.28 eV from HSE calculations. The absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate its good stability. Interestingly, the buckled structure could be stretched to planar under 15% biaxial tensile strain, and the band gap will be strikingly reduced to 0.06 eV. The semiconducting properties of penta-B2C could also be switched to those of a metallic semiconductor under certain biaxial strains, while uniaxial strains could only tune the band gaps without changing the semiconducting characteristics.

  6. Flexible structural and electronic properties of a pentagonal B2C monolayer via external strain: a computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyu; Tu, Kaixiong; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the recent theoretical finding that penta-graphene, composed entirely of carbon pentagons, is dynamically and mechanically stable [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2015, 112, 2372-2377], we computationally designed a new two-dimensional (2D) inorganic material, a pentagonal B2C monolayer (penta-B2C), in which each pentagon contains three boron and two carbon atoms, the C atom is four-coordinated with four B atoms, and all the B atoms are three-coordinated with two C atoms and one B atom, forming a buckled 2D network. The pentagonal B2C monolayer is semiconducting with a wide indirect band gap of 2.28 eV from HSE calculations. The absence of imaginary modes in its phonon spectrum, and the high melting point predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate its good stability. Interestingly, the buckled structure could be stretched to planar under 15% biaxial tensile strain, and the band gap will be strikingly reduced to 0.06 eV. The semiconducting properties of penta-B2C could also be switched to those of a metallic semiconductor under certain biaxial strains, while uniaxial strains could only tune the band gaps without changing the semiconducting characteristics. PMID:26315808

  7. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) must: (1) Have been manufactured or produced as described in 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback... States and qualify for drawback under the manufacturing drawback law (19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b)),...

  8. 19 CFR 191.174 - Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under 19 U.S.C. 1313(p) must: (1) Have been manufactured or produced as described in 19 U.S.C. 1313(a... Derivatives § 191.174 Derivatives manufactured under 19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b). When the basis for drawback... States and qualify for drawback under the manufacturing drawback law (19 U.S.C. 1313(a) or (b)),...

  9. Observation of B+ --> Lambda c+ Lambda c- K+ and B0 --> Lambda c+ Lambda c- K0 decays.

    PubMed

    Gabyshev, N; Abe, K; Abe, K; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asano, Y; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Barberio, E; Bartel, W; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Choi, Y; Chuvikov, A; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, M; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Garmash, A; Gershon, T; Gokhroo, G; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Hokuue, T; Hoshi, Y; Hou, S; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y B; Ikado, K; Imoto, A; Inami, K; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Kang, J H; Kawasaki, T; Khan, H R; Kichimi, H; Kim, S M; Korpar, S; Krokovny, P; Kulasiri, R; Kuo, C C; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y-J; Leder, G; Lesiak, T; Lin, S-W; Liventsev, D; Majumder, G; Matsumoto, T; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ozaki, H; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Pestotnik, R; Piilonen, L E; Sakai, Y; Sato, N; Satoyama, N; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Seidl, R; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shibuya, H; Somov, A; Soni, N; Stamen, R; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Ueno, K; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Villa, S; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Xie, Q L; Yamaguchi, A; Yamauchi, M; Ying, J; Zhang, Z P

    2006-11-17

    We report the first measurements of the doubly charmed baryonic B decays B --> Lambda c+ Lambda c- K. The B+ --> Lambda c+ Lambda c- K+ decay is observed with a branching fraction of (6.5(-0.9)(+1.0)+/-1.1+/-3.4)x10(-4) and a statistical significance of 15.4sigma. The B0 --> Lambda c+ Lambda c- K0 decay is observed with a branching fraction of (7.9(-2.3)(+2.9)+/-1.2+/-4.1)x10(-4) and a statistical significance of 6.6sigma. The branching fraction errors are statistical, systematic, and the error resulting from the uncertainty of the Lambda c+ --> pK- pi+ decay branching fraction. The analysis is based on 357 fb(-1) of data accumulated at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. PMID:17155677

  10. Autoantibody to the C3b/C4b receptor and absence of this receptor from erythrocytes of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J G; Jack, R M; Wong, W W; Schur, P H; Fearon, D T

    1985-01-01

    A 29-yr-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was found to have no detectable C3b/C4b receptors (CR1) on her erythrocytes (E) when they were assayed by the binding of rabbit polyclonal and murine monoclonal (Yz-1) anti-CR1. Analysis by two-color fluorescent flow cytometry of CR1 expression on the patient's B lymphocytes that had been stained indirectly with monoclonal anti-B1 and rabbit F(ab')2 anti-CR1 also revealed a marked deficiency of CR1. Total cellular CR1 of neutrophils, assessed by a sandwich radioimmunoassay, was about half that of neutrophils from normal individuals. Because her E had expressed 173 sites/cell 2 yr before, the CR1 deficiency was considered to be acquired and a possible mechanism was sought. Autoantibody to CR1 was measured by a radioimmunoassay in which serum or its fractions were incubated in microtiter wells that had been coated with purified CR1, and binding of immunoglobulin to the wells was quantitated with 125I-labeled goat IgG antihuman F(ab')2. The CR1-specific binding of immunoglobulin from the patient's serum was 19.1 ng/well of the detecting antibody when her E had eight CR1 sites per cell; that of 28 healthy donors was 1.3 +/- 0.5 ng/well (mean +/- SEM), and that of 34 additional patients with SLE was 0.5 +/- 0.3 ng/well. The activity was present also in purified IgG and its F(ab')2 fragment, indicating that the binding of serum immunoglobulin to CR1 was not mediated by C3 fragments. The specificity of the patient's IgG for CR1 was confirmed when pretreatment of the CR1-coated wells with affinity-purified rabbit F(ab')2 anti-CR1 was shown to inhibit by 68% the binding of the IgG. The autoantibody also interacted with CR1 in cell membranes, as assessed by its capacity to inhibit the binding of indirectly fluoresceinated Yz-1 to neutrophils, and, when combined with goat IgG antihuman F(ab')2, to diminish the binding of dimeric C3b to normal E. During the period of the marked deficiency of CR1 the patient experienced

  11. 5 CFR 213.104 - Special provisions for temporary, intermittent, or seasonal appointments in Schedule A, B, or C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special provisions for temporary... Special provisions for temporary, intermittent, or seasonal appointments in Schedule A, B, or C. (a) When OPM specifies that appointments under a particular Schedule A, B, or C authority must be...

  12. Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system

    SciTech Connect

    Babatunde O'Sheg Oshinowo

    2000-06-13

    The Fermilab D0 detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is {+-}0.5 mm, and {+-}2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey.

  13. 38 CFR 3.362 - Offsets under 38 U.S.C. 1151(b) of benefits awarded under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specifically designated for a purpose for which benefits are provided under 38 U.S.C. chapter 21 (38 CFR 3.809 and 3.809a) or 38 U.S.C. chapter 39 (38 CFR 3.808), and if VA awards 38 U.S.C. chapter 21 or 38 U.S.C... compensation. If a veteran's death is the basis of a judgment under 28 U.S.C. 1346(b) awarded, or a...

  14. Is QSO 1146 + 111B,C due to lensing by a cosmic string?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A newly discovered lens candidate, QSO 1146 + 111B,C, is discussed which appears to consist of two images of equal brightness of a quasar at redshift 1.01 separated by 2.6 arcmin. If this is produced by a cosmic string, its mass per unit length is about 4.0 x 10 to the 23rd g/cm or more. This value is large enough to be interesting for string-assisted galaxy formation and near the upper limits implied by the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background and constraints on gravitational radiation.

  15. An Engineered Cytochrome b6c1 Complex with a Split Cytochrome b Is Able To Support Photosynthetic Growth of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    PubMed Central

    Saribas, A. Sami; Mandaci, Sevnur; Daldal, Fevzi

    1999-01-01

    The ubihydroquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (or the cytochrome bc1 complex) from Rhodobacter capsulatus is composed of the Fe-S protein, cytochrome b, and cytochrome c1 subunits encoded by petA(fbcF), petB(fbcB), and petC(fbcC) genes organized as an operon. In the work reported here, petB(fbcB) was split genetically into two cistrons, petB6 and petBIV, which encoded two polypeptides corresponding to the four amino-terminal and four carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helices of cytochrome b, respectively. These polypeptides resembled the cytochrome b6 and su IV subunits of chloroplast cytochrome b6f complexes, and together with the unmodified subunits of the cytochrome bc1 complex, they formed a novel enzyme, named cytochrome b6c1 complex. This membrane-bound multisubunit complex was functional, and despite its smaller amount, it was able to support the photosynthetic growth of R. capsulatus. Upon further mutagenesis, a mutant overproducing it, due to a C-to-T transition at the second base of the second codon of petBIV, was obtained. Biochemical analyses, including electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, with this mutant revealed that the properties of the cytochrome b6c1 complex were similar to those of the cytochrome bc1 complex. In particular, it was highly sensitive to inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex, including antimycin A, and the redox properties of its b- and c-type heme prosthetic groups were unchanged. However, the optical absorption spectrum of its cytochrome bL heme was modified in a way reminiscent of that of a cytochrome b6f complex. Based on the work described here and that with Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. Kuras, M. Guergova-Kuras, and A. R. Crofts, Biochemistry 37:16280–16288, 1998), it appears that neither the inhibitor resistance nor the redox potential differences observed between the bacterial (or mitochondrial) cytochrome bc1 complexes and the chloroplast cytochrome b6f complexes are direct consequences of splitting cytochrome b into

  16. The history of medical libraries from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D.

    PubMed

    Birchette, K P

    1973-07-01

    Tablets said to date back to 2000 b.c. represent the earliest medical writings so far discovered. The history of the medical library (defined as a place where a collection of medical writings is kept) is traced through ancient and medieval civilizations, and the dependence of advancement or decline on the attitude toward learning and knowledge is demonstrated.The change in structure of medical libraries that took place around the 1500s with the development of scientific societies is discussed. Medical libraries of Colonial America are described and the history is brought forward to the era of public library collections of medical material in the early 1900s.

  17. The History of Medical Libraries from 2000 B.C. to 1900 A.D

    PubMed Central

    Birchette, Kathleen P.

    1973-01-01

    Tablets said to date back to 2000 b.c. represent the earliest medical writings so far discovered. The history of the medical library (defined as a place where a collection of medical writings is kept) is traced through ancient and medieval civilizations, and the dependence of advancement or decline on the attitude toward learning and knowledge is demonstrated. The change in structure of medical libraries that took place around the 1500s with the development of scientific societies is discussed. Medical libraries of Colonial America are described and the history is brought forward to the era of public library collections of medical material in the early 1900s. PMID:4579768

  18. Fine Mapping of the Interaction between C4b-Binding Protein and Outer Membrane Proteins LigA and LigB of Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans.

    PubMed

    Breda, Leandro C D; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Castiblanco Valencia, Mónica M; da Silva, Ludmila B; Barbosa, Angela S; Blom, Anna M; Chang, Yung-Fu; Yung-Fu, Chang; Isaac, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The complement system consists of more than 40 proteins that participate in the inflammatory response and in pathogen killing. Complement inhibitors are necessary to avoid the excessive consumption and activation of this system on host cells. Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes from the genus Leptospira. Pathogenic leptospires are able to escape from complement activation by binding to host complement inhibitors Factor H [FH] and C4b-binding protein (C4BP) while non-pathogenic leptospires are rapidly killed in the presence of fresh serum. In this study, we demonstrate that complement control protein domains (CCP) 7 and 8 of C4BP α-chain interact with the outer membrane proteins LcpA, LigA and LigB from the pathogenic leptospire L. interrogans. The interaction between C4BP and LcpA, LigA and LigB is sensitive to ionic strength and inhibited by heparin. We fine mapped the LigA and LigB domains involved in its binding to C4BP and heparin and found that both interactions are mediated through the bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains 7 and 8 (LigA7-8 and LigB7-8) of both LigA and LigB and also through LigB9-10. Therefore, C4BP and heparin may share the same binding sites on Lig proteins.

  19. Segregation of H, C and B to Σ = 5 (0 1 3) α-Fe grain boundary: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesari, S.; Irigoyen, B.; Juan, A.

    2006-12-01

    The ASED-MO theory is used to study the effects of H and the H sbnd C and H sbnd B pairs in the electronic structure of a Fe grain boundary (GB). The results obtained for H in a GB model are consistent with its behavior as a chemical embrittler. The total energies calculated for FeH, FeC and FeB clusters indicate that all interstitials segregate to the GB. C has the lowest energy, followed by B, and could compete with other impurities for the site location on the GB. The results obtained for FeCH and FeBH are consistent with the observed behavior of C and B as cohesion enhancers. A strong repulsive interaction between C and H and B and H atoms is developed if they occupy the nearest interstitial site on the GB. When C or B are present, the total energies are similar to that obtained for the FeH cluster. This indicates that H is displaced from the capped trigonal prism (CTP). Also, we do not detect any C sbnd H or B sbnd H interaction. Density of states (DOS) and crystal orbital overlap population (COOP) curves are used to shed more light on the interstitial-Fe GB interaction. The existence of strong metal-metalloid bonds is shown, which are primarily due to Fe 3d, 4s and C (or B) 2s, 2p interactions.

  20. Search for Bbar to Lambda_c+ X l- nu Decays in Events with a Fully Reconstructed B Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Tanabe, T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-04-19

    We present a search for semileptonic B decays to the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} based on 420 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage rings. By fully reconstructing the recoiling B in a hadronic decay mode, we reduce non-B backgrounds and determine the flavor of the signal B. We statistically correct the flavor for the effect of the B{sup 0} mixing. We obtain a 90% confidence level upper limit of {Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X{ell}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} X) < 3.5%.

  1. Crystal structure features in a new compound C4B25Mg1.42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The composition of C4B25Mg1.42 crystal obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis was determined using X-ray diffraction. This is the first crystalline structure where all boron atoms in the В12 icosahedron occupy crystallographically independent positions; this circumstance allowed us to analyze the effect of substituents on bond lengths in the icosahedron. The crystal structure features, including the channels filled with disordered Mg atoms and the spread of В—В endo- and exo-bond lengths in the icosahedra, are described. A crystallochemical analysis of pair bonds has been performed for the first time.

  2. Crispene A, B, C and D, Four New Clerodane Type Furanoid Diterpenes from Tinospora crispa (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hossen, Farhad; Ahasan, Rubaida; Haque, Mohammad Rashedul; Begum, Bilkis; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinospora crispa (L.) is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. It is also used for hypertension and to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhea, and as vermifuge. Materials and Methods: Stems of T. crispa were collected, sun dried for several days followed by oven dried for 24 h at a considerably low temperature and then ground into coarse powder. The powdered stems were soaked in methanol at room temperature for 14 days with occasional shaking. The extract was collected by filtration, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator to obtain a solid residue which was then subjected to fractionation using the modified Kupchan partitioning method into n-hexane, CCl4, CHCl3 and aqueous soluble fractions. The n-hexane soluble fraction was chromatographed over sephadex (LH-20) and the column was eluted with n-hexane: CH2Cl2:MeOH (2:5:1) followed by CH2Cl2:MeOH (9:1) and MeOH (100%) in order to increase the polarities. The column fractions were then concentrated and subjected to thin layer chromatography screening and the fractions with a satisfactory resolution of compounds were rechromatographed over silica gel to isolate the pure compounds. Results: Four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, Crispene A, B, C, and D (1–4), including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside, borapetoside E (5), were isolated from the stems of T. crispa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their spectral data with closely related compounds. Conclusion: We have reported four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types, including one known furanoid diterpene glucoside. This is the first report of any clerodane diterpene having olefinic bond between C-6 and C-7. SUMMARY Crispene A, B, C, and D, four new furanoid diterpenes of clerodane types from Tinospora crispaCrispene C, an unusual furanoid diterpene with olifinic bond between C-6 and C

  3. Optimization of the conjugation method for a serogroup B/C meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Lucila O; Schenkman, Rocilda P F; Perciani, Catia T; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Dias, Waldely O; Tanizaki, Martha M

    2006-11-01

    A conjugate meningococcal vaccine against serogroup B/C consisting of capsular PS (polysaccharide) from serogroup C conjugated to OMV (outer membrane vesicle) from serogroup B would be a very useful vaccine in regions where there is a prevalence of both serogroups, for example in Brazil. For this purpose, the conjugation method that uses ADHy (adipic acid dihydrazide) as spacer and a carbodi-imide derivative, EDAC [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodi-imide], as catalyser was optimized looking for synthesis yield and maintenance of the antigenicity of both components. The best synthesis conditions preserving the vaccine immunogenicity resulted in a final yield of approx. 17%. Immunogenicity of the vaccine was highest when 10% of the sialic acid residues of the PS were occupied by the ADHy spacer. Sterilization of the conjugate by filtration through a 0.22-microm-pore-size membrane resulted in a low recovery of protein and PS (approximately 50%), although the vaccine immunogenicity was maintained. Using gamma irradiation on freeze-dried sample, it was possible to maintain the integrity of OMV structure and, consequently, its ability to induce bactericidal antibodies. PMID:16776648

  4. 1a/1b subtype profiling of nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Nyanguile, Origène; Devogelaere, Benoit; Vijgen, Leen; Van den Broeck, Walter; Pauwels, Frederik; Cummings, Maxwell D; De Bondt, Hendrik L; Vos, Ann M; Berke, Jan M; Lenz, Oliver; Vandercruyssen, Geneviève; Vermeiren, Katrien; Mostmans, Wendy; Dehertogh, Pascale; Delouvroy, Frédéric; Vendeville, Sandrine; VanDyck, Koen; Dockx, Koen; Cleiren, Erna; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A; Fanning, Gregory C

    2010-03-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an unusually attractive target for drug discovery since it contains five distinct drugable sites. The success of novel antiviral therapies will require nonnucleoside inhibitors to be active in at least patients infected with HCV of subtypes 1a and 1b. Therefore, the genotypic assessment of these agents against clinical isolates derived from genotype 1-infected patients is an important prerequisite for the selection of suitable candidates for clinical development. Here we report the 1a/1b subtype profiling of polymerase inhibitors that bind at each of the four known nonnucleoside binding sites. We show that inhibition of all of the clinical isolates tested is maintained, except for inhibitors that bind at the palm-1 binding site. Subtype coverage varies across chemotypes within this class of inhibitors, and inhibition of genotype 1a improves when hydrophobic contact with the polymerase is increased. We investigated if the polymorphism of the palm-1 binding site is the sole cause of the reduced susceptibility of subtype 1a to inhibition by 1,5-benzodiazepines by using reverse genetics, X-ray crystallography, and surface plasmon resonance studies. We showed Y415F to be a key determinant in conferring resistance on subtype 1a, with this effect being mediated through an inhibitor- and enzyme-bound water molecule. Binding studies revealed that the mechanism of subtype 1a resistance is faster dissociation of the inhibitor from the enzyme.

  5. 1a/1b Subtype Profiling of Nonnucleoside Polymerase Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Nyanguile, Origène; Devogelaere, Benoit; Vijgen, Leen; Van den Broeck, Walter; Pauwels, Frederik; Cummings, Maxwell D.; De Bondt, Hendrik L.; Vos, Ann M.; Berke, Jan M.; Lenz, Oliver; Vandercruyssen, Geneviève; Vermeiren, Katrien; Mostmans, Wendy; Dehertogh, Pascale; Delouvroy, Frédéric; Vendeville, Sandrine; VanDyck, Koen; Dockx, Koen; Cleiren, Erna; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A.; Fanning, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an unusually attractive target for drug discovery since it contains five distinct drugable sites. The success of novel antiviral therapies will require nonnucleoside inhibitors to be active in at least patients infected with HCV of subtypes 1a and 1b. Therefore, the genotypic assessment of these agents against clinical isolates derived from genotype 1-infected patients is an important prerequisite for the selection of suitable candidates for clinical development. Here we report the 1a/1b subtype profiling of polymerase inhibitors that bind at each of the four known nonnucleoside binding sites. We show that inhibition of all of the clinical isolates tested is maintained, except for inhibitors that bind at the palm-1 binding site. Subtype coverage varies across chemotypes within this class of inhibitors, and inhibition of genotype 1a improves when hydrophobic contact with the polymerase is increased. We investigated if the polymorphism of the palm-1 binding site is the sole cause of the reduced susceptibility of subtype 1a to inhibition by 1,5-benzodiazepines by using reverse genetics, X-ray crystallography, and surface plasmon resonance studies. We showed Y415F to be a key determinant in conferring resistance on subtype 1a, with this effect being mediated through an inhibitor- and enzyme-bound water molecule. Binding studies revealed that the mechanism of subtype 1a resistance is faster dissociation of the inhibitor from the enzyme. PMID:20071590

  6. Vesicular reuptake inhibition by a synaptotagmin I C2B domain antibody at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Llinás, Rodolfo R; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moran, Kimberly A; Moreira, Jorge E; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2004-12-21

    Synaptotagmin (Syt) I, a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle protein, comprises a transmembrane region and two C2 domains. The C2 domains, which have been shown to be essential for both synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis, are also seen as the Ca(2+) sensors in synaptic vesicular release. In a previous study, we reported that a polyclonal antibody raised against the squid (Loligo pealei) Syt I C2B domain, while inhibiting vesicular endocytosis, was synaptic release neutral at the squid giant synapse. Recent reports concerning the C2B requirements for synaptic release prompted us to readdress the role of C2B in squid giant synapse function. Presynaptic injection of another anti-Syt I-C2B antibody (using recombinant whole C2B domain expressed in mammalian cell culture as an antigen) into the presynaptic terminal reproduced our previous results, i.e., reduction of vesicular endocytosis without affecting synaptic release. This set of results addresses the issue of the geometrical arrangement of the Ca(2+) sensor, allowing the C2B domain antibody to restrict Ca(2+)-dependent C2B self-oligomerization without modifying the Ca(2+)-dependent release process.

  7. Vesicular reuptake inhibition by a synaptotagmin I C2B domain antibody at the squid giant synapse

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Moran, Kimberly A.; Moreira, Jorge E.; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2004-01-01

    Synaptotagmin (Syt) I, a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle protein, comprises a transmembrane region and two C2 domains. The C2 domains, which have been shown to be essential for both synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis, are also seen as the Ca2+ sensors in synaptic vesicular release. In a previous study, we reported that a polyclonal antibody raised against the squid (Loligo pealei) Syt I C2B domain, while inhibiting vesicular endocytosis, was synaptic release neutral at the squid giant synapse. Recent reports concerning the C2B requirements for synaptic release prompted us to readdress the role of C2B in squid giant synapse function. Presynaptic injection of another anti-Syt I-C2B antibody (using recombinant whole C2B domain expressed in mammalian cell culture as an antigen) into the presynaptic terminal reproduced our previous results, i.e., reduction of vesicular endocytosis without affecting synaptic release. This set of results addresses the issue of the geometrical arrangement of the Ca2+ sensor, allowing the C2B domain antibody to restrict Ca2+-dependent C2B self-oligomerization without modifying the Ca2+-dependent release process. PMID:15591349

  8. Hydrodynamic and Aerodynamic Tests of Four Models of Outboard Floats : (N.A.C.A. Models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, John R; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Four models of outboard floats (N.A.C.A. models 51-A, 51-B, 51-C, and 51-D) were tested in the N.A.C.A. tank to determine their hydrodynamic characteristics and in the 20-foot wind tunnel to determine their aerodynamic drag. The results of the tests, together with comparisons of them, are presented in the form of charts. From the comparisons, the order of merit of the models is estimated for each factor considered. The best compromise between the various factors seems to be given by model 51-D. This model is the only one in the series with a transverse step.

  9. Leather material found on a 6th B.C. Chinese bronze sword: A technical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wugan; Si, Yi; Wang, Hongmin; Qin, Ying; Huang, Fengchun; Wang, Changsui

    2011-09-01

    During July to November, 2006, an important archaeological excavation was conducted in Yun country, Hubei province, southern China. Chinese archaeologists found some remnant of leather materials, covered with red pigments, on a 6th century B.C. Chinese bronze sword. To understand the technology/ies that may have been utilized for manufacturing the leathers, a combined of Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR and XRF was thus applied to the remnant of leather materials. Raman analyses showed that red pigment on the leather was cinnabar (HgS). FT-IR and XRF analyses indicated that the content of some elements, such as Ca (existing as CaCO 3) and Fe (existing as Fe 2O 3), were much higher than those in the surrounding grave soil. The results inferred an application of lime depilation and retting, and the Fe-Al compound salt as tanning agent. And it was furthermore implicated that the Fe-Al salt tanning technique had been developed in the middle and late Spring and Autumn Period of China.

  10. Shewanella oneidensis FabB: A β-ketoacyl-ACP Synthase That Works with C16:1-ACP

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qixia; Li, Meng; Fu, Huihui; Meng, Qiu; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-01

    It is established that Escherichia coli β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KAS) I (encoded by EcfabB) is the primary, if not exclusive, factor for elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP (C10:1-ACP) but not effective with C16:1- or longer-chain-ACPs. To test the extent to which these features apply to KAS I proteins in other species, in this study, we examined the physiological role of FabB in Shewanella oneidensis, an excellent model for researching type II fatty acid synthetic (FAS) system and its regulation. We showed that the loss of either FabA (the enzyme that introduces double bond) or FabB, in the absence of DesA which desaturizes C16 and C18 to generate respective C16:1 and C18:1, leads to a UFA auxotroph. However, fatty acid profiles of membrane phospholipid of the fabA and fabB mutants are significantly different, suggesting that FabB participates in steps beyond elongation of C10:1-ACP. Further analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis FabB differs from EcFabB in that (i) it is not the only enzyme capable of catalyzing elongation of the cis-3-decenoyl-ACP produced by FabA, (ii) it plays a critical role in elongation of C16:1- and longer-chain-ACPs, and (iii) its overproduction is detrimental. PMID:27014246

  11. Circadian oscillations of KaiA-KaiC and KaiB-KaiC complex formations in an in vitro reconstituted KaiABC clock oscillator.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Reiko; Mutoh, Risa; Ishii, Ketaro; Ishiura, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The circadian clock is an endogenous biological mechanism that generates autonomous daily cycles in physiological activities. The phosphorylation levels of KaiC oscillated with a period of 24 h in an ATP-dependent clock oscillator reconstituted in vitro from KaiA, KaiB and KaiC. We examined the complex formations of KaiA and KaiB with KaiC in the KaiABC clock oscillator by fluorescence correlation spectrometry (FCS) analysis. The formation of KaiB-containing protein complex(es) oscillated in a circadian manner, with a single peak at 12 h and single trough at 24 h in the circadian cycle, whereas that of KaiA-containing protein complex(es) oscillated with two peaks at 12 and 24 h. FCS and surface plasmon resonance analyses showed that the binding affinity of KaiA for a mutant KaiC with Ala substitutions at the two phosphorylation sites considered to mimic the nonphosphorylated form of KaiC (np-KaiC) was higher than that for a mutant KaiC with Asp substitutions at the two phosphorylation sites considered to mimic the completely phosphorylated form of KaiC (cp-KaiC). The results from the study suggest that a KaiA-KaiB-cp-KaiC ternary complex and a KaiA-np-KaiC complex were formed at 12 and 24 h, respectively.

  12. Examination of molar-based distribution of A, B and C chains of amylopectin by fluorescent labeling with 2-aminopyridine.

    PubMed

    Hanashiro, Isao; Tagawa, Masataka; Shibahara, Shunpei; Iwata, Kazutaka; Takeda, Yasuhito

    2002-07-16

    A method for determination of a molar-based distribution of A, B and C chains of amylopectin was developed. Labeling with fluorescent 2-aminopyridine was proportional to the number-average degree of polymerization (dp(n)) of the chains in the range of 6-440. Number-average chain lengths (cl(n)) of amylopectins from six different plant sources (rice, maize, wheat, potato, sweet potato and yam) determined by the labeling method were in good agreement with values obtained by determination of non-reducing residues. The molar-based distributions were polymodal (A, B(1) and B(2)+B(3) fractions) and characteristic to botanical sources. Amylopectins from starches with A-crystalline type had higher amount of A+B(1) chains (90-93% by mole) than starches with B-type (68-87%). Molar ratios of (A+B(1))/(B(2)+B(3)) were 8.9-12.9 for the A-type starches and 2.1-6.5 for the B-type starches, suggesting that amylopectins of A-type starches had 1.5-2 times more branches per cluster than B-type. The distributions of C chains, except for amylomaize, showed a broad, asymmetrical profile from dp approximately 10 to approximately 130 with a peak at dp approximately 40 and were very similar among botanical sources, suggesting that the biosynthetic process for C chains is similar in different plant species. PMID:12110196

  13. Examination of molar-based distribution of A, B and C chains of amylopectin by fluorescent labeling with 2-aminopyridine.

    PubMed

    Hanashiro, Isao; Tagawa, Masataka; Shibahara, Shunpei; Iwata, Kazutaka; Takeda, Yasuhito

    2002-07-16

    A method for determination of a molar-based distribution of A, B and C chains of amylopectin was developed. Labeling with fluorescent 2-aminopyridine was proportional to the number-average degree of polymerization (dp(n)) of the chains in the range of 6-440. Number-average chain lengths (cl(n)) of amylopectins from six different plant sources (rice, maize, wheat, potato, sweet potato and yam) determined by the labeling method were in good agreement with values obtained by determination of non-reducing residues. The molar-based distributions were polymodal (A, B(1) and B(2)+B(3) fractions) and characteristic to botanical sources. Amylopectins from starches with A-crystalline type had higher amount of A+B(1) chains (90-93% by mole) than starches with B-type (68-87%). Molar ratios of (A+B(1))/(B(2)+B(3)) were 8.9-12.9 for the A-type starches and 2.1-6.5 for the B-type starches, suggesting that amylopectins of A-type starches had 1.5-2 times more branches per cluster than B-type. The distributions of C chains, except for amylomaize, showed a broad, asymmetrical profile from dp approximately 10 to approximately 130 with a peak at dp approximately 40 and were very similar among botanical sources, suggesting that the biosynthetic process for C chains is similar in different plant species.

  14. YspC: a unique translocator exhibits structural alteration in the complex form with chaperone SycB.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Rakesh; Datta, Saumen

    2012-08-01

    YspC is an annotated translocator of Yersinia secretion apparatus-Yersinia secretion protein type three secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica, it forms an 1:1 complex with its cognate chaperone SycB. Unlike other translocators, YspC is highly soluble inspite of having a transmembrane region. Size exclusion chromatography shows that YspC exists predominantly in a monomeric form. Multiple sequence alignment and ConSurf (a web based bioinformatic tool) analysis confirm its significant deviation from the closest class of minor translocators. YspC also possesses a tertiary structure signal seen from near UV CD, further confirming its unique nature amongst the groups of translocators. Far UV CD depicts that YspC is predominantly an α-helical protein; however, its secondary structure alters in the YspC-SycB complex. Thermal denaturation curve predicts a cooperative melting behaviour for YspC which is altered in the YspC-SycB complex. Furthermore, trypsinolysis data confirms a different digestion pattern for YspC in isolation, when compared to the complex form with SycB. From the Forsters resonance energy transfer analysis, it can be predicted that the two tetratricopeptide repeat regions of SycB are masked while it forms a complex with YspC and this is further confirmed by the interaction studies of YspC with two truncated forms of SycB. YspC interacted with ∆SycB₁₋₁₁₄ and ∆SycB₃₆₋₁₁₄ (possessing only the two TPR regions). However, the complexes formed between YspC and truncated forms of SycB have altered physiological states.

  15. L1599B: Cloud Envelope and C+ Emission in a Region of Moderately Enhanced Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Langer, William D.; Liu, Tie; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Ricken, Oliver; Riquelme, Denise

    2016-06-01

    We study the effects of an asymmetric radiation field on the properties of a molecular cloud envelope. We employ observations of carbon monoxide (12CO and 13CO), atomic carbon, ionized carbon, and atomic hydrogen to analyze the chemical and physical properties of the core and envelope of L1599B, a molecular cloud forming a portion of the ring at ≃27 pc from the star Λ Ori. The O8 star provides an asymmetric radiation field that produces a moderate enhancement of the external radiation field. Observations of the [C ii] fine structure line with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA indicate a significant enhanced emission on the side of the cloud facing the star, while the [C i], 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 and 2-1, and 12CO J = 3-2 data from the Purple Mountain Observatory and APEX telescopes suggest a relatively typical cloud interior. The atomic, ionic, and molecular line centroid velocities track each other very closely, and indicate that the cloud may be undergoing differential radial motion. The H i data from the Arecibo GALFA survey and the SOFIA/GREAT [C ii] data do not suggest any systematic motion of the halo gas, relative to the dense central portion of the cloud traced by 12CO and 13CO.

  16. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (the “Ethics Act”) (5 U.S.C. App.) and subpart D of 5 CFR part 2634 of the regulations of the Office of... Ethics Act and 5 CFR part 2634 of the OGE regulations may lead to disqualification as a trustee or other... Notices for Appendixes A and B C Appendix C to Part 2634 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF...

  17. Predicted hexameric structure of the Agrobacterium VirB4 C terminus suggests VirB4 acts as a docking site during type IV secretion

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Rebecca; Sjölander, Kimmen; Krishnamurthy, Nandini; Foley, Jonathan; Zambryski, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The Agrobacterium T-DNA transporter belongs to a growing class of evolutionarily conserved transporters, called type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). VirB4, 789 aa, is the largest T4SS component, providing a rich source of possible structural domains. Here, we use a variety of bioinformatics methods to predict that the C-terminal domain of VirB4 (including the Walker A and B nucleotide-binding motifs) is related by divergent evolution to the cytoplasmic domain of TrwB, the coupling protein required for conjugative transfer of plasmid R388 from Escherichia coli. This prediction is supported by detailed sequence and structure analyses showing conservation of functionally and structurally important residues between VirB4 and TrwB. The availability of a solved crystal structure for TrwB enables the construction of a comparative model for VirB4 and the prediction that, like TrwB, VirB4 forms a hexamer. These results lead to a model in which VirB4 acts as a docking site at the entrance of the T4SS channel and acts in concert with VirD4 and VirB11 to transport substrates (T-strand linked to VirD2 or proteins such as VirE2, VirE3, or VirF) through the T4SS. PMID:15668378

  18. German CELSS research with emphasis on the C.E.B.A.S.-project.

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Kreuzberg, K

    1991-01-01

    In general the German CELSS research program covers both animal and plant systems. In the field of botany a higher plant growth unit is disposed. The construction of a continuous culture device for unicellular algae in long-term multi-generation experiments will start in 1990. In zoology an experimental system for multi-generation experiments, the AQUARACK is already under construction and a running laboratory prototype is surrounded by a wide-spread ground research program. The combination of the algae system with AQUARACK will result in a combined animal-plant system, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System", C.E.B.A.S. which may be the origin for further interdisciplinary research leading to an aquatic plant-animal-CELSS. This research field is closely associated with cybernetical science because the development of the combined systems need simulation processes and highly sophisticated electronical control. A further point in the CELSS program is the study of biological waste management.

  19. First syntheses of the biologically active fungal metabolites pestalotiopsones A, B, C and F.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Andrew Michael; Castillo Martinez, Edwin; Barrow, Russell Allan

    2013-02-21

    A synthetic approach accessing the pestalotiopsones, fungal chromones possessing a rare skeletal subtype, is reported for the first time. The synthesis of pestalotiopsone A (1) has been achieved in 7 linear steps (28%), from commercially available 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid and subsequently the first syntheses of pestalotiopsone B (2), C (3) and F (4) were performed utilising this chemistry. The key steps include a newly described homologation of a substituted benzoic acid to afford phenylacetate derivatives utilising Birch reductive alkylation conditions, a microwave mediated chromanone formation proceeding through an oxa-Michael cyclisation, and an IBX induced dehydrogenation to the desired chromone skeleton. The synthetic natural products were completely characterised for the first time, confirming their structures and their biological activities evaluated against a panel of bacterial pathogens.

  20. German CELSS research with emphasis on the C.E.B.A.S.-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Bluem; Karlheinz, Kreuzberg

    In general the German CELSS research program covers both animal and plant systems. In the field of botany a higher plant growth unit is disposed. The construction of a continuous culture device for unicellular algae in long-term multi-generation experiments will start in 1990. In zoology an experimental system for multi-generation experiments, the AQUARACK is already under construction and a running laboratory prototype is sorrounded by a wide-spread ground research program. The combination of the algae system with AQUARACK will result in a combined animal-plant system, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System", C.E.B.A.S. which may be the origin for further interdisciplinary research leading to an aquatic plant-animal-CELSS This research field is closely associated with cybernetical science because the development of the combined systems need simulation processes and highly sophisticated electronical control. A further point in the CELSS program is the study of biological waste management.

  1. TBAI-catalyzed oxidative C-H functionalization: a new route to benzo[b]phosphole oxides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Hu, Gaobo; Ma, Dumei; Xu, Pengxiang; Gao, Yuxing; Zhao, Yufen

    2016-02-14

    The first metal-free, efficient TBAI-catalyzed radical addition/cyclization of diaryl(arylethynyl)phosphine oxides with toluene derivatives has been developed, affording a general, one-step approach to structurally sophisticated benzo[b]phosphole oxides via sequential C-H functionalization along with the formation of two new C-C bonds.

  2. Modelling the B2C Marketplace: Evaluation of a Reputation Metric for e-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowska, Anna; Sloane, Andrew

    This paper evaluates recently developed novel and comprehensive reputation metric designed for the distributed multi-agent reputation system for the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) E-commerce applications. To do that an agent-based simulation framework was implemented which models different types of behaviours in the marketplace. The trustworthiness of different types of providers is investigated to establish whether the simulation models behaviour of B2C e-Commerce systems as they are expected to behave in real life.

  3. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. J.; Luby, S. P.; Fikree, F.; Karim, A.; Obaid, S.; Dellawala, S.; Mirza, S.; Malik, T.; Fisher-Hoch, S.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were interviewed as they left each of the 18 area clinics. Practitioners were interviewed and three consecutive injections were observed at each clinic. Eighty-one per cent of patients received an injection on the day of the interview. Of the 135 patients who provided a serum sample, 59 (44%) had antibodies against hepatitis C virus and 26 (19%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus. Patients who received more injections were more likely to be infected with hepatitis C. If oral and injected medications were equally effective, 44% of patients preferred injected medication. None of the practitioners knew that hepatitis C could be transmitted by injections. Non-sterile syringes and needles that had been used earlier in the day on other patients were used for 94% of the observed injections. Interventions to limit injections to those which are safe and clinically indicated are needed to prevent injection-associated infections in Pakistan and other low-income countries. PMID:10994278

  4. Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A, B, and C in Colloidal Dispersions1

    PubMed Central

    Woodburn, Margy; Morita, Toshiko N.; Venn, Sharon Zipperer

    1973-01-01

    Larger amounts of enterotoxin were produced when Staphylococcus aureus S-6 was grown under still (nonshaken) conditions in a medium that was a paste or gel than were produced in a liquid dispersion with the same colloidal ingredient or in control basal broth (4% NZ Amine-NAK containing 50 μg of thiamine per 100 ml and 1 mg of niacin per 100 ml). Four colloidal ingredients were used which had been previously demonstrated to not support enterotoxin production in buffer. The effect of the type of dispersion occurred earlier than that of the colloidal ingredient, but interactions were found. This effect was not observed when the cells were grown with aeration (shaken). Four other strains of S. aureus followed a similar pattern for enterotoxins A, B, and C, although liquid and paste with cornstarch and carrageenan were the only media compared to the control broth. Enterotoxins A and B were produced earlier by S. aureus S-6, and much greater quantities of enterotoxins were produced for all strains when incubated shaken. PMID:4197641

  5. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript form. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B.C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific researcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Schaperclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies:

  6. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, Mark S; Tsiagkouris, James A

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  7. Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, M.C.; Fathallah, D.M.; Bergamaschini, L.; Alicot, E.M. ); Isenman, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The C4B isotype of the fourth component of human complement (C4) displays 3- to 4-fold greater hemolytic activity than does its other isotype C4A. This correlates with differences in their covalent binding efficiencies to erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement C1. C4A binds to a greater extent when C1 is on IgG immune aggregates. The differences in covalent binding properties correlate only with amino acid changes between residues 1101 and 1106 (pro-C4 numbering)-namely, Pro-1101, Cys-1102, Leu-1105, and Asp-1106 in C4A and Leu-1101, Ser-1102, Ile-1105, and His-1106 in C4B, which are located in the C4d region of the {alpha} chain. To more precisely identify the residues that are important for the functional differences, C4A-C4B hybrid proteins were constructed by using recombinant DNA techniques. Comparison of these by hemolytic assay and binding to IgG aggregates showed that the single substitution of aspartic acid for histidine at position 1106 largely accounted for the change in functional activity and nature of the chemical bond formed. Surprisingly, substitution of a neutral residue, alanine, for histidine at position 1106 resulted in an increase in binding to immune aggregates without subsequent reduction in the hemolytic activity. This result strongly suggests that position 1106 is not catalytic as previously proposed but interacts sterically/electrostatically with potential acceptor sites and serves to select binding sites on potential acceptor molecules.

  8. Stirling Space Engine Program. Volume 2; Appendixes A, B, C and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop the technology necessary for operating Stirling power converters in a space environment and to demonstrate this technology in full-scale engine tests. Volume 2 of the report includes the following appendices: Appendix A: Heater Head Development (Starfish Heater Head Program, 1/10th Segment and Full-Scale Heat Pipes, and Sodium Filling and Processing); Appendix B: Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) Component Development (High-temperature Organic Materials, Heat Exchanger Fabrication, Beryllium Issues, Sodium Issues, Wear Couple Tests, Pressure Boundary Penetrations, Heating System Heaters, and Cooler Flow Test); Appendix C: Udimet Testing (Selection of the Reference Material for the Space Stirling Engine Heater Head, Udimet 720LI Creep Test Result Update, Final Summary of Space Stirling Endurance Engine Udimet 720L1 Fatigue Testing Results, Udimet 720l1 Weld Development Summary, and Udimet 720L1 Creep Test Final Results Summary), and Appendix D: CTPC Component Development Photos.

  9. Vibrio cholerae FeoA, FeoB, and FeoC Interact To Form a Complex

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Begoña; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feo is the major ferrous iron transport system in prokaryotes. Despite having been discovered over 25 years ago and found to be widely distributed among bacteria, Feo is poorly understood, as its structure and mechanism of iron transport have not been determined. The feo operon in Vibrio cholerae is made up of three genes, encoding the FeoA, FeoB, and FeoC proteins, which are all required for Feo system function. FeoA and FeoC are both small cytoplasmic proteins, and their function remains unclear. FeoB, which is thought to function as a ferrous iron permease, is a large integral membrane protein made up of an N-terminal GTPase domain and a C-terminal membrane-spanning region. To date, structural studies of FeoB have been carried out using a truncated form of the protein encompassing only the N-terminal GTPase region. In this report, we show that full-length FeoB forms higher-order complexes when cross-linked in vivo in V. cholerae. Our analysis of these complexes revealed that FeoB can simultaneously associate with both FeoA and FeoC to form a large complex, an observation that has not been reported previously. We demonstrate that interactions between FeoB and FeoA, but not between FeoB and FeoC, are required for complex formation. Additionally, we identify amino acid residues in the GTPase region of FeoB that are required for function of the Feo system and for complex formation. These observations suggest that this large Feo complex may be the active form of Feo that is used for ferrous iron transport. IMPORTANCE The Feo system is the major route for ferrous iron transport in bacteria. In this work, the Vibrio cholerae Feo proteins, FeoA, FeoB, and FeoC, are shown to interact to form a large inner membrane complex in vivo. This is the first report showing an interaction among all three Feo proteins. It is also determined that FeoA, but not FeoC, is required for Feo complex assembly. PMID:26833408

  10. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  11. Potentiation of NK cytotoxicity by antibody-C3b/iC3b heteroconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yefenof, E; Benizri, R; Reiter, Y; Klein, E; Fishelson, Z

    1990-02-15

    The interaction of two Burkitt lymphoma lines, Raji and Rael, with human C and NK cells was analyzed. Raji cells activate the alternative C pathway (ACP) and then bind C3 fragments. Consequently, the cells become more sensitive to lysis by CR3-bearing NK cells but not to C lysis. In contrast, Rael cells are poor ACP activators, do not bind C3 fragments, and are therefore resistant to C-dependent NK lysis. As suggested earlier, the difference between Raji and Rael could be attributed to the presence or absence of CR2, respectively, on their surface. To potentiate C- and NK-dependent lysis of target cells, we generated heteroconjugates composed of a murine antitransferrin receptor mAb and of human C C3b or iC3b. Antibody-C3b conjugates induced C3 deposition on Rael cells and elevated C3 deposition on Raji cells in human serum. Both Raji and Rael cells coated with antibody-C3b conjugates were efficiently lyzed by the cytolytic ACP in human serum. This conjugate had a small enhancing effect on target cell lysis by NK cells which could be markedly increased by combined treatment of the target cell with antibody-C3b conjugate and C5-depleted human serum. On the other hand, antibody-iC3b conjugates efficiently potentiated lysis of target cells by NK cells in the absence of serum. The iC3b-directed cytotoxicity was mediated by CR3-bearing NK effector cells. Anti-C3 but not anti-mouse Ig antibodies abrogated the activity of the antibody-iC3b conjugate. These results further demonstrate that NK cytotoxicity may be potentiated by opsonizing the target cells with C3 fragments and suggest that antibody-C3b/iC3b conjugates could be potent tools for targeting and potentiation of the lytic action of both C and NK cells against tumor cells.

  12. Potentiation of NK cytotoxicity by antibody-C3b/iC3b heteroconjugates.

    PubMed

    Yefenof, E; Benizri, R; Reiter, Y; Klein, E; Fishelson, Z

    1990-02-15

    The interaction of two Burkitt lymphoma lines, Raji and Rael, with human C and NK cells was analyzed. Raji cells activate the alternative C pathway (ACP) and then bind C3 fragments. Consequently, the cells become more sensitive to lysis by CR3-bearing NK cells but not to C lysis. In contrast, Rael cells are poor ACP activators, do not bind C3 fragments, and are therefore resistant to C-dependent NK lysis. As suggested earlier, the difference between Raji and Rael could be attributed to the presence or absence of CR2, respectively, on their surface. To potentiate C- and NK-dependent lysis of target cells, we generated heteroconjugates composed of a murine antitransferrin receptor mAb and of human C C3b or iC3b. Antibody-C3b conjugates induced C3 deposition on Rael cells and elevated C3 deposition on Raji cells in human serum. Both Raji and Rael cells coated with antibody-C3b conjugates were efficiently lyzed by the cytolytic ACP in human serum. This conjugate had a small enhancing effect on target cell lysis by NK cells which could be markedly increased by combined treatment of the target cell with antibody-C3b conjugate and C5-depleted human serum. On the other hand, antibody-iC3b conjugates efficiently potentiated lysis of target cells by NK cells in the absence of serum. The iC3b-directed cytotoxicity was mediated by CR3-bearing NK effector cells. Anti-C3 but not anti-mouse Ig antibodies abrogated the activity of the antibody-iC3b conjugate. These results further demonstrate that NK cytotoxicity may be potentiated by opsonizing the target cells with C3 fragments and suggest that antibody-C3b/iC3b conjugates could be potent tools for targeting and potentiation of the lytic action of both C and NK cells against tumor cells. PMID:2303717

  13. A qualitative study of recovery from type III-B and III-C tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Shauver, Melissa S; Aravind, Maya S; Chung, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction after type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use of adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes.

  14. Hormaomycins B and C: New Antibiotic Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Mudflat-Derived Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Munhyung; Chung, Beomkoo; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Oh, Dong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microbial culture conditions may trigger the production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. While applying various culture conditions and monitoring secondary metabolite profiles using LC/MS, hormaomycins B and C (1 and 2) were discovered from a marine mudflat-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp., collected in Mohang, Korea. The planar structures of the hormaomycins, which bear structurally-unique units, such as 4-(Z)-propenylproline, 3-(2-nitrocyclopropyl)alanine, 5-chloro-1-hydroxypyrrol-2-carboxylic acid and β-methylphenylalanine, were established as the first natural analogues belonging to the hormaomycin peptide class. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were deduced by comparing their CD spectra with that of hormaomycin. These hormaomycins exhibited significant inhibitory effects against various pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26287218

  15. Click Dehydrogenation of Carbon-Substituted nido-5,6-C2B8H12 Carboranes: A General Route to closo-1,2-C2B8H10 Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tok, Oleg L; Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Hnyk, Drahomír; Holub, Josef; Padělková, Zdenka; Růžička, Aleš

    2016-09-01

    Triethylamine-catalyzed dehydrogenation of carbon-disubstituted dicarbaboranes 5,6-R2-nido-5,6-C2B8H10 [1, where R = H (1a), Me (1b), and Ph (1c)] in refluxing acetonitrile leads to a high-yield (up to 85-95%) formation of a series of dicarbaboranes 1,2-R2-closo-1,2-C2B8H8 (2). The monosubstituted 6-R-nido-5,6-C2B8H11 (3) analogues [where R = Ph (3a), naph (1-naphthyl; 3b), Bu (3c)] afforded 1-R-1,2-closo C2B8H9 (4) isomers [where R = Ph (4a), naph (4b), n-Bu (4c)] as the main products; compounds 4a and 4c were accompanied by 2-R-1,2-C2B8H9 (5) isomers (total yields up to 90%), with the 4/5 molar ratio being strongly dependent on the nature of R (4:1 and 1:1, respectively). All of these cage-closure reactions are supposed to proceed via the stage of the corresponding Et3NH(+) salts of nido anions [5,6-R2-5,6-C2B8H9](-) (1(-)) and [6-R-5,6-C2B8H10](-) (3(-)), which lose H2 and Et3N upon heating (dehydrodeamination). The cage-closure mechanisms leading to closo isomers 2, 4, and 5 have been substantiated by B3LYP/6-31+G* calculations of the reaction profile for a simple 1a(-) → 2a + H(-) conversion. All of the compounds isolated have been characterized by multinuclear ((11)B, (1)H, and (13)C) NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses, and the structure of 1-Ph-closo-1,2-C2B8H9 (4a) was established by an X-ray diffraction study. PMID:27551885

  16. 38 CFR 3.362 - Offsets under 38 U.S.C. 1151(b) of benefits awarded under 38 U.S.C. 1151(a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose for which benefits are provided under 38 U.S.C. chapter 39 (38 CFR 3.808), and if VA awards... compensation. If a veteran's death is the basis of a judgment under 28 U.S.C. 1346(b) awarded, or a settlement... damages for the veteran's death the survivor receives in an individual capacity or as distribution...

  17. B_c Meson Production Around the Z^0 Peak at a High Luminosity e^+ e^- Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Chen, Gu; Liao, Qi-Li; Zhang, Jia-Wei; /Chongqing U.

    2012-05-22

    Considering the possibility to build an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the energies around the Z{sup 0}-boson resonance with a planned luminosity so high as L {proportional_to} 10{sup 34} {approx} 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (super Z-factory), we make a detailed discussion on the (c{bar b})-quarkonium production through e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (c{bar b})[n] + b + {bar c} within the framework of non-relativistic QCD. Here [n] stands for the Fock-states |(c{sub b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>, |(c{bar b})8[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]g>, |(c{bar b} ){sub 1}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]>, |(c{bar b}){sub 8}[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]g>, |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}P{sub 1}]> and |(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 3}P{sub J}]> (with J = (1, 2, 3)) respectively. To simplify the hard-scattering amplitude as much as possible and to derive analytic expressions for the purpose of future events simulation, we adopt the 'improved trace technology' to do our calculation, which deals with the hard scattering amplitude directly at the amplitude level other than the conventional way at the squared-amplitude level. Total cross-section uncertainties caused by the quark masses are predicted by taking m{sub c} = 1.50 {+-} 0.30 GeV and m{sub b} = 4.90 {+-} 0.40 GeV. If all higher (c{bar b})-quarkonium states decay to the ground state B{sub c} (|(c{bar b}){sub 1}[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]>) with 100% efficiency, we obtain {sigma}{sub e{sup +}+e{sup -}{yields}B{sub c}+b+{bar c}} = 5.190{sub -2.419}{sup +6.222} pb, which shows that about 10{sup 5} {approx} 10{sup 7} B{sub c} events per operation year can be accumulated in the super Z-factory. If taking the collider energy runs slightly off the Z{sup 0}-peak, i.e. {radical}S = (1.00 {+-} 0.05)m{sub Z}, the total cross-section shall be lowered by about one-order from its peak value. Such a super Z-factory shall provide another useful platform to study the properties of B{sub c} meson, or even the properties of its excited P-wave states, in addition to its production at the hadronic colliders

  18. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  3. Synthesis of B4C from Na2B4O7+Mg+C by SHS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, G. J.; Xu, J. Y.; Zhuang, H. R.; Li, W. L.

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with the formation of Boron Carbide (B4C) powders from Na2B4O7+Mg+C system by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. B4C without impurities could be obtained after the acid enrichment and distilled water washing. The reaction mechanism of SHS of B4C was proposed: the synthesis of B4C is a process involving the decomposition of Na2B4O7 into the intermediate phase B2O3, which reacts with Mg and Carbon to form B4C.

  4. Rab11-FIP1C Is a Critical Negative Regulator in ErbB2-Mediated Mammary Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Mitchell, Louise; Turpin, Jason; Huot-Marchand, Julie-Émilie; Lavoie, Cynthia; Sanguin-Gendreau, Virginie; Jones, Laura; Mitra, Shreya; Livingstone, Julie M; Campbell, Shirley; Hallett, Michael; Mills, Gordon B; Park, Morag; Chodosh, Lewis; Strathdee, Douglas; Norman, Jim C; Muller, William J

    2016-05-01

    Rab coupling protein (FIP1C), an effector of the Rab11 GTPases, including Rab25, is amplified and overexpressed in 10% to 25% of primary breast cancers and correlates with poor clinical outcome. Rab25 is also frequently silenced in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting its ability to function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, depending on the breast cancer subtype. However, the pathobiologic role of FIP family members, such as FIP1C, in a tumor-specific setting remains elusive. In this study, we used ErbB2 mouse models of human breast cancer to investigate FIP1C function in tumorigenesis. Doxycycline-induced expression of FIP1C in the MMTV-ErbB2 mouse model resulted in delayed mammary tumor progression. Conversely, targeted deletion of FIP1C in the mammary epithelium of an ErbB2 model coexpressing Cre recombinase led to accelerated tumor onset. Genetic and biochemical characterization of these FIP1C-proficient and -deficient tumor models revealed that FIP1C regulated E-cadherin (CDH1) trafficking and ZONAB (YBX3) function in Cdk4-mediated cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FIP1C promoted lysosomal degradation of ErbB2. Consistent with our findings in the mouse, the expression of FIP1C was inversely correlated with ErbB2 levels in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that FIP1C acts as a tumor suppressor in the context of ErbB2-positive breast cancer and may be therapeutically exploited as an alternative strategy for targeting aberrant ErbB2 expression. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2662-74. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933086

  5. Rab11-FIP1C Is a Critical Negative Regulator in ErbB2-Mediated Mammary Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Pierre-Luc; Mitchell, Louise; Turpin, Jason; Huot-Marchand, Julie-Émilie; Lavoie, Cynthia; Sanguin-Gendreau, Virginie; Jones, Laura; Mitra, Shreya; Livingstone, Julie M; Campbell, Shirley; Hallett, Michael; Mills, Gordon B; Park, Morag; Chodosh, Lewis; Strathdee, Douglas; Norman, Jim C; Muller, William J

    2016-05-01

    Rab coupling protein (FIP1C), an effector of the Rab11 GTPases, including Rab25, is amplified and overexpressed in 10% to 25% of primary breast cancers and correlates with poor clinical outcome. Rab25 is also frequently silenced in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting its ability to function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, depending on the breast cancer subtype. However, the pathobiologic role of FIP family members, such as FIP1C, in a tumor-specific setting remains elusive. In this study, we used ErbB2 mouse models of human breast cancer to investigate FIP1C function in tumorigenesis. Doxycycline-induced expression of FIP1C in the MMTV-ErbB2 mouse model resulted in delayed mammary tumor progression. Conversely, targeted deletion of FIP1C in the mammary epithelium of an ErbB2 model coexpressing Cre recombinase led to accelerated tumor onset. Genetic and biochemical characterization of these FIP1C-proficient and -deficient tumor models revealed that FIP1C regulated E-cadherin (CDH1) trafficking and ZONAB (YBX3) function in Cdk4-mediated cell-cycle progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FIP1C promoted lysosomal degradation of ErbB2. Consistent with our findings in the mouse, the expression of FIP1C was inversely correlated with ErbB2 levels in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that FIP1C acts as a tumor suppressor in the context of ErbB2-positive breast cancer and may be therapeutically exploited as an alternative strategy for targeting aberrant ErbB2 expression. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2662-74. ©2016 AACR.

  6. A catalogue of auroral observations from China, Korea and Japan (193 B.C. - A.D. 170)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, K. K. C. (Compiler); Stephenson, F. R. (Compiler); Willis, D. M. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive catalogue of auroral records from East Asia to be published in a European language. The catalogue, which extends from 193B.C. to A.D. 1770, contains nearly 850 separate entries. Observations are compiled from the histories of China, Korea and Japan.

  7. A case of acute hepatitis B in a chronic hepatitis C patient after daclatasvir and asunaprevir combination therapy: hepatitis B virus reactivation or acute self-limited hepatitis?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Nishimura, Daisaku; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2016-08-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy is well known. HBV reactivation in patients with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection caused by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has also recently been reported. We report a case of acute hepatitis B in a patient with HCV infection after DAA therapy. An 83-year-old woman was referred for chronic hepatitis C. She was infected with HCV genotype 1b and negative for HBsAg at baseline. She received daclatasvir and asunaprevir therapy, and HCV became negative at 4 weeks and remained negative until 6 months after the end of DAA therapy. Acute hepatitis B developed 5 months after ending DAA therapy. Genome sequencing revealed the subgenotype as B1, and the serological subtype as adr. T118 K mutation at the S region as an immune escape mutant was identified. These virologic features led to HBV reactivation. The presence of hepatitis B core antibody or HBs antibody was not determined before DAA therapy, so prior HBV infection status was unclear. This case is speculated to represent HBV reactivation in a patient with previously resolved HBV induced by DAA therapy, based on virologic analysis and clinical status. The risk might be very low, but DAA therapy can cause HBV reactivation in chronic hepatitis C patients with prior HBV infection. When acute hepatitis emerges in patients who have received DAA therapy for HCV, HBV reactivation should be considered to allow early initiation of anti-HBV therapy. PMID:27329484

  8. Multidrug efflux pump MdtBC of Escherichia coli is active only as a B2C heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Suk; Nagore, Daniel; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    RND (resistance-nodulation-division) family transporters in Gram-negative bacteria frequently pump out a wide range of inhibitors and often contribute to multidrug resistance to antibiotics and biocides. An archetypal RND pump of Escherichia coli, AcrB, is known to exist as a homotrimer, and this construction is essential for drug pumping through the functionally rotating mechanism. MdtBC, however, appears different because two pump genes coexist within a single operon, and genetic deletion data suggest that both pumps must be expressed in order for the drug efflux to occur. We have expressed the corresponding genes, with one of them in a His-tagged form. Copurification of MdtB and MdtC under these conditions showed that they form a complex, with an average stoichiometry of 2:1. Unequivocal evidence that only the trimer containing two B protomers and one C protomer is active was obtained by expressing all possible combinations of B and C in covalently linked forms. Finally, conversion into alanine of the residues, known to form a proton translocation pathway in AcrB, inactivated transport only when made in MdtB, not when made in MdtC, a result suggesting that MdtC plays a different role not directly involved in drug binding and extrusion.

  9. Hepatitis C virus upregulates B-cell receptor signaling: a novel mechanism for HCV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dai, B; Chen, A Y; Corkum, C P; Peroutka, R J; Landon, A; Houng, S; Muniandy, P A; Zhang, Y; Lehrmann, E; Mazan-Mamczarz, K; Steinhardt, J; Shlyak, M; Chen, Q C; Becker, K G; Livak, F; Michalak, T I; Talwani, R; Gartenhaus, R B

    2016-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for the development of B cells and has a critical role in B-cell neoplasia. Increasing evidence indicates an association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell lymphoma, however, the mechanisms by which HCV causes B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder are still unclear. Herein, we demonstrate the expression of HCV viral proteins in B cells of HCV-infected patients and show that HCV upregulates BCR signaling in human primary B cells. HCV nonstructural protein NS3/4A interacts with CHK2 and downregulates its activity, modulating HuR posttranscriptional regulation of a network of target mRNAs associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Interestingly, the BCR signaling pathway was found to have the largest number of transcripts with increased association with HuR and was upregulated by NS3/4A. Our study reveals a previously unidentified role of NS3/4A in regulation of host BCR signaling during HCV infection, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HCV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26434584

  10. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ~1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor

  11. PPE Antigen Rv2430c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces a Strong B-Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Rakesh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Chakhaiyar, Prachee; Sharma, Naresh; Murthy, K. J. R.; Katoch, V. M.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2003-01-01

    The variation in sequence and length in the C-terminal region among members of the unique PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a likely source of antigenic variation, giving rise to the speculation that these protein families could be immunologically important. Based on in silico analysis, we selected a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein belonging to the PPE family and having epitopes with predictably higher antigenic indexes. Reverse transcriptase PCR using total RNA extracted from in vitro-cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv generated an mRNA product corresponding to this gene, indicating the expression of this ORF (Rv2430c) at the mRNA level. Recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to screen the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected patients, as well as those of clinically healthy controls (n = 10), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The panel of patient sera comprised sera from fresh infection cases (category 1; n = 32), patients with relapsed tuberculosis (category 2; n = 30), and extrapulmonary cases (category 3; n = 30). Category 2 and 3 sera had strong antibody responses to the PPE antigen, equal to or higher than those to other well-known antigens, such as Hsp10 or purified protein derivative (PPD). However, a higher percentage of patients belonging to category 1, as opposed to clinically healthy controls, showed stronger antibody response against the PPE protein when probed with anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) (71 versus 37.5%) or anti-IgG (62.5 versus 28.12%). Our results reveal that this PPE ORF induces a strong B-cell response compared to that generated by M. tuberculosis Hsp10 or PPD, pointing to the immunodominant nature of the protein. PMID:14573653

  12. Role for zinc in a cellular response mediated by protein kinase C in human B lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, I.J.; Zalewski, P.D.; Giannakis, C. )

    1991-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested a role for Zn{sup 2+}, distinct from that of CA{sup 2+}, in the subcellular distribution and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here the author show that Zn{sup 2+} is required for a cellular response mediated by PKC, the rapid loss of expression of a human B cell receptor MER, detected by resetting with mouse erythrocytes. Zn{sup 2+}, in the presence of the Zn{sup 2+} ionophore pyrithione, caused rapid inhibition of MER rosetting at concentrations which induce the translocation and activation of PKC. This required cellular uptake of Zn{sup 2+} and was blocked by 1,10-phenanthroline and TPEN which chelate Zn{sup 2+} but not Ca{sup 2+}. Gold, a metal with similar properties, also induced translocation of PKC and inhibition of MER. Phenanthroline and TPEN also blocked the inhibition of MER induced by the PKC activators phorbol ester and sodium fluoride, suggesting that endogenous cellular Zn{sup 2+} is required. They propose that some cellular actions of PKC require a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent event and that these may be a target for gold during chrysotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

  13. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in male and female B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, Burhan I; Nyska, Abraham; Haseman, Joseph K; Bucher, John R

    2002-07-01

    Acrylonitrile is a heavily produced unsaturated nitrile, which is used in the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, resins, and rubber. Acrylonitrile is a multisite carcinogen in rats after exposure via gavage, drinking water, or inhalation. No carcinogenicity studies of acrylonitrile in a second animal species were available. The current studies were designed to assess the carcinogenicity of acrylonitrile in B6C3F1 mice of both sexes. Acrylonitrile was administered by gavage at 0, 2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 2 years. Urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine were measured as markers of exposure to acrylonitrile. In general, there were dose-related increases in urinary thiocyanate and N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine concentrations in all dosed groups of mice and at all time points. Survival was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in the top dose (20 mg/kg) group of male and female mice relative to controls. The incidence of forestomach papillomas and carcinomas was increased in mice of both sexes in association with an increase in forestomach epithelial hyperplasia. The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas and carcinomas was also markedly increased in the acrylonitrile-dosed groups. In female mice, the incidence of benign or malignant granulosa cell tumors (combined) in the ovary in the 10 mg/kg dose group was greater than that in the vehicle control group, but because of a lack of dose response, this was considered an equivocal finding. In addition, the incidences of atrophy and cysts in the ovary of the 10 and 20 mg/kg dose groups were significantly increased. The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were significantly increased in female mice treated with acrylonitrile at 10 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This was also considered an equivocal result. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated that acrylonitrile causes multiple carcinogenic effects after gavage administration to male and female B6

  14. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  15. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  16. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities. PMID:21788512

  17. Growth of Oriented C11(b) MoSi(2) Bicrystals Using a Modified Czochralski Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, F.; Garrett, J.D.; McClellan, K.J.; Michael J.R.; Mitchell, T.E.; Peralta, P.

    1999-06-02

    Oriented bicrystals of pure C11b MoSi2 have been grown in a tri-arc furnace using the Czochralski technique. Two single crystal seeds were used to initiate the growth. Each seed had the orientation intended for one of the grains of the bicrystals, which resulted in a 60° twist boundary on the (110) plane. Seeds were attached to a water-cooled seed rod, which was pulled at 120 mm/h with the seed rod rotating at 45 rpm. The water- cooled copper hearth was counter-rotated at 160 rpm. Asymmetric growth ridges associated with each seed crystal were observed during growth and confirmed the existence of a bicrystal. It was also found that careful alignment of the seeds was needed to keep the grain boundary from growing out of the boule. The resulting boundary was characterized by imaging and crystallographic techniques in a scanning electron microscope. The boundary was found to be fairly sharp and the misorientation between the grains remained within 2° from the disorientation between the seeds.

  18. Hepatitis B and C in pregnancy: a review and recommendations for care

    PubMed Central

    Dunkelberg, JC; Berkley, EMF; Thiel, KW; Leslie, KK

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge regarding pregnancy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as recent efforts to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Maternal infection with either HBV or HCV has been linked to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, including MTCT. MTCT for HBV has been reduced to approximately 5% overall in countries including the US that have instituted postpartum neonatal HBV vaccination and immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immune globulin. However, the rate of transmission of HBV to newborns is nearly 30% when maternal HBV levels are greater than 200 000 IU ml−1 (>6 log10 copies ml−1). For these patients, new guidelines from the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) indicate that, in addition to neonatal vaccination and immunoprophylaxis, treating with antiviral agents such as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or telbivudine during pregnancy beginning at 32 weeks of gestation is safe and effective in preventing MTCT. In contrast to HBV, no therapeutic agents are yet available or recommended to further decrease the risk of MTCT of HCV, which remains 3 to 10%. HCV MTCT can be minimized by avoiding fetal scalp electrodes and birth trauma whenever possible. Young women with HCV should be referred for treatment post delivery, and neonates should be closely followed to rule out infection. New, better-tolerated treatment regimens for HCV are now available, which should improve outcomes for all infected individuals. PMID:25233195

  19. Study of the kinematic dependences of Λ {/b 0} production in pp collisions and a measurement of the Λ {/b 0} → Λ {/c +} π - branching fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suárez, A. Dosil; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Albor, V. Fernandez; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Gándara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jezabek, M.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manzali, M.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C. Marin; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sánchez, A. Martín; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Vidal, F. Martinez; Tostes, D. Martins; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Alvarez, A. Pazos; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Trigo, E. Perez; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Molina, V. Rives; Romero, D. A. Roa; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A. Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P. Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Silva, J. J. Saborido; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Mayordomo, C. Sanchez; Sedes, B. Sanmartin; Santacesaria, R.; Rios, C. Santamarina; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spinella, F.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Regueiro, P. Vazquez; Sierra, C. Vázquez; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Diaz, M. Vieites; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-08-01

    The kinematic dependences of the relative production rates, , of Λ {/b 0} baryons and B 0 mesons are measured using Λ {/b 0} → Λ {/c +} π - and decays. The measurements use proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, recorded in the forward region with the LHCb experiment. The relative production rates are observed to depend on the transverse momentum, p T, and pseudorapidity, η, of the beauty hadron, in the studied kinematic region 1 .5 < p T < 40 GeV /c and 2 < η < 5. Using a previous LHCb measurement of in semileptonic decays, the branching fraction ℬ( Λ {/b 0} → Λ {/c +} π -) = (4.30 ± 0.03{-/0.11 + 0.12} ± 0.26 ± 0.21) × 10- 3 is obtained, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, the third is from the previous LHCb measurement of and the fourth is due to the b branching fraction. This is the most precise measurement of a Λ {/b 0} branching fraction to date. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  1. A combined transmission spectrum of the Earth-sized exoplanets TRAPPIST-1 b and c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Julien; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Gillon, Michaël; Lewis, Nikole K.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M.; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    Three Earth-sized exoplanets were recently discovered close to the habitable zone of the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 (ref. 3). The nature of these planets has yet to be determined, as their masses remain unmeasured and no observational constraint is available for the planetary population surrounding ultracool dwarfs, of which the TRAPPIST-1 planets are the first transiting example. Theoretical predictions span the entire atmospheric range, from depleted to extended hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Here we report observations of the combined transmission spectrum of the two inner planets during their simultaneous transits on 4 May 2016. The lack of features in the combined spectrum rules out cloud-free hydrogen-dominated atmospheres for each planet at ≥10σ levels; TRAPPIST-1 b and c are therefore unlikely to have an extended gas envelope as they occupy a region of parameter space in which high-altitude cloud/haze formation is not expected to be significant for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Many denser atmospheres remain consistent with the featureless transmission spectrum—from a cloud-free water-vapour atmosphere to a Venus-like one.

  2. The DnaB.DnaC complex: a structure based on dimers assembled around an occluded channel.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, M; Ruiz, T; Donate, L E; Brown, S E; Dixon, N E; Radermacher, M; Carazo, J M

    2001-03-15

    Replicative helicases are motor proteins that unwind DNA at replication forks. Escherichia coli DnaB is the best characterized member of this family of enzymes. We present the 26 A resolution three-dimensional structure of the DnaB hexamer in complex with its loading partner, DnaC, obtained from cryo-electron microscopy. Analysis of the volume brings insight into the elaborate way the two proteins interact, and provides a structural basis for control of the symmetry state and inactivation of the helicase by DnaC. The complex is arranged on the basis of interactions among DnaC and DnaB dimers. DnaC monomers are observed for the first time to arrange as three dumb-bell-shaped dimers that interlock into one of the faces of the helicase. This could be responsible for the freezing of DnaB in a C(3) architecture by its loading partner. The central channel of the helicase is almost occluded near the end opposite to DnaC, such that even single-stranded DNA could not pass through. We propose that the DnaB N-terminal domain is located at this face.

  3. A multi-scale approach reveals that NF-κB cRel enforces a B-cell decision to divide

    PubMed Central

    Shokhirev, Maxim N; Almaden, Jonathan; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Birnbaum, Harry A; Russell, Theresa M; Vargas, Jesse A D; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the functions of multi-cellular organs in terms of the molecular networks within each cell is an important step in the quest to predict phenotype from genotype. B-lymphocyte population dynamics, which are predictive of immune response and vaccine effectiveness, are determined by individual cells undergoing division or death seemingly stochastically. Based on tracking single-cell time-lapse trajectories of hundreds of B cells, single-cell transcriptome, and immunofluorescence analyses, we constructed an agent-based multi-modular computational model to simulate lymphocyte population dynamics in terms of the molecular networks that control NF-κB signaling, the cell cycle, and apoptosis. Combining modeling and experimentation, we found that NF-κB cRel enforces the execution of a cellular decision between mutually exclusive fates by promoting survival in growing cells. But as cRel deficiency causes growing B cells to die at similar rates to non-growing cells, our analysis reveals that the phenomenological decision model of wild-type cells is rooted in a biased race of cell fates. We show that a multi-scale modeling approach allows for the prediction of dynamic organ-level physiology in terms of intra-cellular molecular networks. PMID:25680807

  4. Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Klasse, P J; LaBranche, Celia C; Ketas, Thomas J; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Pugach, Pavel; Ringe, Rajesh P; Golabek, Michael; van Gils, Marit J; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Wilson, Ian A; Butera, Salvatore T; Ward, Andrew B; Montefiori, David C; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the immunogenicity in rabbits of native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP.664 trimers based on the env genes of four isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); specifically BG505 (clade A), B41 (clade B), CZA97 (clade C) and DU422 (clade C). The various trimers were delivered either simultaneously (as a mixture of clade A + B trimers) or sequentially over a 73-week period. Autologous, Tier-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were generated to the clade A and clade B trimers in the bivalent mixture. When delivered as boosting immunogens to rabbits immunized with the clade A and/or clade B trimers, the clade C trimers also generated autologous Tier-2 NAb responses, the CZA97 trimers doing so more strongly and consistently than the DU422 trimers. The clade C trimers also cross-boosted the pre-existing NAb responses to clade A and B trimers. We observed heterologous Tier-2 NAb responses albeit inconsistently, and with limited overall breath. However, cross-neutralization of the clade A BG505.T332N virus was consistently observed in rabbits immunized only with clade B trimers and then boosted with clade C trimers. The autologous NAbs induced by the BG505, B41 and CZA97 trimers predominantly recognized specific holes in the glycan shields of the cognate virus. The shared location of some of these holes may account for the observed cross-boosting effects and the heterologous neutralization of the BG505.T332N virus. These findings will guide the design of further experiments to determine whether and how multiple Env trimers can together induce more broadly neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:27627672

  5. Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Klasse, P. J.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Pugach, Pavel; Ringe, Rajesh P.; Golabek, Michael; van Gils, Marit J.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Wilson, Ian A.; Butera, Salvatore T.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the immunogenicity in rabbits of native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP.664 trimers based on the env genes of four isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); specifically BG505 (clade A), B41 (clade B), CZA97 (clade C) and DU422 (clade C). The various trimers were delivered either simultaneously (as a mixture of clade A + B trimers) or sequentially over a 73-week period. Autologous, Tier-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were generated to the clade A and clade B trimers in the bivalent mixture. When delivered as boosting immunogens to rabbits immunized with the clade A and/or clade B trimers, the clade C trimers also generated autologous Tier-2 NAb responses, the CZA97 trimers doing so more strongly and consistently than the DU422 trimers. The clade C trimers also cross-boosted the pre-existing NAb responses to clade A and B trimers. We observed heterologous Tier-2 NAb responses albeit inconsistently, and with limited overall breath. However, cross-neutralization of the clade A BG505.T332N virus was consistently observed in rabbits immunized only with clade B trimers and then boosted with clade C trimers. The autologous NAbs induced by the BG505, B41 and CZA97 trimers predominantly recognized specific holes in the glycan shields of the cognate virus. The shared location of some of these holes may account for the observed cross-boosting effects and the heterologous neutralization of the BG505.T332N virus. These findings will guide the design of further experiments to determine whether and how multiple Env trimers can together induce more broadly neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:27627672

  6. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  7. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 C Schedule C... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139 Attachment 1 Schedule C Part I—Condensed Income Statement () Greyhound Lines, Inc.()Trailways combined()...

  8. A novel complex A/C/G intergenotypic recombinant of hepatitis B virus isolated in southern China.

    PubMed

    Su, Heling; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhihui; Cheng, Shuquan; Ye, Haiyan; Xu, Qing; Liu, Qingbo; Tan, Shuhong; Xu, Dongping; Liu, Yongming

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and subgenotypes may vary in geographical distribution and virological features. Previous investigations, including ours, showed that HBV genotypes B and C were respectively predominant in South and North China, while genotypes A and D were infrequently detected and genotype G was not found. In this study, a novel A/C/G intergenotype was identified in patients with chronic HBV infection in Guilin, a city in southern China. Initial phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene suggested the HBV recombinant to be genotype G. However, extended genotyping based on the entire HBV genome indicated it to be an A/C/G intergenotype with a closer relation to genotype C. Breakpoint analysis using the SIMPLOT program revealed that the recombinant had a recombination with a arrangement of genotypes A, G, A and C fragments. Compared with the HBV recombinants harboring one or two genotype G fragments found in Asian countries, this Guilin recombinant was highly similar to the Vietnam (98-99%) and Long An recombinants (96-99%), but had a relatively low similarity to the Thailand one (89%). Unlike those with the typical genotype G of HBV, the patients with the Guilin recombinant were seropositive for HBeAg. Moreover, a relatively high HBV DNA viral load (>2 × 10(6) IU/ml) was detected in the patients, and the analysis of viral replication capacity showed that the Guilin recombinant strains had a competent replication capacity similar to genotypes B and C strains. These findings can aid in not only the clarification of the phylogenetic origin of the HBV recombinants with the genotype G fragment found in Asian countries, but also the understanding of the virological properties of these complicated HBV recombinants.

  9. Expression of I-A and I-E,C region-coded Ia antigens on functional B cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, J A; Hibbler, F J; Hill, S W

    1978-12-01

    Ia antigens from specific subregions have been examined on functional B cell populations. Expression of both I-A and I-E,C region antigens was demonstrated on cells required for both lipopolysaccharide mitogenesis and polyclonal activation. Similar I-A and I-E,C subregion expression was found on cells required for response to the T-independent antigen, polyvinylpyrrolidone. TNP-specific IgM and hen egg lysozyme-specific IgG plaque-forming cells also express I-A and I-E,C region antigens. No evidence was found for an Ia- population responsive in the systems tested. Further, no evidence of preferential expression of I-A or I-E,C region antigens was observed in any system examined. Therefore, it appears that B cells express both I-A and I-E,C region-coded Ia antigens.

  10. Normal-incidence Sb/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors for the 80 A < {lambda} < 120 A wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, E A; Voronov, D L; Gullikson, E M; Kondratenko, V V; Kopylets, I A; Luginin, M S; Pirozhkov, A S; Ragozin, Evgenii N; Shatokhin, A N

    2013-07-31

    Periodic and aperiodic Sb/B4C multilayer structures have been theoretically calculated and synthesised for the first time for the application in soft X-ray optics in the 80 A < {lambda} < 120 A range. The reflection spectra of the periodic multilayer mirrors are measured using synchrotron radiation and laser plasma-generated radiation. The experimental spectra are theoretically interpreted with the inclusion of transition layers and substrate roughness. The density of antimony layers is supposedly {rho}{sub (Sb)} = 6.0 g cm{sup -3}, and the thickness of transition layers (if any) in the Sb/B4C multilayer structures does not exceed 10 A. A peak reflectivity of 19 % is attained at a wavelength of 85 A. An aperiodic mirror optimised for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 100 - 120 A range is tested employing the laser plasma radiation source. (x-ray optics)

  11. Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Barthelmess, Miriam; Bajt, Saša

    2011-04-10

    Wavelength, reflectance, and stress stability of Mo/B(4)C multilayers were studied as a function of postdeposition annealing up to 900 °C. These multilayers are of interest as normal incidence coatings for wavelengths above the boron K-absorption edge. Mo/B(4)C multilayers deposited at low sputtering pressure have high compressive stress. Zero stress can be achieved at 360 °C-370 °C, but annealing at <200 °C is sufficient to reduce stress by ∼40%. This stress relaxation is accompanied with a multilayer period expansion of ∼0.02 nm and a <0.5% decrease in normal incidence reflectivity. The multilayer period remains stable up to ∼600 °C, while intrinsic stress changes from compressive to tensile. A four-layer model with amorphous molybdenum and boron carbide layers separated by amorphous layers of molybdenum borides (Mo(x)B(y)) is presented. These interlayers are present already in the as-deposited state and continue to grow with increasing temperature. Their presence lowers the optical contrast and the achievable reflectivity. However, they also increase multilayer thermal stability. At temperatures >600 °C, a noticeable decrease in reflectivity associated with the phase transition from amorphous to crystalline molybdenum boride is observed. This is accompanied with an increase in interface and surface roughness and a change in stress as a function of temperature.

  12. Comparison of sensitivity of enzyme immunoassays for toxin A and B in different C. difficile PCR ribotypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Myungsook; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Kyungwon

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for toxins A and B are the most common assays for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection due to their rapidity and ease of use. However, the sensitivity of different kits varies greatly. The predominant PCR ribotypes of C. difficile vary according to the region or country studied, and it was recently reported that the sensitivity of EIAs can be affected by the strain type. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of EIAs in different PCR ribotypes of C. difficile during a period of five years in a Korean hospital. A total of 969 toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered from patients with diarrhea in a hospital from 2006 to 2009 (inclusive), and 2011. Overall sensitivities of Tox A/B Quik Chek (TechLab, Blacksburg, VA) and VIDAS C. difficile A & B (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) were 36.4% and 46.3%, respectively. The sensitivities of TOX A/B Quick Chek and VIDAS Clostridium difficile A & B for the five most common ribotypes were as follows: 56.6% and 71.7% for ribotype AB17 (ribotype 018); 48.6% and 54.3% for ribotype aB (ribotype 017); 25.3% and 36.3% for ribotype AB2 (ribotype 014); 13.0% and 24.2% for ribotype AB3; 66.7% and 0% for ribotype AB1 (ribotype 001), respectively. The sensitivity for the predominant ribotype, AB17, was significantly different from those for aB, AB2, AB1, and AB3 using VIDAS Clostridium difficile A & B (p<0.05). These data suggest that the sensitivity of EIA may be affected by the distribution of ribotypes.

  13. Synthesis and supercapacitor electrode of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites with a pseudocapacitance in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Zheng, Jiqi; Hu, Tao; Tian, Fuping; Meng, Changgong

    2016-05-01

    VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were successfully prepared using commercial V2O5, glucose and water as the starting materials by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The composition of the products was characterized by the techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and elemental analysis. The morphology of the products was observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy tests. The results showed the products consisted of the crystal VO2(B) phase and the amorphous carbon phase. The amorphous carbon contained lots of organic groups, such as sbnd OH, Csbnd H, Cdbnd O and Cdbnd C, etc., which suggested that the carbon here was organic carbon. The morphology of the as-obtained VO2(B)/C composites was well-defined nanobelts, and each VO2(B) core was encapsulated into carbon. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of VO2(B)/C core-shell composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results showed the measured capacitance of VO2(B)/C composites was mainly based on the pseudocapacitance. VO2(B)/C composites displayed the specific capacitance of 203, 190, 182, 173, 164, and 147 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 A g-1, respectively. They also showed an excellent energy density of 198.9 W h kg-1 at a power density of 504.5 W kg-1 and a rapidly reversible redox Faraday response.

  14. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinway, Steven N.; Dang, Hien; You, Hanning; Rountree, C. Bart; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance. Methods We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+) HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells) were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses. Results We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate

  15. 75 FR 22508 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D, and D1; AS 355E, F, F1, F2, N, and NP Helicopters AGENCY: Federal.... Other Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, C, D...

  16. Sequence analysis of frog alpha B-crystallin cDNA: sequence homology and evolutionary comparison of alpha A, alpha B and heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, S F; Pan, F M; Chiou, S H

    1995-11-22

    alpha-Crystallin is a major lens protein present in the lenses of all vertebrate species. Recent studies have revealed that bovine alpha-crystallins possess genuine chaperone activity similar to small heat-shock proteins. In order to facilitate the determination of the primary sequence of amphibian alpha B-crystallin, cDNA encoding alpha B subunit chain was amplified using a new "Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends" (RACE) protocol of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR-amplified product corresponding to alpha B subunit was then subcloned into pUC18 vector and transformed into E. coli strain JM109. Plasmids purified from the positive clones were prepared for nucleotide sequencing by the automatic fluorescence-based dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method. Sequencing more than five clones containing DNA inserts coding for alpha B-crystallin subunit constructed only one complete full-length reading frame of 522 base pairs similar to that of alpha A subunit, covering a deduced protein sequence of 173 amino acids including the universal translation-initiating methionine. The frog alpha B crystallin shows 69, 66 and 56% whereas alpha A crystallin shows 83, 81 and 69% sequence similarity to the homologous chains of bovine, chicken and dogfish, respectively, revealing a more divergent structural relationship among these alpha B subunits as compared to alpha A subunits. Structural analysis and comparison of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin subunits from eye lenses of different classes of vertebrates also shed some light on the evolutionary relatedness between alpha B/alpha A crystallins and the small heat-shock proteins.

  17. 76 FR 78336 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1040 and Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... activities reflected in the model are as follows: Recordkeeping, Tax planning, Gathering tax materials, Use..., D-1, E, EIC, F, H, J, R, and SE., Form 1040A, Form 1040EZ, Form 1040NR, Form 1040NR-EZ, Form 1040X... Schedules A, B, C, C-EZ, D, D-1, E, EIC, F, H, J, R, and SE; Form 1040A; Form 1040EZ; Form 1040NR;...

  18. Enterovirus 71 2C Protein Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Binding to RelA(p65).

    PubMed

    Du, Haiwei; Yin, Peiqi; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Leiliang; Jin, Qi; Zhu, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Viruses evolve multiple ways to interfere with NF-κB signaling, a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of primary pathogens that cause hand-foot-mouth disease. Here, we identify RelA(p65) as a novel binding partner for EV71 2C protein from yeast two-hybrid screen. By interaction with IPT domain of p65, 2C reduces the formation of heterodimer p65/p50, the predominant form of NF-κB. We also show that picornavirus 2C family proteins inhibit NF-κB activation and associate with p65 and IKKβ. Our findings provide a novel mechanism how EV71 antagonizes innate immunity.

  19. Plasmin(ogen) acquisition by group A Streptococcus protects against C3b-mediated neutrophil killing.

    PubMed

    Ly, Diane; Taylor, Jude M; Tsatsaronis, James A; Monteleone, Mercedes M; Skora, Amanda S; Donald, Cortny A; Maddocks, Tracy; Nizet, Victor; West, Nicholas P; Ranson, Marie; Walker, Mark J; McArthur, Jason D; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2014-01-01

    The globally significant human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) sequesters the host protease plasmin to the cell surface during invasive disease initiation. Recent evidence has shown that localized plasmin activity prevents opsonization of several bacterial species by key components of the innate immune system in vitro. Here we demonstrate that plasmin at the GAS cell surface resulted in degradation of complement factor C3b, and that plasminogen acquisition is associated with a decrease in C3b opsonization and neutrophil-mediated killing in vitro. Furthermore, the ability to acquire cell surface plasmin(ogen) correlates directly with a decrease in C3b opsonization, neutrophil phagocytosis, and increased bacterial survival in a humanized plasminogen mouse model of infection. These findings demonstrate that localized plasmin(ogen) plays an important role in facilitating GAS escape from the host innate immune response and increases bacterial virulence in the early stages of infection.

  20. Efficacy of polymeric encapsulated C5a peptidase–based group B streptococcus vaccines in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    SANTILLAN, Donna A.; RAI, Karishma K.; SANTILLAN, Mark K.; KRISHNAMACHARI, Yogita; SALEM, Aliasger K.; HUNTER, Stephen K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose was to examine in mice the efficacy of various polymeric encapsulated C5a peptidase vaccine formulations in eliciting a long-term immune response and preventing Group B Streptococci infection. Study Design C5a peptidase was encapsulated in semi-permeable microspheres of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Female ICR mice were immunized with 0, 10, or 30ug of encapsulated C5a peptidase within 2 different formulations of PLGA polymers. Booster doses were given at weeks 4 and 8. Antibody responses were measured by ELISA at weeks 4, 8, 11, and 40. Vaginal challenge with GBS types 1a, III, and V were performed at week 12. Results 30ug doses of the 75:25 and 50:50 PLGA formulations generate the highest and most sustained C5a peptidase specific immune responses. Mice that received encapsulated C5a peptidase were significantly protected from vaginal colonization compared to mice that receive empty microspheres. Conclusion Encapsulated C5a peptidase elicited significant immune responses and protection against GBS challenge. C5a peptidase microsphere encapsulation has potential as a GBS vaccine. PMID:21802065

  1. The Drosophila gene CheB42a is a novel modifier of Deg/ENaC channel function.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shahar, Yehuda; Lu, Beika; Collier, Daniel M; Snyder, Peter M; Schnizler, Mikael; Welsh, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Degenerin/epithelial Na(+) channels (DEG/ENaC) represent a diverse family of voltage-insensitive cation channels whose functions include Na(+) transport across epithelia, mechanosensation, nociception, salt sensing, modification of neurotransmission, and detecting the neurotransmitter FMRFamide. We previously showed that the Drosophila melanogaster Deg/ENaC gene lounge lizard (llz) is co-transcribed in an operon-like locus with another gene of unknown function, CheB42a. Because operons often encode proteins in the same biochemical or physiological pathway, we hypothesized that CHEB42A and LLZ might function together. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found both genes expressed in cells previously implicated in sensory functions during male courtship. Furthermore, when coexpressed, LLZ coprecipitated with CHEB42A, suggesting that the two proteins form a complex. Although LLZ expressed either alone or with CHEB42A did not generate ion channel currents, CHEB42A increased current amplitude of another DEG/ENaC protein whose ligand (protons) is known, acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a). We also found that CHEB42A was cleaved to generate a secreted protein, suggesting that CHEB42A may play an important role in the extracellular space. These data suggest that CHEB42A is a modulatory subunit for sensory-related Deg/ENaC signaling. These results are consistent with operon-like transcription of CheB42a and llz and explain the similar contributions of these genes to courtship behavior. PMID:20195381

  2. Segment spanning residues 727-768 of the complement C3 sequence contains a neoantigenic site and accommodates the binding of CR1, factor H, and factor B.

    PubMed

    Becherer, J D; Alsenz, J; Esparza, I; Hack, C E; Lambris, J D

    1992-02-18

    CR1, CR2, DAF, MCP, factor H, C4bp, factor B, and C3 are members of a family of structurally related molecules, the majority of which belong to the complement system. Several of these molecules also share functional features such as cofactor and decay/dissociation activity and compete with one another in binding to C3b. Since factor H appears to bind to multiple sites in C3, we investigated the relationship between the factor H- and CR1-binding sites in C3b. Factor H binding to C3b is inhibited by either the C3c or C3d fragments, and addition of both fragments together augments this inhibition. One monoclonal anti-C3c antibody, anti-C3-9, which recognizes a neoantigenic epitope expressed upon cleavage to C3 to C3b, inhibited both factor H and CR1 binding to EC3b cells. This monoclonal antibody (MoAb) also inhibited factor B binding to EC3b. Two observations further supported our hypothesis that these molecules bind to proximal sites in C3b. First, a synthetic peptide spanning this region of C3b (C3(727-768)) inhibited factor H binding. Second, antibodies raised against this peptide inhibited binding to CR1, factor H, and factor B to C3b. These data show that H binds to at least two sites in C3b: the site in the C3c fragment is within the identified CR1-binding domain while the site in the C3d fragment surrounds the CR2-binding site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Alotaketals A and B, sesterterpenoids from the marine sponge Hamigera species that activate the cAMP cell signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Forestieri, Roberto; Merchant, Catherine E; de Voogd, Nicole J; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Kieffer, Timothy J; Andersen, Raymond J

    2009-11-19

    The new sesterterpenoids alotaketals A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from extracts of the marine sponge Hamigera sp. collected in Papua New Guinea. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. Alotaketals A and B have the unprecedented alotane carbon skeleton, and they activate the cAMP cell signaling pathway with EC(50)'s of 18 and 240 nM, respectively. PMID:19873990

  4. Estimating the treatment cascade of chronic hepatitis B and C in Greece using a telephone survey.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Sypsa, V; Kantzanou, M; Nikolakopoulos, I; Hatzakis, A

    2015-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment rates for chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections are usually missing. Aim of this study was to estimate the HBV and HCV treatment cascade (proportion and absolute numbers of tested, aware/unaware, infected and treated) in Greek adults. A telephone survey was conducted in a sample representative of the Greek adult general population. Prevalence rates were age-standardized for the Greek adult population and corrected for high-risk individuals not included in the survey. Of the 9974 participants, 5255 (52.7%) had been tested for HBV and 2062 (20.7%) for HCV with the proportion varying according to age and being higher in middle-age groups (P < 0.001). HBsAg was reported positive in 111/5255 (2.11%) and anti-HCV in 26/2062 (1.26%) tested cases. The age-adjusted prevalence was estimated to be 2.39% for HBV and 1.79% for HCV. Taking into account individuals at high risk for viral hepatitis not included in the survey, the 'true' prevalence was estimated to be 2.58% for HBV and 1.87% for HCV. Anti-HBV and anti-HCV treatment had been taken by 36/111 (32.4%) chronic HBV and 15/26 (57.7%) chronic HCV patients. In conclusion, almost 50% of chronic HBV and 80% of chronic HCV patients in Greece may be unaware of their infection, while only 32% or 58% of diagnosed chronic HBV or HCV patients, respectively, have been ever treated. Therefore, intensive efforts are required to improve the efficacy of screening for HBV and particularly for HCV as well as to reduce the barriers to treatment among diagnosed patients. PMID:25209157

  5. Synthesis of A B C-ring subunit of C-nor-D-homo-steroidal alkaloids: towards the total synthesis of cyclopamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Li; Liao, Yu-Qi; Cai, Peng-Jun; Yao, He-Quan; Kong, Ling-Yi; Sun, Hong-Bin

    2013-05-01

    A practical approach to the synthesis of the A, B and C-ring subunit of cyclopamine has been developed. This synthetic tactic highlights the utility of mandelate acetal-mediated resolution of the fused ring ketone (±)-4 and IBX-mediated oxidation cascades from 12 to 9. The availability of advanced intermediates from enantiomerically pure (+)-4 and 2 could provide efficient access to biologically active and structurally diverse C-nor-D-homo-steroidal alkaloids such as cyclopamine.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a C-terminal TonB fragment from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koedding, Jiri; Polzer, Patrick; Killig, Frank; Howard, S Peter; Gerber, Kinga; Seige, Peter; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram

    2004-07-01

    The TonB protein located in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria mediates the proton motive force from the cytoplasmic membrane to specific outer membrane transporters. A C-terminal fragment of TonB from Escherichia coli consisting of amino-acid residues 147-239 (TonB-92) has been purified and crystallized. Crystals grew in space group P2(1) to dimensions of about 1.0 x 0.12 x 0.12 mm. A native data set has been obtained to 1.09 A resolution.

  7. Discovery of a Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Signal from the 3C 66A/B Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bartko, H.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Chilingarian, A.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Curtef, V.; Dazzi, F.; DeAngelis, A.; DeCea del Pozo, E.; de los Reyes, R.; DeLotto, B.; DeMaria, M.; DeSabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominguez, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Huber, S.; Jogler, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Meyer, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Otte, N.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Raymers, A.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Sartori, P.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tluczykont, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Venturini, A.; Vitale, V.; Wagner, R. M.; Wittek, W.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.

    2009-02-01

    The MAGIC telescope observed the region around the distant blazar 3C 66A for 54.2 hr in 2007 August-December. The observations resulted in the discovery of a γ-ray source centered at celestial coordinates R.A. = 2h23m12s and decl. = 43°0farcm7 (MAGIC J0223+430), coinciding with the nearby radio galaxy 3C 66B. A possible association of the excess with the blazar 3C 66A is discussed. The energy spectrum of MAGIC J0223+430 follows a power law with a normalization of (1.7 ± 0.3stat ± 0.6syst) × 10-11 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 at 300 GeV and a photon index Γ = -3.10 ± 0.31stat ± 0.2syst.

  8. A type III effector protease NleC from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli targets NF-κB for degradation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Riedmaier, Patrice; Marchès, Olivier; Frankel, Gad; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2011-04-01

    Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells during infection. Previously, we found that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III effector, NleE, to block the inflammatory response by inhibiting IκB degradation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Here we screened further effectors with unknown function for their capacity to prevent p65 nuclear translocation. We observed that ectopic expression of GFP-NleC in HeLa cells led to the degradation of p65. Delivery of NleC by the T3SS of EPEC also induced degradation of p65 in infected cells as well as other NF-κB components, c-Rel and p50. Recombinant His(6) -NleC induced p65 and p50 cleavage in HeLa cell lysates and mutation of a consensus zinc metalloprotease motif, HEIIH, abrogated NleC proteolytic activity. NleC inhibited IL-8 production during prolonged EPEC infection of HeLa cells in a protease activity-dependent manner. A double nleE/nleC mutant was further impaired for its ability to inhibit IL-8 secretion than either a single nleE or a single nleC mutant. We conclude that NleC is a type III effector protease that degrades NF-κB thereby contributing the arsenal of bacterial effectors that inhibit innate immune activation.

  9. The Lifetime of a beautiful and charming meson: Bc lifetime measured using the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine

    2008-09-01

    Using approximately 1.3 fb-1 of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the lifetime of the Bc± meson is studied in the Bc± → J/Ψμ± + X final state. Using an unbinned likelihood simultaneous fit to J/Ψ + μ invariant mass and lifetime distributions, a signal of 810 ± 80(stat.) candidates is estimated and a lifetime measurement made of: τ(Bc±) = 0.448-0.036+0.038(stat) ± 0.032(sys) ps.

  10. Interior Baja B.C. : Continuing Rotation on a Diffuse Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, D. T.; Harris, M. J.; McCausland, P. J.; Blackburn, W. H.; Hart, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Interior Baja B.C. - the Intermontane Belt (IMB) and Yukon-Tanana (YT) terranes of northwestern North America - provide a geological record of the complex interactions between the northeastern Pacific basin plates and craton. Geophysical evidence from earthquake seismology, gravity, global positioning system and heat flow data indicate motion of the IMB terranes toward the craton today. Paleomagnetic data show the YT terrane to be parautochthonous and part of the craton's ramp onto which the IMB terranes were obducted. Conversely the IMB terranes behaved as an allochthonous reasonably-coherent microplate with its own apparent polar wander path. Relative to the craton, the path dictates that: 1) from 0-54 Ma the IMB rotated steadily on the craton's ramp at 0.29±±0.11° /Ma or 16±6° clockwise (CW), consistent with Lithoprobe SNORCLE deep crustal seismic evidence for thin skinned tectonics; 2) from 54 to 102±14 Ma the IMB was offshore and was further rotated by 35±14° CW and translated northward by 8.3±7.0° (915±75 km), consistent with geological estimates for total dextral fault displacement and seafloor plate vectors; and 3) more speculatively, from Early Cretaceous to Early Jurassic, the IMB moved in concert with the craton off the western USA seaboard. This history fits with major geologic events such as extensive Eocene extension in southern British Columbia, development of the 1000 km-long Selwyn-Mackenzie orogenic arc in Yukon, YT terrane exposure on either side of the IMB, etc. Further it requires continuing crust-mantle interactions that extend some hundreds of kilometers into the craton today.

  11. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  12. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  13. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  14. BO2-functionalized B3N3C54 heterofullerene as a possible candidate for molecular spintronics and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    BO2-substituted B3N3C54 heterofullerene was studied using density functional theory, and its electronic, magnetic and nonlinear optical properties are discussed. The substitution was considered at the B and N sites of the heterofullerene, in lower and higher spin states. We notice that BO2 substitution at the B sites of B3N3C54 heterofullerene leads to interesting properties, such as a smaller energy gap (0.66 eV) and a high spin magnetic moment (3 μ B). The density-of-states curves, molecular orbitals and spin density surfaces have been used to explain these facts. In addition, the first-order mean hyperpolarizability of B3N3C54 heterofullerene has been found to be significantly large (3.6 × 103 a.u.), which is due to smaller transition energy in the crucial excited state. This is reflected by the absorption spectra calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory method. These findings may be exploited to design novel materials for possible spintronic and electro-optical applications.

  15. The role of cluster B and C personality disturbance in the course of depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Hogan, Michael E

    2007-08-01

    The association between personality disturbance and depression has been noted consistently. Prospective tests of personality's impact on the course of depression, however, are lacking. In a sample of 159 undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, dimensional scores for clusters B and C personality disturbance were examined as prospective predictors of four indicators of the course of depression: severity, episode duration, symptomatic chronicity and number of episodes. Cluster C personality disturbance, characterized by anxious and fearful features, predicted depression chronicity. Cluster B, characterized by dramatic, emotional and/or erratic features, predicted severity and duration of depression. The findings are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of clusters B and C, as well as implications for future research.

  16. Cloning of TTG1 gene and PCR identification of genomes A, B and C in Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingli; Liu, Xianjun; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Lili; Xiang, Jianhua; Lu, Ying; Liu, Zhongsong

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) genes were cloned from three diploid Brassica species (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) and two amphidiploids species (B. juncea and B. carinata) by homology cloning. TTG1 homologues identified in all the accessions of the investigated species had a coding sequence of 1,014 bp. One copy was obtained from each diploid species and two copies from each amphidiploid species. Combined analysis of the TTG1 sequences cloned in this study with those obtained from public databases demonstrated that three, forty-five and seven nucleotides were specific variations in TTG1 genes from genomes A, B and C, respectively. Primers designed with genome-specific nucleotide variations were able to distinguish among TTG1 genes originating from genomes A, B and C in Brassica. Therefore, the TTG1 gene could serve as a candidate marker gene to detect the pollen flow of Brassica and provide an alternative method for the detection of pollen drift and risk assessment of gene flow in Brassica species.

  17. Cloning of TTG1 gene and PCR identification of genomes A, B and C in Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingli; Liu, Xianjun; Guan, Chunyun; Liu, Lili; Xiang, Jianhua; Lu, Ying; Liu, Zhongsong

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis Transparent Testa Glabra 1 (TTG1) genes were cloned from three diploid Brassica species (B. rapa, B. nigra and B. oleracea) and two amphidiploids species (B. juncea and B. carinata) by homology cloning. TTG1 homologues identified in all the accessions of the investigated species had a coding sequence of 1,014 bp. One copy was obtained from each diploid species and two copies from each amphidiploid species. Combined analysis of the TTG1 sequences cloned in this study with those obtained from public databases demonstrated that three, forty-five and seven nucleotides were specific variations in TTG1 genes from genomes A, B and C, respectively. Primers designed with genome-specific nucleotide variations were able to distinguish among TTG1 genes originating from genomes A, B and C in Brassica. Therefore, the TTG1 gene could serve as a candidate marker gene to detect the pollen flow of Brassica and provide an alternative method for the detection of pollen drift and risk assessment of gene flow in Brassica species. PMID:24752509

  18. BALB/c-congenic ANP32B-deficient mice reveal a modifying locus that determines viability

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Vonny I.; Bunte, Ralph M.; Reilly, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that deletion of the multifunctional factor ANP32B (a.k.a. SSP29, APRIL, PAL31, PHAPI2) resulted in a severe but strain-specific defect resulting in perinatal lethality. The difficulty in generating an adult cohort of ANP32B-deficient animals limited our ability to examine adult phenotypes, particularly cancer-related phenotypes. We bred the Anp32b-null allele into the BALB/c and FVB/N genetic background. The BALB/c, but not the FVB/N, background provided sufficient frequency of adult Anp32b-null (Anp32b−/−) animals. From these, we found no apparent oncogenic role for this protein in mammary tumorigenesis contrary to what was predicted based on human data. We also found runtism, pathologies in various organ systems, and an unusual clinical chemistry signature in the adult Anp32b−/− mice. Intriguingly, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis suggested that our colony retained an unlinked C57BL/6J locus at high frequency. Breeding this locus to homozygosity demonstrated that it had a strong effect on Anp32b−/− viability indicating that this locus contains a modifier gene of Anp32b with respect to development. This suggests a functionally important genetic interaction with one of a limited number of candidate genes, foremost among them being the variant histone gene H2afv. Using congenic breeding strategies, we have generated a viable ANP32B-deficient animal in a mostly pure background. We have used this animal to reliably exclude mouse ANP32B as an important oncogene in mammary tumorigenesis. Our further phenotyping strengthens the evidence that ANP32B is a widespread regulator of gene expression. These studies may also impact the choice of subsequent groups with respect to congenic breeding versus de novo zygote targeting strategies for background analyses in mouse genetics. PMID:26558540

  19. C4b-Binding Protein Is Present in Affected Areas of Myocardial Infarction during the Acute Inflammatory Phase and Covers a Larger Area than C3

    PubMed Central

    Trouw, Leendert A.; Okroj, Marcin; Kupreishvili, Koba; Landberg, Göran; Johansson, Bengt; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Blom, Anna M.

    2008-01-01

    Background During myocardial infarction reduced blood flow in the heart muscle results in cell death. These dying/dead cells have been reported to bind several plasma proteins such as IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present study we investigated whether fluid-phase complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP) would also bind to the infarcted heart tissue. Methods and Findings Initial studies using immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays for several cardiovascular disorders indicated that C4BP can be found in heart tissue in several cardiac diseases but that it is most abundantly found in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This condition was studied in more detail by analyzing the time window and extent of C4BP positivity. The binding of C4BP correlates to the same locations as C3b, a marker known to correlate to the patterns of IgM and CRP staining. Based on criteria that describe the time after infarction we were able to pinpoint that C4BP binding is a relatively early marker of tissue damage in myocardial infarction with a peak of binding between 12 hours and 5 days subsequent to AMI, the phase in which infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in the heart is the most extensive. Conclusions C4BP, an important fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after AMI and co-localizes to other well known markers such as C3b. PMID:18682851

  20. The non-Mendelian inheritance of Lewis-c blood group substance, as demonstrated in the case of a Bombay, Le(a-b-c-) saliva.

    PubMed

    Savvas, R S

    1975-01-01

    A Bombay, Le(a-b-) saliva was shown to lack Pneumococcus type XIV activity, an unusual situation, since this sample should be rich in this precursor to the ABO blood group substances. However, the sample was found to contain a new serological specificity, Le-c. It is argued that simple Mendelian inheritance does not occur with Le-c and single gene control cannot be demonstrated. Failure to repress a fetal gene at birth, as implicated by the similarity in structure between Le-c and carcinoembryonic antigen [SIMMONS and PERLMANN], has been excluded as the mechanism of inheritance of this blood group substance, due to the inability to detect carcinoembryonic antigen in the test saliva.

  1. The C ∼ 2B3u ← X ∼ 2B2g electronic absorption spectrum of butatriene cation in a neon matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, Karol; Fulara, Jan; Maier, John P.

    2015-04-01

    The C ∼ 2B3u ← X ∼ 2B2g electronic absorption of butatriene cation (BT+) has been observed in a 6 K neon matrix. The origin band lies at 511.9 nm. The electronic transition assignment is based on comparison with the photoelectron spectrum of butatriene and the vibrational frequencies of BT+ calculated with the CASPT2 (5, 6) method. Three vibrational modes of energy 207, 511 and 813 cm-1, with their overtones and combinations, are active in the C ∼ 2B3u state of BT+. It is shown that the emission observed from a glow discharge of 2-butyne at 491 nm and attributed to the origin band of this electronic transition [1] of BT+ is due to another species, because the difference of 850 cm-1 to the absorption spectrum is too large. No fluorescence of BT+ was detected in the matrix and it is expected that the C ∼ 2B3u electronic state relaxes non-radiatively on a fs time scale.

  2. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/25654609 . LeFevre ML; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014 Jul 1; ...

  3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a has a better virologic response to antiviral therapy than HCV genotype 1b

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhen; Yue, Dongli; Zhou, Rong; Li, Xiaogang; Wu, Shuhuan; Li, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The standard treatment, pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV), for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), does not provide a sustained virologic response (SVR) in a large majority of patients. In the present study, 211 treatment-naïve patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b and 2a were recruited and treated weekly with PEG-IFN plus RBV to determine the response of HCV genotype 1b and 2a patients to standard antiviral treatment. Virologic responses were assessed by TaqMan at week 4, 12, 24, 48 and 24 weeks of treatment. Patients with HCV genotype 2a had a significantly higher rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response, end-of-treatment response and SVR, and a lower relapse rate than patients with HCV genotype 1b. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HCV genotype 2a patients had a HCV RNA level ≤ 5.70 log10 IU/ml, a fibrosis stage < S3, and that HLA-A02 expression and RVR were independent factors of SVR that may improve HCV clearance. PMID:26221288

  4. Observation of B+→Ξ¯cc+ and evidence for B0→Ξ¯c-Λc+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistov, R.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Anipko, D.; Arinstein, K.; Asano, Y.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bahinipati, S.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Bedny, I.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Brodzicka, J.; Browder, T. E.; Chao, Y.; Chen, A.; Chen, W. T.; Cheon, B. G.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Chuvikov, A.; Cole, S.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Dash, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fratina, S.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gershon, T.; Go, A.; Golob, B.; Gorišek, A.; Ha, H. C.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hou, S.; Hou, W.-S.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Khan, H. R.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. M.; Kinoshita, K.; Korpar, S.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Leder, G.; Lesiak, T.; Lin, S.-W.; Liventsev, D.; MacNaughton, J.; Majumder, G.; Mandl, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizuk, R.; Mueller, J.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Palka, H.; Park, H.; Park, K. S.; Peak, L. S.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Poluektov, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sato, N.; Satoyama, N.; Schietinger, T.; Schneider, O.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, V.; Somov, A.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tian, X. C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Ueno, K.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Villa, S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Won, E.; Xie, Q. L.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.

    2006-12-01

    We report the first observation of the decay B+→Ξ¯cc+ with a significance of 8.7σ and evidence for the decay B0→Ξ¯c-Λc+ with a significance of 3.8σ. The product B(B+→Ξ¯cc+)×B(Ξ¯c0→Ξ¯+π-) is measured to be (4.8-0.9+1.0±1.1±1.2)×10-5, and B(B0→Ξ¯cc+)×B(Ξ¯c-→Ξ¯+π-π-) is measured to be (9.3-2.8+3.7±1.9±2.4)×10-5. The errors are statistical, systematic and the error of the Λc+→pK-π+ branching fraction, respectively. The decay B+→Ξ¯cc+ is the first example of a two-body exclusive B+ decay into two charmed baryons. The data used for this analysis was accumulated at the Υ(4S) resonance, using the Belle detector at the e+e- asymmetric-energy collider KEKB. The integrated luminosity of the data sample is equal to 357fb-1, corresponding to 386×106 BB¯ pairs.

  5. Pain regulation of endokinin A/B or endokinin C/D on chimeric peptide MCRT in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Chunbo; Gong, Junbin; Yang, Lixia; Zhang, Hongwei; Dong, Shouliang; Zhou, Lanxia

    2016-09-01

    The present study focused on the interactive pain regulation of endokinin A/B (EKA/B, the common C-terminal decapeptide in EKA and EKB) or endokinin C/D (EKC/D, the common C-terminal duodecapeptide in EKC and EKD) on chimeric peptide MCRT (YPFPFRTic-NH2, based on YPFP-NH2 and PFRTic-NH2) at the supraspinal level in mice. Results demonstrated that the co-injection of nanomolar EKA/B and MCRT showed moderate regulation, whereas 30 pmol EKA/B had no effect on MCRT. The combination of EKC/D and MCRT produced enhanced antinociception, which was nearly equal to the sum of the mathematical values of single EKC/D and MCRT. Mechanism studies revealed that pre-injected naloxone attenuated the combination significantly compared with the equivalent analgesic effects of EKC/D alone, suggesting that EKC/D and MCRT might act on two totally independent pathways. Moreover, based on the above results and previous reports, we made two reasonable hypotheses to explain the cocktail-induced analgesia, which may potentially pave the way to explore the respective regulatory mechanisms of EKA/B, EKC/D, and MCRT and to better understand the complicated pain regulation of NK1 and μ opioid receptors, as follows: (1) MCRT and endomorphin-1 possibly activated different μ subtypes; and (2) picomolar EKA/B might motivate the endogenous NPFF system after NK1 activation.

  6. HAT-P-17b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT SATURN AND A LONG-PERIOD, COLD JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Beky, B.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Perumpilly, G.; Shporer, A.; Mazeh, T.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I. E-mail: gbakos@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-04-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-17b,c, a multi-planet system with an inner transiting planet in a short-period, eccentric orbit and an outer planet in a 4.4 yr, nearly circular orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-17b, transits the bright V = 10.54 early K dwarf star GSC 2717-00417, with an orbital period P = 10.338523 {+-} 0.000009 days, orbital eccentricity e = 0.342 {+-} 0.006, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454801.16943 {+-} 0.00020 (BJD: barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1690 {+-} 0.0009 days. HAT-P-17b has a mass of 0.534 {+-} 0.018 M{sub J} and radius of 1.010 {+-} 0.029 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.64 {+-} 0.05 g cm{sup -3}. This planet has a relatively low equilibrium temperature in the range 780-927 K, making it an attractive target for follow-up spectroscopic studies. The outer planet, HAT-P-17c, has a significantly longer orbital period P{sub 2} = 1610 {+-} 20 days and a minimum mass m{sub 2}sin i{sub 2} = 1.31{sup +0.18}{sub -0.15} M{sub J}. The orbital inclination of HAT-P-17c is unknown as transits have not been observed and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.84 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5246 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.00 {+-} 0.08. HAT-P-17 is the second multi-planet system detected from ground-based transit surveys.

  7. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2. PMID:25148778

  8. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2.

  9. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If...

  10. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.302 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (a) Introduction. (i) NASA policy with respect to...

  11. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If...

  12. 46 CFR 153.486 - Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Design and Equipment for Pollution Control § 153.486 Design and equipment for removing NLS residue by ventilation: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) If...

  13. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  14. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  15. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  16. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  17. 38 CFR 3.809a - Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special home adaptation... Special Benefits § 3.809a Special home adaptation grants under 38 U.S.C. 2101(b). A certificate of eligibility for assistance in acquiring necessary special home adaptations, or, on or after October 28,...

  18. A deficiency in the B cell response of C57BL/6 mice correlates with loss of macrophage-mediated killing of Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Boggiatto, Paola M.; Mukbel, Rami M.; Petersen, Christine A.; Jones, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of C3HeB/FeJ and C57BL/6 mice with Leishmania major stimulates a healing cell-mediated immune response, while Leishmania amazonensis infection leads to chronic disease. Here we show C3HeB/FeJ mice co-infected with both species of Leishmania heal, while co-infected C57BL/6 mice do not. Using an in vitro killing assay we determined B cells from infected C57BL/6 mice are ineffective in promoting parasite killing compared with B cells from infected C3HeB/FeJ mice. Furthermore, infected C57BL/6 mice produce less antigen-specific antibodies compared with infected C3HeB/FeJ mice. These findings suggest B cells play a required role in the cell-mediated immune response against L. amazonensis. PMID:20004204

  19. Enhancement in the critical current density of C-doped MgB2 wire using a polyacrylic acid dopant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Won; Joo, Jinho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Chan-Joong; Hong, Gye-Won

    2012-02-01

    C-doped MgB2 wires were fabricated from a polyacrylic acid (PAA) using a conventional in-situ PIT technique. The effects of the PAA content on the lattice parameter, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) were examined. With increasing PAA content, the amount of MgO in the sample increased but the crystallinity, a-axis lattice parameter, and Tc of MgB2 wires decreased, indicating that the C that decomposed from PAA during heat treatment had substituted for B. All doped samples exhibited a higher Jc than the undoped sample at high magnetic field, and the Jc(B) property improved with increasing PAA content: for the 7 wt% doped sample, the Jc was approximately 3-times higher than that of the pristine sample (1.28 kA/cm2 vs. 3.43 kA/cm2) at 5 K and 6.6 T. The improved Jc(B) of the doped sample was attributed to the decreased grain size, enlarged lattice distortion and increased C doping level.

  20. Recognition of Membrane Sterols by Polyene Antifungals Amphotericin B and Natamycin, A 13C MAS NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Filip; Griffin, David C.; Loraine, Jessica; Rittig, Michael; Delves-Broughton, Joss; Bonev, Boyan B.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular action of polyene macrolides with antifungal activity, amphotericin B and natamycin, involves recognition of sterols in membranes. Physicochemical and functional studies have contributed details to understanding the interactions between amphotericin B and ergosterol and, to a lesser extent, with cholesterol. Fewer molecular details are available on interactions between natamycin with sterols. We use solid state 13C MAS NMR to characterize the impact of amphotericin B and natamycin on mixed lipid membranes of DOPC/cholesterol or DOPC/ergosterol. In cholesterol-containing membranes, amphotericin B addition resulted in marked increase in both DOPC and cholesterol 13C MAS NMR linewidth, reflecting membrane insertion and cooperative perturbation of the bilayer. By contrast, natamycin affects little either DOPC or cholesterol linewidth but attenuates cholesterol resonance intensity preferentially for sterol core with lesser impact on the chain. Ergosterol resonances, attenuated by amphotericin B, reveal specific interactions in the sterol core and chain base. Natamycin addition selectively augmented ergosterol resonances from sterol core ring one and, at the same time, from the end of the chain. This puts forward an interaction model similar to the head-to-tail model for amphotericin B/ergosterol pairing but with docking on opposite sterol faces. Low toxicity of natamycin is attributed to selective, non-cooperative sterol engagement compared to cooperative membrane perturbation by amphotericin B. PMID:27379235

  1. DYGABCD: A program for calculating linear A, B, C, and D matrices from a nonlinear dynamic engine simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geyser, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    A digital computer program, DYGABCD, was developed that generates linearized, dynamic models of simulated turbofan and turbojet engines. DYGABCD is based on an earlier computer program, DYNGEN, that is capable of calculating simulated nonlinear steady-state and transient performance of one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines. Most control design techniques require linear system descriptions. For multiple-input/multiple-output systems such as turbine engines, state space matrix descriptions of the system are often desirable. DYGABCD computes the state space matrices commonly referred to as the A, B, C, and D matrices required for a linear system description. The report discusses the analytical approach and provides a users manual, FORTRAN listings, and a sample case.

  2. Treatment of putative non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis with alpha interferon: a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Van Thiel, D H; Gavaler, J S; Baddour, N; Friedlander, L; Wright, H I

    1994-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis due to putative non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis occurring in an individual who is negative for HBV and HCV markers has been identifiable only recently. Little or nothing is known about its natural history or response to interferon therapy. In the present study, 13 subjects with chronic non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis were treated with interferon for 6 months (5 million units, three times per week). Prior to and after 6 months of therapy and again 6 weeks after discontinuing interferon therapy, each subject underwent a liver biopsy. These tissues were used to define the histopathology, the character of the cellular infiltrate within the liver, and the changes in histopathology and inflammatory infiltrate achieved in response to interferon therapy and withdrawal. No differences for age, gender, initial AST, bilirubin, histopathology, or Knodell score were evident between responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 6). Only the number of NK cells was altered significantly as a result of IFN treatment and distinguished responders from non-responders. These data demonstrate that: (1) chronic non-A, non-B, non-hepatitis can be treated with interferon; (2) interferon activates NK cells and enhances hepatocyte expression of Class II MHC antigens; and (3) interferon also increases the number of CD3, CD4, and CD8 cells found within the liver but these changes do not distinguish between responders and non-responders. PMID:7931774

  3. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J; Hirakis, Sophia P; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho

    2016-01-01

    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ∼90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant 'reading head' in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M-C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design. PMID:27595425

  4. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. 153.1132 Section 153.1132 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval...

  5. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. 153.1132 Section 153.1132 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  8. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on the GapC protein of Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhou, Xue; Fan, Ziyao; Tang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Dai, Jian; Wei, Yuhua; Zhang, Jianxin; Yang, Xuan; Yang, Xijing; Liu, Daolong; Yu, Liquan; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Sun, Hunan; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactia) GapC is a highly conserved surface dehydrogenase among the streptococcus spp., which is responsible for inducing protective antibody immune responses in animals. However, the B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactia GapC have not been well characterized. In this study, a monoclonal antibody 1F2 (mAb1F2) against S. dysgalactiae GapC was generated by the hybridoma technique and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12) for mapping the linear B-cell epitope. The mAb1F2 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif TRINDLT. Amino acid sequence of the motif exactly matched (30)TRINDLT(36) of the S. dysgalactia GapC. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenic analysis further demonstrated that residues R31, I32, N33, D34 and L35 formed the core of (30)TRINDLT(36), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1F2. The epitope (30)TRINDLT(36) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Overall, our findings characterized a conserved B-cell epitope, which will be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines.

  9. Structures of flagranones A, B and C, cyclohexenoxide antibiotics from the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M G; Rickards, R W; Lacey, E

    1999-11-01

    Spectroscopic data define the structures of the flagranones A (2), B (3) and C (4) from the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. These antibiotics are structurally related to the farnesylated cyclohexenoxides of the oligosporon group recently isolated from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, and show similar antimicrobial activity.

  10. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 1832.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)). 1832.1110 Section 1832.1110 Federal... the clause at FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Other than Central...

  11. 31 CFR 501.807 - Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures governing removal of names from appendices A, B, and C to this chapter. 501.807 Section 501.807 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. 153.1132 Section 153.1132 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  15. 46 CFR 153.1132 - Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting spills and non-complying discharges: Category A, B, C, and D. 153.1132 Section 153.1132 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Approval...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  18. A Naturally-Derived Compound Schisandrin B Enhanced Light Sensation in the pde6c Zebrafish Model of Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liyun; Xiang, Lue; Liu, Yiwen; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Chong, Leelyn; Cho, Jin; Bonilla, Sylvia; Jin, Zi-Bing; Pang, Chi Pui; Ko, Kam Ming; Ma, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants’ eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend

  19. A Naturally-Derived Compound Schisandrin B Enhanced Light Sensation in the pde6c Zebrafish Model of Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyun; Xiang, Lue; Liu, Yiwen; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Chong, Leelyn; Cho, Jin; Bonilla, Sylvia; Jin, Zi-Bing; Pang, Chi Pui; Ko, Kam Ming; Ma, Ping; Zhang, Mingzhi; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2016-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants' eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend

  20. The ``C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE'': A self-sustaining closed aquatic ecosystem for spaceflight experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE is the miniaturized space flight version of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.). It fits into a large middeck locker tray and is scheduled to be flown in the STS 85 and in the NEUROLAB missions. Its volume is about 9 liters and it consists of two animal tanks, a plant cultivator, and a bacteria filter in a monolithic design. An external sensor unit is connected to a data acquisition/control unit. The system integrates its own biological life support. The CO2 exhaled by the consumers (fishes, snails, microorganisms) is assimilated by water plants (Ceratophyllum demersum) which provide them with oxygen. The products of biomass degradation and excretion (mainly ammonia ions) are converted by bacteria into nitrite and nitrate. The latter is taken up by the plants as a nitrogen source together with other ions like phosphate. The plants convert light energy into chemical energy and their illumination is regulated via the oxygen concentration in the water by the control unit. In ground laboratory tests the system exhibited biological stability up to three month. The buffer capacity of the biological filter system is high enough to eliminate the degradation products of about one half of the dead animal biomass as shown in a ``crash test''. A test series using the laboratory model of the flight hardware demonstrated the biological stability and technical reliability with mission-identical loading and test duration. A comprehensive biological research program is established for the C.E.B.A.S. MINI-MODULE in which five German and three U.S.-American universities as well as the Russian Academy of Sciences are involved.

  1. Gradual Rarefaction of Hematopoietic Precursors and Atrophy in a Depleted microRNA 29a, b and c Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Lauren; Balatti, Veronica; Cascione, Luciano; Fadda, Paolo; Racke, Frederick; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Costinean, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The self-renewing ability of HSCs is fundamental for the maintenance of a pool of bone marrow precursors throughout the life of an individual. The genetic mechanisms underlying such a complex process are still poorly understood. Results and Significance Here, we show that constitutive in vivo deletion of miR29ab1 leads to reduced number of HSCs and that miR29ab1 deficient bone marrow cannot repopulate the bone marrow of irradiated mice. An Affymetrix analysis of the miR29ab1 knockout mice identifies key proteins that could be responsible for this phenotype, as DNMT3a and b. Moreover, our findings reveal that whereas miR29b2c knockout mice do not exhibit any spontaneous abnormality, the double knock out – miR29ab1b2c – has marked generalized atrophy, raising the possibility that the two bi-cistrons might cooperate in order to maintain the stem cell number in general, not only limited to the bone marrow. PMID:26147501

  2. A role for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Defects in the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) result in a disease called X-linked agammaglobulinemia, in which there is a profound decrease of mature B cells due to a block in B cell development. Recent studies have shown that Btk is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated upon B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. To elucidate the functions of this kinase, we examined BCR signaling of DT40 B cells deficient in Btk. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma 2 upon receptor stimulation was significantly reduced in the mutant cells, leading to the loss of both BCR-coupled phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. Pleckstrin homology and Src-homology 2 domains of Btk were required for PLC-gamma 2 activation. Since Syk is also required for the BCR-induced PLC-gamma 2 activation, our findings indicate that PLC-gamma 2 activation is regulated by Btk and Syk through their concerted actions. PMID:8691147

  3. NLTE carbon abundance determination in selected A- and B-type stars and the interpretation of C I emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeeva, S. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Mashonkina, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    We constructed a comprehensive model atom for C I-C II using the most up-to-date atomic data available and evaluated the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for C I and C II in classical 1D models representing the atmospheres of A- and late B-type stars. Our NLTE calculations predict the emission that appears at effective temperature of 9250 to 10 500 K depending on log g in the C I 8335, 9405 Å singlet lines and at Teff> 15 000 K (log g = 4) in the C I 9061-9111 Å, 9603-9658 Å triplet lines. A pre-requisite of the emission phenomenon is the overionization-recombination mechanism resulting in a depopulation of the lower levels of C I to a greater extent than the upper levels. Extra depopulation of the lower levels of the transitions corresponding to the near-infrared lines, is caused by photon loss in the UV lines C I 2479, 1930, and 1657 Å. We analysed the lines of C I and C II in Vega, HD 73666, Sirius, 21 Peg, π Cet, HD 22136, and ι Her taking advantage of their observed high-resolution spectra. The C I emission lines were detected in the four hottest stars, and they were well reproduced in our NLTE calculations. For each star, the mean NLTE abundances from lines of the two ionization stages, C I and C II, including the C I emission lines, were found to be consistent. We show that the predicted C I emission phenomenon depends strongly on whether accurate or approximate electron-impact excitation rates are applied.

  4. LHC signals of a B -L supersymmetric standard model C P -even Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, A.; Khalil, S.; Moretti, S.

    2016-06-01

    We study the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing a neutral Higgs boson of the B -L supersymmetric standard model. After assessing the surviving parameter space configurations following the Run 1 data taking, we investigate the possibilities of detecting this object during Run 2. For the model configurations in which the mixing between such a state and the discovered standard-model-like Higgs boson is non-negligible, there exist several channels enabling its discovery over a mass range spanning from ≈140 to ≈500 GeV . For a heavier Higgs state, with mass above 250 GeV (i.e., twice the mass of the Higgs state discovered in 2012), the hallmark signature is its decay in two such 125 GeV scalars, h'→h h , where h h →b b ¯ γ γ . For a lighter Higgs state, with mass of order 140 GeV, three channels are accessible: γ γ , Z γ , and Z Z , wherein the Z boson decays leptonically. In all such cases, significances above discovery can occur for already planned luminosities at the CERN machine.

  5. New hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotyping system that allows for identification of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, O; Mizokami, M; Wu, R R; Saleh, M G; Ohba, K; Orito, E; Mukaide, M; Williams, R; Lau, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on whether different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are associated with different profiles of pathogenicity, infectivity, and response to antiviral therapy. The establishment of a simple and precise genotyping system for HCV is essential to address these issues. A new genotyping system based on PCR of the core region with genotype-specific PCR primers for the determination of HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4, 5a, and 6a was developed. A total of 607 samples (379 from Japan, 63 from the United States, 53 from Korea, 35 from Taiwan, 32 from China, 20 from Hong Kong, 15 from Australia, 6 from Egypt, 3 from Bangladesh, and 1 from South Africa) were tested by both the assay of Okamoto et al. (H. Okamoto, Y. Sugiyama, S. Okada, K. Kurai, Y. Akahane, Y. Sugai, T. Tanaka, K. Sato, F. Tsuda, Y. Miyamura, and M. Mayumi, J. Gen. Virol. 73:673-679, 1992) and this new genotyping system. Comparison of the results showed concordant results for 539 samples (88.8%). Of the 68 samples with discordant results, the nucleotide sequences of the HCV isolates were determined in 23, and their genotypes were determined by molecular evolutionary analysis. In all 23 samples, the assignment of genotype by our new genotyping system was correct. This genotyping system may be useful for large-scale determination of HCV genotypes in clinical studies. PMID:8968908

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole C3103 Located in the 216-B-7A Crib Near the B Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes data collected from samples in borehole C3103. Borehole C3103 was completed to further characterize the nature and extent of vadose zone contaminants supplied by intentional liquid discharges into the crib 216-B7A/7B between 1954 and 1967. These cribs received dilute waste streams from the bismuth phosphate fuel reprocessing program in the 1950's and decontamination waste in the 1960's. Elevated concentrations of several constituents were primarily measured at different depth intervals. The primary radionuclides present in this borehole are cesium-137 and uranium near the top of the borehole. Chemical characteristics attributed to wastewater-soil interaction at different locations within this zone are elevated pH, sodium, fluoride, carbonate nitrate, and sulphate

  7. A B-C-N hybrid porous sheet: an efficient metal-free visible-light absorption material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruifeng; Li, Feng; Salafranca, Juan; Kan, Erjun; Xiao, Chuanyun; Deng, Kaiming

    2014-03-01

    The polyphenylene network, known as porous graphene, is one of the most important and widely studied two-dimensional materials. As a potential candidate for photocatalysis and photovoltaic energy generation, its application has been limited by the low photocatalytic activity in the visible-light region. State-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory investigations are presented to show that an analogous B-C-N porous sheet outperforms the pristine polyphenylene network with significantly enhanced visible-light absorption. Compared with porous graphene, the calculated energy gap of the B-C-N hybrid crystal shrinks to 2.7 eV and the optical absorption peak remarkably shifts to the visible light region. The redox potentials of water splitting are well positioned in the middle of the band gap. Hybridizations among B_p, N_p and C_p orbitals are responsible for these findings. Valence and conduction band calculations indicate that the electrons and holes can be effectively separated, reducing charge recombination and improving the photoconversion efficiency. Moreover, the band gap and optical properties of the B-C-N hybrid porous sheet can be further finely engineered by external strain.

  8. A classification system for O-B2 stars based on the Si IV and C IV resonance lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henize, K. G.; Wray, J. D.; Parsons, S. B.

    1981-01-01

    Low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra from Skylab Experiment S-019 are used to explore the variations of Si IV and C IV line strengths with temperature and luminosity. These considerations lead to a classification system in which the Si/C ratio is used to discriminate luminosity among the O stars and temperature among the O9-B2 stars of lower luminosity. Stars falling in these two regimes may be distinguished either by the presence of C IV emission or on the basis of C IV absorption strength. The log(Si IV/C IV) vs C IV diagram is proposed as a primary tool in such a classification system. The rapid variation in the Si IV/C IV ratio from less than 1/10 at O9 to greater than 10 at B1.5 for luminosity class III-V stars appears to be an especially useful criterion for the temperature classification of stars in this spectral range.

  9. 75 FR 68970 - Amendment of Using Agency for Restricted Areas R-5301; R-5302A, B, and C; and R-5313A, B, C and D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... no changes to the ] dimensions, time of designation or activities conducted within the affected... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... the affected restricted areas to update the using agency name. It does not alter the...

  10. 49 CFR Schedule C to Subpart B of... - Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. C Schedule C to Subpart B of Part 1139... (h) 1. Passenger revenue L. 1 2. Special bus revenue L. 2 3. Baggage revenue L. 3 4. Mail revenue...

  11. TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michael D; Suh, Eunran; Grossman, Murray; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Van Swieten, John C; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Neumann, Manuela; Gelpi, Ellen; Ghetti, Bernardino; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Halliday, Glenda; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Seilhean, Danielle; Shaw, Pamela J; Frosch, Matthew P; Alafuzoff, Irina; Antonell, Anna; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Brooks, William; Cairns, Nigel J; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Cotman, Carl; Cras, Patrick; Cruts, Marc; De Deyn, Peter P; DeCarli, Charles; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Fox, Nick; Galasko, Douglas; Gearing, Marla; Gijselinck, Ilse; Grafman, Jordan; Hartikainen, Päivi; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Highley, J Robin; Hodges, John; Hulette, Christine; Ince, Paul G; Jin, Lee-Way; Kirby, Janine; Kofler, Julia; Kril, Jillian; Kwok, John B J; Levey, Allan; Lieberman, Andrew; Llado, Albert; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Masliah, Eliezer; McDermott, Christopher J; McKee, Ann; McLean, Catriona; Mead, Simon; Miller, Carol A; Miller, Josh; Munoz, David G; Murrell, Jill; Paulson, Henry; Piguet, Olivier; Rossor, Martin; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Sano, Mary; Schneider, Julie; Silbert, Lisa C; Spina, Salvatore; van der Zee, Julie; Van Langenhove, Tim; Warren, Jason; Wharton, Stephen B; White, Charles L; Woltjer, Randall L; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M Y; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S

    2014-03-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) have recently been linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and may be the most common genetic cause of both neurodegenerative diseases. Genetic variants at TMEM106B influence risk for the most common neuropathological subtype of FTLD, characterized by inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (FTLD-TDP). Previous reports have shown that TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD-TDP caused by progranulin (GRN) mutations, with the major (risk) allele of rs1990622 associating with earlier age at onset of disease. Here, we report that rs1990622 genotype affects age at death in a single-site discovery cohort of FTLD patients with C9orf72 expansions (n = 14), with the major allele correlated with later age at death (p = 0.024). We replicate this modifier effect in a 30-site international neuropathological cohort of FTLD-TDP patients with C9orf72 expansions (n = 75), again finding that the major allele associates with later age at death (p = 0.016), as well as later age at onset (p = 0.019). In contrast, TMEM106B genotype does not affect age at onset or death in 241 FTLD-TDP cases negative for GRN mutations or C9orf72 expansions. Thus, TMEM106B is a genetic modifier of FTLD with C9orf72 expansions. Intriguingly, the genotype that confers increased risk for developing FTLD-TDP (major, or T, allele of rs1990622) is associated with later age at onset and death in C9orf72 expansion carriers, providing an example of sign epistasis in human neurodegenerative disease.

  12. Interaction of the C-terminal peptide of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) with a bicellar lipid mixture containing anionic lipid.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Alexander; MacEachern, Lauren; Booth, Valerie; Morrow, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The hydrophobic lung surfactant SP-B is essential for respiration. SP-B promotes spreading and adsorption of surfactant at the alveolar air-water interface and may facilitate connections between the surface layer and underlying lamellar reservoirs of surfactant material. SP-B63-78 is a cationic and amphipathic helical peptide containing the C-terminal helix of SP-B. (2)H NMR has been used to examine the effect of SP-B63-78 on the phase behavior and dynamics of bicellar lipid dispersions containing the longer chain phospholipids DMPC-d 54 and DMPG and the shorter chain lipid DHPC mixed with a 3∶1∶1 molar ratio. Below the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature of the longer chain components, bicellar mixtures form small, rapidly reorienting disk-like particles with shorter chain lipid components predominantly found around the highly curved particle edges. With increasing temperature, the particles coalesce into larger magnetically-oriented structures and then into more extended lamellar phases. The susceptibility of bicellar particles to coalescence and large scale reorganization makes them an interesting platform in which to study peptide-induced interactions between lipid assemblies. SP-B63-78 is found to lower the temperature at which the orientable phase transforms to the more extended lamellar phase. The peptide also changes the spectrum of motions contributing to quadrupole echo decay in the lamellar phase. The way in which the peptide alters interactions between bilayered micelle structures may provide some insight into some aspects of the role of full-length SP-B in maintaining a functional surfactant layer in lungs.

  13. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-0 - Taxability under an annuity purchased by a section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under section 72(p)(1). (e) Special rules relating to distributions from a designated Roth account. (f... section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school. 1.403(b)-0 Section 1.403(b)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-0 Taxability under an annuity purchased by...

  14. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-0 - Taxability under an annuity purchased by a section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under section 72(p)(1). (e) Special rules relating to distributions from a designated Roth account. (f... section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school. 1.403(b)-0 Section 1.403(b)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-0 Taxability under an annuity purchased by...

  15. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-0 - Taxability under an annuity purchased by a section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under section 72(p)(1). (e) Special rules relating to distributions from a designated Roth account. (f... section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school. 1.403(b)-0 Section 1.403(b)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-0 Taxability under an annuity purchased by...

  16. 26 CFR 1.403(b)-0 - Taxability under an annuity purchased by a section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under section 72(p)(1). (e) Special rules relating to distributions from a designated Roth account. (f... section 501(c)(3) organization or a public school. 1.403(b)-0 Section 1.403(b)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.403(b)-0 Taxability under an annuity purchased by...

  17. Disruption of a C/EBP binding site in the factor IX promoter is associated with haemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Crossley, M; Brownlee, G G

    1990-05-31

    Haemophilia B (or Christmas disease) is an inherited, X-linked bleeding disorder caused by mutations in the gene for clotting factor IX. There is a rare class of patients, exemplified by haemophilia B Leyden, who suffer from haemophilia B as children but improve after puberty. In these patients, plasma factor IX concentrations are less than 10% of normal during childhood, but after puberty they gradually rise to between 40 and 80% of normal. Mutations clustered around the main transcription start point (defined as +1 (ref.2)) have been reported in seven of these patients (at -20 (refs 1, 3, 4); -6 (refs 5, 6) and +13 (refs 7, 8)). To determine how these mutations interfere with factor IX expression, we have assayed for transcription factors binding to this area and have identified a nuclear factor-1 liver (NF1-L) binding site (-99 to -76) and a binding site for the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) (+1 to +18). We show that the A----G mutation at +13 prevents the binding of C/EBP to this site. Furthermore, we show that C/EBP is capable of transactivating a cotransfected normal factor IX promoter but not the mutant promoter. This is the first natural mutation to be reported which disrupts a C/EBP binding site and is an illustration of the importance of this transcription factor in humans.

  18. Prunolides A, B, and C: Novel Tetraphenolic Bis-Spiroketals from the Australian Ascidian Synoicum prunum.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Anthony R.; Healy, Peter C.; Quinn, Ronald J.; Tranter, Carolyn J.

    1999-04-16

    Three novel tetraphenolic bis-spiroketals, prunolides A-C (1, 3, and 4) have been isolated from the Australian ascidian Synoicum prunum. The structures were determined from NMR spectroscopic data and from an X-ray analysis of prunolide A. The prunolides contain a unique 1,6,8-trioxadispiro[4.1.4.2]trideca-3,10,12-triene-2,9-dione carbon skeleton. The known compound rubrolide A (5) was also isolated.

  19. Synthesis of C-11-{beta}-aminoisobutyric acid (C-11-{beta}-AlB): A major in vivo catabolite of [methyl-C-11]thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Alauddin, M.M.; Conti, P.S.; Fissekis, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) is being used for brain tumor imaging in patients with PET. Following clearance of 5-methyl C-11 TdR from plasma in humans, there is a progressive increase of C-11 activity in normal brain and tumor presumably secondary to accumulation of C-11 beta-AIB, a major by-product of thymidine catabolism in vivo. Canine studies have demonstrated that the major radiolabeled species in acid soluble extracts of brain and tumor tissues during C-14 TdR studies is beta-AIB. The previously reported synthesis of beta-AIB is not suitable for incorporation of carbon-11. A convenient method of synthesis of C-11 beta-AIB was developed where commercially available beta-alanine ethyl ester was converted to the cold precursor reagent, benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester, in 87% yield. Treatment of the imine derivative with LDA (1.1 eq) in THF at -78{degrees} C, followed by addition of iodomethane (1.1 eq) produced the alpha-methylated benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester in 73% chemical yield. Deprotection of the amino group by acidic hydrolysis followed by basic hydrolysis of the ester group produced the desired product in 50% chemical yield. Chemical structures of unlabeled intermediates and product were confirmed by H-1 NMR and CI mass spectrometry. Labeling was accomplished using C-11-methyl iodide prepared from C-11-CO{sub 2} according to literature methods. After removal of protecting groups and neutralization, the enatiomeric mixture was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative reverse phase C-18 column and PBS as eluent. The desired compound was eluted at 8.26 minutes. In preliminary runs, the synthesis time was 39 minutes including HPLC purification, with radiochemical yields of 5-6% (EOB). Radiochemical purity was >99%

  20. A Fast and Cost-Effective Method for Identifying a Polymorphism of Interleukin 28B Related to Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Camila da Silva; Abreu, Rodrigo Martins; da Silva, Marlone Cunha; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Nasser, Paulo Dominguez; Carrilho, Flair José; Ono, Suzane Kioko

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people are chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients with chronic hepatitis C are currently treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV). A genome-wide association with PEG-IFN/RBV treatment response and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) has been identified near the interleukin 28B gene that encodes interferon-λ-3. In this paper, we describe an innovative, fast, and low-cost multiplex polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers that detects the rs12979860 polymorphism. The assay is internally controlled and does not require the use of restriction endonucleases or special equipment. Moreover, the assay decreases costs, being about 40% cheaper than direct sequencing methods. PMID:24167602

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for < 30 years; 3.6% for ≥ 60 years). Prevalence of HBsAg was 0.8-0.9% below the age of 10 years, and higher but similar in older age groups (2.3-2.7%). There was an association between literacy and prevalence of hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Conclusions Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower

  2. Heteromerization of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 with α1A/B-adrenergic receptors controls α1-adrenergic receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Abhishek; Vana, P. Geoff; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Byron, Kenneth L.; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Volkman, Brian F.; Gaponenko, Vadim; Majetschak, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) contributes to the regulation of blood pressure through interactions with α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) in vascular smooth muscle. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, are unknown. Using proximity ligation assays to visualize single-molecule interactions, we detected that α1A/B-ARs associate with CXCR4 on the cell surface of rat and human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Furthermore, α1A/B-AR could be coimmunoprecipitated with CXCR4 in a HeLa expression system and in human VSMC. A peptide derived from the second transmembrane helix of CXCR4 induced chemical shift changes in the NMR spectrum of CXCR4 in membranes, disturbed the association between α1A/B-AR and CXCR4, and inhibited Ca2+ mobilization, myosin light chain (MLC) 2 phosphorylation, and contraction of VSMC upon α1-AR activation. CXCR4 silencing reduced α1A/B-AR:CXCR4 heteromeric complexes in VSMC and abolished phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ fluxes and MLC2 phosphorylation. Treatment of rats with CXCR4 agonists (CXCL12, ubiquitin) reduced the EC50 of the phenylephrine-induced blood pressure response three- to fourfold. These observations suggest that disruption of the quaternary structure of α1A/B-AR:CXCR4 heteromeric complexes by targeting transmembrane helix 2 of CXCR4 and depletion of the heteromeric receptor complexes by CXCR4 knockdown inhibit α1-AR–mediated function in VSMC and that activation of CXCR4 enhances the potency of α1-AR agonists. Our findings extend the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating α1-AR and provide an example of the importance of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromerization for GPCR function. Compounds targeting the α1A/B-AR:CXCR4 interaction could provide an alternative pharmacological approach to modulate blood pressure. PMID:25775528

  3. C.E.B.A.S. mini module: Test results of an artificial (man-made) aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Kreuzberg, K.; Stretzke, E.

    1994-11-01

    The original Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is a long-term multi-generation research facility for experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station the development of which is surrounded by a large international scientific program. In addition, a miniaturized laboratory prototype, the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE, with a total volume of about 10 - 12 liters for a Spacelab middeck locker was developed and a first version was tested successfully for two weeks with a population of fishes (Xiphophorus helleri) in the animal tank and a Ceratophyllum spec. in the illuminated higher plant growth chamber. The water recycling system consisted of a bacteria filter and a mechanical filter and the silastic tubing gas exchanger was separated by valves for the utilization in emergency cases only. Data were collected with the acquisition module of the original C.E.B.A.S. process control system. In addition, an optimized version was tested for 7 weeks with fishes and plants and thereafter with fish and with plants only for 2 and 1 weeks, resp.. The paper presents the relevant water parameters (e. g., pH, pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation, flow rate, ion concentrations) during the test period as well as morphological and physiological data of the enclosed animals and plants. On the basis of the given results the possible role of the C.E.B.A.S. system as a scientific tool in artificial ecosystem research and for the development of a combined animal-plant intensive aquaculture system and its utilization in bioregenerative life support is discussed.

  4. C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE: test results of an artificial (man-made) aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Kreuzberg, K; Stretzke, E

    1994-11-01

    The original Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is a long-term multi-generation research facility for experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station the development of which is surrounded by a large international scientific program. In addition, a miniaturized laboratory prototype, the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE, with a total volume of about 10-12 liters for a Spacelab middeck locker was developed and a first version was tested successfully for two weeks with a population of fishes (Xiphophorus helleri) in the animal tank and a Ceratophyllum spec. in the illuminated higher plant growth chamber. The water recycling system consisted of a bacteria filter and a mechanical filter and the silastic tubing gas exchanger was separated by valves for the utilization in emergency cases only. Data were collected with the acquisition module of the original C.E.B.A.S. process control system. In addition, an optimized version was tested for 7 weeks with fishes and plants and thereafter with fish and with plants only for 2 and 1 weeks, resp.. The paper presents the relevant water parameters (e.g., pH, pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation, flow rate, ion concentrations) during the test period as well as morphological and physiological data of the enclosed animals and plants. On the basis of the given results the possible role of the C.E.B.A.S. system as a scientific tool in artificial ecosystem research and for the development of a combined animal-plant intensive aquaculture system and its utilization in bioregenerative life support is discussed.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of investigational vaccine formulations against meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, W, and Y in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Aguilera Vaca, Diana Catalina; Abarca, Katia; Maho, Emmanuelle; Graña, Maria Gabriela; Heijnen, Esther; Smolenov, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of investigational formulations of meningococcal ABCWY vaccines, consisting of recombinant proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) components of a licensed serogroup B vaccine, combined with components of a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM). A total of 495 healthy adolescents were randomized to 6 groups to receive 2 doses (Months 0, 2) of one of 4 formulations of rMenB antigens, with or without OMV, combined with MenACWY-CRM, or 2 doses of rMenB alone or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then a placebo. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroups ACWY and serogroup B test strains; solicited reactions and any adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Two MenABCWY vaccinations elicited robust ACWY immune responses, with higher seroresponse rates than one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Bactericidal antibody responses against the rMenB antigens and OMV components were highest in subjects who received 2 doses of OMV-containing MenABCWY formulations, with ≥68% of subjects achieving hSBA titers ≥5 against each of the serogroup B test strains. After the first dose, solicited local reaction rates were higher in the MenABCWY or rMenB groups than the MenACWY-CRM group, but similar across groups after the second dose, consisting mainly of transient injection site pain. Fever (≥38.0°C) was rare and there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. In conclusion, investigational MenABCWY formulations containing OMV components elicited highly immunogenic responses against meningococcal serogroups ACWY, as well as serogroup B test strains, with an acceptable safety profile. [NCT01210885] PMID:25969894

  6. Interfacial properties and electron structure of Al/B4C interface: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Yajiang; Qiu, Ruizhi; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    This research aims at investigating the structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the Al (111)/B4C (0001) interface by first-principles calculations. This model geometry Al (111)/B4C (0001) is chosen because the close-packed planes of Al and B4C have the (111) and (0001) orientation, respectively, and the lattice mismatch is only ∼2.1%. Among four B4C (0001) surfaces with different terminations, our calculation of surface free energies predicted that C-terminated B4C (0001) surface is the most stable one. Relaxed atomic geometries, the work of adhesion and interfacial free energies were calculated for three C-terminated B4C (0001)/Al (111) interfaces with different stacking sequences (top-site, hollow-site, and bridge-site). Results reveal that the relaxed top-site (hollow-site-like) Al/B4C interface has the best adhesion force and also be the most stable. The interfacial electron structure including charge density difference, Bader charge and density of states (DOS) is analyzed to determine the nature of metal/carbide bonding and we find the formation of Alsbnd C bond and possibly the formation of Al4C3 in the interface.

  7. Theory of magnetic exchange interaction for heterodinuclear FeIII(a3)-CuII(B) in cytochrome c oxidase*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Kang-Wei

    2002-07-01

    As a development of our recent works about the magnetic study for heterodinuclear clusters, a covalent effect has been introduced in the magnetic exchange interaction formula and a more general magnetic expression for heterodinuclear transition-metal ion pairs in covalent complexes has been derived. By means of this expression and our double-Slater function (DSF) calculation procedure, the relationship between the magnetic exchange coupling parameter J and the covalent factors NA and NB for a heterodinuclear system AB has been studied. For the heterodinuclear Fe III( a3)Cu II(B) pair in beef heart cytochrome c oxidase, it is demonstrated that the stronger the covalent effect the stronger the antiferromagnetic coupling. The theoretical curve of the magnetic exchange interaction J vs. the values of the Fe III( a3)Cu II(B) separation R and the covalent factors NA (for Fe III) and NB (for Cu II) has been obtained. It is shown that the strong antiferromagnetic phenomenon for the heterodinuclear Fe III( a3)Cu II(B) pairs in cytochrome c oxidase can be attributed to the combined effect of the direct-exchange interaction, the kinetic exchange interaction and the covalent effect. It is also shown that in order to reproduce the very strong antiferromagnetic exchange interaction J (- J⩾200 cm -1) in cytochrome c oxidase the theoretical range of the Fe III( a3)Cu II(B) separation R should be smaller than 4.0 A. This result is obviously smaller than the value Rexpt=4.5 A reported by Tsukihara et al. and Iwata et al., but it is in good agreement with the value Rexpt⩽4 A obtained by Scott et al. and Powers et al. from their EXAFS experiments.

  8. Structure-based design of a benzodiazepine scaffold yields a potent allosteric inhibitor of hepatitis C NS5B RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Vandyck, Koen; Cummings, Maxwell D; Nyanguile, Origène; Boutton, Carlo W; Vendeville, Sandrine; McGowan, David; Devogelaere, Benoit; Amssoms, Katie; Last, Stefaan; Rombauts, Klara; Tahri, Abdellah; Lory, Pedro; Hu, Lili; Beauchamp, Derek A; Simmen, Kenny; Raboisson, Pierre

    2009-07-23

    HCV NS5B polymerase, an essential and virus-specific enzyme, is an important target for drug discovery. Using structure-based design, we optimized a 1,5-benzodiazepine NS5B polymerase inhibitor chemotype into a new sulfone-containing scaffold. The design yielded potent inhibitor (S)-4c (K(D) = 0.79 nM), which has approximately 20-fold greater affinity for NS5B than its carbonyl analogue (R)-2c.

  9. A Novel Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem in B2C E-Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chao; Sheng, Ying; Jiang, Zhong-Zhong; Tan, Chunqiao; Huang, Min; He, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a novel discrete differential evolution (DDE) algorithm is proposed to solve the vehicle routing problems (VRP) in B2C e-commerce, in which VRP is modeled by the incomplete graph based on the actual urban road system. First, a variant of classical VRP is described and a mathematical programming model for the variant is given. Second, the DDE is presented, where individuals are represented as the sequential encoding scheme, and a novel reparation operator is employed to repair the infeasible solutions. Furthermore, a FLOYD operator for dealing with the shortest route is embedded in the proposed DDE. Finally, an extensive computational study is carried out in comparison with the predatory search algorithm and genetic algorithm, and the results show that the proposed DDE is an effective algorithm for VRP in B2C e-commerce.

  10. High-pressure phase transition makes B4.3C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H; Werheit, Helmut; Dera, Przemyslaw; Williams, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated through the pressure-dependence and inter-relation of atomic distances, optical properties and Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The anomalous pressure evolution of the gap width to higher energies is striking. This is obtained from observations of transparency, which most rapidly increases around 55 GPa. Full visible optical transparency is approached at pressures of  >60 GPa indicating that the band gap reaches ~3.5 eV; at high pressure, boron carbide is a wide-gap semiconductor. The reason is that the high concentration of structural defects controlling the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decreases and finally vanishes at high pressures. The structural parameters and Raman-active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phase transition in single-crystal (nat)B4.3C boron carbide near 40 GPa, likely related to structural changes in the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure appears to be less affected.

  11. High-pressure phase transition makes B4.3C boron carbide a wide-gap semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hushur, Anwar; Manghnani, Murli H.; Werheit, Helmut; Dera, Przemyslaw; Williams, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal B4.3C boron carbide is investigated through the pressure-dependence and inter-relation of atomic distances, optical properties and Raman-active phonons up to ~70 GPa. The anomalous pressure evolution of the gap width to higher energies is striking. This is obtained from observations of transparency, which most rapidly increases around 55 GPa. Full visible optical transparency is approached at pressures of  >60 GPa indicating that the band gap reaches ~3.5 eV at high pressure, boron carbide is a wide-gap semiconductor. The reason is that the high concentration of structural defects controlling the electronic properties of boron carbide at ambient conditions initially decreases and finally vanishes at high pressures. The structural parameters and Raman-active phonons indicate a pressure-dependent phase transition in single-crystal natB4.3C boron carbide near 40 GPa, likely related to structural changes in the C-B-C chains, while the basic icosahedral structure appears to be less affected.

  12. One-year follow-up of patients with cluster C personality disorders: a prospective study comparing patients with "pure" and comorbid conditions within cluster C, and "pure" C with "pure" cluster A or B conditions.

    PubMed

    Gude, T; Vaglum, P

    2001-06-01

    This one-year, post-treatment prospective study of consecutively admitted patients to a national psychiatric in-patient clinic, compares patients belonging to four subgroups of DSM-III-R personality disorder (PDs): "pure cluster A (N = 21), "pure" B (N = 67), "pure" C (N = 251), and Axis II "comorbid" C (N = 138). Outcome was measured by SCl-90 and occupational status. Axis I disorders were controlled for in all analyses. Contrary to our hypothesis, patients in pure cluster C had no better outcome than either Axis II comorbid cluster C patients or patients with pure cluster A or B. Although pure C patients relapsed in symptom distress after discharge, comorbid C patients did not. C patients with an additional Histrionic PD were less at risk to be a case at follow up (GSI level > 1.00). Cluster C disorders as a whole had negative impact upon outcome in the total sample. These findings suggest the need for better treatment of patients with cluster C conditions.

  13. A 16,000 14C yr B.P. packrat midden series from the USA-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Penalba, M.C.; Rylander, K.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new packrat midden chronology from Playas Valley, southwestern New Mexico, is the first installment of an ongoing effort to reconstruct paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the U.S.A.-Mexico Borderlands. Playas Valley and neighboring basins supported pluvial lakes during full and/or late glacial times. Plant macrofossil and pollen assemblages from nine middens in the Playas Valley allow comparisons of two time intervals: 16,000-10,000 and 4000-0 14C yr B.P. Vegetation along pluvial lake margins consisted of open pinyon-juniper communities dominated by Pinus edulis, Juniperus scopulorum, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, and a rich understory of C4 annuals and grasses. This summer-flowering understory is also characteristic of modern desert grassland in the Borderlands and indicates at least moderate summer precipitation. P. edulis and J. scopulorum disappeared or were rare in the midden record by 10,670 14C yr B.P. The late Holocene is marked by the arrival of Chihuahuan desert scrub elements and few departures as the vegetation gradually became modern in character. Larrea tridentata appears as late as 2190 14C yr B.P. based on macrofossils, but may have been present as early as 4095 14C yr B.P. based on pollen. Fouquieria splendens, one of the dominant desert species present at the site today, makes its first appearance only in the last millennium. The midden pollen assemblages are difficult to interpret; they lack modern analogs in surface pollen assemblages from stock tanks at different elevations in the Borderlands. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  15. Unusual behaviour of (Np,Pu)B2C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczuk, Tomasz; Boulet, Pascal; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Bauer, Ernst; Falmbigl, Matthias; Rogl, Peter; Wastin, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Two transuranium metal boron carbides, NpB2C and PuB2C have been synthesized by argon arc melting. The crystal structures of the {Np,Pu}B2C compounds were determined from single-crystal X-ray data to be isotypic with the ThB2C-type (space group ?, a = 0.6532(2) nm; c = 1.0769(3) nm for NpB2C and a = 0.6509(2) nm; c = 1.0818(3) nm for PuB2C; Z = 9). Physical properties have been derived from polycrystalline bulk material in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 9 T. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data indicate the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering for NpB2C with a Neel temperature TN = 68 K. PuB2C is a Pauli paramagnet most likely due to a strong hybridization of s(p,d) electrons with the Pu-5f states. A pseudo-gap, as concluded from the Sommerfeld value and the electronic transport, is thought to be a consequence of the hybridization. The magnetic behaviour of {Np,Pu}B2C is consistent with the criterion of Hill.

  16. A first-principles prediction of two-dimensional superconductivity in pristine B2C single layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jun; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, Jianguo

    2012-05-01

    Based on first-principles lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling calculations, B2C sheets are predicted to be a two-dimensional (2D) phonon-mediated superconductors with a relatively high transition temperature (Tc). The electron-phonon coupling parameter was calculated to be 0.92 and it is mainly contributed by low frequency out-of-plane phonon modes and electronic states with a π character. When the Coulomb pseudopotential, μ*, is set to 0.10, the estimated temperature, Tc, is 19.2 K. To the best of our knowledge, B2C is the first pristine 2D superconductor with a Tc higher than the boiling point of liquid helium.

  17. Humoral immunity to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C in patients with pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis and controls.

    PubMed

    Ashbee, H R; Fruin, A; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J; Ingham, E

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the humoral immune responses to Malassezia furfur serovars A, B and C of 10 patients with pityriasis versicolor, 10 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. A transferable solid-phase ELISA was used to determine titres of total Igs, IgM, IgA and IgG specific to M. furfur serovars A, B and C. The results demonstrated that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of total Igs to serovar A than patients with pityriasis versicolor; and that patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a significantly higher titre of IgA to serovar C than patients with pityriasis versicolor. The titres of total Igs for controls and patients with seborrheic dermatitis were significantly lower to serovar B than to serovar C. A modified TSP ELISA was used to determine the titres of the IgG subclasses. Titres of IgG1,3,4 to serovar B were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients and titres of IgG3 to serovar A were significantly higher in seborrheic dermatitis patients than pityriasis versicolor patients. However, despite the differences between the patient groups, none of these results was significantly different to those of controls. Thus, this study did not demonstrate any differences in humoral immunity of patients suffering from Malassezia-associated dermatoses when compared to normal controls. These results may suggest that the humoral immune response to M. furfur is not related to the pathogenesis of Malassezia-associated dermatoses, but simply to the carriage of M. furfur on the skin.

  18. Cell culture replication of a genotype 1b hepatitis C virus isolate cloned from a patient who underwent liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koutsoudakis, George; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Coto-Llerena, Mairene; Gonzalez, Patricia; Dragun, Jakub; Mensa, Laura; Crespo, Gonzalo; Navasa, Miguel; Forns, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the genotype 2a isolate JFH1 was a major breakthrough in the field of hepatitis C virus (HCV), allowing researchers to study the complete life cycle of the virus in cell culture. However, fully competent culture systems encompassing the most therapeutically relevant HCV genotypes are still lacking, especially for the highly drug-resistant genotype 1b. For most isolated HCV clones, efficient replication in cultured hepatoma cells requires the introduction of replication-enhancing mutations. However, such mutations may interfere with viral assembly, as occurs in the case of the genotype 1b isolate Con1. In this study, we show that a clinical serum carrying a genotype 1b virus with an exceptionally high viral load was able to infect Huh7.5 cells. Similar to previous reports, inoculation of Huh7.5 cells by natural virus is very inefficient compared to infection by cell culture HCV. A consensus sequence of a new genotype 1b HCV isolate was cloned from the clinical serum (designated Barcelona HCV1), and then subjected to replication studies. This virus replicated poorly in a transient fashion in Huh7.5 cells after electroporation with in vitro transcribed RNA. Nonetheless, approximately 3 weeks post electroporation and thereafter, core protein-positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, small amounts of core protein were also measurable in the supernatant of electroporated cells, suggesting that HCV particles might be assembled and released. Our findings not only enhance the current method of cloning in vitro HCV replication-competent isolates, but also offer valuable insights for the realization of fully competent culture systems for HCV. PMID:21887279

  19. Cell Culture Replication of a Genotype 1b Hepatitis C Virus Isolate Cloned from a Patient Who Underwent Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Perez-del-Pulgar, Sofia; Coto-Llerena, Mairene; Gonzalez, Patricia; Dragun, Jakub; Mensa, Laura; Crespo, Gonzalo; Navasa, Miguel; Forns, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of the genotype 2a isolate JFH1 was a major breakthrough in the field of hepatitis C virus (HCV), allowing researchers to study the complete life cycle of the virus in cell culture. However, fully competent culture systems encompassing the most therapeutically relevant HCV genotypes are still lacking, especially for the highly drug-resistant genotype 1b. For most isolated HCV clones, efficient replication in cultured hepatoma cells requires the introduction of replication-enhancing mutations. However, such mutations may interfere with viral assembly, as occurs in the case of the genotype 1b isolate Con1. In this study, we show that a clinical serum carrying a genotype 1b virus with an exceptionally high viral load was able to infect Huh7.5 cells. Similar to previous reports, inoculation of Huh7.5 cells by natural virus is very inefficient compared to infection by cell culture HCV. A consensus sequence of a new genotype 1b HCV isolate was cloned from the clinical serum (designated Barcelona HCV1), and then subjected to replication studies. This virus replicated poorly in a transient fashion in Huh7.5 cells after electroporation with in vitro transcribed RNA. Nonetheless, approximately 3 weeks post electroporation and thereafter, core protein-positive cells were detected by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, small amounts of core protein were also measurable in the supernatant of electroporated cells, suggesting that HCV particles might be assembled and released. Our findings not only enhance the current method of cloning in vitro HCV replication-competent isolates, but also offer valuable insights for the realization of fully competent culture systems for HCV. PMID:21887279

  20. Transmission of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection Through Body Piercing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shigui; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuelun; Yu, Chengbo; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kaijin; Deng, Min; Tian, Guo; Ding, Cheng; Cao, Qing; Li, Yiping; Chen, Ping; Xie, Tiansheng; Wang, Chencheng; Wang, Bing; Yao, Jun; Threapleton, Diane; Mao, Chen; Ruan, Bing; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are 2 types of potentially life-threatening liver diseases with high infection rate. Body piercing represents a progressively popular sociocultural phenomenon which is also a potential exposure approach for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Conclusions from those researches with statistically risk assessment of body piercing on HBV and HCV transmission are contradictory.Systematically analyze the association between body piercing and the risk of transmitting hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus for general population. Make evidence-based recommendations to the current practice and wake up public awareness of this health-threatening behavior.Comprehensive and high sensitivity search strategies were performed to exhaustively search related studies before 15 January 2015 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, WANFANG, CNKI datasets for published literatures, and Google and Google scholars for related grey articles). Two authors identified relevant studies for the review, abstracted data, and assessed literature quality independently and critically according to the selection criteria and quality assessment standard. Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate risk of HBV and HCV infection in relation to body piercing status. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to examine the source of heterogeneity and test the robust of the results.A total of 40 studies were included in this systematic review (10 for Hep-B, 26 for Hep-C, 4 for both Hep-B and Hep-C), the pooled OR (95% CI) for the association between body piercing and transmission of HBV/HCV is 1.80 (1.18, 2.75) and 1.83 (1.27, 2.64), respectively. Subgroup analysis suggested that highest risk of body piercing related to hepatitis C infection was for former soccer and veterans with OR of 4.63 (2.65, 8.10), while strongest association between body piercing and hepatitis B was for samples derived from students/community with OR of

  1. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  2. Antigenic cross-reactivity among avian pneumoviruses of subgroups A, B, and C at the matrix but not nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Lwamba, Humphrey C M; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Swayne, David; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2002-01-01

    Earlier findings from our laboratory based on analysis of nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence identities of 15 avian pneumoviruses (APVs) isolated from the United States (subgroup C) demonstrated that the viruses were phylogenetically separated from the European subgroup A and subgroup B viruses. Here, we investigated whether viruses from the three subgroups were cross-reactive by testing field sera positive for each of the APV subgroups in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test with recombinant matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) proteins generated from a Minnesota APV isolate (APV/MN2A). Sera from turkeys infected with APV subgroup A, B, or C reacted with recombinant M protein derived from APV/MN2A. In contrast, recombinant N protein from APV/MN2A virus was reactive with sera from subtypes A and C viruses but not from subtype B virus. The results illustrate that viruses from the three APV subtypes share antigenic homology, and the M protein-based ELISA is adequate for monitoring APV outbreaks but not for distinguishing between different subtypes.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Subgroup C Avian Pneumoviruses Isolated in the United States and Comparison with Subgroup A and B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Cameron, Kjerstin T.; Jacobs, Janet A.; Turpin, Elizabeth A.; Halvorson, David A.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Kumar, Mahesh C.; Lauer, Dale C.; Seal, Bruce S.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2002-01-01

    The avian pneumovirus (APV) outbreak in the United States is concentrated in the north-central region, particularly in Minnesota, where more outbreaks in commercial turkeys occur in the spring (April to May) and autumn (October to December). Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), and second matrix (M2) genes of 15 U.S. APV strains isolated between 1996 and 1999 revealed between 89 and 94% nucleotide sequence identity and 81 to 95% amino acid sequence identity. In contrast, genes from U.S. viruses had 41 to 77% nucleotide sequence identity and 52 to 78% predicted amino acid sequence identity with European subgroup A or B viruses, confirming that U.S. viruses belonged to a separate subgroup. Of the five proteins analyzed in U.S. viruses, P was the most variable (81% amino acid sequence identity) and N was the most conserved (95% amino acid sequence identity). Phylogenetic comparison of subgroups A, B, and C viruses indicated that A and B viruses were more closely related to each other than either A or B viruses were to C viruses. PMID:11980943

  4. Molecular epidemiology of subgroup C avian pneumoviruses isolated in the United States and comparison with subgroup a and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Cameron, Kjerstin T; Jacobs, Janet A; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Halvorson, David A; Goyal, Sagar M; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Kumar, Mahesh C; Lauer, Dale C; Seal, Bruce S; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2002-05-01

    The avian pneumovirus (APV) outbreak in the United States is concentrated in the north-central region, particularly in Minnesota, where more outbreaks in commercial turkeys occur in the spring (April to May) and autumn (October to December). Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M), fusion (F), and second matrix (M2) genes of 15 U.S. APV strains isolated between 1996 and 1999 revealed between 89 and 94% nucleotide sequence identity and 81 to 95% amino acid sequence identity. In contrast, genes from U.S. viruses had 41 to 77% nucleotide sequence identity and 52 to 78% predicted amino acid sequence identity with European subgroup A or B viruses, confirming that U.S. viruses belonged to a separate subgroup. Of the five proteins analyzed in U.S. viruses, P was the most variable (81% amino acid sequence identity) and N was the most conserved (95% amino acid sequence identity). Phylogenetic comparison of subgroups A, B, and C viruses indicated that A and B viruses were more closely related to each other than either A or B viruses were to C viruses.

  5. First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ektarawong, A.; Simak, S. I.; Hultman, L.; Birch, J.; Alling, B.

    2014-07-01

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatom's picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R3¯m ) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational

  6. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  7. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2014-03-31

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  8. Observation of the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-11-01

    The result of a search for the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0) π+ is presented, using the B(s)(0) → D(s)(-)π+ and B(s)(0) → J/ψ Ø channels. The analysis is based on a data sample of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 2 fb(-1) taken at 8 TeV. The decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+ is observed with significance in excess of 5 standard deviations independently in both decay channels. The measured product of the ratio of cross sections and branching fraction is [σ(B(c)(+))/σ(B(s)(0))] × B(B(c)(+)→ B(s)(0)π+) = [2.37 ± 0.31 (stat)± 0.11 (syst)(-0.13)(+0.17)(τ(B)(c)(+)))] × 10(-3), in the pseudorapidity range 2<η(B)<5, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on the B(c)(+) lifetime. This is the first observation of a B meson decaying to another B meson via the weak interaction. PMID:24237507

  9. Observation of the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-11-01

    The result of a search for the decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0) π+ is presented, using the B(s)(0) → D(s)(-)π+ and B(s)(0) → J/ψ Ø channels. The analysis is based on a data sample of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb(-1) taken at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 2 fb(-1) taken at 8 TeV. The decay B(c)(+) → B(s)(0)π+ is observed with significance in excess of 5 standard deviations independently in both decay channels. The measured product of the ratio of cross sections and branching fraction is [σ(B(c)(+))/σ(B(s)(0))] × B(B(c)(+)→ B(s)(0)π+) = [2.37 ± 0.31 (stat)± 0.11 (syst)(-0.13)(+0.17)(τ(B)(c)(+)))] × 10(-3), in the pseudorapidity range 2<η(B)<5, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainty on the B(c)(+) lifetime. This is the first observation of a B meson decaying to another B meson via the weak interaction.

  10. Genome-wide analysis for identification of adaptive diversification between hepatitis C virus subtypes 1a and 1b.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ruirui; Du, Xiaogang; Zhang, Mingwang; Xie, Meng

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and has been estimated to infect approximately 2%-3% of the world's population. HCV genotype 1 is the subject of intense research and clinical investigations because of its worldwide prevalence and poor access to treatment for patients in developing countries and marginalized populations. The predominant subtypes 1a and 1b of HCV genotype 1 present considerable differences in epidemiological features. However, the genetic signature underlying such phenotypic functional divergence is still an open question. Here, we performed a genome-wide evolutionary study on HCV subtypes 1a and 1b. The results show that adaptive selection has driven the diversification between these subtypes. Furthermore, the major adaptive divergence-related changes have occurred on proteins E1, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B. Structurally, a number of adaptively selected sites cluster in functional regions potentially relevant to (i) membrane attachment and (ii) the interactions with viral and host cell factors and the genome template. These results might provide helpful hints about the molecular determinants of epidemiological divergence between HCV 1a and 1b.

  11. Joining the Canadian Tribe: Building a Pluralistic Community in a B.C. School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrigan, Tony; Kibblewhite, John

    2002-01-01

    Immigrants often comprise most of the student body in urban Canadian schools. An elementary school in suburban Vancouver (British Columbia) provides sheltered classes and bilingual student partners for beginning English language learners. A school-based friendship club fosters intercultural understanding and a welcoming atmosphere for students and…

  12. Circulating antibody and memory B-Cell responses to C. difficile toxins A and B in patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhoea, inflammatory bowel disease and cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Tanya M; Robins, Adrian; Knox, Alan; Sewell, Herbert F; Mahida, Yashwant R

    2013-01-01

    C. difficile infection (CDI) is rarely reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients despite frequent hospitalisations and antibiotic usage. Conversely, the prevalence of CDI in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has received increased attention. We investigated components of the IgG-specific humoral immune response to C. difficile toxins A and B in patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), IBD patients with CDI, CF patients and healthy controls. Serum anti-toxin IgG was determined by ELISA. Circulating antigen-activated B-cells were investigated using Alexa Fluor 488-labelled toxin A and assessed by flow cytometry. Following induction of differentiation of memory B-cells, toxin A- and B-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) were quantified using ELISpot. We present the first data showing levels of serum anti-toxin A and B antibodies were significantly higher in patients with CF (without a history of CDI) than in CDAD patients and were stably maintained over time. Notably, the CDAD patients were significantly older than the CF patients. We also show that circulating toxin A-specific memory B-cells (IgD-negative) can be detected in CDAD patients [0.92 (0.09-1.78)%], and were prominent (5.64%, 1.14%) in two CF patients who were asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. There was correlation between toxin A- and B-specific ASCs, with significantly higher proportions of the latter seen. In some with CDAD, high serum antibody levels were seen to only one of the two toxins. Mucosal secretion of toxin-specific IgG was detected in an additional group of IBD patients with no history of CDI. We conclude that enhanced and stable humoral immune responses to toxins A and B may protect CF and some IBD patients against CDI. The impaired ability to generate strong and/or sustained toxin-specific antibody and memory B-cell responses may increase susceptibility of older patients to CDI and highlight the need to investigate the role of immune senescence in future studies.

  13. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  14. Napyradiomycins CNQ525.510B and A80915C target the Hsp90 paralogue Grp94.

    PubMed

    Farnaes, Lauge; La Clair, James J; Fenical, William

    2014-01-21

    The intracellular localization and target of the napyradiomycin congeners CNQ525.510B and A80815C were explored using an immunoaffinity fluorescence (IAF) approach. Semi-synthetic methods were used to prepare probes from napyradiomycin CNQ525.510B and derivative A80815C. The results of confocal microscopy indicated that probes from both natural products localized predominantly within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. Parallel immunoaffinity precipitation efforts using a monoclonal antibody designed against the IAF tag, resulted in the isolation of an Hsp90 family member. This protein was identified as human Grp94 (hGrp94), by its specific mass spectral signature. This observation was validated by Western blot analyses and by the result of an in vitro Grp94 binding assay. The fact that the napyradiomycins CNQ525.510B and A80815C bind to hGrp94, and their associated probes localize within the ER, suggest the use of these materials as molecular probes for monitoring ER-based chaperone function.

  15. c.194 A>C (Q65P) mutation in the LMX1B gene in patients with nail-patella syndrome associated with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pablo; Sanhueza, Felipe; Lopez, Pamela; Reyes, Loreto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical, ophthalmic, extraophthalmic, and genetic characteristics of nail-patella syndrome (NPS) in a Chilean family and to investigate the expressivity of open angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) in the family members. Methods Five family members affected with NPS and two unaffected members underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including computerized visual field, optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the optic disc and ultrasound pachymetry. Renal function was assessed by urinalysis and blood tests. Orthopedic evaluations were also performed, including radiological studies of the wrist, elbow and hip joints. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of the five affected and two unaffected family members. Exons 2–6 of the LIM homeobox transcription factor 1-beta (LMX1B) gene were screened for mutations by DNA sequencing of the proband. We also screened for mutations in exon 2 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the other participants and 91 blood donors. Results Five living family members from three generations were positively diagnosed with NPS, three of them with varying degrees of OAG and one with OHT. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral domain OCT was below normal values in three individuals. All subjects evaluated had normal nephrologic function. Orthopedic, clinical, and radiological alterations were compatible with NPS. Screening for mutations in exons 2- 6 of LMX1B showed a heterozygous missense mutation c.194 A>C changing glutamine to proline within exon 2 in codon 65 (Q65P) of the coding sequence. This mutation was present in all NPS subjects and absent in the unaffected family members and in 91 Chilean blood donors. Conclusions This is the first report of c.194 A>C mutation in LMX1B in a Chilean family with NPS and the second worldwide. The phenotype associated with this mutation is variable within the family

  16. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Kaul, Rashmi; Kaul, Anil; Khan, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immigration and globalization have added to the challenges of public health concerns regarding chronic HBV and HCV infections worldwide. The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment. Extensive literature search was conducted to explore the HLA associations in HBV and HCV infections reported across global populations over the past decade to understand the knowledge status, weaknesses and strengths of this information in different ethnic populations. HLA DR13 is consistently associated with HBV clearance globally. HLADRB1*11/*12 alleles and DQB1*0301 are associated with HBV persistence but with HCV clearance worldwide. Consistent association of DRB1*03 and *07 is observed with HCV susceptibility and non-responsiveness to HBV vaccination across the population. HLA DR13 is protective for vertical HBV and HCV transmission in Chinese and Italian neonates, but different alleles are associated with their susceptibility in these populations. HLA class Imolecule interactions with Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells modulate HCV infection outcome via regulating immune regulatory cells and molecules. HLA associations with HBV vaccination, interferon therapy in HBV and HCV, and with extra hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis are also discussed. Systematic studies in compliance with global regulatory standards are required to identify the HLA specific viral epitope, stage specific T cell populations interacting with different HLA alleles during disease progression and viral clearance of chronic HBV or HCV infections among different ethnic populations. These studies would facilitate stage specific

  17. A Trick to Improve the Efficiency of Generating Unweighted $B_c$ Events from BCVEGPY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-You; Wu, Xing-Gang; /Chongqing U. /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In the present paper, we provide an addendum to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment for the generator BCVEGPY2.1 [C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang, X.G. Wu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174 (2006) 241]. This trick is helpful for experimental simulation. Moreover, the BCVEGPY output has also been improved, i.e. one Les Houches Event common block has been added so as to generate a standard Les Houches Event file that contains the information of the generated Bc meson and the accompanying partons, which can be more conveniently used for further simulation.

  18. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres.

  19. A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior, as opposed to the silicate-dominated composition found on Earth; the atmosphere can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54 (ref. 3). Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b (ref. 6) that reveals C/O ≥ 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapour and enhanced in methane, each by more than two orders of magnitude compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion (or stratosphere) and has very efficient day-night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiated hot-Jupiter atmospheres. PMID:21150901

  20. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-03-12

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ``A`` and ``B`` portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information.

  1. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors. A retrospective study from a rural community of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause serious mortality, morbidity and financial burden and are thus a major global health problem. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. This was a retrospective study conducted at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in the Asanti Akim North District of Ghana to investigate the prevalence of these infections over a three year period among 2773 blood donors. Males constituted a larger proportion of the study population (92.2%). Majority of the study population (43.9%) were within 26-35 age group. The disease prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval. Findings The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females- 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year- 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males- 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males- 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females- 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4- 16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. Conclusion The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques for effective diagnosis and sanitary education to enlighten the population must be implemented. PMID:22152159

  2. Sequence of a novel cytochrome CYP2B cDNA coding for a protein which is expressed in a sebaceous gland, but not in the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, T; Grassow, M A; Bartlomowicz-Oesch, B; Siegert, P; Arand, M; Adesnik, M; Oesch, F

    1992-01-01

    The major phenobarbital-inducible rat hepatic cytochromes P-450, CYP2B1 and CYP2B2, are the paradigmatic members of a cytochrome P-450 gene subfamily that contains at least seven additional members. Specific oligonucleotide probes for these genomic members of the CYP2B subfamily were used to assess their tissue-specific expression. In Northern-blot analysis a probe specific to gene 4 (which is designated now as CYP2B12) hybridized to a single mRNA present in the preputial gland, an organ which is used as a model for sebaceous glands, but did not hybridize to mRNA isolated from the liver or from five other tissues of untreated or Aroclor 1254-treated rats. The cDNA sequence for the CYP2B12 RNA was determined from overlapping cDNA clones and contained a long open reading frame of 1476 bp. The nucleotide sequence of the CYP2B12 cDNA was 85% similar to the sequence of the CYP2B1 cDNA in its coding region and was different from any CYP2B cDNA characterized until now. The cDNA-derived primary structure of the CYP2B12 protein contains a signal sequence for its insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum and the putative haem-binding site characteristic of cytochromes P-450. A part of the potential haem pocket of CYP2B12 was identical with a similar structure in a bacterial protocatechuate dioxygenase. In immunoblot analysis of preputial-gland microsomes, antibodies against CYP2B1 recognized a single abundant protein with a lower apparent molecular mass than that of CYP2B1. Our results demonstrate that the CYP2B12 protein has the potential to be enzymically active and are the first demonstration that a member of the CYP2B subfamily is expressed exclusively and at high levels in an extrahepatic organ. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1445240

  3. Confirmation of Y haplogroup tree topologies with newly suggested Y-SNPs for the C2, O2b and O3a subhaplogroups.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Yeun; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are useful markers for reconstructing male lineages through hierarchically arranged allelic sets known as haplogroups, and are thereby widely used in the fields such as human evolution, anthropology and forensic genetics. The Y haplogroup tree was recently revised with newly suggested Y-SNP markers for designation of several subgroups of haplogroups C2, O2b and O3a, which are predominant in Koreans. Therefore, herein we analyzed these newly suggested Y-SNPs in 545 unrelated Korean males who belong to the haplogroups C2, O2b or O3a, and investigated the reconstructed topology of the Y haplogroup tree. We were able to confirm that markers L1373, Z1338/JST002613-27, Z1300, CTS2657, Z8440 and F845 define the C2 subhaplogroups, C2b, C2e, C2e1, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2, respectively, and that markers F3356, L682, F11, F238/F449 and F444 define the O subhaplogroups O2b1, O2b1b, O3a1c1, O3a1c2 and O3a2c1c, respectively. Among six C2 subhaplogroups (C2b, C2e, C2e1*, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2), the C2e haplogroup and its subhaplogroups were found to be predominant, and among the four O2b subhaplogroups (O2b*, O2b1*, O2b1a and O2b1b), O2b1b was most frequently observed. Among the O3a subhaplogroups, O3a2c1 was predominant and it was further divided into the subhaplogroups O3a2c1a and O3a2c1c with a newly suggested marker. However, the JST002613-27 marker, which had been known to define the haplogroup C2f, was found to be an ancestral marker of the C2e haplogroup, as is the Z1338 marker. Also, the M312 marker for the O2b1 haplogroup designation was replaced by F3356, because all of the O2b1 haplotypes showed a nucleotide change at F3356, but not at M312. In addition, the F238 marker was always observed to be phylogenetically equivalent to F449, while both of the markers were assigned to the O3a1c2 haplogroup. The confirmed phylogenetic tree of this study with the newly suggested Y-SNPs could be valuable for anthropological and

  4. PRODUCTION OF MISSING cbar c and bbar b STATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Stephen; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2003-08-01

    The heavy quarkonium cbar c and bbar b resonances have a rich spectroscopy with numerous narrow S, P, and D-wave levels below the production threshold of open charm and beauty mesons. The mass predictions for these states are an important test of QCD calculations. We review some recent work describing the production of missing ηb(nS), 13 DJ(bbar b) and 11 P1(cbar c) and 11 P1(bbar b) states.

  5. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Simonov, Alexandr N.; Holien, Jessica K.; Yeung, Joyee Chun In; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Zheng, Jie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Conley, Alan J.; Bond, Alan M.; Parker, Michael W.; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1) is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions. PMID:26587646

  6. A Measurement of the B ---> Eta/C K Branching Fraction Using the BaBar Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Frank; /Manchester U.

    2006-04-26

    The branching fraction is measured for the decay channels B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +} where {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}, using the BABAR detector. The {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decay channels are used, including non-resonant decays and possibly those through intermediate resonances.

  7. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sarah; Lillis, Darren; Cotter, Aoife; O’Dea, Siobhan; Tuite, Helen; Fleming, Catherine; Crowley, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Ian; Dalby, Linda; Barry, Helen; Shields, Darragh; Norris, Suzanne; Plunkett, Patrick K.; Bergin, Colm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population. Methods An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively. Results Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%), 44(0.49%) and 447(5.05%) HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%), 20(0.22%) and 58(0.66%) were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively. Conclusions Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted. PMID:26967517

  8. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus at a Community Fair: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Garmen A.; Hill, Mary A.; de Medina, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recommendations for screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), most individuals are still unaware of their infection status. The disparities in screening for HBV and HCV can be attributed to lack of awareness, language barriers, and difficulty in accessing healthcare. To address these issues, an exhibit booth was set up at an annual cultural festival to promote awareness about HBV and HCV and also provide free screening for a local Floridian community. Recruitment was conducted in various languages by physicians and nurses who specialize in hepatology. All materials associated with the screening process were sponsored by the Schiff Center for Liver Diseases, which is located at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. In the first year of the screening initiative, 173 of 11,000 fair attendees were screened for HBV. Twenty-nine (17%) of those screened tested positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and only 1 individual tested positive for chronic HBV, with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Screening for HCV and an extended patient questionnaire were added to the screening program in the second year of the initiative. A total 231 of 9,000 fair attendees volunteered to be screened for both HBV and HCV. Twenty-nine (13%) of these people tested positive for anti-HBc, and 3 tested positive for HBsAg. Only 1 person tested positive for anti-HCV, but this individual had undetectable HCV RNA levels. Our single-center experience illustrates that, despite efforts to improve access to screening, only 2-3% of attendees at a cultural fair embraced the screening efforts. Other strategies will be required to enhance participation in screening programs for viral hepatitis. PMID:23943664

  9. Fumonisin b1 carcinogenicity in a two-year feeding study using F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, P C; Eppley, R M; Stack, M E; Warbritton, A; Voss, K A; Lorentzen, R J; Kovach, R M; Bucci, T J

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin isolated from Fusarium fungi that contaminate crops worldwide. A previous study demonstrated that FB1 promoted preneoplastic foci in initiated rats and induced hepatocellular carcinomas in BD IX rats at 50 parts per million (ppm), but fundamental dose-response data were not available to assist in setting regulatory guidelines for this mycotoxin. To provide this information, female and male F344/N/Nctr BR rats and B6C3F1 Nctr BR mice were fed for two years a powdered NIH-31 diet containing the following concentrations of FB1: female rats, 0, 5, 15, 50, and 100 ppm; male rats, 0, 5, 15, 50, and 150 ppm; female mice, 0, 5, 15, 50, and 80 ppm; male mice, 0, 5, 15, 80, and 150 ppm. FB1 was not tumorigenic in female F344 rats with doses as high as 100 ppm. Including FB1 in the diets of male rats induced renal tubule adenomas and carcinomas in 0/48, 0/40, 9/48, and 15/48 rats at 0, 5, 15, 50, and 150 ppm, respectively. Including up to 150 ppm FB1 in the diet of male mice did not affect tumor incidence. Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were induced by FB1 in the female mice, occurring in 5/47, 3/48, 1/48, 19/47, and 39/45 female mice that consumed diets containing 0, 5, 15, 50, and 80 ppm FB1, respectively. This study demonstrates that FB1 is a rodent carcinogen that induces renal tubule tumors in male F344 rats and hepatic tumors in female B6C3F1 mice. PMID:11359696

  10. Broadly targeted triplex real-time PCR detection of influenza A, B and C viruses based on the nucleoprotein gene and a novel "MegaBeacon" probe strategy.

    PubMed

    Muradrasoli, Shaman; Mohamed, Nahla; Belák, Sándor; Czifra, György; Herrmann, Björn; Berencsi, George; Blomberg, Jonas

    2010-02-01

    A PCR assay that covers animal and human influenza A, B and C viruses, i.e., most of Orthomyxoviridae, is needed. Influenza types are distinguished based on differences in the nucleoprotein (NP) present in the virus. Conserved NP regions were therefore used to design a TaqMan-based triplex reverse transcription real-time PCR method. Variability of influenza A within the probe target region mandated the development of a novel molecular beacon, the "Mega" molecular beacon (MegaBeacon; MegB), for the detection of influenza A with this method. MegaBeacon is a mismatch-tolerant molecular beacon that is also a TaqMan probe. The triplex method (3QPCR-MegB) was evaluated with influenza A isolates covering 18 HxNx combinations, two influenza B isolates, and five Japanese influenza C isolates, as well as influenza A, B and C synthetic DNA targets. One to ten viral RNA and cDNA genome equivalents were detected per PCR reaction for influenza A, B and C. Seventy-one human nasopharyngeal aspirates from respiratory infections yielded 30 influenza A, 11 influenza B and 0 influenza C with 3QPCR-MegB, where immunofluorescence (IF) found 28 influenza A and 10 influenza B. 3QPCR-MegB was more mismatch-tolerant than a variant PCR with an influenza A TaqMan probe (3QPCR) and is a sensitive and rational method to detect influenza viruses of animal and human origin. MegaBeacon probes hold promise for variable target nucleic acids.

  11. Trim43a, Trim43b, and Trim43c: Novel mouse genes expressed specifically in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Ilaria; Falco, Geppino; Lee, Sung-Lim; Monti, Manuela; Ko, Minoru S H

    2009-12-01

    We describe the identification and characterization of Trim43a, Trim43b, and Trim43c genes, whose expression are restricted to preimplantation stages and peak at the 8-cell to morula stage. We identified a 5kb DNA fragment that covers upstream region of Trim43a as a putative promoter, which can drive the expression of mStrawberry fluorescent protein in a manner similar to endogenous Trim43 genes. Trim43 genes will be useful stage-specific markers for the study of preimplantation embryos.

  12. [The female world in the Necropolis in Castellaccio (Rome, IV cent. B.C., IV A.C.)].

    PubMed

    Buccellato, Anna; Catalano, Paola; Coletti, Fulvio; Pantano, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The archaeological investigation carried out from 2003 in the Castellaccio locality, undertaken to realize the "Europarco" town planning, brought to light a part ofa road dated to the roman age, identified as the ancient via Laurentina. The road is oriented N/NE-S/SW, is 400 metres long and cross with a bridge the Fosso dell'Acqua Acetosa. Two buildings run alongside this trait of the ancient Laurentina: one can be interpreted as a rural structure, the other one as a mansio. A sidestreet starts from the final edge of the recovered road and run toward East, along the original route of the Fosso dell'Acqua Acetosa Ostiense: the historians recognized it as a boundary of the Ager Romanus Antiquus nearby the VI mile, place of the god Terminus sanctuary. A necropolis made up ofmore than 130 graves, mainly inhumations, was found in the southern part of the crossroads, near the oriental side of the Laurentina. The stratigraphical analysis and the examination of the grave goods allowed the characterization of three period of funerary use of the necropolis, between the middle republican age and the first two century of the Empire. In all three period stand out graves of infants and women, of extreme interest from the ritual point of view and supplied with rich grave goods.

  13. Phosphorylation statuses at different residues of lamin B2, B1, and A/C dynamically and independently change throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuga, Takahisa; Nozaki, Naohito; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2010-08-15

    Lamins, major components of the nuclear lamina, undergo phosphorylation at multiple residues during cell cycle progression, but their detailed phosphorylation kinetics remain largely undetermined. Here, we examined changes in the phosphorylation of major phosphorylation residues (Thr14, Ser17, Ser385, Ser387, and Ser401) of lamin B2 and the homologous residues of lamin B1, A/C during the cell cycle using novel antibodies to the site-specific phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of these residues independently changed during the cell cycle. Thr14 and Ser17 were phosphorylated during G{sub 2}/M phase to anaphase/telophase. Ser385 was persistently phosphorylated during mitosis to G{sub 1} phase, whereas Ser387 was phosphorylated discontinuously in prophase and G{sub 1} phase. Ser401 phosphorylation was enhanced in the G{sub 1}/S boundary. Immunoprecipitation using the phospho-antibodies suggested that metaphase-phosphorylation at Thr14, Ser17, and Ser385 of lamins occurred simultaneously, whereas G{sub 1}-phase phosphorylation at Ser385 and Ser387 occurred in distinct pools or with different timings. Additionally, we showed that lamin B2 phosphorylated at Ser17, but not Ser385, Ser387 and Ser401, was exclusively non-ionic detergent soluble, depolymerized forms in growing cells, implicating specific involvement of Ser17 phosphorylation in lamin depolymerization and nuclear envelope breakdown. These results suggest that the phosphorylations at different residues of lamins might play specific roles throughout the cell cycle.

  14. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea... Residue § 153.1128 Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D. The... less than 1 ppm of the NLS. (2) Category B or C NLS residue resulting from washing a tank after...

  15. Pyripyropenes, novel inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. II. Structure elucidation of pyripyropenes A, B, C and D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Tomoda, H; Nishida, H; Sunazuka, T; Obata, R; Omura, S

    1994-02-01

    The structures of pyripyropenes A, B, C and D, novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors, were determined mainly by spectroscopic studies including various NMR measurements. Pyripyropenes have a common structure which consists of pyridine, alpha-pyrone and sesquiterpene moieties. One of the three O-acetyl residues in the sesquiterpene moiety of pyripyropene A is replaced with an O-propionyl residue in pyripyropenes B, C and D. PMID:8150710

  16. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel human pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, B.; Sun, Yinghao; Stearns, G.

    1994-02-01

    A novel gene coding for the pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has been isolated from a human peripheral blood lymphocyte cDNA library. The expression of this gene is induced by pokeweed mitogen and superinduced by cycloheximide. It is also induced in the T-lymphoblastoid cell line HUT 78 after phorbol ester (phorbol myristate acetate) treatment. The predominant mRNA for PBEF is approximately 2.4 kb long and codes for a 52-kDa secreted protein. The 3{prime} untranslated region of the mRNA has multiple TATT motifs, usually found in cytokine and oncogene messages. The PBEF gene is mainly transcribed in human bone marrow, liver tissue, and muscle. We have expressed PBEF in COS 7 and PA317 cells and have tested the biological activities of the conditioned medium as well as the antibody-purified protein in different in vitro assays. PBEF itself had no activity but synergized the pre-B-cell colony formation activity of stem cell factor and interleukin 7. In the presence of PBEF, the number of pre-B-cell colonies was increased by at least 70% above the amount stimulated by stem cell factor plus interleukin 7. No effect of PBEF was found with cells of myeloid or erythroid lineages. These data define PBEF as a novel cytokine which acts on early B-lineage precursor cells. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Observations of comets from 611 B.C. to A.D. 1640. Extracted from theChinese Annals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.

    Reprint of a work first published in 1871.The texts were extracted from the Chinese Annals and translated from the original language by John Williams F.S.A. The book presents descriptions of 372 observations, the first being July 611 B.C. and the last May A.D. 1621. An introductory section comments on the original sources and describes ancient Chinese observational techniques and the Chinese nomenclature for the celestial sphere. The appendix consists oftables for reducing Chinese time to European reckoning and a Chinese celestial atlas of 16 plates.

  18. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B{sub 4}C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B{sub 4}C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of {approximately} 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B{sub 4}C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ``Gelcasting`` developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ``gelled`` in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B{sub 4}C and ``conventionally`` die-pressed B{sub 4}C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B{sub 4}C specimens are discussed.

  19. 76 FR 67209 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h), that a proposed...

  20. 76 FR 6629 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G- 325B, and G-325C; Extension of an Existing Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review; Forms 325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C,...

  1. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer corrects DNA repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation groups A, B and C.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Quilliet, X; Chevallier-Lagente, O; Eveno, E; Sarasin, A; Mezzina, M

    1997-10-01

    With the aim to devise a long-term gene therapy protocol for skin cancers in individuals affected by the inherited autosomal recessive xeroderma pigmentosum we transferred the human DNA repair XPA, XPB/ERCC3 and XPC cDNAs, by using the recombinant retroviral vector LXSN, into primary and immortalized fibroblasts obtained from two XP-A, one XP-B (associated with Cockayne's syndrome) and two XP-C patients. After transduction, the complete correction of DNA repair deficiency and functional expression of the transgenes were monitored by UV survival, unscheduled DNA synthesis and recovery of RNA synthesis, and Western blots. The results show that the recombinant retroviruses are highly efficient vectors to transfer and stably express the human DNA repair genes in XP cells and correct the defect of DNA repair of group A, B and C. With our previous results with XPD/ERCC2, the present work extends further promising issues for the gene therapy strategy for most patients suffering from this cancer-prone syndrome. PMID:9415314

  2. Serotype 6B from a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces cross-functional antibody responses in adults to serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Cross-reactivity of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides is a key element for formulating pneumococcal vaccines and evaluating vaccine efficacy. This study examined whether 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which only contains 6B, can elicit cross-functional immune responses against recently discovered serotypes (6C and 6D), as well as against 6A, in 2 adult age groups.Young adults (25-51 years; N = 28) and elderly subjects (over 65 years; N = 60) were immunized with PPSV23. Functional antibody responses were determined in pre- and postimmune sera via multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay against serotypes 6A/B/C/D.At postimmunization, the geometric mean opsonic indices (OIs) for 6B and nonvaccine serotypes (6A, 6C, and 6D) significantly increased in both age groups. The geometric fold increases of OIs for 6B/A/C/D significantly differed (18.2, 24.8, 3.1, and 7.1, respectively). Proportions of subjects with 4-fold increases in OIs for 6B/A/C/D were 73%, 70%, 31%, and 49%, respectively. Correlations of fold increases in OIs were highest between 6B and 6A, followed by 6B and 6D, then by 6B and 6C. Comparisons of young adults and the elderly revealed that most immunogenicity variables were higher in the former group.Our data demonstrated that 6B in PPSV23 induced cross-functional immune responses against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D, according to the degree of similarity in their capsular polysaccharide structures. In addition, we found significant age-related differences in PPSV23-induced cross-reactivity. PMID:27631247

  3. An apolar extract of Critonia morifolia inhibits c-Myc, cyclin D1, Cdc25A, Cdc25B, Cdc25C and Akt and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Unger, Christine; Popescu, Ruxandra; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Rarova, Lucie; Herbacek, Irene; Seelinger, Mareike; Diaz, Rene; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas; Frisch, Richard; Doležal, Karel; Strnad, Miroslav; De Martin, Rainer; Grusch, Michael; Kopp, Brigitte; Krupitza, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Investigating the bioactivity of traditional medical remedies under the controlled conditions of a laboratory is an option to find additional applications, novel formulations or lead structures for the development of new drugs. The present work analysed the anti‑neoplastic activity of increasing polar extracts of the rainforest plant Critonia morifolia (Asteraceae) that has been successfully used as traditional remedy to treat various inflammatory conditions in the long-lasting medical tradition of the Central American Maya, which was here also confirmed in vitro. The apolar petroleum ether extract exhibited the most potent anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects in HL‑60 cells and triggered down-regulation of Cdc25C and cyclin D1 within 30 min followed by the inhibition of c-Myc expression and the onset of caspase-3 activation within 2 h. Subsequent to these very rapid molecular responses Chk2 and H2AX became phosphorylated (γ‑H2AX) after 4 h. Analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed an accumulation of cells in the G2-M phase within 8 h and after 24 h in S-phase. This was temporally paralleled by the down-regulation of Cdc25A, Cdc25B, Wee1 and Akt. Therefore, the attenuation of cell cycle progression in the G2-M phase was consistent with the known role of Chk2 for G2-M arrest and with the role of Cdc25B in S-phase progression. These findings suggest the presence of two distinct active principles in the petroleum ether extract of C. moriflia. These facilitated the strong apoptotic response evidenced by the rapid activation of caspase-3 that was later enforced by the inhibition of the survival kinase Akt. Importantly, the efficient down-regulation of Akt, which is successfully tested in current clinical trials, is a unique property of C. morifolia. PMID:22446629

  4. Introduction of a human X-6 translocation chromosome into a mouse teratocarcinoma: investigation of control of HLA-A, B, C expression.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, P N; Banting, G; Trowsdale, J; Chambers, S; Solomon, E

    1982-01-01

    We have developed an approach to human developmental biology which exploits somatic cell genetics. With this system we have examined the production of the HLA-A,B,C antigens, A human-mouse somatic cell hybrid was constructed which contained a human X-7 chromosome translocation carrying the HLA region; this hybrid was used as a donor of the X-6 translocation in the technique of microcell transfer. The X-6 chromosome recipient was the mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line PCC4. The microcell hybrid MCP-6 retained the embryonal carcinoma phenotype as judged by shape and absence of H-2 expression. Nonetheless, the expression of the HLA-A,B,C genes was not extinguished. HLA-A,B,C antigen production of the cell surface, however, was not detected because this hybrid apparently could not make beta 2-microglobulin. Images PMID:6951167

  5. DNA sequence analysis of five genes; tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, C; Qadri, M I; Lichtenstein, C

    1990-01-01

    A region of DNA sequence of the bacterial transposon Tn7, which is required for transposition, has been determined. This DNA sequence completes an 8351 base pair (bp) region containing five long open reading frames (ORF's) that correspond to the genetically defined genes, tnsA, B, C, D and E, required for Tn7 transposition. All of the ORF's are oriented in the same direction, ie. inward from the element's right end. The genes are in a very compact arrangement with the presumed initiation codons never more than two bases beyond the preceding termination codon. Domains with similarity to the helix-turn-helix genre of Cro-like, sequence specific DNA binding sites occur within the deduced amino acid (a.a.) sequence of the TnsA, TnsB, TnsD and TnsE proteins. Translation of the tnsC ORF reveals strong homology to a consensus sequence for nucleotide binding sites as well as a region of similarity to a transcriptional activator (MalT). No striking a.a. sequence similarity to other DNA recombinases is observed. The possible roles of these proteins in Tn7 transposition is discussed in light of the analysis presented. PMID:2156235

  6. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jessica L.; King, Lindsay Y.; Johnson, Kara B.; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D.; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E.; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M. Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Gordon, Fredric D.; Curry, Michael P.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93–4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis. PMID:26854475

  7. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jessica L; King, Lindsay Y; Johnson, Kara B; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A; Fuchs, Bryan C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Gordon, Fredric D; Curry, Michael P; Chung, Raymond T

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93-4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis.

  8. Coexistent rearrangements of c-MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 genes in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Chiyoko; Nishikori, Momoko; Kitawaki, Toshio; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ohno, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a patient with stage III de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The lymphoma cells showed mature B-cell immunophenotype but lacked surface immunoglobulin (Ig) expression. Long-distance and long-distance inverse polymerase chain reaction assays to detect the oncogene/Ig gene rearrangement revealed that the cells carried 3 independent fusion genes, namely, c-MYC/Ig heavy chain gene (IgH), BCL2/IgH, and Ig lambda light chain gene/BCL6. Thus, the lymphoma cells concurrently carried t(8;14)(q24;q32), t(14;18)(q32;q21), and t(3;22)(q27;q11), which developed in association with class switching, V/D/J recombination, and somatic hypermutation, respectively. The lymphoma responded to chemoradiotherapy, and the patient has been well for 2 years, suggesting that multiple oncogene rearrangements may not necessarily be associated with poor clinical outcome.

  9. CaB(2)C(2): Reinvestigation of a Semiconducting Boride Carbide with a Layered Structure and an Interesting Boron/Carbon Ordering Scheme.

    PubMed

    Albert, Barbara; Schmitt, Konny

    1999-12-27

    Calcium diboride dicarbide, CaB(2)C(2), was synthesized as a crystalline powder and investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, conductivity measurements, and LMTO band structure calculations. A new structure model was derived, and the crystal structure was refined by Rietveld methods in the tetragonal space group I4/mcm (No. 140, a = 537.33(1) pm and c = 741.55(2) pm, Z = 4). The boron and carbon atoms are well ordered within layers consisting of four- and eight-membered rings. A convincing coloring scheme is proven by the detection of a superstructure reflection. An earlier assignment of the compound into the LaB(2)C(2) structure family (space group P&fourmacr;2c or P4(2)/mmc, respectively) has been shown to be incorrect. LMTO band structure calculations suggest semiconducting behavior for CaB(2)C(2), which has been confirmed by conductivity measurements.

  10. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  11. Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] Thiophene Tetraesters: A New Class of Luminescent Columnar Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Pradhan, Balaram; Pathak, Suraj Kumar; Gupta, Monika; Pal, Santanu Kumar; Sudhakar, Achalkumar Ammathnadu

    2015-07-28

    Perylo[1,12-b,c,d] thiophene tetraesters exhibiting wide-range hexagonal columnar phase have been synthesized. These compounds also exhibit good homeotropic alignment in the liquid-crystalline phase which is very important for the device fabrication. These compounds showed sky-blue luminescence in solution under the long-wavelength UV light. With high solubility and high quantum yield these compounds can serve as standards to measure quantum yields of unknown samples. This new class of materials is promising, considering the emissive nature and stabilization of hexagonal columnar mesophase over a wide thermal range and ease of synthesis. PMID:26077109

  12. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for major depression: a role for let-7b and let-7c

    PubMed Central

    Gururajan, A; Naughton, M E; Scott, K A; O'Connor, R M; Moloney, G; Clarke, G; Dowling, J; Walsh, A; Ismail, F; Shorten, G; Scott, L; McLoughlin, D M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis in the field of psychiatry on the need to identify candidate biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and clinical management of depression, particularly with respect to predicting response to specific therapeutic strategies. MicroRNAs are small nucleotide sequences with the ability to regulate gene expression at the transcriptomic level and emerging evidence from a range of studies has highlighted their biomarker potential. Here we compared healthy controls (n=20) with patients diagnosed with major depression (n=40) and who were treatment-resistant to identify peripheral microRNA biomarkers, which could be used for diagnosis and to predict response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ketamine (KET) infusions, treatments that have previously shown to be effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). At baseline and after treatment, blood samples were taken and symptom severity scores rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Samples were analyzed for microRNA expression using microarray and validated using quantitative PCR. As expected, both treatments reduced HDRS scores. Compared with controls, the baseline expression of the microRNA let-7b was less by ~40% in TRD patients compared with controls. The baseline expression of let-7c was also lower by ~50% in TRD patients who received ECT. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that let-7b and let-7c regulates the expression of 27 genes in the PI3k-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, which has previously been reported to be dysfunctional in depression. The expression of miR-16, miR-182, miR-451 and miR-223 were similar to that in controls. Baseline microRNA expression could not predict treatment response and microRNAs were unaffected by treatment. Taken together, we have identified let-7b and let-7c as candidate biomarkers of major depression. PMID:27483380

  13. MicroRNAs as biomarkers for major depression: a role for let-7b and let-7c.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, A; Naughton, M E; Scott, K A; O'Connor, R M; Moloney, G; Clarke, G; Dowling, J; Walsh, A; Ismail, F; Shorten, G; Scott, L; McLoughlin, D M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis in the field of psychiatry on the need to identify candidate biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and clinical management of depression, particularly with respect to predicting response to specific therapeutic strategies. MicroRNAs are small nucleotide sequences with the ability to regulate gene expression at the transcriptomic level and emerging evidence from a range of studies has highlighted their biomarker potential. Here we compared healthy controls (n=20) with patients diagnosed with major depression (n=40) and who were treatment-resistant to identify peripheral microRNA biomarkers, which could be used for diagnosis and to predict response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and ketamine (KET) infusions, treatments that have previously shown to be effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). At baseline and after treatment, blood samples were taken and symptom severity scores rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Samples were analyzed for microRNA expression using microarray and validated using quantitative PCR. As expected, both treatments reduced HDRS scores. Compared with controls, the baseline expression of the microRNA let-7b was less by ~40% in TRD patients compared with controls. The baseline expression of let-7c was also lower by ~50% in TRD patients who received ECT. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that let-7b and let-7c regulates the expression of 27 genes in the PI3k-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, which has previously been reported to be dysfunctional in depression. The expression of miR-16, miR-182, miR-451 and miR-223 were similar to that in controls. Baseline microRNA expression could not predict treatment response and microRNAs were unaffected by treatment. Taken together, we have identified let-7b and let-7c as candidate biomarkers of major depression. PMID:27483380

  14. Quantitative analysis of C4Ab and C4Bb binding to the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1, CD35)

    PubMed Central

    REILLY, B D; MOLD, C

    1997-01-01

    Complement-dependent clearance of immune complexes in humans is dependent on the activation and binding of the early components of the classical complement cascade. This prevents immune complex precipitation and promotes binding of the complexes by the C4b/C3b complement receptor CR1 (CD35) found on erythrocytes. The fourth component of human complement is encoded by two closely linked genes within the MHC. These genes give rise to the isotypic forms C4A and C4B, and recent studies suggest that CR1 binds activated C4A (C4Ab) to a greater extent than activated C4B (C4Bb). To study this difference in a more quantitative way the binding reactions between CR1 and C4Ab- and C4Bb-coated immune complexes and between CR1 and soluble dimers of C4Ab (C4Ab2) and C4Bb (C4Bb2) were analysed using the native receptor on human erythrocytes. The binding reaction between immune complexes with equivalent amounts of covalently bound C4Ab or C4Bb and erythrocyte CR1 showed a two-fold higher binding of complexes coated with C4A. Furthermore, erythrocyte CR1 bound C4Ab2 with an apparent four-fold higher affinity (Kd ≍ 1.4 10−7M) than C4Bb2 (Kd ≍ 4–8 10−7M), indicating a preferential binding of CR1 for C4A. PMID:9367418

  15. C2 Arylated Benzo[b]thiophene Derivatives as Staphylococcus aureus NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liger, François; Bouhours, Pascale; Ganem-Elbaz, Carine; Jolivalt, Claude; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane; Popowycz, Florence; Paris, Jean-Marc; Lemaire, Marc

    2016-02-01

    An innovative and straightforward synthesis of second-generation 2-arylbenzo[b]thiophenes as structural analogues of INF55 and the first generation of our laboratory-made molecules was developed. The synthesis of C2-arylated benzo[b]thiophene derivatives was achieved through a method involving direct arylation, followed by simple structural modifications. Among the 34 compounds tested, two of them were potent NorA pump inhibitors, which led to a 16-fold decrease in the ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the SA-1199B strain at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μg mL(-1) (1 and 1.5 μm, respectively). This is a promising result relative to that obtained for reserpine (MIC=20 μg mL(-1)), a reference compound amongst NorA pump inhibitors. These molecules thus represent promising candidates to be used in combination with ciprofloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

  16. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology [correction of biotechnilogy].

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adapted at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICAL (correction of ZOOLOGICASL) COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90

  17. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adpated at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICASL COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90 spaceshuttle missions and the

  18. Human-mouse hybrids with an embryonal carcinoma phenotype continue to transcribe HLA-A,B,C.

    PubMed Central

    Benham, F J; Quintero, M A; Goodfellow, P N

    1983-01-01

    We previously constructed a hybrid cell line, MCP6, which contains an X/6 translocation chromosome as its sole human genetic component in a mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell background. This chromosome, which carries the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) originated from a human B cell which expresses class I and class II MHC antigens. EC cells do not express class I or class II antigens on their cell surface. Northern blot analysis has now shown that in the MCP6 hybrid, human class I genes, i.e., HLA-A,B,C, continued to be transcribed, and cellular levels of the transcripts were similar to, or only slightly lower than, levels in hybrids with a non-EC phenotype. However, very low levels of mRNA species recognised by a mouse class I gene (H-2) probe were also detected in EC cells and EC hybrids. Comparison of the relative levels of H-2 and HLA class I gene transcripts in the EC hybrids and non-EC hybrids indicated that the introduced HLA-A,B,C genes were not appropriately regulated in the EC cell but were subject at least in part to cis control. In contrast to the class I genes, no class II gene (i.e. HLA-DR alpha) transcripts were detected in MCP6. Hybrid EC lines thus provide a system to investigate the different levels of control of MHC gene expression during development and may help to elucidate mechanisms whereby the embryonic genome programs expression of differentiated cell functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6641706

  19. A Comparative Study on SiC-B4C-Si Cermet Prepared by Pressureless Sintering and Spark Plasma Sintering Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahani, P.; Karak, S. K.; Mishra, B.; Chakravarty, D.; Chaira, D.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC)-boron carbide (B4C) based cermets were doped with 5, 10, and 20 wt pct Silicon (Si) and their sinterability and properties were investigated for conventional sintering at 2223 K (1950 °C) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1623 K (1350 °C). An average particle size of ~3 µm was obtained after 10 hours of milling. There is an enhancement of Vickers microhardness in the 10 wt pct Si sample from 18.10 in conventional sintering to 27.80 GPa for SPS. The relative density, microhardness, and indentation fracture toughness of the composition SiC60(B4C)30Si10 fabricated by SPS are 98 pct, 27.80 GPa, and 3.8 MPa m1/2, respectively. The novelty of the present study is to tailor the wettability and ductility of the cermet by addition of Si into the SiC-B4C matrix. Better densification with improved properties is achieved for cermets consolidated by SPS at lower temperatures than conventional sintering.

  20. Former-Student Perceptions of B.C.C. and Their Post B.C.C. Academic and Employment Experiences--A Follow-up Study for the Years of 1975-76. Research Report: 1-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    As part of an on-going study, all 1,818 graduates and 6,847 non-graduates who left Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1975-76 were surveyed by mail, with a return of 1,681 responses representing 52.4% of graduate and 20% of the non-graduate sample. Findings included the following: (1) 63% of graduates and 48% of non-graduates responding continued…

  1. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen. PMID:27158348

  2. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen. PMID:27158348

  3. Characterization and analysis of a cDNA coding for the group 29b (Der f 29b) allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianli; Wang, Hui; Li, Meng; Liang, Zhilin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to acquire a recombinant allergen of Der f 29b by cloning and expression, and to identify its immunogenicity. In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, cloned and expressed based on the Der f 29b gene. The molecular characteristics of Der f 29b was analyzed by the procedures of Bioinformatics. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 29b protein was examined by western-blotting, ELISA, Immune inhibitory assays and skin prick test. The gene of Der f 29b consisted of 495 bases, derived from its nucleic acid sequence and encoded 164 amino acids. Positive responses to r-Der f 29b were shown in 24.3% by means of skin prick testing with 37 DM-allergic patients. The immunoblotting assays demonstrated that serum IgE from allergic patients reacted to r-Der f 29b protein. The IgE reactivity of r-Der f 29b in the serum from r-Der f 29b allergic patients was increased by more than 2 folds compared with healthy subjects. Immune inhibition assays showed that the IgE cross-reactivity was between r-Der f 29b and DME. Bioinformatics analysis predicted four peptides (13-17, 67-71, 104-109 and 147-155) as the B cell epitopes and five peptides (5-14, 16-31, 35-43, 52-63 and 87-97) as the T cell epitopes. Secondary structure prediction of Der f 29b with software PSIPRED identified two α-helices and seven β-sheets in Der f 29b. In conclusion, Derf 29b protein was identified as a novel subtype of dust mite allergen.

  4. Lack of Relationship between Oral Lichen Planus and Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection: A Report from Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Raiesi, Mehrab; Shahryari, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology. Dentists are usually the first medical practitioner to diagnose this condition. The condition affects all the body parts including the oral mucosa. Several studies have reported a relation between the OLP and hepatitis B and C. Current work aimed to define the occurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody in OLP patients compared with healthy controls. In this case-control study, 50 patients with clinical and histopathological characteristics of OLP, as well as 50 healthy controls were studied. Both groups were similar in terms of age and sex. Serum samples (5 mL) were collected from the patients for the evaluation of HBV antigen and HCV antibody using ELISA technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software, version 21. Chi-square test was used as appropriated. In present study, 50 patients with OLP (33 females and 17 males) with mean age of 42 ± 14.5 years, and 50 healthy subjects (33 females and 17 males) with mean age of 41.88 ± 13.73 years were evaluated. HBV antigen and HCV antibody were detected in none of the subjects (P > 0.05). We didn't found any relation between OLP and viral hepatitis. This may be due to lower occurrence of hepatitis viruses in comparison to hyper endemic countries for these viruses or genotypic discrepancy of the viruses or other factors contributing for these patients. PMID:27530572

  5. 11 CFR 104.3 - Contents of reports (2 U.S.C. 434(b), 439a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... 441a(d)), See 11 CFR 104.3(a)(3)(iii); (ix) Other disbursements; (A) Itemized other disbursements; (B... expenditure; (A) As used in 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3), purpose means a brief statement or description of why the... required by 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3)(vii) (A) and (B) shall be reported on Schedule E as part of......

  6. 11 CFR 104.3 - Contents of reports (2 U.S.C. 434(b), 439a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 441a(d)), See 11 CFR 104.3(a)(3)(iii); (ix) Other disbursements; (A) Itemized other disbursements; (B... expenditure; (A) As used in 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3), purpose means a brief statement or description of why the... required by 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3)(vii) (A) and (B) shall be reported on Schedule E as part of......

  7. 11 CFR 104.3 - Contents of reports (2 U.S.C. 434(b), 439a).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 441a(d)), See 11 CFR 104.3(a)(3)(iii); (ix) Other disbursements; (A) Itemized other disbursements; (B... expenditure; (A) As used in 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3), purpose means a brief statement or description of why the... required by 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3)(vii) (A) and (B) shall be reported on Schedule E as part of......

  8. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK project: the Mini-Module as tool in artificial ecosystem research.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Stretzke, E; Kreuzberg, K

    1994-07-01

    The evolution of the C.E.B.A.S-AQUARACK project including results of the scientific frame program was frequently presented at the IAA Man in Space Symposia 1989 and 1991 and the IAF/IAA congresses since 1990. C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a combined animal/plant system for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in ground laboratories and in a space station. For short-term missions a miniaturized version was developed which fits into a spacelab middeck locker together with all surrounding equipment. The latest development is an optimized prototype with a total volume of about 11 liters which consists of a main animal tank (Zoological Component) with integrated bacteria filter, a semibiological coarse filter, an illuminated higher plant container (Botanical Component) and combined small animal and electrode compartment. A silastic tubing gas exchanger in a closed side-loop serves as an emergency unit in case of the malfunction of the Botanical Component and the water is driven through the system by rotatory pumps. It is operative for several weeks in closed state. This C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module also represents an aquatic artificial ecosystem in which basic scientific problems of component interactions and system theory can be solved with the side aspects of combined production of animal and plant food in bioregenerative life support systems. The paper presents details of the current status of the hardware development and data about the function of the fully biological life support of the system, e. g. mid-term registrations of water parameters. Moreover, morphological and physiological data of the experimental animals (-the teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri-) and plants (-a tropical Ceratophyllum species-) demonstrate the biological stability of the system. These are used to elaborate first details of population interactions and inter-dependencies as a basis of a disposed comprehensive system analysis which is the

  9. C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK project: The mini-module as tool in artificial ecosystem research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Stretzke, E.; Kreuzberg, K.

    The evolution of the C.E.B.A.S-AQUARACK project including results of the scientific frame program was frequently presented at the IAA Man in Space Symposia 1989 and 1991 and the IAF/IAA congresses since 1990. C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a combined animal/plant system for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in ground laboratories and in a space station. For short-term missions a miniaturized version was developed which fits into a spacelab middeck locker together with all surrounding equipment. The latest development is an optimized prototype with a total volume of about 11 liters which consists of a main animal tank (Zoological Component) with integrated bacteria filter, a semibiological coarse filter, an illuminated higher plant container (Botanical Component) and combined small animal and electrode compartment. A silastic tubing gas exchanger in a closed side-loop serves as an emergency unit in case of the malfunction of the Botanical Component and the water is driven through the system by rotatory pumps. It is operative for several weeks in closed state. This C.E.B.A.S. Mini-Module also represents an aquatic artificial ecosystem in which basic scientific problems of component interactions and system theory can be solved with the side aspects of combined production of animal and plant food in bioregenerative life support systems. The paper presents details of the current statuts of the hardware development and data about the function of the fully biological life support of the system, e. g. mid-term registrations of water parameters. Moreover, morphological and pysiological data of the experimental animals (-the teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri-) and plants (-a tropical Ceratophyllum species-) demonstrate the biological stability of the system. These are used to elaborate first details of population interactions and inter-dependencies as a basis of a disposed comprehensive system analysis which is the

  10. 76 FR 33176 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203, and B4-2C Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... 2007-25-15, Amendment 39-15297 (72 FR 69601, December 10, 2007). That AD required actions intended to... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-15297 (72 FR 69601, December 10,...

  11. Effect of B, Zr, and C on Hot Tearing of a Directionally Solidified Nickel-Based Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, J.; Hartmann, N.; Rettig, R.; Affeldt, E.; Singer, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the minor elements B, Zr, and C on the castability of a Nickel-based γ'-strengthened superalloy has been investigated. Tube-like specimens were prepared by directional solidification where the rigid ceramic core leads to hoop stresses and grain boundary cracking. It was found that an important improvement in castability can be achieved by adjusting the minor elemental composition. Too low C (≤0.15 pct) and too high B and Zr contents (≥0.05 pct) lead to material that is very prone to solidification cracking and should be avoided. The results cannot be rationalized on the basis of the current models for solidification cracking. Instead, pronounced hot tearing is observed to occur at high amounts of γ/ γ'-eutectic and high Zr contents. The critical film stage where dendrites at the end of solidification do not touch and are separated by thin liquid films must be avoided. How Zr promotes the film stage will be discussed in the paper.

  12. Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain deficient in capB and overexpressing the fusion protein of IglA, IglB, and IglC from the bfr promoter induces improved protection against F. tularensis respiratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qingmei; Bowen, Richard; Lee, Bai-Yu; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2016-09-22

    A safer and more effective vaccine than the unlicensed Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) is needed to protect against the biowarfare agent F. tularensis. Previously, we developed an LVS ΔcapB mutant that is significantly safer than LVS and provides potent protective immunity against F. tularensis respiratory challenge when administered intranasally but limited protection when administered intradermally unless as part of a prime-boost vaccination strategy. To improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of LVS ΔcapB, we developed recombinant LVS ΔcapB (rLVS ΔcapB) strains overexpressing various F. tularensis Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI) proteins - IglA, IglB and IglC, and a fusion protein (IglABC) comprising immunodominant epitopes of IglA, IglB, and IglC downstream of different Francisella promoters, including the bacterioferritin (bfr) promoter. We show that rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglA, iglB, iglC, and iglABC express more IglA, IglB, IglC or IglABC than parental LVS ΔcapB in broth and in human macrophages, and stably express FPI proteins in macrophages and mice absent antibiotic selection. In response to IglC and heat-inactivated LVS, spleen cells from mice immunized intradermally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglC or bfr-iglABC secrete greater amounts of interferon-gamma and/or interleukin-17 than those from mice immunized with LVS ΔcapB, comparable to those from LVS-immunized mice. Mice immunized with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglA, iglB, iglC or iglABC produce serum antibodies at levels similar to LVS-immunized mice. Mice immunized intradermally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglABC and challenged intranasally with virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 survive longer than sham- and LVS ΔcapB-immunized mice. Mice immunized intranasally with rLVS ΔcapB/bfr-iglABC - but not with LVS - just before or after respiratory challenge with F. tularensis Schu S4 are partially protected; protection is correlated with induction of a strong innate immune response. Thus, rLVS ΔcapB

  13. A VERY CLOSE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY 3C 66B AND ITS BLACK HOLE MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Satoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Sudou, Hiroshi E-mail: okuda@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.j

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational results provide possible evidence that binary black holes (BBHs) exist in the center of giant galaxies and may merge to form a supermassive black hole in the process of their evolution. We first detected a periodic flux variation on a cycle of 93 {+-} 1 days from the 3 mm monitor observations of a giant elliptical galaxy 3C 66B for which an orbital motion with a period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr had been already observed. The detected signal period being shorter than the orbital period can be explained by taking into consideration the Doppler-shifted modulation due to the orbital motion of a BBH. Assuming that the BBH has a circular orbit and that the jet axis is parallel to the binary angular momentum, our observational results demonstrate the presence of a very close BBH that has a binary orbit with an orbital period of 1.05 {+-} 0.03 yr, an orbital radius of (3.9 {+-} 1.0) x 10{sup -3} pc, an orbital separation of (6.1{sup +1.0} {sub -0.9}) x 10{sup -3} pc, a larger black hole mass of (1.2{sup +0.5} {sub -0.2}) x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, and a smaller black hole mass of (7.0{sup +4.7} {sub -6.4}) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. The BBH decay time of (5.1{sup +60.5} {sub -2.5}) x 10{sup 2} yr provides evidence for the occurrence of black hole mergers. This Letter will demonstrate the interesting possibility of black hole collisions to form a supermassive black hole in the process of evolution, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the universe.

  14. VirB1, a component of the T-complex transfer machinery of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is processed to a C-terminal secreted product, VirB1.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, C; Llosa, M; Zhou, S; Zambryski, P C

    1997-01-01

    During genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 11 VirB proteins and VirD4 are proposed to form a transmembrane bridge to transfer a DNA-protein complex (T-complex) into the plant cytoplasm. In this study, the localization of the first product of the virB operon, VirB1, was studied in detail. While full-length VirB1 localized mostly to the inner membrane, an immunoreactive VirB1 product was found as soluble processed form, designated VirB1*. Equal amounts of VirB1* could be detected in concentrated culture supernatants versus associated with the cell. VirB1* was purified from the supernatant of vir-induced cells by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Q-Sepharose chromatography. Sequence analysis of the N terminus of VirB1* localized the processing site after amino acid 172 of VirB1. Cell-associated VirB1* was partly removed by vortexing, suggesting a loose association with the cell or active secretion. However, cross-linking and coimmunoprecipitation showed a close association of cell-bound VirB1* with the VirB9-VirB7 heterodimer, a membrane-associated component of the T-complex transfer machinery. Homologies of the N-terminal part of VirB1 to bacterial transglycosylases suggest that it may assist T-complex transfer by local lysis of the bacterial cell wall, whereas the exposed localization of the C-terminal processing product VirB1* predicts direct interaction with the plant. Thus, VirB1 may be a bifunctional protein where both parts have different functions in T-complex transfer from Agrobacterium to plant cells. PMID:9023203

  15. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  16. Observation of the Decay B+-(c) ---> J/psi pi+- and Measurement of the B+-(c) Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2007-12-01

    The B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is observed through the decay B{sub c}{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi} {pi}{sup {+-}}, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4 fb{sup -1} recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A signal of 108 {+-} 15 candidates is observed, with a significance that exceeds 8{sigma}. The mass of the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is measured to be 6275.6 {+-} 2.9(stat.) {+-} 2.5(syst.) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  17. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael J; Lee, Shernita L; Marklew, Abigail J; Gilmore, Rodney C; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F; Gray, Michael A; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  18. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael J.; Lee, Shernita L.; Marklew, Abigail J.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F.; Gray, Michael A.; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR’s function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR’s PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections and their related risk factors in Libya: a national seroepidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Elzouki, A-N; Smeo, M-N; Sammud, M; Elahmer, O; Daw, M; Furarah, A; Abudher, A; Mohamed, M K

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections has been reported among specific patient groups in Libya; a survey was thus designed to determine the extent of the problem at the national level. A multi-stage sampling design covering all administrative areas of Libya was applied, covering > 65,000 individuals of all age groups. All subjects gave a blood sample and completed a questionnaire on demographic and risk behaviour data. The prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV were 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. The prevalence of anti-HCV increased with age, rising gradually after age 30 years, in contrast to a stable prevalence of HBsAg in all age groups 10+ years. Age-adjusted risk factors for HCV infection were previous hospitalization, surgical operations, previous blood transfusions and intravenous drug use; for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified.

  20. Hepatitis B and C virus infection as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J F; Jeng, J E; Ho, M S; Chang, W Y; Lin, Z Y; Tsai, J H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether hepatitis B and C virus infection were risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen and e antigen (HBsAg and HBeAg) were tested in 150 HCC patients. Another 150 case-control pairs matched individually by sex and age were also enrolled. Univariate analysis demonstrated that both the anti-HCV and the carrier status of HBsAg and HBeAg were significantly associated with HCC. Multi-variate analysis revealed that both anti-HCV and HBsAg were risk factors for HCC. The population-attributable risk was estimated as 14.2% for anti-HCV alone, 59.4% for HBsAg alone and 8.0% for both anti-HCV and HBsAg in Taiwan. In conclusion, both hepatitis B and C virus infection are independent risk factors for HCC in Chinese in southern Taiwan.

  1. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.

  2. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex.more » We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less

  3. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. Here we report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. These results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25775123

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of provisional serotype Shigella flexneri 1c and clonal relationships with 1a and 1b strains isolated in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Kaisar A; Islam, Zhahirul; Islam, M Aminul; Dutta, Dilip K; Safa, Ashrafus; Ansaruzzaman, M; Faruque, A S G; Shahed, Shamima N; Nair, G B; Sack, David A

    2003-01-01

    The serotypes of 144 strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 1 (serotypes 1a, 1b, and 1c) isolated from patients attending the Dhaka treatment center of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between 1997 and 2001 were serologically confirmed by using commercially available antisera and a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for S. flexneri group and type factor antigen (MASF). Among serotype 1 isolates, the prevalence of provisional serotype S. flexneri 1c increased from 0 to 56% from 1978 to 2001 in Bangladesh. Detailed biochemical studies revealed that none of the strains of serotype 1 produced indole, while all the strains fermented mannose, mannitol, and trehalose. Twenty percent of the serotype 1c and all the serotype 1a strains fermented maltose and 53% of the serotype 1c strains and 60% of the serotype 1a strains fermented arabinose, whereas all serotype 1b strains were negative for fermentation of these sugars. Only 18% of serotype 1b strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and most of the serotype 1c and 1b strains were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All the strains of serotypes 1a and 1b and about 88% of the serotype 1c strains were found to be invasive by the Sereny test, had a 140-MDa plasmid, and had Congo red absorption ability. Plasmid profile analysis showed that 26% of the strains of serotype 1 contained identical patterns. Most of the serotype 1c strains (72%) had the 1.6-MDa plasmid, which was not found in either serotype 1a or 1b strains. A self-transmissible middle-range plasmid (35 to 80 MDa) was found in some strains carrying the multiple-antibiotic-resistance gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis yielded three types (types A, B, and C) with numerous subtypes among the serotype 1c strains, whereas serotypes 1b and 1a yielded only one type for each serotype, and those types were related to the types for serotype 1c strains. Ribotyping analysis yielded three

  5. Nr0b1 is a negative regulator of Zscan4c in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Setsuko; Nishikawa-Torikai, Satomi; Futatsugi, Yoko; Toyooka, Yayoi; Yamane, Mariko; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (Nr0b1, also known as Dax1) is regarded as an important component of the transcription factor network that governs pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we generated inducible knockout ES cells for Nr0b1 using the Cre-loxP system and analyzed its precise function. We succeeded in establishing the Nr0b1-null ES cells and confirmed their pluripotency by showing their contribution to chimeric embryos. However, they proliferated slowly with over-expression of 2-cell stage specific transcripts including Zscan4c, which is known to be involved in telomere elongation in ES cells. We revealed that over-expression of Zscan4c prevents normal self-renewal by inducing arrest at G2 phase followed by cell death and that Nr0b1 directly represses the Zscan4c promoter. These data indicated that Nr0b1 is not essential to maintain pluripotency but is involved in the proper activation of 2-cell specific transcripts for self-renewal. PMID:25772165

  6. The Structure of the Atom: Teacher's Guide Levels A, B, and C. Preliminary Limited Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Physics Outlet, Woburn, MA. Education Programs Dept.

    This is a two-part curriculum package for teaching the structure of atoms. The first part--the Teacher's Guide--contains information necessary for using the equipment in a typical classroom including learning goals, vocabulary, math skills, and sample data for each activity. The second part of the package consists of photocopy masters for a set of…

  7. Application of the C3-Binding Motif of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B to Protect Mice from Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Tsao, Nina; Cheng, Miao-Hui; Yang, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Ying-Pin; Lin, Kai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that produces several extracellular exotoxins to facilitate invasion and infection. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) has been demonstrated to be an important virulence factor of GAS. Our previous studies indicate that SPE B cleaves complement 3 (C3) and inhibits the activation of complement pathways. In this study, we constructed and expressed recombinant fragments of SPE B to examine the C3-binding site of SPE B. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and pull-down assays, we found that the C-terminal domain, containing amino-acid residues 345–398, of SPE B was the major binding site of human serum C3. We further identified a major, Ala376-Pro398, and a minor C3-binding motif, Gly346-Gly360, that both mediated the binding of C3 complement. Immunization with the C3-binding motifs protected mice against challenge with a lethal dose of non-invasive M49 strain GAS but not invasive M1 strains. To achieve higher efficiency against invasive M1 GAS infection, a combination of synthetic peptides derived from C-terminal epitope of streptolysin S (SLSpp) and from the major C3-binding motif of SPE B (PP6, Ala376-Pro398) was used to elicit specific immune response to those two important streptococcal exotoxins. Death rates and the severity of skin lesions decreased significantly in PP6/SLSpp-immunized mice that were infected with invasive M1 strains of GAS. These results indicate a combination of the C3-binding motif of SPE B and the protective epitope of SLS could be used as a subunit vaccine against invasive M1 strains group A streptococcal infection. PMID:25629609

  8. The Staphylococcus aureus Protein Sbi Acts as a Complement Inhibitor and Forms a Tripartite Complex with Host Complement Factor H and C3b

    PubMed Central

    van den Elsen, Jean; Burman, Julia; Hälbich, Steffi; Richter, Julia; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, similar to other pathogens, binds human complement regulators Factor H and Factor H related protein 1 (FHR-1) from human serum. Here we identify the secreted protein Sbi (Staphylococcus aureus binder of IgG) as a ligand that interacts with Factor H by a—to our knowledge—new type of interaction. Factor H binds to Sbi in combination with C3b or C3d, and forms tripartite Sbi∶C3∶Factor H complexes. Apparently, the type of C3 influences the stability of the complex; surface plasmon resonance studies revealed a higher stability of C3d complexed to Sbi, as compared to C3b or C3. As part of this tripartite complex, Factor H is functionally active and displays complement regulatory activity. Sbi, by recruiting Factor H and C3b, acts as a potent complement inhibitor, and inhibits alternative pathway-mediated lyses of rabbit erythrocytes by human serum and sera of other species. Thus, Sbi is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement components Factor H and C3 as well as IgG and β2-glycoprotein I and interferes with innate immune recognition. PMID:19112495

  9. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5B: a new player for the anti-hepatitis C virus effect of ribavirin?

    PubMed

    Galmozzi, E; Aghemo, A; Colombo, M

    2012-10-01

    The addition of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent ribavirin (RBV), a synthetic guanosine analog, to interferon-alpha (IFNα) monotherapy has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV), as it greatly improved treatment response rates. Although several mechanisms of action have been proposed for RBV's antiviral activity, each with some experimental evidence, the precise mechanism by which it acts synergistically with IFNα has remained elusive. A cornerstone of the antiviral IFNα response is phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2. This limits the availability of eIF2⋅GTP⋅Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complexes, reduces formation of the 43S preinitiation complexes, ultimately blocking viral (and most cellular) mRNA translation. However recent studies indicated that translation driven by the HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation. Particularly, in addition to the general eIF2-dependent pathway of translation, the HCV IRES makes use of a bacterial-like, eIF2-independent pathway requiring as initiation factors only eIF5B (an analog of bacterial IF2) and eIF3. Together, these observations support a model in which cellular stresses that induce eIF2α phosphorylation (e.g. treatment with IFNα) cause HCV IRES-directed translation to switch from an eIF2-dependent mode to an eIF5B-dependent mode, defining a tactic used by HCV to evade the INFα response. Eukaryotic eIF5B is a ribosome-dependent GTPase that is responsible for 80S complex formation in translation initiation but shows much lower affinities for GTP than to other GTPases, thus suggesting that it may mis-incorporate the RBV triphosphate (RTP) in place of GTP even at the RBV concentrations achieved in clinical use. Consequently, we theorize that RTP bound to eIF5B lowering its affinity for ribosome, blocks the 80S complex formation on HCV IRES inhibiting the eIF5B-dependent translation used by HCV to

  10. Photographic and photometric enhancement of Lunar Orbiter products, projects A, B and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the framelet joining, photometric data improvement, and statistical error analysis. The Lunar Orbiter film handling system, readout system, and the digitization are described, along with the technique of joining adjacent framelets by a using a digital computer. Time and cost estimates are given. The problems and techniques involved in improving the digitized data are discussed. It was found that spectacular improvements are possible. Program documentations are included.

  11. Chemistry and the Periodic Table: Teacher's Guide Levels A, B, and C. Preliminary Limited Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambridge Physics Outlet, Woburn, MA. Education Programs Dept.

    This is a two-part curriculum package for the teaching of chemistry and the periodic table. The first part, the Teacher's Guide, contains information necessary for using the equipment in a typical classroom including learning goals, vocabulary, math skills, and sample data for each activity. The second part of the package consists of photocopy…

  12. TMC647055, a Potent Nonnucleoside Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor with Cross-Genotypic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Berke, Jan Martin; Vijgen, Leen; Dehertogh, Pascale; Fransen, Els; Cleiren, Erna; van der Helm, Liesbet; Nyanguile, Origène; Tahri, Abdellah; Amssoms, Katie; Lenz, Oliver; Cummings, Maxwell D.; Clayton, Reginald F.; Vendeville, Sandrine; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A.; Fanning, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health burden and is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains an unmet medical need for efficacious and safe direct antivirals with complementary modes of action for combination in treatment regimens to deliver a high cure rate with a short duration of treatment for HCV patients. Here we report the in vitro inhibitory activity, mode of action, binding kinetics, and resistance profile of TMC647055, a novel and potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In vitro combination studies with an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor demonstrated potent suppression of HCV RNA replication, confirming the potential for combination of these two classes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. TMC647055 is a potent nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor of HCV replication with a promising in vitro biochemical, kinetic, and virological profile that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation. PMID:22710121

  13. TMC647055, a potent nonnucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor with cross-genotypic coverage.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Berke, Jan Martin; Vijgen, Leen; Dehertogh, Pascale; Fransen, Els; Cleiren, Erna; van der Helm, Liesbet; Nyanguile, Origène; Tahri, Abdellah; Amssoms, Katie; Lenz, Oliver; Cummings, Maxwell D; Clayton, Reginald F; Vendeville, Sandrine; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A; Fanning, Gregory C; Lin, Tse-I

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health burden and is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains an unmet medical need for efficacious and safe direct antivirals with complementary modes of action for combination in treatment regimens to deliver a high cure rate with a short duration of treatment for HCV patients. Here we report the in vitro inhibitory activity, mode of action, binding kinetics, and resistance profile of TMC647055, a novel and potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In vitro combination studies with an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor demonstrated potent suppression of HCV RNA replication, confirming the potential for combination of these two classes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. TMC647055 is a potent nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor of HCV replication with a promising in vitro biochemical, kinetic, and virological profile that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  14. The Uruguayan Automated and Robotic Telescope B U S C A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.; Sosa, A.; Acosta, E.; Ceretta, A.; Joliet, E.; Ruétalo, M.; Bonsignore, F.

    The efforts to discover NEOs have been concentrated up to now in the Northern Hemisphere where there are already 6 big NEO surveys functioning. The Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" obtained a grant to install a new observatory dedicated to the NEO survey in the countryside of Uruguay (South America). The new telescope has started operations in mid 2002. The name of this program is "Búsqueda Uruguaya de Supernovas, Cometas y Asteroides - BUSCA".

  15. Recovering the observed b/c ratio in a dynamic spiral-armed cosmic ray model

    SciTech Connect

    Benyamin, David; Piran, Tsvi; Shaviv, Nir J.; Nakar, Ehud

    2014-02-10

    We develop a fully three-dimensional numerical code describing the diffusion of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way. It includes the nuclear spallation chain up to oxygen, and allows the study of various CR properties, such as the CR age, grammage traversed, and the ratio between secondary and primary particles. This code enables us to explore a model in which a large fraction of the CR acceleration takes place in the vicinity of galactic spiral arms that are dynamic. We show that the effect of having dynamic spiral arms is to limit the age of CRs at low energies. This is because at low energies the time since the last spiral arm passage governs the CR age, and not diffusion. Using the model, the observed spectral dependence of the secondary to primary ratio is recovered without requiring any further assumptions such as a galactic wind, re-acceleration or various assumptions on the diffusivity. In particular, we obtain a secondary to primary ratio which increases with energy below about 1 GeV.

  16. Crystal structure of a 92-residue C-terminal fragment of TonB from Escherichia coli reveals significant conformational changes compared to structures of smaller TonB fragments.

    PubMed

    Ködding, Jiri; Killig, Frank; Polzer, Patrick; Howard, S Peter; Diederichs, Kay; Welte, Wolfram

    2005-01-28

    Uptake of siderophores and vitamin B(12) through the outer membrane of Escherichia coli is effected by an active transport system consisting of several outer membrane receptors and a protein complex of the inner membrane. The link between these is TonB, a protein associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, which forms a large periplasmic domain capable of interacting with several outer membrane receptors, e.g. FhuA, FecA, and FepA for siderophores and BtuB for vitamin B(12.) The active transport across the outer membrane is driven by the chemiosmotic gradient of the inner membrane and is mediated by the TonB protein. The receptor-binding domain of TonB appears to be formed by a highly conserved C-terminal amino acid sequence of approximately 100 residues. Crystal structures of two C-terminal TonB fragments composed of 85 (TonB-85) and 77 (TonB-77) amino acid residues, respectively, have been previously determined (Chang, C., Mooser, A., Pluckthun, A., and Wlodawer, A. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 27535-27540 and Koedding, J., Howard, S. P., Kaufmann, L., Polzer, P., Lustig, A., and Welte, W. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 9978-9986). In both cases the TonB fragments form dimers in solution and crystallize as dimers consisting of monomers tightly engaged with one another by the exchange of a beta-hairpin and a C-terminal beta-strand. Here we present the crystal structure of a 92-residue fragment of TonB (TonB-92), which is monomeric in solution. The structure, determined at 1.13-A resolution, shows a dimer with considerably reduced intermolecular interaction compared with the other known TonB structures, in particular lacking the beta-hairpin exchange.

  17. Surface plasmon resonance as a tool to select potent drug candidates for hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase.

    PubMed

    Cleiren, Erna; Devogelaere, Benoit; Fierens, Katleen

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based optical biosensors have been widely used to study biomolecular interactions, and applied to many areas of drug discovery including target identification, fragment screening, lead compound selection, early ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion), and quality control. These biosensors allow the following of a biomolecular interaction in real time to monitor kinetics and determine affinity. In this chapter, we describe an SPR-based assay to measure the interaction between hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase (wild type and/or mutants) and a small-molecule inhibitor. Viral polymerase proteins are captured on a Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid sensor surface while the small--molecule inhibitors are passed over the surface. In this way kinetics and affinity of the enzyme-inhibitor interactions can be measured, making it possible to select potent and promising lead candidates.

  18. Administrative Challenges of Integrating Special Needs Learners: A Look at Four B.C. Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Delia; Goldman, Paul

    British Columbia's Year 2000 Program mandated the inclusion of all children into their neighborhood schools, thereby requiring each school to provide all special-education services for students who need them. This paper presents findings of a study that assessed the impact of the mandate on instructional programs in four suburban Vancouver…

  19. Social Studies. The Development of Europe: 1000 B. C. - 1000 A. D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Joan

    This quinmester curriculum guide for grades 10-12 provides a framework for studying ancient history through medieval history. Emphasis is upon examining the formation and evolution of Western Civilization and considering the political, philosophical, and cultural impact that these periods exerted in the past and how they affect the present. How…

  20. 77 FR 19366 - Excepted Service; Consolidated Listing of Schedules A, B, and C Exceptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... www.gpoaccess.gov/fr . That notice follows. Government-wide authorities codified in the CFR are not... Reconstruction. These positions provide for the independent and objective conduct and supervision of audits and... proficiency in a foreign language or knowledge of foreign language teaching methods. (h) Army War...

  1. 75 FR 26885 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A, B, and C Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... in the Federal Register on February 11, 2009 (74 FR 6835). That action, a supplemental notice of... was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2006 (71 FR 25783), and which proposed to require... 21, 2006 (71 FR 25783, May 2, 2006). We do not agree. Our review of the Model S-76 helicopter...

  2. Discipline Issues: Is There a Tempest Brewing in B.C. Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Educational policy in British Columbia does not distinguish between special needs and regular class students in relation to discipline practices. Although Canadian courts have generally upheld the rights of school boards rather than the unspecified rights of special needs children, a recent court case suggests the possibility of change. (JW)

  3. Does Nationality Matter in the B2C Environment? Results from a Two Nation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Different studies have explored the relations between different dimensions of e-commerce transactions and lots of models and findings have been proposed to the academic and business worlds. However, there is a doubt on the applications and generalization of such models and findings in different countries and nations. In other words, this study argues that the relations among the variables of a model ay differ in different countries, which raises questions on the findings of researchers collecting data in one country to test their hypotheses. This study intends to examine if different nations have different perceptions toward the elements of Website interface, security and purchase intention on Internet. Moreover, a simple model was developed to investigate whether the independent variables of the model are equally important in different nations and significantly influence the dependent variable in such nations or not. Since majority of the studies in the context of e-commerce were either focused on the developed countries which have a high e-readiness indices and overall ranks, two developing countries with different e-readiness indices and ranks were selected for the data collection. The results showed that the samples had different significant perceptions of security and some of the Website interface factors. Moreover, it was found that the significance of relations among the independent variables ad the dependent variable are different between the samples, which questions the findings of the researchers testing their model and hypotheses only based on the data collected in one country.

  4. Banned Books; 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Anne Lyon; Grannis, Chandler B.

    The first half of this volume presents an introductory essay defining the First Amendment and the legal aspects of censorship, and offers an annotated list of books that have been banned at various times throughout history. The annotations, arranged according to the birth dates of the authors, include a chronological account of the censorship…

  5. Lunar tables and programs from 4000 B.C. to A.D. 8000.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapront-Touzé, M.; Chapront, J.

    This book contains two sets of tables for the geocentric motion of the Moon. The first set provides time-dependent expansions of the longitude, latitude, and radius vector of the Moon, referred to the mean ecliptic and equinox of date. These tables include a large number of terms in order to ensure a sufficient precision in the present period for most users. The second set of tables provide expansions of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, sine of half the inclination, longitude of perigee, longitude of node, and mean longitude, referred to the mean ecliptic and equinox of date. These tables are intended for the user who does not need high precision. Microcomputer program listings in FORTRAN, BASIC and PASCAL are provided to implement the tables and formulae presented in the book.

  6. Ground Water Levels for NGEE Areas A, B, C and D, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  7. 50 CFR Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to... - Large Frame TED Escape Opening; Minimum Dimensions Using All-Bar Cuts (Triangular Cuts); Large...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Side Cuts (Rectangular Cut) 18a, Figures 18a, 18b and 18c to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  8. Magnitudes and Sources of Catchment Sediment: When A + B Doesn't Equal C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The export of land-based sediments to receiving waters can cause degradation of water quality and habitat, loss of reservoir capacity and damage to reef ecosystems. Predictions of sources and magnitudes generally come from simulations using catchment models that focus on overland flow processes at the expense of gully and channel processes. This is not appropriate for many catchments where recent research has shown that the dominant erosion sources have shifted from the uplands and fields following European Settlement, to the alluvial valleys today. Still, catchment models which fail to adequately address channel and bank processes are still the overwhelming choice by resource agencies to help manage sediment export. These models often utilize measured values of sediment load at the river mouth to "calibrate" the magnitude of loads emanating from uplands and fields. The difference between the sediment load at the mouth and the simulated upland loading is then proportioned to channel sources.Bank erosion from the Burnett River (a "Reef Catchment" in eastern Queensland) was quantified by comparisons of bank-top locations and by numerical modeling using BSTEM. Results show that bank-derived sediment contributes between 44 and 73% of the sediment load being exported to the Coral Sea. In comparison reported results from a catchment model showed bank contributions of 8%. In absolute terms, this is an increase in the reported average, annual rate of bank erosion from 0.175 Mt/y to 2.0 Mt/y.In the Hoteo River, New Zealand, a rural North Island catchment characterized by resistant cohesive sediments, bank erosion was found to contribute at least 48% of the total specific yield of sediment. Combining the bank-derived, fine-grained loads from some of the major tributaries gives a total, average annual loading rate for fine material of about 10,900 t/y for the studied reaches in the Hoteo River System. If the study was extended to include the lower reaches of the main stem

  9. Basal and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced expression of cytochrome P450 1A, 1B and 1C genes in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E. . E-mail: mjonsson@whoi.edu; Orrego, Rodrigo; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2007-05-15

    The cytochrome P4501C (CYP1C) gene subfamily was recently discovered in fish, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP1C1 transcript has been cloned. Here we cloned the paralogous CYP1C2, showing that the amino acid sequence is 78% identical to CYP1C1, and examined gene structure and expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2. Xenobiotic response elements were observed upstream of the coding regions in all four genes. Zebrafish adults and embryos were exposed (24 h) to 100 nM 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126) or 20 ppm acetone and subsequently held in clean water for 24 h (adults) or 48 h (embryos). All adult organs examined (eye, gill, heart, liver, kidney, brain, gut, and gonads) and embryos showed basal expression of the four genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in liver, whereas CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were most strongly expressed in heart and eye. CYP1B1 and the CYP1C genes showed an expression pattern similar to one another and to mammalian CYP1B1. In embryos CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 tended to have a higher basal expression than CYP1A and CYP1B1. PCB126 induced CYP1A in all organs, and CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 in all organs except gonads, or gonads and brain, respectively. CYP1C2 induction was significant only in the liver. However, in embryos all four genes were induced strongly by PCB126. The results are consistent with CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, as well as CYP1A and CYP1B1, being regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. While CYP1A may have a protective role against AHR agonists in liver and gut, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 may also play endogenous roles in eye and heart and possibly other organs, as well as during development.

  10. Post Barnwell Class B/C Waste - Crisis Avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.S.

    2008-07-01

    The Barnwell Waste Management Facility (BWMF) is scheduled to restrict access to waste generators outside of the Atlantic Compact (SC, CT, NJ) on July 1, 2008. South Carolina, authorized under the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and Amendments Act of 1985, and in agreement with the other Atlantic Compact states, will only accept Class A, B, and C low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated within compact. For many years, the BWMF has been the only LLRW disposal facility to accept Class B and C waste from LLRW generators throughout the country, except those that have access to the Northwest Compact Site. Many Class B/C waste generators consider this to be a national crisis situation requiring interim or possible permanent storage, changes in operation, significant cost impacts, and/or elimination of services, especially in the health care and non-power generation industries. With proper in-house waste management practices and utilization of commercial processor services, a national crisis can be avoided, although some generators with specific waste forms or radionuclides will remain without options. In summary: It is unknown what the future will bring for commercial LLRW disposal. Could the anticipated post Barnwell Class B/C crisis be avoided by any of the following? - Barnwell Site remains open for the nation's commercial Class B/C waste; - Richland Site opens back up to the nation for commercial Class B/C waste; - Texas Site opens up to the nation for commercial Class B/C waste; - Federal Government intervenes by keeping a commercial Class B/C site open for the nation's commercial Class B/C waste; - Federal Government makes a DOE site available for commercial Class B/C waste; - Federal Government revisits the LLRW Policy Act of 1980 and Amendments Act of 1985. Without a future LLRW site capable of accepting Class B/C currently on the horizon, commercial LLRW generators are faced with waste volume elimination, reduction, or storage. With proper in-house waste

  11. Radiation experiments on Cosmos 2044: K-7-41, parts A, B, C, D, E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V. E.; Marenny, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmos 2044 biosatellite mission offered the opportunity for radiation measurements under conditions which are seldom available (an inclination of 82.3 deg and attitude of 294 x 216 km). Measurements were made on the outside of the spacecraft under near-zero shielding conditions. Also, this mission was the first in which active temperature recorders (the ATR-4) were flown to record the temperature profiles of detector stacks. Measurements made on this mission provide a comparison and test for modeling of depth doses and LET spectra for orbital parameters previously unavailable. Tissue absorbed doses from 3480 rad (252 rad/d) down to 0.115 rad (8.33 mrad/d) were measured at different depths (0.0146 and 3.20 g/sq cm, respectively) with averaged TLD readings. The LET spectra yielded maximum and minimum values of integral flux of 27.3 x 10(exp -4) and 3.05 x 10(exp -4)/sq cm/s/sr, of dose rate of 7.01 and 1.20 mrad/d, and of dose equivalent rate of 53.8 and 11.6 mrem/d, for LET(sub infinity)-H2O is greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron. Neutron measurements yielded 0.018 mrem/d in the thermal region, 0.25 mrem/d in the resonance region and 3.3 mrem/d in the high energy region. The TLD depth dose and LET spectra were compared with calculations from the modeling codes. The agreement is good but some further refinements are in order. In comparing measurements on Cosmos 2044 with those from previous Cosmos missions (orbital inclinations of 62.8 deg) there is a greater spread (maximum to minimum) in depth doses and an increased contribution from GCRs, and higher LET particles, in the heavy particle fluxes.

  12. 76 FR 43725 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 113(b) and 304(a), 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), 7604(a) Notice is hereby given that on July 13, 2009, a proposed Second Amendment Consent Decree...

  13. THE DISCOVERY OF HD 37605c AND A DISPOSITIVE NULL DETECTION OF TRANSITS OF HD 37605b

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Sharon Xuesong; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cochran, William; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard E-mail: jtwright@astro.psu.edu

    2012-12-10

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P {approx} 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of {approx}7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of {approx}3.4 M{sub Jup}. Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the >>10{sigma} level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5{sigma}. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC.

  14. MS 1512 cB58: A case study of star formation, metal enrichment and superwinds in Lyman break galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettini, Max; Rix, Samantha A.; Steidel, Chuck C.; Hunt, Matthew P.; Shapley, Alice E.; Adelberger, Kurt L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation and observing techniques have made it possible to begin to study in detail the stellar populations and the interstellar media of galaxies at redshift z = 3, when the universe was still in its ‘teen years’. I illustrate recent progress in this field with the latest observations of the gravitationally lensed galaxy MS 1512- cB58.

  15. A Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Small Business B2C E-Commerce Network Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the security vulnerability of the U.S. small companies' business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce network systems. Background: As the Internet technologies have been changing the way business is conducted, the U.S. small businesses are investing in such technologies and taking advantage of e-commerce to access global…

  16. Study of B c → J/ ψ π, η c π decays with perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Du, Dongsheng; Yang, Yueling

    2009-03-01

    The B c → J/ ψ π, η c π decays are studied with the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the form factors A_{0,1,2}^{Bcto J/{ψ}} and F0^{Bcto{η}c} for the B c → J/ ψ, η c transitions and the branching ratios are sensitive to the parameters ω, v, f J/ ψ and f_{{η}c} , where ω and v are the parameters of the charmonium wave functions for a Coulomb potential and the harmonic-oscillator potential, respectively, and f J/ ψ and f_{{η}c} are the decay constants of the J/ ψ and η c mesons, respectively. The large branching ratios and the clear signals of the final states make the B c → J/ ψ π, η c π decays the prospective channels for measurements at the hadron colliders.

  17. B-H, C-H, and B-C bond activation: the role of two adjacent agostic interactions.

    PubMed

    Cassen, Audrey; Gloaguen, Yann; Vendier, Laure; Duhayon, Carine; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia; Raynaud, Christophe; Clot, Eric; Alcaraz, Gilles; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane

    2014-07-14

    Tuning the nature of the linker in a L~BHR phosphinoborane compound led to the isolation of a ruthenium complex stabilized by two adjacent, δ-C-H and ε-B(sp2)-H, agostic interactions. Such a unique coordination mode stabilizes a 14-electron "RuH2P2" fragment through connected σ-bonds of different polarity, and affords selective B-H, C-H, and B-C bond activation as illustrated by reactivity studies with H2 and boranes. PMID:24990456

  18. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22235 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22235 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-C, II-A, II-B, and IV mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0 percent in...

  1. A Search for Water in the Atmosphere of HAT-P-26b Using LDSS-3C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Gilbert, Gregory J.; Line, Michael R.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of a physically diverse set of transiting exoplanets is an important and necessary step toward establishing the physical properties linked to the production of obscuring clouds or hazes. It is those planets with identifiable spectroscopic features that can most effectively enhance our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and metallicity. The newly commissioned LDSS-3C instrument on Magellan provides enhanced sensitivity and suppressed fringing in the red optical, thus advancing the search for the spectroscopic signature of water in exoplanetary atmospheres from the ground. Using data acquired by LDSS-3C and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we search for evidence of water vapor in the transmission spectrum of the Neptune-mass planet HAT-P-26b. Our measured spectrum is best explained by the presence of water vapor, a lack of potassium, and either a high-metallicity, cloud-free atmosphere or a solar-metallicity atmosphere with a cloud deck at ∼10 mbar. The emergence of multi-scale-height spectral features in our data suggests that future observations at higher precision could break this degeneracy and reveal the planet’s atmospheric chemical abundances. We also update HAT-P-26b’s transit ephemeris, t0 = 2455304.65218(25) BJDTDB, and orbital period, p = 4.2345023(7) days.

  2. Delayed Viral Clearance after 6-Week Treatment with Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akira; Ishii, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Sano, Fumiaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Following interferon-based therapy for chronic hepatitis C, the negativity of hepatitis C virus RNA is essential to achieve viral clearance at the end of treatment. We report a case of clearance of chronic hepatitis C virus infection following early discontinuation (at 6 weeks) of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy, without negativity for hepatitis C virus RNA during the treatment period. The patient was a 76-year-old Japanese male infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and TT of IL28B rs8099917. Hepatitis C virus RNA remained positive at persistently low levels for more than 2 months after the cessation of therapy and became negative at 7 months after the discontinuation of therapy. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus RNA can occur following antiviral failure in patients with persistently low viral loads, and virological follow-up is therefore necessary in chronic hepatitis C virus infection, even after antiviral failure. PMID:27721727

  3. sbmC, a stationary-phase induced SOS Escherichia coli gene, whose product protects cells from the DNA replication inhibitor microcin B17.

    PubMed

    Baquero, M R; Bouzon, M; Varea, J; Moreno, F

    1995-10-01

    Microcin B17 (MccB17) is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic of 43 amino acids that induces double-strand breaking of DNA in a DNA gyrase-dependent reaction. As a consequence, the SOS regulon is induced and massive DNA degradation occurs. In this work we have characterized an Escherichia coli gene, sbmC, that in high copy number determines high cell resistance to MccB17. sbmC encodes a cytoplasmic polypeptide of 157 amino acids (M(r), 18,095) that has been visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The gene is located at min 44 of the E. coli genetic map, close to the sbcB gene. sbmC expression is induced by DNA-damaging agents and, also, by the entry of cells into the stationary growth phase. A G-->T transversion at the fifth nucleotide of the quasicanonical LexA-box preceding the gene makes recA cells 16-fold more resistant to exogenous MccB17. The gene product, SbmC, also blocks MccB17 export from producing cells. Altogether, our results suggest that SbmC recognizes and sequesters MccB17 in a reversible way.

  4. Activity and tolerance of a continuous subcutaneous infusion of interferon-alpha2b in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Schenker, S; Cutler, D; Finch, J; Tamburro, C H; Affrime, M; Sabo, R; Bay, M

    1997-11-01

    We administered interferon-alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) by continuous subcutaneous infusion (60,000 IU/h, or 10 million IU/week) over 3 months to 7 patients with chronic hepatitis C. All had previously responded, as assessed by normalization of transaminases to the same dose of IFN administered by intermittent injection over 6 months, but had relapsed after cessation of therapy. The continuous infusion was tolerated well at the site of infusion, and the systemic side effects were similar in type but were lesser in intensity than with intermittent dosage. Four of 7 subjects had normalization of transaminase at the end of week 12 of therapy. Serum HCV RNA and HCV by PCR decreased with treatment, and there was a prompt and sustained increase in serum beta2-microglobulin and of 2', 5' OAS activity. The level of the latter appeared to correlate with response of the transaminase. Serum IFN concentrations were low but detectable throughout therapy. After stopping IFN administration, the transaminases in responders increased again to pretreatment levels.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable..., II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable..., II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND...

  7. Study of infrared emission spectroscopy for the B1Δg-A1Πu and B'1Σg+-A1Πu systems of C2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Bernath, Peter F.; Tang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen bands for the B1Δg-A1Πu system and eleven bands for the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system of C2 were identified in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. The B'1Σg+ v = 4 and the B1Δg v = 6, 7, and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B1Δg-A1Πu system except for a small perturbation in the B1Δg v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B1Δg v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B1Δg and d3Πg states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen forbidden transitions of the B1Δg-a3Πu transition were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant AdB between d3Πg and B1Δg was derived as 8.3(1) cm-1. For the B'1Σg+-A1Πu system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B'1Σg+ state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ωexe is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) potential curves for the B'1Σg+ and X1Σg+ states revealed that an avoided crossing or nearly avoided crossing may occur around 30 000 cm-1, which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states.

  8. Study of infrared emission spectroscopy for the B(1)Δg-A(1)Πu and B'(1)Σg(+)-A(1)Πu systems of C2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Bernath, Peter F; Tang, Jian

    2016-02-14

    Thirteen bands for the B(1)Δg-A(1)Πu system and eleven bands for the B'(1)Σg(+)-A(1)Πu system of C2 were identified in the Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of hydrocarbon discharges. The B'(1)Σg(+)v = 4 and the B(1)Δg v = 6, 7, and 8 vibrational levels involved in nine bands were studied for the first time. A direct global analysis with Dunham parameters was carried out satisfactorily for the B(1)Δg-A(1)Πu system except for a small perturbation in the B(1)Δg v = 6 level. The calculated rovibrational term energies up to B(1)Δg v = 12 showed that the level crossing between the B(1)Δg and d(3)Πg states is responsible for many of the prominent perturbations in the Swan system observed previously. Nineteen forbidden transitions of the B(1)Δg-a(3)Πu transition were identified and the off-diagonal spin-orbit interaction constant AdB between d(3)Πg and B(1)Δg was derived as 8.3(1) cm(-1). For the B'(1)Σg(+)-A(1)Πu system, only individual band analyses for each vibrational level in the B'(1)Σg(+) state could be done satisfactorily and Dunham parameters obtained from these effective parameters showed that the anharmonic vibrational constant ωexe is anomalously small (nearly zero). Inspection of the RKR (Rydberg-Klein-Rees) potential curves for the B'(1)Σg(+) and X(1)Σg(+) states revealed that an avoided crossing or nearly avoided crossing may occur around 30,000 cm(-1), which is responsible for the anomalous molecular constants in these two states. PMID:26874482

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a Cholesterol-conjugated Aptamer Against the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS5B Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Ho; Lee, Soo-Han; Kim, Ji Hyun; Noh, Yook-Hwan; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of progressive liver disease such as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Previously, we reported that a 29 nucleotide-long 2'-F pyrimidine modified RNA aptamer against the HCV nonstructural protein 5B efficiently inhibited HCV replication and suppressed HCV infectious virus particle formation in a cell culture system. In this study, we modified this aptamer through conjugation of cholesterol for in vivo availability. This cholesterol-conjugated aptamer (chol-aptamer) efficiently entered the cell and inhibited HCV RNA replication, without any alteration in gene expression profiling including innate immune response-related genes. Moreover, systemic administration of the chol-aptamer was well tolerated without any abnormalities in mice. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the chol-aptamer in vivo, dose proportionality, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated by noncompartmental analyses in normal BALB/c mice. Population analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics of two different routes (intravenous, IV, versus intraperitoneal, IP) were compared. Cholesterol conjugation showed dose proportionality, extended the time that the aptamer was in the plasma, and enhanced aptamer exposure to the body. Noticeably, the IV route was more suitable than the IP route due to the chol-aptamer remaining in the plasma for a longer period of time. PMID:26440598

  10. 48 CFR 215.403-1 - Prohibition on obtaining cost or pricing data (10 U.S.C. 2306a and 41 U.S.C. 254b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements—(1) Adequate price competition. For acquisitions under dual or multiple source programs: (A) The... analysis. (B) Adequate price competition normally exists when— (i) Prices are solicited across a full range... clearly established on the basis of price analysis (see FAR 15.404-1(b)). (3) Commercial items. (A)...

  11. A SEARCH FOR l-C{sub 3}H{sup +} AND l-C{sub 3}H IN Sgr B2(N), Sgr B2(OH), AND THE DARK CLOUD TMC-1

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Loomis, Ryan A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Hollis, Jan M.; Lovas, Frank J.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2013-09-01

    Pety et al. recently reported the detection of several transitions of an unknown carrier in the Horsehead PDR and attribute them to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}. Here, we have tested the predictive power of their fit by searching for, and identifying, the previously unobserved J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of the unknown carrier (B11244) toward Sgr B2(N) in data from the publicly available PRIMOS project. Also presented here are observations of the J = 6-5 and J = 7-6 transitions toward Sgr B2(N) and Sgr B2(OH) using the Barry E. Turner Legacy Survey and results from the Kaifu et al. survey of TMC-1. We calculate an excitation temperature and column density of B11244 of {approx}10 K and {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} in Sgr B2(N) and {approx}79 K with an upper limit of {<=}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} in Sgr B2(OH) and find trace evidence for the cation's presence in TMC-1. Finally, we present spectra of the neutral species in both Sgr B2(N) and TMC-1, and comment on the robustness of the assignment of the detected signals to l-C{sub 3}H{sup +}.

  12. A Search for l-C3H+ and l-C3H in Sgr B2(N), Sgr B2(OH), and the Dark Cloud TMC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Loomis, Ryan A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Hollis, Jan M.; Lovas, Frank J.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2013-09-01

    Pety et al. recently reported the detection of several transitions of an unknown carrier in the Horsehead PDR and attribute them to l-C3H+. Here, we have tested the predictive power of their fit by searching for, and identifying, the previously unobserved J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of the unknown carrier (B11244) toward Sgr B2(N) in data from the publicly available PRIMOS project. Also presented here are observations of the J = 6-5 and J = 7-6 transitions toward Sgr B2(N) and Sgr B2(OH) using the Barry E. Turner Legacy Survey and results from the Kaifu et al. survey of TMC-1. We calculate an excitation temperature and column density of B11244 of ~10 K and ~1013 cm-2 in Sgr B2(N) and ~79 K with an upper limit of <=1.5 × 1013 cm-2 in Sgr B2(OH) and find trace evidence for the cation's presence in TMC-1. Finally, we present spectra of the neutral species in both Sgr B2(N) and TMC-1, and comment on the robustness of the assignment of the detected signals to l-C3H+.

  13. Association between ABO blood/rhesus grouping and hepatitis B and C: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pourhassan, Abolfazl

    2014-06-01

    During past decades, a connection between hepatitis and the host ABO/Rh blood groups has been always under dispute, with no appropriately designed study yet. This study aimed to investigate possible association between ABO blood/Rh groups with both hepatitis B and C. In this case-control setting, 200 healthy individuals (controls), 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-B infection (HB) and 200 patients with chronic Hepatitis-C infection (HC) were recruited from 2010 to 2013 in Tabriz Sina Hospital. ABO blood and Rh grouping was performed and the results were compared between the case and control groups. Both pair of the control and HB groups and the control and HC groups were matched for their subjects' age and sex. In the control group, 178 subjects (89%) were Rh+ and 22 subjects (11%) were Rh-. In the HB group, there were 180 Rh+ (90%) and 20 Rh- (10%) patients. In the HC group there were 168 Rh+ (84%) and 32 Rh-negative (16%) patients. Both pair of the control and HB groups (p = 0.74), as well as the control and HC groups (p = 0.14) were comparable for the status of Rh. In the control group there were 84 (42%), 32 (16%), 66 (33%) and 18 (9%) subjects with A, B, O and AB blood groups, respectively. The corresponding figures were 84 (42%), 34 (17%), 58 (29%) and 24 (12%) for the HB patients; and 80 (40%), 29 (14.5%), 85 (42.5%) and 6 (3%) for the HC patients. Comparing between the control and HB groups showed no significant difference in terms of the frequency of ABO blood groups (p = 0.70). However, with comparing the control and HC groups, the rate of O blood group was significantly higher in the HC group and concomitantly, the rate of AB blood group was significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.04). Although, there is not a significant association between ABO blood groups and HB, this association is significant between certain ABO blood groups and HC.

  14. A review of molecular mechanisms in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin and hepatitis B and C viruses.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Vandana; Redhu, Davender; Dhanda, Suman; Singh, Jasbir

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food-borne secondary fungal metabolites that are hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic, and mutagenic. Urinary and serum biomarkers are more efficient in reflecting dietary exposure to aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) than other methods such as food sampling and dietary questionnaires. Chronic infection of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and dietary exposure to AFB₁ are the major risk factors in a multifactorial etiology of hepatocellular carcinogenesis, raising the possibility of a synergistic interaction between 2 agents. These effects are due to the formation of DNA and protein adducts and lipid peroxidation. Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and HBV infection had prevalent GC → TA transversion mutation at the third position of codon 249 of the p53 gene. The HBx protein of HBV also promotes cell cycle progression, increases the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase, inactivates negative growth regulators, and binds to and inhibits the expression of p53 (antiapoptotic activity) and other tumor suppressor genes and senescence-related factors. Some reports also evidence the role of hepatitis C virus in the pathogenesis of HCC. Inhibitors of AFB₁ adducts are found to be potent chemoprotective agents against AFB₁-induced HCC. This review focuses on the interaction of aflatoxin, HBV, and hepatitis C virus in the development of HCC. PMID:24099430

  15. Dysiherbols A-C and Dysideanone E, Cytotoxic and NF-κB Inhibitory Tetracyclic Meroterpenes from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Guo-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Zhuo; Peng, Shuang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Li, Jia; Han, Bing-Nan; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2016-02-26

    Four new tetracyclic meroterpnes, dysiherbols A-C (1-3) and dysideanone E (4), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously determined by a combination of NMR spectroscopic data, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Within the sesquiterpene quinol structures, dysiherbols A-C possess an intriguing 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic carbon skeleton. The NF-κB inhibitory and cytotoxic activity evaluation disclosed that dysiherbol A (1) showed potent activity with respective IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.58 μM, which were about 10-fold and 20-fold more potent than those of dysiherbols B (2) and C (3), which feature hydroxy and ketone carbonyl groups at the C-3 position. PMID:26863083

  16. Dysiherbols A-C and Dysideanone E, Cytotoxic and NF-κB Inhibitory Tetracyclic Meroterpenes from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Guo-Hua; Xu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Guo-Dong; Gu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Zhuo; Peng, Shuang; Wang, Shu-Ping; Li, Jia; Han, Bing-Nan; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2016-02-26

    Four new tetracyclic meroterpnes, dysiherbols A-C (1-3) and dysideanone E (4), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected from the South China Sea. Their complete structures and absolute configurations were unambiguously determined by a combination of NMR spectroscopic data, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Within the sesquiterpene quinol structures, dysiherbols A-C possess an intriguing 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic carbon skeleton. The NF-κB inhibitory and cytotoxic activity evaluation disclosed that dysiherbol A (1) showed potent activity with respective IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.58 μM, which were about 10-fold and 20-fold more potent than those of dysiherbols B (2) and C (3), which feature hydroxy and ketone carbonyl groups at the C-3 position.

  17. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 1C Figure 1C to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  18. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 1C Figure 1C to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  19. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 1C Figure 1C to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  20. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 1C Figure 1C to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  1. 49 CFR Figure 1c to Subpart B of... - Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of a Passenger Compartment Including a Vestibule Connected by an Open Passageway and Excluding a Vestibule Separated by an Interior Door-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 1C Figure 1C to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  2. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays.

  3. PDE4B mediates local feedback regulation of β₁-adrenergic cAMP signaling in a sarcolemmal compartment of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Mika, Delphine; Richter, Wito; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Catterall, William A; Conti, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Multiple cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms play divergent roles in cardiac homeostasis but the molecular basis for their non-redundant function remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel role for the PDE4B isoform in β-adrenergic (βAR) signaling in the heart. Genetic ablation of PDE4B disrupted βAR-induced cAMP transients, as measured by FRET sensors, at the sarcolemma but not in the bulk cytosol of cardiomyocytes. This effect was further restricted to a subsarcolemmal compartment because PDE4B regulates β1AR-, but not β2AR- or PGE2-induced responses. The spatially restricted function of PDE4B was confirmed by its selective effects on PKA-mediated phosphorylation patterns. PDE4B limited the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of key players in excitation-contraction coupling that reside in the sarcolemmal compartment, including L-type Ca(2+) channels and ryanodine receptors, but not phosphorylation of distal cytosolic proteins. β1AR- but not β2AR-ligation induced PKA-dependent activation of PDE4B and interruption of this negative feedback with PKA inhibitors increased sarcolemmal cAMP. Thus, PDE4B mediates a crucial PKA-dependent feedback that controls β1AR-dependent cAMP signals in a restricted subsarcolemmal domain. Disruption of this feedback augments local cAMP/PKA signals, leading to an increased intracellular Ca(2+) level and contraction rate.

  4. Structure of 14C and 14B from the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedoor, S.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Almaraz-Calderon, Sergio; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P. F.; Deibel, C. M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Mcneel, D. G.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shetty, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the C,1514(d ,3He)B,1413 proton-removing reactions in inverse kinematics. The (d ,3He ) reaction probes the proton occupation of the target ground state, and also provides spectroscopic information about the final states in B,1413. The experiments were performed using C,1514 beams from the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The reaction products were analyzed with the HELIOS device. Angular distributions were obtained for transitions from both reactions. The 14C-beam data reveal transitions to excited states in 13B that suggest configurations with protons outside the π (0 p3 /2) orbital, and some possibility of proton cross-shell 0 p -1 s 0 d excitations, in the 14C ground state. The 15C-beam data confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state in 14B. The experimental data are compared to the results of shell-model calculations.

  5. Potentiation of the synergistic activities of chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC from Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2 by chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Román, Martha Ingrid; Dunn, Michael F; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Holguín-Meléndez, Francisco; Huerta-Palacios, Graciela; Guillén-Navarro, Karina

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the chitinolytic mechanism of the potential biological control strain Serratia marcescens CFFSUR-B2, genes encoding chitinases ChiA, ChiB and ChiC, chitobiase (Chb) and chitin binding protein (CBP) were cloned, the protein products overexpressed in Escherichia coli as 6His-Sumo fusion proteins and purified by affinity chromatography. Following affinity tag removal, the chitinolytic activity of the recombinant proteins was evaluated individually and in combination using colloidal chitin as substrate. ChiB and ChiC were highly active while ChiA was inactive. Reactions containing both ChiB and ChiC showed significantly increased N-acetylglucosamine trimer and dimer formation, but decreased monomer formation, compared to reactions with either enzyme alone. This suggests that while both ChiB and ChiC have a general affinity for the same substrate, they attack different sites and together degrade chitin more efficiently than either enzyme separately. Chb and CBP in combination with ChiB and ChiC (individually or together) increased their chitinase activity. We report for the first time the potentiating effect of Chb on the activity of the chitinases and the synergistic activity of a mixture of all five proteins (the three chitinases, Chb and CBP). These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of action of the chitinases produced by strain CFFSUR-B2 and provide a molecular basis for its high potential as a biocontrol agent against fungal pathogens.

  6. The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule: behaviour of an artificial aquatic ecological system during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Andriske, M; Paris, F; Voeste, D

    2000-01-01

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule, a closed aquatic ecosystem integrated into a middeck locker and consisting of a Zoological (animal tanks), a Botanical (plant bioreactor), a Microbial (bacteria filter) and an Electronic Component (data acquisition/control system) was flown on the STS-89 spaceshuttle mission in January 1998 for 9 days. Preflight the plant bioreactor was loaded with 53 g of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and the animal tanks with 4 adult pregnant females of the fish, Xiphophorus helleri (sword-tails), 200 juveniles of the same species less than 1 week of age, 38 large and 30 juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata water snails. The filter compartment was filled with 200 g of lava grain inoculated with laboratory strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. A ground reference was undertaken with the same biological setup with a delay of 4 d. After an adaptation period of 5 d the system was closed and integrated into the spaceshuttle one day before launch. Video recordings of the animals were automatically taken for 10 minutes in 2-hour periods; the tapes were changed daily by the astronauts. The chemical and physical data for the aquatic system were within the expected range and were closely comparable in comparison to the ground reference. After 9 d under space conditions, the plant biomass increased to 117 g. The plants were all found in very good condition. All 4 adult female fish were retrieved in a good physiological condition. The juvenile fishes had a survival rate of about 33%. Almost 97% of the snails had survived and produced more than 250 neonates and 40 spawning packs. All samples were distributed according to a defined schedule and satisfied all scientific needs of the involved 12 principal investigators. This was the first successful spaceflight of an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing vertebrates, invertebrates, higher plants and microorganisms self-sustained by its inhabitants only. C.E.B.A.S. in a modified form and biological setup is a promising

  7. The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule: Behaviour of an Artificial Aquatic Ecological System During Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Andriske, M.; Paris, F.; Voeste, D.

    The C.E.B.A.S.-Minimodule, a closed aquatic ecosystem integrated into a middeck locker and consisting of a Zoological (animal tanks), a Botanical (plant bioreactor), a Microbial (bacteria filter) and an Electronic Component (data acquisition/control system) was flown on the STS-89 spaceshuttle mission in January 1998 for 9 days. Preflight the plant bioreactor was loaded with 53 g of Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail) and the animal tanks with 4 adult pregnant females of the fish, Xiphophorus helleri (sword-tails), 200 juveniles of the same species less than 1 week of age, 38 large and 30 juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata water snails. The filter compartment was filled with 200 g of lava grain inoculated with laboratory strains of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. A ground reference was undertaken with the same biological setup with a delay of 4 d. After an adaptation period of 5 d the system was closed and integrated into the spaceshuttle one day before launch. Video recordings of the animals were automatically taken for 10 minutes in 2-hour periods; the tapes were changed daily by the astronauts. The chemical and physical data for the aquatic system were within the expected range and were closely comparable in comparison to the ground reference. After 9 d under space conditions, the plant biomass increased to 117 g. The plants were all found in very good condition. All 4 adult female fish were retrieved in a good physiological condition. The juvenile fishes had a survival rate of about 33 %. Almost 97 % of the snails had survived and produced more than 250 neonates and 40 spawning packs. All samples were distributed according to a defined schedule and satisfied all scientific needs of the involved 12 principal investigators. This was the first successful spaceflight of an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing vertebrates, invertebrates, higher plants and microorganisms self-sustained by its inhabitants only. C.E.B.A.S. in a modified form and biological setup is a

  8. Pseudo- in-situ stir casting: a new method for production of aluminum matrix composites with bimodal-sized B4C reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raei, Mohammad; Panjepour, Masoud; Meratian, Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    A new method was applied to produce an Al-0.5wt%Ti-0.3wt%Zr/5vol%B4C composite via stir casting with the aim of characterizing the microstructure of the resulting composite. For the production of the composite, large B4C particles (larger than 75 μm) with no pre-heating were added to the stirred melt. Reflected-light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, and image analysis using the Clemex software were performed on the cast samples for microstructural analysis and phase detection. The results revealed that as a consequence of thermal shock, B4C particle breakage occurred in the melt. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon is that the exerted thermal shock in combination with the low thermal shock resistance of B4C and large size of the added B4C particles were the three key parameters responsible for B4C particle breakage. This breakage introduced small particles with sizes less than 10 μm and with no contamination on their surfaces into the melt. The mean particle distance measured via image analysis was approximately 60 μm. The coefficient of variation index, which was used as a measure of particle distribution homogeneity, showed some variations, indicating a relatively homogeneous distribution.

  9. 76 FR 24910 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G-325B, and G-325C; Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... FR 6629, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comments for this... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Forms G-325, G-325A, G- 325B, and G-325C; Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection; Comment...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-B mines). 57.22202 Section 57.22202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation §...

  11. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  12. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  13. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  14. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  15. 25 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C - Population Adjustment Factor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Population Adjustment Factor B Appendix B to Subpart C...—Population Adjustment Factor 1. The Population Adjustment Factor allows for participation in the IRR Program... is available in accordance with the TTAM each fiscal year for a tribe based on the population...

  16. A cross sectional study of hepatitis B, C, some trace elements, heavy metals, aflatoxin B1 and schistosomiasis in a rural population, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Hanan Ali; El Ayyat, Afaf; El Dusoki, Howaida; Zoheiry, Mona; Mohamed, Salwa; Hassan, Mona; El Assaly, Nihal; Awad, Alaa; El Ansary, Mahmoud; Saad, Amal; El Karim, Ahmed Abd

    2005-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are disastrous to health. Many factors are associated with their prevalence, hence endemicity. These are mainly infectious, parasitic and toxic. A survey was conducted in a village south to Cairo. Large industries concerned with iron and steel industry, metals smelting, cement manufacturing and electric station were located north to the village. A systematic random sample of houses was selected. All individuals inside the houses were invited to share in the study. Sample size was 84 individuals. Hepatitis markers were done (HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies). The levels of some heavy metals were assessed; which were lead, mercury, arsenic, aluminum, manganese, nickel, chromium and cadmium. Levels of some trace elements were assessed. These were copper, iron, selenium and zinc. Aflatoxin B1 was assessed in serum. Assessment of schistosomal circulating antigen and antibodies was carried out. Abdominal ultrasonograghy was done to assess liver condition. Univariate logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between studied variables and HBsAg or anti-HCV sero-positive subjects. The association between studied variables and bilharzial or fatty liver, diagnosed by ultrasonography, were also assessed. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed odds ratios at the following results. For HBsAg seropositive subjects, aflatoxin B1, lead, chromium and schistosomal antigen and antibodies were higher than negative ones where odds ratios were; 6.2, 1.6, 1.6, 1.6 and 1.7, respectively. None of the variables showed statistically significant difference. For anti-HCV antibodies sero-positive subjects, aflatoxin B1 and chromium had the highest odds ratios among the studied variables, (odds ratios were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively). Bilharzial liver showed higher significant positivity of anti-HCV antibodies and insignificant decreased level of zinc than negative ones (odds ratios were 7.2 and 4.5, respectively). Fatty liver cases showed

  17. A cross sectional study of hepatitis B, C, some trace elements, heavy metals, aflatoxin B1 and schistosomiasis in a rural population, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Hanan Ali; El Ayyat, Afaf; El Dusoki, Howaida; Zoheiry, Mona; Mohamed, Salwa; Hassan, Mona; El Assaly, Nihal; Awad, Alaa; El Ansary, Mahmoud; Saad, Amal; El Karim, Ahmed Abd

    2005-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are disastrous to health. Many factors are associated with their prevalence, hence endemicity. These are mainly infectious, parasitic and toxic. A survey was conducted in a village south to Cairo. Large industries concerned with iron and steel industry, metals smelting, cement manufacturing and electric station were located north to the village. A systematic random sample of houses was selected. All individuals inside the houses were invited to share in the study. Sample size was 84 individuals. Hepatitis markers were done (HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies). The levels of some heavy metals were assessed; which were lead, mercury, arsenic, aluminum, manganese, nickel, chromium and cadmium. Levels of some trace elements were assessed. These were copper, iron, selenium and zinc. Aflatoxin B1 was assessed in serum. Assessment of schistosomal circulating antigen and antibodies was carried out. Abdominal ultrasonograghy was done to assess liver condition. Univariate logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between studied variables and HBsAg or anti-HCV sero-positive subjects. The association between studied variables and bilharzial or fatty liver, diagnosed by ultrasonography, were also assessed. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed odds ratios at the following results. For HBsAg seropositive subjects, aflatoxin B1, lead, chromium and schistosomal antigen and antibodies were higher than negative ones where odds ratios were; 6.2, 1.6, 1.6, 1.6 and 1.7, respectively. None of the variables showed statistically significant difference. For anti-HCV antibodies sero-positive subjects, aflatoxin B1 and chromium had the highest odds ratios among the studied variables, (odds ratios were 2.5 and 2.4, respectively). Bilharzial liver showed higher significant positivity of anti-HCV antibodies and insignificant decreased level of zinc than negative ones (odds ratios were 7.2 and 4.5, respectively). Fatty liver cases showed

  18. Identification of a Conserved Linear B-Cell Epitope of Streptococcus dysgalactiae GapC Protein by Screening Phage-Displayed Random Peptide Library

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ziyao; Zhou, Xue; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Wang, Xintong; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    The GapC of Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) is a highly conserved surface protein that can induce protective humoral immune response in animals. However, B-cell epitopes on the S. dysgalactiae GapC have not been well identified. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb5B7) against the GapC1-150 protein was prepared. After passive transfer, mAb5B7 could partially protect mice against S. dysgalactiae infection. Eleven positive phage clones recognized by mAb5B7 were identified by screening phage-displayed random 12-peptide library, most of which matched the consensus motif DTTQGRFD. The motif sequence exactly matches amino acids 48-55 of the S. dysgalactiae GapC protein. In addition, the motif 48DTTQGRFD55 shows high homology among various streptococcus species. Site-directed mutagenic analysis further confirmed that residues D48, T50, Q51, G52 and F54 formed the core motif of 48DTTQGRFD55. This motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb5B7. As expected, epitope-peptide evoked protective immune response against S. dysgalactiae infection in immunized mice. Taken together, this identified conserved B-cell epitope within S. dysgalactiae GapC could provide very valuable insights for vaccine design against S. dysgalactiae infection. PMID:26121648

  19. Boron carbide (B4C) coating. Deposition and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizov, E.; Barsuk, V.; Begrambekov, L.; Buzhinsky, O.; Evsin, A.; Gordeev, A.; Grunin, A.; Klimov, N.; Kurnaev, V.; Mazul, I.; Otroshchenko, V.; Putric, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A.

    2015-08-01

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material of in-situ protecting coating for tungsten tiles of ITER divertor. To prove this concept the project including investigation of regimes of plasma deposition of B4C coating on tungsten and tests of boron carbide layer in ITER-like is started recently. The paper contends the first results of the project. The results of B4C coating irradiation by the plasma pulses of QSPU-T plasma accelerator are presented. The new device capable of B4C film deposition on tungsten and testing of the films and materials with ITER-like heat loads and ion- and electron irradiation is described. The results of B4C coating deposition and testing of both tungsten substrate and coating are shown and discussed.

  20. Structure of B sub 13 C sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bylander, D.M.; Kleinman, L. )

    1991-01-15

    By comparing calculated lattice constants with x-ray data as well as by comparison of calculated free energies, we find that the correct structure of B{sub 13}C{sub 2} is B{sub 12}(CBC) rather than B{sub 11}C(BBC), as had been suggested. We also show that B{sub 12}C{sub 3} is stable against 13B{sub 12}C{sub 3}{r arrow}12B{sub 13}C{sub 2}+15C as is B{sub 13}C{sub 2} against 3B{sub 13}C{sub 2}{r arrow}2B{sub 12}C{sub 3}+15B.

  1. 76 FR 64003 - Amendment of Time of Designation for Restricted Areas R-5314A, B, C, D, E, F, H, and J; Dare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Restricted Areas R-5314A, B, C, D, E, F, H, and J; Dare County, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  2. Allele and Haplotype Frequencies of Human Leukocyte Antigen-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 From Sequence-Based DNA Typing Data in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    In, Ji Won; Roh, Eun Youn; Oh, Sohee; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on allele frequencies (AFs) and haplotype frequencies (HFs) of HLA-C and -DQB1 are limited in Koreans. We investigated AFs and HFs of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 in Koreans by high-resolution sequence-based typing (SBT). Methods Hematopoietic stem cells were obtained from 613 healthy, unrelated donors to analyze HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 genotypes by using AlleleSEQR HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 SBT kits (Abbott Molecular, USA), respectively. Alleles belonging to HLA-C*07:01/07:06 group were further discriminated by using PCR-sequence specific primer analysis. AFs and HFs were calculated by direct counting and maximum likelihood method, respectively. Results In all, 24 HLA-A, 46 HLA-B, 24 HLA-C, 29 HLA-DRB1, and 15 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. AFs and HFs of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 were similar to those reported previously. For the HLA-C locus, C*01:02 was the most common allele, followed by C*03:03, C*03:04, C*14:02, C*03:02, and C*07:02 (AF ≥7%). AFs of C*07:01 and C*07:06 were 0.16% and 3.18%, respectively. For the HLA-DQB1 locus, DQB1*03:01 was the most common allele, followed by DQB1*03:03, *03:02, *06:01, *05:01, *04:01, and *06:02 (AF ≥7%). AFs of DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*02:02 were 2.12% and 6.69%, respectively. HFs of A*33:03-C*07:06 and C*07:06-B*44:03 were 3.09% and 3.10%, respectively, while those of DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 and DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 were 6.61% and 2.04%, respectively. Conclusions This study reported AFs and HFs of HLA, including HLA-C and -DQB1, in Koreans by using high-resolution SBT. These data can be used to resolve ambiguous results of HLA typing for organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. PMID:26131415

  3. Mapping of the C3b-binding site of CR1 and construction of a (CR1)2-F(ab')2 chimeric complement inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalli, K R; Hsu, P H; Bartow, T J; Ahearn, J M; Matsumoto, A K; Klickstein, L B; Fearon, D T

    1991-12-01

    CR1/CR2 chimeric receptors in which various short consensus repeats (SCRs) of CR1 were attached to CR2 were transiently expressed on COS cells, and assessed for the binding of polymerized C3b (pC3b) and anti-CR2 by immunofluorescence. Of COS cells expressing chimeras containing SCR 1-4, 1-3, 2-4, 1-2, and 2-3 of the long homologous repeats (LHRs) -B or -C, 96%, 66%, 23%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, bound pC3b. K562 cells were stably transfected with wild-type CR1, deletion mutants of CR1, and the CR1/CR2 chimeras, respectively, and assayed for binding of 125I-pC3b. The dissociation constants (Kd) for pC3b of wild-type CR1 and the LHR-BD and -CD constructs were in the range of 1.0-2.7 nM, and of the CR1/CR2 chimeras containing SCRs 1-4, 1-3, and 2-4 of LHR-B or -C were 1.8-2.4, 6-9, and 22-36 nM, respectively. The factor I-cofactor function of the CR1/CR2 chimeras paralleled the C3b-binding function of the constructs. A CR1/immunoglobulin (Ig) chimeric protein was prepared by fusing SCRs 1-4 of LHR-B to the heavy chains of a murine F(ab')2 anti-nitrophenacetyl (NP) monoclonal antibody. The (CR1)2-F(ab')2 chimera, which retained its specificity for NP, was as effective as soluble, full-length CR1 in binding pC3b, serving as a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b, and inhibiting activation of the alternative pathway, indicating that the bivalent expression of these SCRs reconstitutes the alternative pathway inhibitory function of CR1. The feasibility of creating CR1/Ig chimeras makes possible a new strategy of targeting complement inhibition by the use of Ig fusion partners having particular antigenic specificities.

  4. Mapping of the C3b-binding site of CR1 and construction of a (CR1)2-F(ab')2 chimeric complement inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kalli, K R; Hsu, P H; Bartow, T J; Ahearn, J M; Matsumoto, A K; Klickstein, L B; Fearon, D T

    1991-12-01

    CR1/CR2 chimeric receptors in which various short consensus repeats (SCRs) of CR1 were attached to CR2 were transiently expressed on COS cells, and assessed for the binding of polymerized C3b (pC3b) and anti-CR2 by immunofluorescence. Of COS cells expressing chimeras containing SCR 1-4, 1-3, 2-4, 1-2, and 2-3 of the long homologous repeats (LHRs) -B or -C, 96%, 66%, 23%, 0%, and 0%, respectively, bound pC3b. K562 cells were stably transfected with wild-type CR1, deletion mutants of CR1, and the CR1/CR2 chimeras, respectively, and assayed for binding of 125I-pC3b. The dissociation constants (Kd) for pC3b of wild-type CR1 and the LHR-BD and -CD constructs were in the range of 1.0-2.7 nM, and of the CR1/CR2 chimeras containing SCRs 1-4, 1-3, and 2-4 of LHR-B or -C were 1.8-2.4, 6-9, and 22-36 nM, respectively. The factor I-cofactor function of the CR1/CR2 chimeras paralleled the C3b-binding function of the constructs. A CR1/immunoglobulin (Ig) chimeric protein was prepared by fusing SCRs 1-4 of LHR-B to the heavy chains of a murine F(ab')2 anti-nitrophenacetyl (NP) monoclonal antibody. The (CR1)2-F(ab')2 chimera, which retained its specificity for NP, was as effective as soluble, full-length CR1 in binding pC3b, serving as a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b, and inhibiting activation of the alternative pathway, indicating that the bivalent expression of these SCRs reconstitutes the alternative pathway inhibitory function of CR1. The feasibility of creating CR1/Ig chimeras makes possible a new strategy of targeting complement inhibition by the use of Ig fusion partners having particular antigenic specificities. PMID:1836011

  5. A theoretical investigation of the influence of dislocation sheets on evolution of yield surfaces in single-phase B.C.C. polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Bart; Kalidindi, Surya R.; Teodosiu, Cristian; Van Houtte, Paul; Aernoudt, Etienne

    2002-04-01

    Accurate and reliable predictions of yield surfaces and their evolution with deformation require a better physical representation of the important sources of anisotropy in the material. Until recently, the most physical approach employed in the current literature has been the use of polycrystalline deformation models, where it is assumed that crystallographic texture is the main contributor to the overall anisotropy. However, recent studies have revealed that the grain-scale mesostructural features (e.g. cell-block boundaries) may have a large impact on the anisotropic stress-strain behaviour, as evidenced during strain-path change tests (e.g. cross effect, Bauschinger effect). In previous papers, the authors formulated an extension of the Taylor-type crystal plasticity model by incorporating some details of the grain-scale mesostructural features. The main purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of yield surfaces in single-phase b.c.c. polycrystals during deformation and strain-path changes using this extended crystal plasticity model. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the grain-scale substructure in these metals on yield loci is comparable in magnitude to the effects caused by the differences in texture. Furthermore, it is shown that the shape of yield loci cannot be predicted accurately by the traditional polycrystalline deformation model with equal slip hardening. The trends predicted by the extended crystal plasticity model are in much better agreement with the experimental evidence reported in the literature than those represented in classical treatments by isotropic and kinematic hardening.

  6. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the ship must be in water at least 25 m (76.2 ft) deep: (1) Category B or C NLS residue diluted to... § 153.1120 using one washing machine cycle, and the tank washings discharged to a reception facility or... washed with one cycle of the tank washing machine, and the tank washings discharged to a...

  7. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the ship must be in water at least 25 m (76.2 ft) deep: (1) Category B or C NLS residue diluted to... § 153.1120 using one washing machine cycle, and the tank washings discharged to a reception facility or... washed with one cycle of the tank washing machine, and the tank washings discharged to a...

  8. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D. 153.1128 Section 153.1128 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations...

  9. 46 CFR 153.1128 - Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge of NLS residue from a cargo tank to the sea: Categories A. B, C, and D. 153.1128 Section 153.1128 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations...

  10. Susceptibilities of Genotype 1a, 1b, and 3 Hepatitis C Virus Variants to the NS5A Inhibitor Elbasvir

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Stephanie; McMonagle, Patricia; Yeh, Wendy W.; Ludmerer, Steven W.; Jumes, Patricia A.; Marshall, William L.; Kong, Stephanie; Ingravallo, Paul; Black, Stuart; Pak, Irene; DiNubile, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Elbasvir is an investigational NS5A inhibitor with in vitro activity against multiple HCV genotypes. Antiviral activity of elbasvir was measured in replicons derived from wild-type or resistant variants of genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3. The barrier to resistance was assessed by the number of resistant colonies selected by exposure to various elbasvir concentrations. In a phase 1b dose-escalating study, virologic responses were determined in 48 noncirrhotic adult men with chronic genotype 1 or 3 infections randomized to placebo or elbasvir from 5 to 50 mg (genotype 1) or 10 to 100 mg (genotype 3) once daily for 5 days. The NS5A gene was sequenced from plasma specimens obtained before, during, and after treatment. Elbasvir suppressed the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Variants selected by exposure to high elbasvir concentrations typically encoded multiple amino acid substitutions (most commonly involving loci 30, 31, and 93), conferring high-level elbasvir resistance. In the monotherapy study, patients with genotype 1b had greater reductions in HCV RNA levels than patients with genotype 1a at all elbasvir doses; responses in patients with genotype 3 were generally less pronounced than for genotype 1, particularly at lower elbasvir doses. M28T, Q30R, L31V, and Y93H in genotype 1a, L31V and Y93H in genotype 1b, and A30K, L31F, and Y93H in genotype 3 were the predominant RAVs selected by elbasvir monotherapy. Virologic findings in patients were consistent with the preclinical observations. NS5A-RAVs emerged most often at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, and 93 in both the laboratory and clinical trial. (The MK-8742 P002 trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01532973.) PMID:26303801

  11. Large-scale purification of staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, and C2 by dye ligand affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, R D; Tranter, H S; Hambleton, P; Melling, J

    1990-01-01

    A simple method for the purification of staphylococcal enterotoxins A (SEA), B (SEB), and C2 (SEC2) from fermentor-grown cultures was developed. The toxins were purified by pseudo-affinity chromatography by using the triazine textile dye "Red A" and gave overall yields of 49% (SEA), 44% (SEB), and 53% (SEC2). The purified toxins were homogeneous when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but isoelectric focusing of the preparations revealed the microheterogeneity associated with these toxins. The SEA and SEB preparations each consisted of two isoelectric forms with pI values of 7.3 and 6.8 (SEA) and 8.9 and 8.55 (SEB); in contrast, SEC2 contained five different isoelectric forms, with pI values ranging between 7.6 and 6.85. The pattern of elution of the isoelectric forms from the column indicated a cationic-exchange process involved in the binding of toxin to Red A. Such a method forms the basis of a high-yielding, rapid means of purifying the staphylococcal enterotoxins that can easily be adapted to large-scale production. Images PMID:2339869

  12. Flavokawains A and B in Kava, Not Dihydromethysticin, Potentiate Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Anxiolytic kava products have been associated with rare but severe hepatotoxicity in humans. This adverse potential has never been captured in animal models, and the responsible compound(s) remains to be determined. The lack of such knowledge greatly hinders the preparation of a safer kava product and limits its beneficial applications. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of kava as a single entity or in combination with acetaminophen (APAP) in C57BL/6 mice. Kava alone revealed no adverse effects for long-term usage even at a dose of 500 mg/kg bodyweight. On the contrary a three-day kava pretreatment potentiated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, resulted in an increase in serum ALT and AST, and increased severity of liver lesions. Chalcone-based flavokawains A (FKA) and B (FKB) in kava recapitulated its hepatotoxic synergism with APAP while dihydromethysticin (DHM, a representative kavalactone and a potential lung cancer chemopreventive agent) had no such effect. These results, for the first time, demonstrate the hepatotoxic risk of kava and its chalcone-based FKA and FKB in vivo and suggest that herb–drug interaction may account for the rare hepatotoxicity associated with anxiolytic kava usage in humans. PMID:25185080

  13. Tissue-specific expression of cell-surface Qa-2 antigen from a transfected Q7b gene of C57BL/10 mice

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We screened a cDNA library prepared from a BALB.B10 CTL clone that expresses Qa-2 antigen, and isolated four clones derived from Q7b, a Qa region gene of C57BL/10. One of these Q7b cDNAs and the Q7b chromosomal gene were subcloned into expression vectors and transfected into L cells and R1.1 thymoma cells. We found that the chromosomal Q7b gene expresses Qa-2 on the surface of R1.1 cells, but not on L cells while the Q7b cDNA expresses protein on the surface of both cell types. The levels of Qa-2 expression do not correlate with the total levels of Q7b mRNA in these transfectants. Our results suggest that the tissue- specific expression of Qa-2 may be controlled, in part, by mechanisms of alternate RNA splicing. By using hybrid gene constructs, we have mapped the tissue-specific element to the 3' part of the gene, downstream of a site near the middle of exon 4. The hybrid polypeptides differ significantly in their transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. These portions of the protein also may play a role in the tissue- specific expression of Qa-2. PMID:3502706

  14. C.E.B.A.S., a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system as a possible precursor for a long-term life support system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.

    C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK is a long-term multi-generation experimental device for aquatic organisms which is disposed for utlizitation in a space station. It results from the basic idea of a space aquarium for maintaining aquatic animals for longer periods integrated in a AQUARACK which consists of a modular animal holding tank, a semi-biological/physical water recycling system and an electronical control unit. The basic idea to replace a part of the water recycling system by a continuous culture of unicellular algae primarily leads to a second system for experiments with algae, a botanical AQUARACK consisting of an algal reactor, a water recycling and the electronical control unit. The combination of the zoological part, and the botanical part with a common control system in the AQUARACK, however, results in a ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) representing an closed artificial ecosystem. Although this is disposed primarily as an experimental device for basic zoological, botanical and interdisciplinary research it opens the theoretical possibility to adapt it for combined production of animal and plant biomass on ground or in space. The paper explains the basic conception of the hardware construction of the zoological part of the system, the corresponding scientific frame program including the choice of the experimental animals and gives some selected examples of the hardware-related resrearch. It furtheron discusses the practical and economical relevance of the system in the development of a controlled aquatical life support system in general.

  15. Equilibrium binding constants for Tl+ with gramicidins A, B and C in a lysophosphatidylcholine environment determined by 205Tl nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, J F; Koeppe, R E; Shungu, D; Whaley, W L; Paczkowski, J A; Millett, F S

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 205Tl spectroscopy has been used to monitor the binding of Tl+ to gramicidins A, B, and C packaged in aqueous dispersions of lysophosphatidylcholine. For 5 mM gramicidin dimer in the presence of 100 mM lysophosphatidylcholine, only approximately 50% or less of the gramicidin appears to be accessible to Tl+. Analysis of the 205Tl chemical shift as a function of Tl+ concentration over the 0.65-50 mM range indicates that only one Tl+ ion can be bound by gramicidin A, B, or C under these experimental conditions. In this system, the Tl+ equilibrium binding constant is 582 +/- 20 M-1 for gramicidin 1949 +/- 100 M-1 for gramicidin B, and 390 +/- 20 M-1 for gramicidin C. Gramicidin B not only binds Tl+ more strongly but it is also in a different conformational state than that of A and C, as shown by Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The 205Tl NMR technique can now be extended to determinations of binding constants of other cations to gramicidin by competition studies using a 205Tl probe. PMID:2420383

  16. Physiological levels of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide shed the endothelial glycocalyx and enhance vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Matthias; Saller, Thomas; Chappell, Daniel; Rehm, Markus; Welsch, Ulrich; Becker, Bernhard F

    2013-05-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a peptide hormone released from the cardiac atria during hypervolemia. Though named for its well-known renal effect, ANP has been demonstrated to acutely increase vascular permeability in vivo. Experimentally, this phenomenon was associated with a marked shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx, at least for supraphysiological intravascular concentrations. This study investigates the impact and mechanism of action of physiological doses of ANP and related peptides on the vascular barrier. In isolated guinea pig hearts, prepared and perfused in a modified Langendorff mode with and without the intravascular presence of the colloid hydroxyethyl starch (HES), we measured functional changes in vascular permeability and glycocalyx shedding related to intracoronary infusion of physiological concentrations of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP and CNP). Significant coronary venous washout of glycocalyx constituents (syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate) was observed. As tested for ANP, this effect was positively related to the intracoronary concentration. Intravascular shedding of the glycocalyx was morphologically confirmed by electron microscopy. Also, functional vascular barrier competence decreased, as indicated by significant increases in transudate formation and HES extravasation. Ortho-phenanthroline, a non-specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, was able to reduce ANP-induced glycocalyx shedding. These findings suggest participation of natriuretic peptides in pathophysiological processes like heart failure, inflammation or sepsis. Inhibition of metalloproteases might serve as a basis for future therapeutical options.

  17. The VCD method--a simple and reliable way to distinguish cage C and B atoms in (hetero)carborane structures determined crystallographically.

    PubMed

    McAnaw, Amelia; Scott, Greig; Elrick, Lisa; Rosair, Georgina M; Welch, Alan J

    2013-01-21

    Replacing a boron vertex in a [B(n)H(n)](2-) cluster with a smaller atom, e.g. carbon, results in the distance from that atom to the polyhedral centroid being shorter. This forms the basis of a simple but very effective method of distinguishing between B and C atoms in (hetero)carboranes that have been studied crystallographically, the Vertex-to-Centroid Distance (VCD) method. Examples of well-characterised icosahedral and sub-icosahedral closo carboranes, nido carboranes, icosahedral metallacarboranes and supraicosahedral metallacarboranes are used to illustrate the generality of the VCD method. In this process a number of structures are identified in which the method suggests B/C disorder not previously recognised and some structures in which it appears that a cage C atom has been wrongly assigned. The largest sub-group of heterocarboranes is the family of 3,1,2-MC(2)B(9) compounds, and for these species consideration of Exopolyhedral Ligand Orientation (ELO) can sometimes be used to quickly suggest when a literature structure is suspect in terms of cage C atom positioning. The crystal structure of one such compound, 3,3-NO(3)-3-PPh(3)-3,1,2-closo-RhC(2)B(9)H(11), has been redetermined and the correct location of the cage C atoms established.

  18. Subtype B avian metapneumovirus resembles subtype A more closely than subtype C or human metapneumovirus with respect to the phosphoprotein, and second matrix and small hydrophobic proteins.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janet Ashley; Njenga, M Kariuki; Alvarez, Rene; Mawditt, Karen; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave; Seal, Bruce S

    2003-04-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B (aMPV/B) nucleotide sequences were obtained for the phosphoprotein (P), second matrix protein (M2), and small hydrophobic protein (SH) genes. By comparison with sequences from other metapneumoviruses, aMPV/B was most similar to subtype A aMPV (aMPV/A) relative to the US subtype C isolates (aMPV/C) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Strictly conserved residues common to all members of the Pneumovirinae were identified in the predicted amino acid sequences of the P and M2 protein-predicted amino acid sequences. The Cys(3)-His(1) motif, thought to be important for binding zinc, was also present in the aMPV M2 predicted protein sequences. For both the P and M2-1 protein-predicted amino acid sequences, aMPV/B was most similar to aMPV/A (72 and 89% identity, respectively), having only approximately 52 and 70% identity, respectively, relative to aMPV/C and hMPV. Differences were more marked in the M2-2 proteins, subtype B having 64% identity with subtype A but < or = 25% identity with subtype C and hMPV. The A and B subtypes of aMPV had predicted amino acid sequence identities for the SH protein of 47%, and less than 20% with that of hMPV. An SH gene was not detected in the aMPV/C. Phylogenetically, aMPV/B clustered with aMPV/A, while aMPV/C g