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Sample records for a resonances

  1. A New Resonance Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at…

  2. A New Resonance Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  3. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  4. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  5. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-11-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  6. A multimode electromechanical parametric resonator array

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, I.; Mounaix, M.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators have emerged as a versatile platform in which detectors with unprecedented sensitivities and quantum mechanics in a macroscopic context can be developed. These schemes invariably utilise a single resonator but increasingly the concept of an array of electromechanical resonators is promising a wealth of new possibilities. In spite of this, experimental realisations of such arrays have remained scarce due to the formidable challenges involved in their fabrication. In a variation to this approach, we identify 75 harmonic vibration modes in a single electromechanical resonator of which 7 can also be parametrically excited. The parametrically resonating modes exhibit vibrations with only 2 oscillation phases which are used to build a binary information array. We exploit this array to execute a mechanical byte memory, a shift-register and a controlled-NOT gate thus vividly illustrating the availability and functionality of an electromechanical resonator array by simply utilising higher order vibration modes. PMID:24658349

  7. Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for Application in a Microwave Generator Stabilized by Microstrip Resonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-23

    conductivity ( NDC ) effects in double barrier resonant tunneling structures (DBRTS) prove the extremely fast frequency response of charge transport (less...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013131 TITLE: Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for...Institute Multiple-barrier resonant tunneling structures for application in a microwave generator stabilized by microstrip resonator S. V. Evstigneev, A. L

  8. Method for fabricating a microelectromechanical resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E; Olsson, III, Roy H

    2013-02-05

    A method is disclosed which calculates dimensions for a MEM resonator in terms of integer multiples of a grid width G for reticles used to fabricate the resonator, including an actual sub-width L.sub.a=NG and an effective electrode width W.sub.e=MG where N and M are integers which minimize a frequency error f.sub.e=f.sub.d-f.sub.a between a desired resonant frequency f.sub.d and an actual resonant frequency f.sub.a. The method can also be used to calculate an overall width W.sub.o for the MEM resonator, and an effective electrode length L.sub.e which provides a desired motional impedance for the MEM resonator. The MEM resonator can then be fabricated using these values for L.sub.a, W.sub.e, W.sub.o and L.sub.e. The method can also be applied to a number j of MEM resonators formed on a common substrate.

  9. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  10. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  11. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  12. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhangyang; Fan, Shangchun; Cai, Chenguang

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  13. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  14. Dust grain resonant capture: A statistical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzari, F.; Vanzani, V.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach, based on a large number of simultaneous numerical integrations, is adopted to study the capture in external mean motion resonances with the Earth of micron size dust grains perturbed by solar radiation and wind forces. We explore the dependence of the resonant capture phenomenon on the initial eccentricity e(sub 0) and perihelion argument w(sub 0) of the dust particle orbit. The intensity of both the resonant and dissipative (Poynting-Robertson and wind drag) perturbations strongly depends on the eccentricity of the particle while the perihelion argument determines, for low inclination, the mutual geometrical configuration of the particle's orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. We present results for three j:j+1 commensurabilities (2:3, 4:5 and 6:7) and also for particle sizes s = 15, 30 microns. This study extends our previous work on the long term orbital evolution of single dust particles trapped into resonances with the Earth.

  15. Parametric amplification in a resonant sensing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yie, Zi; Miller, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Steven W.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate parametric amplification of a multidegree of freedom resonant mass sensing array via an applied base motion containing the appropriate frequency content and phases. Applying parametric forcing in this manner is simple and aligns naturally with the vibrational properties of the sensing structure. Using this technique, we observe an increase in the quality factors of the coupled array resonances, which provides an effective means of improving device sensitivity.

  16. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  17. Resonant optical device with a microheater

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; DeRose, Christopher

    2017-04-04

    A resonant photonic device is provided. The device comprises an optical waveguiding element, such as an optical resonator, that includes a diode junction region, two signal terminals configured to apply a bias voltage across the junction region, and a heater laterally separated from the optical waveguiding element. A semiconductor electrical barrier element is juxtaposed to the heater. A metallic strip is electrically and thermally connected at one end to a signal terminal of the optical waveguiding element and thermally connected at another end to the barrier element.

  18. Method of making a piezoelectric shear wave resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jin S.; Lakin, Kenneth M.; Landin, Allen R.

    1987-02-03

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.

  19. A Resonance Approach to Cochlear Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background How does the cochlea analyse sound into its component frequencies? In the 1850s Helmholtz thought it occurred by resonance, whereas a century later Békésy's work indicated a travelling wave. The latter answer seemed to settle the question, but with the discovery in 1978 that the cochlea emits sound, the mechanics of the cochlea was back on the drawing board. Recent studies have raised questions about whether the travelling wave, as currently understood, is adequate to explain observations. Approach Applying basic resonance principles, this paper revisits the question. A graded bank of harmonic oscillators with cochlear-like frequencies and quality factors is simultaneously excited, and it is found that resonance gives rise to similar frequency responses, group delays, and travelling wave velocities as observed by experiment. The overall effect of the group delay gradient is to produce a decelerating wave of peak displacement moving from base to apex at characteristic travelling wave speeds. The extensive literature on chains of coupled oscillators is considered, and the occurrence of travelling waves, pseudowaves, phase plateaus, and forced resonance in such systems is noted. Conclusion and significance This alternative approach to cochlear mechanics shows that a travelling wave can simply arise as an apparently moving amplitude peak which passes along a bank of resonators without carrying energy. This highlights the possible role of the fast pressure wave and indicates how phase delays and group delays of a set of driven harmonic oscillators can generate an apparent travelling wave. It is possible to view the cochlea as a chain of globally forced coupled oscillators, and this model incorporates fundamental aspects of both the resonance and travelling wave theories. PMID:23144835

  20. A resonance approach to cochlear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    How does the cochlea analyse sound into its component frequencies? In the 1850s Helmholtz thought it occurred by resonance, whereas a century later Békésy's work indicated a travelling wave. The latter answer seemed to settle the question, but with the discovery in 1978 that the cochlea emits sound, the mechanics of the cochlea was back on the drawing board. Recent studies have raised questions about whether the travelling wave, as currently understood, is adequate to explain observations. Applying basic resonance principles, this paper revisits the question. A graded bank of harmonic oscillators with cochlear-like frequencies and quality factors is simultaneously excited, and it is found that resonance gives rise to similar frequency responses, group delays, and travelling wave velocities as observed by experiment. The overall effect of the group delay gradient is to produce a decelerating wave of peak displacement moving from base to apex at characteristic travelling wave speeds. The extensive literature on chains of coupled oscillators is considered, and the occurrence of travelling waves, pseudowaves, phase plateaus, and forced resonance in such systems is noted. This alternative approach to cochlear mechanics shows that a travelling wave can simply arise as an apparently moving amplitude peak which passes along a bank of resonators without carrying energy. This highlights the possible role of the fast pressure wave and indicates how phase delays and group delays of a set of driven harmonic oscillators can generate an apparent travelling wave. It is possible to view the cochlea as a chain of globally forced coupled oscillators, and this model incorporates fundamental aspects of both the resonance and travelling wave theories.

  1. A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.

  2. Mechanical Resonance of a Plastic Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, R. Dean

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment to illustrate mechanical resonance designed for use in lower division laboratories. The apparatus and procedure have been kept simple. The basic experiment yields measurements of amplitude versus driving frequency, but a fairly simple elaboration allows for measurements of phase lag as well. (Author/SK)

  3. Nonlinear dynamics under varying temperature conditions of the resonating beams of a differential resonant accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yagang; Zega, Valentina; Su, Yan; Corigliano, Alberto

    2018-07-01

    In this work the nonlinear dynamic behaviour under varying temperature conditions of the resonating beams of a differential resonant accelerometer is studied from the theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view. A complete analytical model based on the Hamilton’s principle is proposed to describe the nonlinear behaviour of the resonators under varying temperature conditions and numerical solutions are presented in comparison with experimental data. This provides a novel perspective to examine the relationship between temperature and nonlinearity, which helps predicting the dynamic behaviour of resonant devices and can guide their optimal design.

  4. Design of a dielectric resonator receive array at 7 Tesla using detunable ceramic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic-based dielectric resonators can be used for high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. When used as elements in a transmit array, the intrinsically low inter-element coupling allows flexibility in designing different geometric arrangements for different regions-of-interest. However, without being able to detune such resonators, they cannot be used as elements in a receive-only array. Here, we propose and implement a method, based on mode-disruption, for detuning ceramic-based dielectric resonators to enable them to be used as receive-only elements.

  5. Isolated resonator gyroscope with a drive and sense plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope comprising a vibrationally isolated resonator including a proof mass, a counterbalancing plate having an extensive planar region, and one or more flexures interconnecting the proof mass and counterbalancing plate. A baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the one or more flexures and sense and drive electrodes are affixed to the baseplate proximate to the extensive planar region of the counterbalancing plate for exciting the resonator and sensing movement of the gyroscope. The isolated resonator transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited.

  6. Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Xiaoge; Kang, Ju -Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; ...

    2017-06-12

    Surface plasmon (SP) excitations in metals facilitate confinement of light into deep-subwavelength volumes and can induce strong light–matter interaction. Generally, the SP resonances supported by noble metal nanostructures are explained well by classical models, at least until the nanostructure size is decreased to a few nanometres, approaching the Fermi wavelength λ F of the electrons. Although there is a long history of reports on quantum size effects in the plasmonic response of nanometre-sized metal particles systematic experimental studies have been hindered by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble measurements, as well as imperfect control over size, shape, faceting, surface reconstructions, contamination, chargingmore » effects and surface roughness in single-particle measurements. In particular, observation of the quantum size effect in metallic films and its tuning with thickness has been challenging as they only confine carriers in one direction. Here, we show active tuning of quantum size effects in SP resonances supported by a 20-nm-thick metallic film of indium tin oxide (ITO), a plasmonic material serving as a low-carrier-density Drude metal. An ionic liquid (IL) is used to electrically gate and partially deplete the ITO layer. The experiment shows a controllable and reversible blue-shift in the SP resonance above a critical voltage. As a result, a quantum-mechanical model including the quantum size effect reproduces the experimental results, whereas a classical model only predicts a red shift.« less

  7. Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoge; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2017-09-01

    Surface plasmon (SP) excitations in metals facilitate confinement of light into deep-subwavelength volumes and can induce strong light-matter interaction. Generally, the SP resonances supported by noble metal nanostructures are explained well by classical models, at least until the nanostructure size is decreased to a few nanometres, approaching the Fermi wavelength λF of the electrons. Although there is a long history of reports on quantum size effects in the plasmonic response of nanometre-sized metal particles, systematic experimental studies have been hindered by inhomogeneous broadening in ensemble measurements, as well as imperfect control over size, shape, faceting, surface reconstructions, contamination, charging effects and surface roughness in single-particle measurements. In particular, observation of the quantum size effect in metallic films and its tuning with thickness has been challenging as they only confine carriers in one direction. Here, we show active tuning of quantum size effects in SP resonances supported by a 20-nm-thick metallic film of indium tin oxide (ITO), a plasmonic material serving as a low-carrier-density Drude metal. An ionic liquid (IL) is used to electrically gate and partially deplete the ITO layer. The experiment shows a controllable and reversible blue-shift in the SP resonance above a critical voltage. A quantum-mechanical model including the quantum size effect reproduces the experimental results, whereas a classical model only predicts a red shift.

  8. Is a Trineutron Resonance Lower in Energy than a Tetraneutron Resonance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Hammer, H.-W.; Klos, P.; Lynn, J. E.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-06-01

    We present quantum Monte Carlo calculations of few-neutron systems confined in external potentials based on local chiral interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory. The energy and radial densities for these systems are calculated in different external Woods-Saxon potentials. We assume that their extrapolation to zero external-potential depth provides a quantitative estimate of three- and four-neutron resonances. The validity of this assumption is demonstrated by benchmarking with an exact diagonalization in the two-body case. We find that the extrapolated trineutron resonance, as well as the energy for shallow well depths, is lower than the tetraneutron resonance energy. This suggests that a three-neutron resonance exists below a four-neutron resonance in nature and is potentially measurable. To confirm that the relative ordering of three- and four-neutron resonances is not an artifact of the external confinement, we test that the odd-even staggering in the helium isotopic chain is reproduced within this approach. Finally, we discuss similarities between our results and ultracold Fermi gases.

  9. Is a Trineutron Resonance Lower in Energy than a Tetraneutron Resonance?

    DOE PAGES

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Hammer, Hans -Werner; Klos, P.; ...

    2017-06-08

    Here, we present quantum Monte Carlo calculations of few-neutron systems confined in external potentials based on local chiral interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory. The energy and radial densities for these systems are calculated in different external Woods-Saxon potentials. We assume that their extrapolation to zero external-potential depth provides a quantitative estimate of three- and four-neutron resonances. The validity of this assumption is demonstrated by benchmarking with an exact diagonalization in the two-body case. We find that the extrapolated trineutron resonance, as well as the energy for shallow well depths, is lower than the tetraneutron resonance energy.more » This suggests that a three-neutron resonance exists below a four-neutron resonance in nature and is potentially measurable. To confirm that the relative ordering of three- and four-neutron resonances is not an artifact of the external confinement, we test that the odd-even staggering in the helium isotopic chain is reproduced within this approach. Finally, we discuss similarities between our results and ultracold Fermi gases.« less

  10. Resonances in a periodically driven bosonic system.

    PubMed

    Quelle, Anton; Smith, Cristiane Morais

    2017-11-01

    Periodically driven systems are a common topic in modern physics. In optical lattices specifically, driving is at the origin of many interesting phenomena. However, energy is not conserved in driven systems, and under periodic driving, heating of a system is a real concern. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, the heating of single-band systems has been studied, with a focus on disorder- and interaction-induced effects, such as many-body localization. Nevertheless, driven systems occur in a much wider context than this, leaving room for further research. Here, we fill this gap by studying a noninteracting model, characterized by discrete, periodically spaced energy levels that are unbounded from above. We couple these energy levels resonantly through a periodic drive, and discuss the heating dynamics of this system as a function of the driving protocol. In this way, we show that a combination of stimulated emission and absorption causes the presence of resonant stable states. This will serve to elucidate the conditions under which resonant driving causes heating in quantum systems.

  11. Resonances in a periodically driven bosonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelle, Anton; Smith, Cristiane Morais

    2017-11-01

    Periodically driven systems are a common topic in modern physics. In optical lattices specifically, driving is at the origin of many interesting phenomena. However, energy is not conserved in driven systems, and under periodic driving, heating of a system is a real concern. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, the heating of single-band systems has been studied, with a focus on disorder- and interaction-induced effects, such as many-body localization. Nevertheless, driven systems occur in a much wider context than this, leaving room for further research. Here, we fill this gap by studying a noninteracting model, characterized by discrete, periodically spaced energy levels that are unbounded from above. We couple these energy levels resonantly through a periodic drive, and discuss the heating dynamics of this system as a function of the driving protocol. In this way, we show that a combination of stimulated emission and absorption causes the presence of resonant stable states. This will serve to elucidate the conditions under which resonant driving causes heating in quantum systems.

  12. Quantum hydrodynamics: capturing a reactive scattering resonance.

    PubMed

    Derrickson, Sean W; Bittner, Eric R; Kendrick, Brian K

    2005-08-01

    The hydrodynamic equations of motion associated with the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics are solved using a meshless method based upon a moving least-squares approach. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian frame of reference and a regridding algorithm which adds and deletes computational points are used to maintain a uniform and nearly constant interparticle spacing. The methodology also uses averaged fields to maintain unitary time evolution. The numerical instabilities associated with the formation of nodes in the reflected portion of the wave packet are avoided by adding artificial viscosity to the equations of motion. A new and more robust artificial viscosity algorithm is presented which gives accurate scattering results and is capable of capturing quantum resonances. The methodology is applied to a one-dimensional model chemical reaction that is known to exhibit a quantum resonance. The correlation function approach is used to compute the reactive scattering matrix, reaction probability, and time delay as a function of energy. Excellent agreement is obtained between the scattering results based upon the quantum hydrodynamic approach and those based upon standard quantum mechanics. This is the first clear demonstration of the ability of moving grid approaches to accurately and robustly reproduce resonance structures in a scattering system.

  13. A microwave resonance dew-point hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, R. J.; Cuccaro, R.; Bell, S.; Gavioso, R. M.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Stevens, M.; de Podesta, M.

    2012-08-01

    We report the first measurements of a quasi-spherical microwave resonator used as a dew-point hygrometer. In conventional dew-point hygrometers, the condensation of water from humid gas flowing over a mirror is detected optically, and the mirror surface is then temperature-controlled to yield a stable condensed layer. In our experiments we flowed moist air from a humidity generator through a quasi-spherical resonator and detected the onset of condensation by measuring the frequency ratio of selected microwave modes. We verified the basic operation of the device over the dew-point range 9.5-13.5 °C by comparison with calibrated chilled-mirror hygrometers. These tests indicate that the microwave method may allow a quantitative estimation of the volume and thickness of the water layer which is condensed on the inner surface of the resonator. The experiments reported here are preliminary due to the limited time available for the work, but show the potential of the method for detecting not only water but a variety of other liquid or solid condensates. The robust all-metal construction should make the device appropriate for use in industrial applications over a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

  14. Birth of a resonant attosecond wavepacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, L.; Gruson, V.; Barreau, L.; Jimenez-Galan, A.; Risoud, F.; Caillat, J.; Maquet, A.; Carre, B.; Lepetit, F.; Hergott, J.-F.; Ruchon, T.; Taieb, R.; Martin, F.; Salieres, P.

    2016-05-01

    Both amplitude and phase are needed to characterize the dynamics of a wavepacket. However, such characterization is difficult when both attosecond and femtosecond timescales are involved, as it is the case for broadband photoionization to a continuum encompassing autoionizing states. Here we demonstrate that Rainbow RABBIT, a new attosecond interferometry, allows the measurement of amplitude and phase of a photoelectron wavepacket created through a Fano resonance with unprecedented precision. In the experiment, a tunable attosecond pulse train is combined with the fundamental laser pulse to induce two-photon transitions in helium via an intermediate autoionizing state. From the energy and time-delay resolved signal, we fully reconstruct the resonant electron wavepacket as it builds up in the continuum. Measurements accurately match the predictions of a new time-resolved multi-photon resonant model, known to reproduce ab initio calculations. This agreement confirms the potential of Rainbow RABBIT to investigate photoemission delays in ultrafast processes governed by electron correlation, as well as to control structured electron wavepackets. now at Univ. Central Florida, Orlando, FL (USA).

  15. A MEMS square Chladni plate resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Sedat; Azgın, Kıvanç

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and tests of a micro-fabricated MEMS ‘Chladni’ plate resonator. The proposed MEMS resonator has a square plate geometry having a side length of 1400 µm and a height of 35 µm. Its geometry and electrode layout are designed to analyze and test as many modes as possible. The MEMS plate is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator process with a 35 µm thick < \\text{1} \\text{1} \\text{1}> silicon layer on a glass substrate. Transverse vibration of the plate is investigated to obtain closed form natural frequencies and mode shapes, which are derived using the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method, with an electrostatic softening effect included. Closed form equations for the calculation of effective stiffness’, masses and natural frequencies of the two modes (mode (1,1) and mode (2,0)-(0,2)) are presented, with and without electrostatic softening. The analytical model is verified for those modes by finite-element simulations, frequency response tests in vacuum and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) experiments. The derived model deviates from the finite-element analysis by 3.35% for mode (1,1) and 6.15% for mode (2,0)-(0,2). For verification, the frequency responses of the plates are measured with both electrostatic excitation-detection at around 20 mTorr vacuum ambient and LDV at around 0.364 mTorr vacuum ambient. The resonance frequency and Q-factor of mode (1,1) are measured to be 104.2 kHz and 14 300, respectively. For mode (2,0)-(0,2), the measured resonance frequency and Q-factor are 156.68 kHz and 10 700, respectively. The presented LDV results also support both natural frequencies of interest and corresponding mode shapes of the plate structure.

  16. Waveguiding by a locally resonant metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maznev, A. A.; Gusev, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    Dispersion relations for acoustic and electromagnetic waves guided by resonant inclusions located at the surface of an elastic solid or an interface between two media are analyzed theoretically within the effective medium approximation. Oscillators on the surface of an elastic half-space are shown to give rise to a Love-type surface acoustic wave only existing below the oscillator frequency. A simple dispersion relation governing this system is shown to also hold for electromagnetic waves guided by Lorentz oscillators at an interface between two media with equal dielectric constants. Different kinds of behavior of the dispersion of the resonantly guided mode are identified, depending on whether the bulk wave in the absence of oscillators can propagate along the surface or interface.

  17. Resonant tunnelling in a quantum oxide superlattice

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang A.; You, Jeong Ho; ...

    2015-06-24

    Resonant tunneling is a quantum mechanical process that has long been attracting both scientific and technological attention owing to its intriguing underlying physics and unique applications for high-speed electronics. The materials system exhibiting resonant tunneling, however, has been largely limited to the conventional semiconductors, partially due to their excellent crystalline quality. Here we show that a deliberately designed transition metal oxide superlattice exhibits a resonant tunneling behaviour with a clear negative differential resistance. The tunneling occurred through an atomically thin, lanthanum δ- doped SrTiO 3 layer, and the negative differential resistance was realized on top of the bi-polar resistance switchingmore » typically observed for perovskite oxide junctions. This combined process resulted in an extremely large resistance ratio (~10 5) between the high and low resistance states. Lastly, the unprecedentedly large control found in atomically thin δ-doped oxide superlattices can open a door to novel oxide-based high-frequency logic devices.« less

  18. Integrated ultra-low-loss resonator on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Joyce K. S.

    2018-05-01

    Exquisitely low-loss optical resonators have thus far remained discrete. Monolithic integration of waveguides with silica resonators that have Q factors >100 million charts a path toward incorporating these devices in photonic circuits.

  19. Soft resonator of omnidirectional resonance for acoustic metamaterials with a negative bulk modulus

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xiaodong; Meng, Yang; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Monopolar resonance is of fundamental importance in the acoustic field. Here, we present the realization of a monopolar resonance that goes beyond the concept of Helmholtz resonators. The balloon-like soft resonator (SR) oscillates omnidirectionally and radiates from all parts of its spherical surface, eliminating the need for a hard wall for the cavity and baffle effects. For airborne sound, such a low-modulus resonator can be made extremely lightweight. Deep subwavelength resonance is achieved when the SR is tuned by adjusting the shell thickness, benefiting from the large density contrast between the shell material and the encapsulated gas. The SR resonates with near-perfect monopole symmetry, as demonstrated by the theoretical and experimental results, which are in excellent agreement. For a lattice of SRs, a band gap occurs and blocks near-total transmission, and the effective bulk modulus exhibits a prominent negative band, while the effective mass density remains unchanged. Our study shows that the SR is suitable for building 3D acoustic metamaterials and provides a basis for constructing left-handed materials as a new means of creating a negative bulk modulus. PMID:26538085

  20. Resonant-tunnelling diode oscillator using a slot-coupled quasioptical open resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, K. D.; Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Goodhue, W. D.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant-tunneling diode has oscillated at X-band frequencies in a microwave circuit consisting of a slot antenna coupled to a semiconfocal open resonator. Coupling between the open resonator and the slot oscillator improves the noise-to-carrier ratio by about 36 dB relative to that of the slot oscillator alone in the 100-200 kHz range. A circuit operating near 10 GHz has been designed as a scale model for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications.

  1. Internal Resonance in a Vibrating Beam: A Zoo of Nonlinear Resonance Peaks

    PubMed Central

    Mangussi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In oscillating mechanical systems, nonlinearity is responsible for the departure from proportionality between the forces that sustain their motion and the resulting vibration amplitude. Such effect may have both beneficial and harmful effects in a broad class of technological applications, ranging from microelectromechanical devices to edifice structures. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the amplitude, in particular, jeopardizes the use of nonlinear oscillators in the design of time-keeping electronic components. Nonlinearity, however, can itself counteract this adverse response by triggering a resonant interaction between different oscillation modes, which transfers the excess of energy in the main oscillation to higher harmonics, and thus stabilizes its frequency. In this paper, we examine a model for internal resonance in a vibrating elastic beam clamped at its two ends. In this case, nonlinearity occurs in the form of a restoring force proportional to the cube of the oscillation amplitude, which induces resonance between modes whose frequencies are in a ratio close to 1:3. The model is based on a representation of the resonant modes as two Duffing oscillators, coupled through cubic interactions. Our focus is put on illustrating the diversity of behavior that internal resonance brings about in the dynamical response of the system, depending on the detailed form of the coupling forces. The mathematical treatment of the model is developed at several approximation levels. A qualitative comparison of our results with previous experiments and numerical calculations on elastic beams is outlined. PMID:27648829

  2. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  3. A one-kilogram quartz resonator as a mass standard.

    PubMed

    Vig, John; Howe, David

    2013-02-01

    The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined by a single artifact, the International Prototype Kilogram. This artifact, the primary mass standard, suffers from long-term instabilities that are neither well understood nor easily monitored. A secondary mass standard consisting of a 1-kg quartz resonator in ultrahigh vacuum is proposed. The frequency stability of such a resonator is likely to be far higher than the mass stability of the primary mass standard. Moreover, the resonator would provide a link to the SI time-interval unit. When compared with a laboratory-grade atomic frequency standard or GPS time, the frequency of the resonator could be monitored, on a continuous basis, with 10(-15) precision in only a few days of averaging. It could also be coordinated, worldwide, with other resonator mass standards without the need to transport the standards.

  4. Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.

  5. Resonant Versus Anti-Resonant Tunneling at Carbon Nanotube A-B-A Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingo, N.; Yang, Liu; Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    Narrow antiresonances going to zero transmission are found to occur for general (2n,0)(n,n)(2n,0) carbon nanotube heterostructures, whereas the complementary configuration, (n,n)(2n,0)(n,n), displays simple resonant tunneling behaviour. We compute examples for different cases, and give a simple explanation for the appearance of antiresonances in one case but not in the other. Conditions and ranges for the occurrence of these different behaviors are stated. The phenomenon of anti-resonant tunneling, which has passed unnoticed in previous studies of nanotube heterostructures, adds up to the rich set of behaviors available to nanotube based quantum effect devices.

  6. Anomalous resonance in a nanomechanical biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit K.; Nair, Pradeep R.; Akin, Demir; Ladisch, Michael R.; Broyles, Steve; Alam, Muhammad A.; Bashir, Rashid

    2006-01-01

    The decrease in resonant frequency (−Δωr) of a classical cantilever provides a sensitive measure of the mass of entities attached on its surface. This elementary phenomenon has been the basis of a new class of bio-nanomechanical devices as sensing components of integrated microsystems that can perform rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of biological and biochemical entities. Based on classical analysis, there is a widespread perception that smaller sensors are more sensitive (sensitivity ≈ −0.5ωr/mC, where mC is the mass of the cantilever), and this notion has motivated scaling of biosensors to nanoscale dimensions. In this work, we show that the response of a nanomechanical biosensor is far more complex than previously anticipated. Indeed, in contrast to classical microscale sensors, the resonant frequencies of the nanosensor may actually decrease or increase after attachment of protein molecules. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the direction of the frequency change arises from a size-specific modification of diffusion and attachment kinetics of biomolecules on the cantilevers. This work may have broad impact on microscale and nanoscale biosensor design, especially when predicting the characteristics of bio-nanoelectromechanical sensors functionalized with biological capture molecules. PMID:16938886

  7. Resonant tunneling across a ferroelectric domain wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Tao, L. L.; Velev, J. P.; Tsymbal, E. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, we explore electron transport properties of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) with an embedded head-to-head ferroelectric domain wall, using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We consider a FTJ with L a0.5S r0.5Mn O3 electrodes separated by a BaTi O3 barrier layer and show that an in-plane charged domain wall in the ferroelectric BaTi O3 can be induced by polar interfaces. The resulting V -shaped electrostatic potential profile across the BaTi O3 layer creates a quantum well and leads to the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas, which stabilizes the domain wall. The confined electronic states in the barrier are responsible for resonant tunneling as is evident from our quantum-transport calculations. We find that the resonant tunneling is an orbital selective process, which leads to sharp spikes in the momentum- and energy-resolved transmission spectra. Our results indicate that domain walls embedded in FTJs can be used to control the electron transport.

  8. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trapmore » and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.« less

  9. A new design of dielectric elastomer membrane resonator with tunable resonant frequencies and mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunlong; Oh, Inkyu; Chen, Jiehao; Hu, Yuhang

    2018-06-01

    Conventional membrane resonators are bulky, and once the geometries and materials are fixed in the fabricated device, the resonators’ characteristics are fixed. In this work, we introduce the active membrane, dielectric elastomer (DE), into the resonator design. Attaching a stiffer passive membrane onto the active DE membrane forms a two-layer system, which generates an out-of-plane deformation when the DE is actuated through a DC voltage applied across the thickness of the DE membrane. When an AC voltage is applied, the two-layer system can generate an out-of-plane oscillation which enables its use as membrane resonators. Both experiments and simulations are carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of the system. The resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the resonator can be tuned through the passive layer properties such as the modulus, thickness, density, and size. The effective stiffness of the DE film changes as the magnitude of the voltage applied on the film changes, which provides an active way to tune the dynamic characteristics of the two-layer resonator even after the device is set. The system is also light weight, low cost, and easy to fabricate, and has great potential in many engineering applications.

  10. Modeling and analysis of a resonant nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Scott L.

    The majority of investigations into nanoelectromechanical resonators focus on a single area of the resonator's function. This focus varies from the development of a model for a beam's vibration, to the modeling of electrostatic forces, to a qualitative explanation of experimentally-obtained currents. Despite these efforts, there remains a gap between these works, and the level of sophistication needed to truly design nanoresonant systems for efficient commercial use. Towards this end, a comprehensive system model for both a nanobeam resonator and its related experimental setup is proposed. Furthermore, a simulation arrangement is suggested as a method for facilitating the study of the system-level behavior of these devices in a variety of cases that could not be easily obtained experimentally or analytically. The dynamics driving the nanoresonator's motion, as well as the electrical interactions influencing the forcing and output of the system, are modeled, experimentally validated, and studied. The model seeks to develop both a simple circuit representation of the nanoresonator, and to create a mathematical system that can be used to predict and interpret the observed behavior. Due to the assumptions used to simplify the model to a point of reasonable comprehension, the model is most accurate for small beam deflections near the first eigenmode of the beam. The process and results of an experimental investigation are documented, and compared with a circuit simulation modeling the full test system. The comparison qualitatively proves the functionality of the model, while a numerical analysis serves to validate the functionality and setup of the circuit simulation. The use of the simulation enables a much broader investigation of both the electrical behavior and the physical device's dynamics. It is used to complement an assessment of the tuning behavior of the system's linear natural frequency by demonstrating the tuning behavior of the full nonlinear response. The

  11. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10−3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  12. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E; Highton, Louise A R; Kenny, Stephen M; Green, Gary G R; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all ¹H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10⁻³ Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  13. Resonant vibrations of a submerged beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, J. D.; Qu, J.

    1986-03-01

    Forced vibration of a simply supported submerged beam of circular cross section is investigated by the use of two mathematical methods. In the first approach the problem formulation is reduced to a singular integro-differential equation for the transverse deflection. In the second approach the method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed. The integro-differential equation is solved numerically, to yield an exact solution for the frequency response. Subsequent use of a representation integral yields the radiated far field acoustic pressure. The exact results for the beam deflection are compared with approximate results that are available in the literature. Next, a matched asymptotic expansion is worked out by constructing "inner" and "outer" expansions for frequencies near and not near resonance frequencies, respectively. The two expansions are matched in an appropriate manner to yield a uniformly valid solution. The leading term of the matched asymptotic solution is compared with exact numerical results.

  14. A resonance based model of biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasco, Achille; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    We propose a coarse grained physical model of evolution. The proposed model 'at least in principle' is amenable of an experimental verification even if this looks as a conundrum: evolution is a unique historical process and the tape cannot be reversed and played again. Nevertheless, we can imagine a phenomenological scenario tailored upon state transitions in physical chemistry in which different agents of evolution play the role of the elements of a state transition like thermal noise or resonance effects. The abstract model we propose can be of help for sketching hypotheses and getting rid of some well-known features of natural history like the so-called Cambrian explosion. The possibility of an experimental proof of the model is discussed as well.

  15. Modeling of a resonant heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preetham, B. S.; Anderson, M.; Richards, C.

    2012-12-01

    A resonant heat engine in which the piston assembly is replaced by a sealed elastic cavity is modeled and analyzed. A nondimensional lumped-parameter model is derived and used to investigate the factors that control the performance of the engine. The thermal efficiency predicted by the model agrees with that predicted from the relation for the Otto cycle based on compression ratio. The predictions show that for a fixed mechanical load, increasing the heat input results in increased efficiency. The output power and power density are shown to depend on the loading for a given heat input. The loading condition for maximum output power is different from that required for maximum power density.

  16. Flow-excited acoustic resonance of a Helmholtz resonator: Discrete vortex model compared to experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong, E-mail: jingxd@buaa.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaofeng

    The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensionalmore » acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude.« less

  17. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  18. A flexible surface-coil-type resonator using triaxial cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ono, Mitsuhiro

    1997-09-01

    This note describes a newly developed flexible surface-coil-type resonator (FSCR) used for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. A conventional FSCR has used a balanced transmission line made by coaxial lines. The new resonator uses triaxial cable in order to avoid anisotropy of flexure of the transmission line. Experimental results show that the EPR signal measured with the triaxial FSCR is 35% stronger than that measured with the conventional FSCR.

  19. Fluctuation Reduction in a Si Micromechanical Resonator Tuned to Nonlinear Internal Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, B. Scott; Czaplewski, David; Chen, Changyao; Dykman, Mark; Lopez, Daniel; Shaw, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical results on an unusual behavior of fluctuations when the system exhibits internal resonance. We study the fundamental flexural mode (FFM) of a Si microbeam. The FFM is electrically actuated and detected. It is resonantly nonlinearly coupled to another mode, which is not directly accessible and has a frequency nearly three times the FFM frequency. Both the FFM and the passive mode have long lifetimes. We find that the passive mode can be a ``sink'' for fluctuations of the FFM. This explains the recently observed dramatic decrease of these fluctuations at nonlinear resonance. The re-distribution of the vibration amplitudes and the fluctuations is reminiscent of what happens at level anti-crossing in quantum mechanics. However, here it is different because of interplay of the dependence of the vibration frequency of the FFM on its amplitude due to internal nonlinearity and the nonlinear resonance with the passive mode. We study both the response of the system to external resonant driving and also the behavior of the system in the presence of a feedback loop. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  20. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals.

  1. Flutist Produces Four Resonances with a Single Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-01-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat…

  2. Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances: A Review of Properties and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kravets, V G; Kabashin, A V; Barnes, W L; Grigorenko, A N

    2018-06-27

    When metal nanoparticles are arranged in an ordered array, they may scatter light to produce diffracted waves. If one of the diffracted waves then propagates in the plane of the array, it may couple the localized plasmon resonances associated with individual nanoparticles together, leading to an exciting phenomenon, the drastic narrowing of plasmon resonances, down to 1-2 nm in spectral width. This presents a dramatic improvement compared to a typical single particle resonance line width of >80 nm. The very high quality factors of these diffractively coupled plasmon resonances, often referred to as plasmonic surface lattice resonances, and related effects have made this topic a very active and exciting field for fundamental research, and increasingly, these resonances have been investigated for their potential in the development of practical devices for communications, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, data storage, biosensing, and other applications. In the present review article, we describe the basic physical principles and properties of plasmonic surface lattice resonances: the width and quality of the resonances, singularities of the light phase, electric field enhancement, etc. We pay special attention to the conditions of their excitation in different experimental architectures by considering the following: in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations of the incident light, symmetric and asymmetric optical (refractive index) environments, the presence of substrate conductivity, and the presence of an active or magnetic medium. Finally, we review recent progress in applications of plasmonic surface lattice resonances in various fields.

  3. Comment on "Exact solution of resonant modes in a rectangular resonator".

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C; Bandres, Miguel A

    2006-08-15

    We comment on the recent Letter by J. Wu and A. Liu [Opt. Lett. 31, 1720 (2006)] in which an exact scalar solution to the resonant modes and the resonant frequencies in a two-dimensional rectangular microcavity were presented. The analysis is incorrect because (a) the field solutions were imposed to satisfy simultaneously both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions at the four sides of the rectangle, leading to an overdetermined problem, and (b) the modes in the cavity were expanded using an incorrect series ansatz, leading to an expression for the mode fields that does not satisfy the Helmholtz equation.

  4. Spherical and cylindrical particle resonator as a cloak system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.; Eremeev, A. I.; Tseplyaev, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The concept of dielectric spherical or cylindrical particle in resonant mode as a cloak system is offered. In fundamental modes (modes with the smallest volume correspond to |m| = l, and s = 1) the field is concentrated mostly in the equatorial plane and at the surface of the sphere. Thus under resonance modes, such perturbation due to cuboid particle inserted in the spherical or cylindrical particle has almost no effect on the field forming resonance regardless of the value of internal particle material (defect) as long as this material does not cover the region where resonance takes place.

  5. Strongly driven electron spins using a Ku band stripline electron paramagnetic resonance resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Yung Szen; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    This article details our work to obtain strong excitation for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments by improving the resonator's efficiency. The advantages and application of strong excitation are discussed. Two 17 GHz transmission-type, stripline resonators were designed, simulated and fabricated. Scattering parameter measurements were carried out and quality factor were measured to be around 160 and 85. Simulation results of the microwave's magnetic field distribution are also presented. To determine the excitation field at the sample, nutation experiments were carried out and power dependence were measured using two organic samples at room temperature. The highest recorded Rabi frequency was rated at 210 MHz with an input power of about 1 W, which corresponds to a π/2 pulse of about 1.2 ns.

  6. A New Look at an Old Activity: Resonance Tubes Used to Teach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2017-12-01

    There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is not one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach resonance, not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and timing echoes produced in long tubes like carpet tubes. There are other methods to determine the speed of sound. Some methods are referenced at the end of this article. The students already know the speed of sound when they are confronted with data that contradict their prior knowledge. Here, the mystery is something the students solve with the help of a series of demonstrations by the instructor.

  7. A comparison of Lorentz, planetary gravitational, and satellite gravitational resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a charged dust grain whose orbital motion is dominated by a planet's point-source gravity, but perturbed by higher-order terms in the planet's gravity field as well as by the Lorentz force arising from an asymmetric planetary magnetic field. Perturbations to Keplerian orbits due to a nonspherical gravity field are expressed in the traditional way: in terms of a disturbing function which can be expanded in a series of spherical harmonics (W. M. Kaula, 1966). In order to calculate the electromagnetic perturbation, we first write the Lorentz force in terms of the orbital elements and then substitute it into Gauss' perturbation equations. We use our result to derive strengths of Lorentz resonances and elucidate their properties. In particular, we compare Lorentz resonances to two types of gravitational resonances: those arising from periodic tugs of a satellite and those due to the attraction of an arbitrarily shaped planet. We find that Lorentz resonances share numerous properties with their gravitational counterparts and show, using simple physical arguments, that several of these patterns are fundamental, applying not only to our expansions, but to all quantities expressed in terms of orbital elements. Some of these patterns have been previously called 'd'Alembert rules' for satellite resonances. Other similarities arise because, to first-order in the perturbing force, the three problems share an integral of the motion. Yet there are also differences; for example, first-order inclination resonances exist for perturbations arising from planetary gravity and from the Lorentz force, but not for those due to an orbiting satellite. Finally, we provide a heuristic treatment of a particle's orbital evolution under the influence of drag and resonant forces. Particles brought into mean-motion resonances experience either trapping or resonant 'jumps,' depending on the direction from which the resonance is approached. We show that this behavior does not depend on

  8. Resonance interatomic energy in a Schwarzschild spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    We study, in the Schwarzschild spacetime, the resonance interatomic energy (RIE) of two static identical atoms with an interatomic separation L along the radial direction and correlated by a symmetric/antisymmetric entangled state. The atoms are assumed to be coupled to massless scalar fields in the Boulware, Unruh, and Hartle-Hawking vacua, and approximate analytical results are obtained both at infinity and near the horizon. Our results show that at infinity, the RIE approaches that in a flat spacetime, while, near the horizon, they can deviate dramatically from each other. Besides, different from other atomic radiative properties such as the Lamb shift of a single atom or the interatomic energy between two uncorrelated atoms, which can be obviously affected by the thermal character of quantum fields, the RIE of two atoms in a symmetric/antisymmetric entangled state in the Boulware, Unruh, and Hartle-Hawking vacua are exactly the same as a result of the fact that the RIE of two such atoms depends only on the atomic self-reaction, i.e., it does not feel the vacuum fluctuations. This suggests that the RIE of two static atoms in a symmetric/antisymmetric entangled state outside a black hole is oblivious to the Hawking radiation, in contrast to those uncorrelated atoms.

  9. Proposal of a micromagnetic standard problem for ferromagnetic resonance simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alexander; Beg, Marijan; Ashton, Gregory; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Shilei; Bisotti, Marc-Antonio; Franchin, Matteo; Hu, Chun Lian; Stamps, Robert; Hesjedal, Thorsten; Fangohr, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, micromagnetic simulations are a common tool for studying a wide range of different magnetic phenomena, including the ferromagnetic resonance. A technique for evaluating reliability and validity of different micromagnetic simulation tools is the simulation of proposed standard problems. We propose a new standard problem by providing a detailed specification and analysis of a sufficiently simple problem. By analyzing the magnetization dynamics in a thin permalloy square sample, triggered by a well defined excitation, we obtain the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum and identify the resonance modes via Fourier transform. Simulations are performed using both finite difference and finite element numerical methods, with OOMMF and Nmag simulators, respectively. We report the effects of initial conditions and simulation parameters on the character of the observed resonance modes for this standard problem. We provide detailed instructions and code to assist in using the results for evaluation of new simulator tools, and to help with numerical calculation of ferromagnetic resonance spectra and modes in general.

  10. A loop-gap resonator for chirality-sensitive nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbacz, Piotr; Fischer, Peer; Krämer, Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Direct detection of molecular chirality is practically impossible by methods of standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that is based on interactions involving magnetic-dipole and magnetic-field operators. However, theoretical studies provide a possible direct probe of chirality by exploiting an enantiomer selective additional coupling involving magnetic-dipole, magnetic-field, and electric field operators. This offers a way for direct experimental detection of chirality by nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER). This method uses both resonant magnetic and electric radiofrequency (RF) fields. The weakness of the chiral interaction though requires a large electric RF field and a small transverse RF magnetic field over the sample volume, which is a non-trivial constraint. In this study, we present a detailed study of the NMER concept and a possible experimental realization based on a loop-gap resonator. For this original device, the basic principle and numerical studies as well as fabrication and measurements of the frequency dependence of the scattering parameter are reported. By simulating the NMER spin dynamics for our device and taking the 19F NMER signal of enantiomer-pure 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol, we predict a chirality induced NMER signal that accounts for 1%-5% of the standard achiral NMR signal.

  11. Fermion localization and resonances on a de Sitter thick brane

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxiao; Yang Jie; Zhao Zhenhua

    2009-09-15

    In C. A. S. Almeida, R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., and A. R. Gomes, Phys. Rev. D 79, 125022 (2009), the simplest Yukawa coupling {eta}{psi}{phi}{chi}{psi} was considered for a two-scalar-generated Bloch brane model. Fermionic resonances for both chiralities were obtained, and their appearance is related to branes with internal structure. Inspired on this result, we investigate the localization and resonance spectrum of fermions on a one-scalar-generated de Sitter thick brane with a class of scalar-fermion couplings {eta}{psi}{phi}{sup k}{psi} with positive odd integer k. A set of massive fermionic resonances for both chiralities is obtained when provided large coupling constantmore » {eta}. We find that the masses and lifetimes of left and right chiral resonances are almost the same, which demonstrates that it is possible to compose massive Dirac fermions from the left and right chiral resonances. The resonance with lower mass has longer lifetime. For a same set of parameters, the number of resonances increases with k and the lifetime of the lower level resonance for larger k is much longer than the one for smaller k.« less

  12. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) < 0 .1. The hierarchy problem for the new scalar boson is solved in analogy with the Higgs boson by localizing it near the infrared brane. The infinite sums over the Kaluza-Klein towers of fermion states converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  13. Entropic stochastic resonance of a self-propelled Janus particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Du, Luchun; Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Entropic stochastic resonance is investigated when a self-propelled Janus particle moves in a double-cavity container. Numerical simulation results indicate the entropic stochastic resonance can survive even if there is no symmetry breaking in any direction. This is the essential distinction between the property of a self-propelled Janus particle and that of a passive Brownian particle, for the symmetry breaking is necessary for the entropic stochastic resonance of a passive Brownian particle. With the rotational noise intensity growing at small fixed noise intensity of translational motion, the signal power amplification increases monotonically towards saturation which also can be regarded as a kind of stochastic resonance effect. Besides, the increase in the natural frequency of the periodic driving depresses the degree of the stochastic resonance, whereas the rise in its amplitude enhances and then suppresses the behavior.

  14. Tuning Fano resonances with a nano-chamber of air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; He, Keke; Sun, Chengwei; Wang, Yujia; Li, Hongyun; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-05-15

    By designing a polymer-film-coated asymmetric metallic slit structure that only contains one nanocavity side-coupled with a subwavelength plasmonic waveguide, the Fano resonance is realized in the experiment. The Fano resonance originates from the interference between the narrow resonant spectra of the radiative light from the nanocavity and the broad nonresonant spectra of the directly transmitted light from the slit. The lateral dimension of the asymmetric slit is only 825 nm. Due to the presence of the soft polymer film, a nano-chamber of air is constructed. Based on the opto-thermal effect, the air volume in the nano-chamber is expanded by a laser beam, which blueshifts the Fano resonance. This tunable Fano resonance in such a submicron slit structure with a nano-chamber is of importance in the highly integrated plasmonic circuits.

  15. The Frahm Resonance Apparatus: Variations on a Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Frahm resonance principle, in which resonating reeds indicate the frequency of mechanical or electrical oscillations, is a hardy perennial. In this note we will give some history, show some original apparatus, and show how it may be reproduced with relatively little effort.

  16. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg2+ doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown. PMID:25362434

  17. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sidabras, Jason W; Varanasi, Shiv K; Mett, Richard R; Swarts, Steven G; Swartz, Harold M; Hyde, James S

    2014-10-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg(2+) doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  18. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is eithermore » surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.« less

  19. Novel Feshbach resonances in a ^40K spin-mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walraven, J. T. M.; Ludewig, A.; Tiecke, T. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present experimental results on novel s-wave Feshbach resonances in ^40K spin-mixtures. Using an extended version of the Asymptotic Bound-state Model (ABM) [1] we predict Feshbach resonances with more promising characteristics than the commonly used resonances in the (|F,mF>) |9/2,-9/2>+|9/2,-7/2> and |9/2,-9/2>+|9/2,-5/2> spin mixtures. We report on an s-wave resonance in the |9/2,-5/2>+|9/2,-3/2> mixture. We have experimentally observed the corresponding loss-feature at B0˜178 G with a width of ˜10G. This resonance is promising due to its large predicted width and the absence of an overlapping p-wave resonance. We present our recent results on measurements of the resonance width and the stability of the system around this and other observed s-wave and p-wave resonances. [4pt] [1] T.G. Tiecke, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 053202 (2010).

  20. Resonance Frequency Tuning of a Double Ring Resonator in GaInAsP/InP: Experiment and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, Dominik Gerhard; Hamacher, Michael; Heidrich, Helmut

    2002-02-01

    A racetrack shaped double ring resonator (DRR) filter is demonstrated with radii of 200 μm. The double ring resonator contains two -3 dB multimode interference (MMI) couplers for I/O coupling and a -13 dB codirectional coupler in between the rings. A free spectral range of 50 GHz has been realized. A simulation model has been developed to describe the DRR. As fabrication tolerances do not allow the realization of two identical rings with required nm-circumference accuracy in the resonator, a frequency alignment of the resonator is indispensable. The resonance frequency tuning is performed thermally using platinum resistors which have been placed on top of the waveguides in both rings. An on-off ratio increase has been achieved of more than 3 dB, resulting in a total on-off ratio larger than 18 dB. The frequency alignment is inevitable in the case of multiple coupled micro ring resonators.

  1. Coupling two spin qubits with a high-impedance resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, S. P.; Bøttcher, C. G. L.; Orona, L. A.; Bartlett, S. D.; Doherty, A. C.; Yacoby, A.

    2018-06-01

    Fast, high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates are essential to building a viable quantum information processor, but achieving both in the same system has proved challenging for spin qubits. We propose and analyze an approach to perform a long-distance two-qubit controlled phase (CPHASE) gate between two singlet-triplet qubits using an electromagnetic resonator to mediate their interaction. The qubits couple longitudinally to the resonator, and by driving the qubits near the resonator's frequency, they can be made to acquire a state-dependent geometric phase that leads to a CPHASE gate independent of the initial state of the resonator. Using high impedance resonators enables gate times of order 10 ns while maintaining long coherence times. Simulations show average gate fidelities of over 96% using currently achievable experimental parameters and over 99% using state-of-the-art resonator technology. After optimizing the gate fidelity in terms of parameters tuneable in situ, we find it takes a simple power-law form in terms of the resonator's impedance and quality and the qubits' noise bath.

  2. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sean M; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-26

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223.

  3. Sensitivity improvements of a resonance-based tactile sensor.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yoshinobu; Lindahl, Olof A

    2017-02-01

    Resonance-based contact-impedance measurement refers to the application of resonance sensors based on the measurement of the changes in the resonance curve of an ultrasonic resonator in contact with a surface. The advantage of the resonance sensor is that it is very sensitive to small changes in the contact impedance. A sensitive micro tactile sensor (MTS) was developed, which measured the elasticity of soft living tissues at the single-cell level. In the present paper, we studied the method of improving the touch and stiffness sensitivity of the MTS. First, the dependence of touch sensitivity in relation to the resonator length was studied by calculating the sensitivity coefficient at each length ranging from 9 to 40 mm. The highest touch sensitivity was obtained with a 30-mm-long glass needle driven at a resonance frequency of 100 kHz. Next, the numerical calculation of contact impedance showed that the highest stiffness sensitivity was achieved when the driving frequency was 100 kHz and the contact-tip diameter of the MTS was 10 μm. The theoretical model was then confirmed experimentally using a phase-locked-loop-based digital feedback oscillation circuit. It was found that the developed MTS, whose resonant frequency was 97.030 kHz, performed with the highest sensitivity of 53.2 × 10 6  Hz/N at the driving frequency of 97.986 kHz, i.e. the highest sensitivity was achieved at 956 Hz above the resonant frequency.

  4. A Study of Small Satellites Captured in Corotation Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Araújo, Nilton Carlos; Vieira Neto, E.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Currently we find in the solar system several types of celestial objects such as planets, satellites, rings, etc.. The dynamics of these objects have always been interesting for studies, mainly the satellites and rings of Saturn. We have the knowledge that these satellites and rings undergo various types of orbital resonances. These resonances are responsible for the formation of numerous structures in the rings such as, for example, almost the entire structure of A ring. Thus we see how important it is to examine the nature of these resonant interactions in order to understand the characteristics observed in the satellites and rings of Saturn. In this work we highlight the corotation resonance, which occurs when the velocity pattern of the potential disturbing frequency is equal to the orbital frequency of a satellite. In the Saturnian system there are three satellites, Aegaeon, Anthe and Methone that are in corotation resonance with Mimas. In this paper we study, through numerical simulations, corotation resonance of the G ring arc of Saturn with Tethys and Mimas, while Mimas is migrating. Ours initial results show that no particles escape from the corotational resonance while Mimas migrate, that is, it is very robust. We also show the effects and consequences of Tethys migration on Mimas and de G arc.

  5. Identifying resonance frequency deviations for high order nano-wire ring resonator filters based on a coupling strength variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sahnggi; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Duk-Jun; Kim, Gyungock

    2009-02-01

    Third order ring resonators are designed and their resonance frequency deviations are analyzed experimentally by processing them with E-beam lithography and ICP etching in a CMOS nano-Fabrication laboratory. We developed a reliable method to identify and reduce experimentally the degree of deviation of each ring resonance frequency before completion of the fabrication process. The identified deviations can be minimized by the way to be presented in this paper. It is expected that this method will provide a significant clue to make a high order multi-channel ring resonators.

  6. Simulation of pyroshock environments using a tunable resonant fixture

    DOEpatents

    Davie, N.T.

    1996-10-15

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for simulating pyrotechnic shock for the purpose of qualifying electronic components for use in weapons, satellite, and aerospace applications. According to the invention, a single resonant bar fixture has an adjustable resonant frequency in order to exhibit a desired shock response spectrum upon mechanical impact. The invention eliminates the need for availability of a large number of different fixtures, capable of exhibiting a range of shock response characteristics, in favor of a single tunable system. 32 figs.

  7. Simulation of pyroshock environments using a tunable resonant fixture

    DOEpatents

    Davie, Neil T.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for simulating pyrotechnic shock for the purpose of qualifying electronic components for use in weapons, satellite, and aerospace applications. According to the invention, a single resonant bar fixture has an adjustable resonant frequency in order to exhibit a desired shock response spectrum upon mechanical impact. The invention eliminates the need for availability of a large number of different fixtures, capable of exhibiting a range of shock response characteristics, in favor of a single tunable system.

  8. Impact of resonance regeneration and decay on the net proton fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas

    DOE PAGES

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Bluhm, Marcus; Alba, Paolo; ...

    2015-12-01

    We investigate net proton fluctuations as important observables measured in heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Special emphasis is given to effects which are a priori not inherent in a thermally and chemically equilibrated HRG approach. In particular, we point out the importance of taking into account the successive regeneration and decay of resonances after the chemical freeze-out, which lead to a randomization of the isospin of nucleons and thus to additional fluctuations in the net proton number. In conclusion, we find good agreement between our model results and the recent STAR measurements of the higher-order momentsmore » of the net proton distribution.« less

  9. Phase-locking transition in a chirped superconducting Josephson resonator.

    PubMed

    Naaman, O; Aumentado, J; Friedland, L; Wurtele, J S; Siddiqi, I

    2008-09-12

    We observe a sharp threshold for dynamic phase locking in a high-Q transmission line resonator embedded with a Josephson tunnel junction, and driven with a purely ac, chirped microwave signal. When the drive amplitude is below a critical value, which depends on the chirp rate and is sensitive to the junction critical current I0, the resonator is only excited near its linear resonance frequency. For a larger amplitude, the resonator phase locks to the chirped drive and its amplitude grows until a deterministic maximum is reached. Near threshold, the oscillator evolves smoothly in one of two diverging trajectories, providing a way to discriminate small changes in I0 with a nonswitching detector, with potential applications in quantum state measurement.

  10. Control of critical coupling in a coiled coaxial cable resonator.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Wei, Tao; Wang, Tao; Fan, Jun; Xiao, Hai

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a coiled coaxial cable resonator fabricated by cutting a slot in a spring-like coiled coaxial cable to produce a periodic perturbation. Electromagnetic coupling between two neighboring slots was observed. By manipulating the number of slots, critical coupling of the coiled coaxial cable resonator can be well controlled. An ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (over 50 dB) at the resonant frequency band was experimentally achieved from a coiled coaxial cable resonator with 38 turns. A theoretic model is developed to understand the device physics. The proposed device can be potentially used as a high quality and flexibly designed band-stop filter or a sensor in structural health monitoring.

  11. Deep ultraviolet resonant Raman imaging of a cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi; Smith, Nicholas Isaac; Kawata, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of deep ultraviolet (DUV) Raman imaging of a cell. Nucleotide distributions in a HeLa cell were observed without any labeling at 257 nm excitation with resonant bands attributable to guanine and adenine. Obtained images represent DNA localization at nucleoli in the nucleus and RNA distribution in the cytoplasm. The presented technique extends the potential of Raman microscopy as a tool to selectively probe nucleic acids in a cell with high sensitivity due to resonance.

  12. Analysis of a Precambrian resonance-stabilized day length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Benjamin C.; Stevenson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    During the Precambrian era, Earth's decelerating rotation would have passed a 21 h period that would have been resonant with the semidiurnal atmospheric thermal tide. Near this point, the atmospheric torque would have been maximized, being comparable in magnitude but opposite in direction to the lunar torque, halting Earth's rotational deceleration, maintaining a constant day length, as detailed by Zahnle and Walker (1987). We develop a computational model to determine necessary conditions for formation and breakage of this resonant effect. Our simulations show the resonance to be resilient to atmospheric thermal noise but suggest a sudden atmospheric temperature increase like the deglaciation period following a possible "snowball Earth" near the end of the Precambrian would break this resonance; the Marinoan and Sturtian glaciations seem the most likely candidates for this event. Our model provides a simulated day length over time that resembles existing paleorotational data, though further data are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  13. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  14. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm2. In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time. PMID:28914799

  15. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  16. Frequency spectrum of an optical resonator in a curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätzel, Dennis; Schneiter, Fabienne; Braun, Daniel; Bravo, Tupac; Howl, Richard; Lock, Maximilian P. E.; Fuentes, Ivette

    2018-05-01

    The effect of gravity and proper acceleration on the frequency spectrum of an optical resonator—both rigid or deformable—is considered in the framework of general relativity. The optical resonator is modeled either as a rod of matter connecting two mirrors or as a dielectric rod whose ends function as mirrors. Explicit expressions for the frequency spectrum are derived for the case that it is only perturbed slightly and variations are slow enough to avoid any elastic resonances of the rod. For a deformable resonator, the perturbation of the frequency spectrum depends on the speed of sound in the rod supporting the mirrors. A connection is found to a relativistic concept of rigidity when the speed of sound approaches the speed of light. In contrast, the corresponding result for the assumption of Born rigidity is recovered when the speed of sound becomes infinite. The results presented in this article can be used as the basis for the description of optical and opto-mechanical systems in a curved spacetime. We apply our results to the examples of a uniformly accelerating resonator and an optical resonator in the gravitational field of a small moving sphere. To exemplify the applicability of our approach beyond the framework of linearized gravity, we consider the fictitious situation of an optical resonator falling into a black hole.

  17. A microprocessor-based multichannel subsensory stochastic resonance electrical stimulator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gwo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance electrical stimulation is a novel intervention which provides potential benefits for improving postural control ability in the elderly, those with diabetic neuropathy, and stroke patients. In this paper, a microprocessor-based subsensory white noise electrical stimulator for the applications of stochastic resonance stimulation is developed. The proposed stimulator provides four independent programmable stimulation channels with constant-current output, possesses linear voltage-to-current relationship, and has two types of stimulation modes, pulse amplitude and width modulation.

  18. Pluto and Charon: A Case of Precession-Orbit Resonance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Pluto may be the only known case of precession-orbit resonance in the solar system. The Pluto-Charon system orbits the Sun with a period of 1 Plutonian year, which is 250.8 Earth years. The observed parameters of the system are such that Charon may cause Pluto to precess with a period near 250.8 Earth years. This gives rise to two possible resonances, heretofore unrecognized. The first is due to Pluto's orbit being highly eccentric, giving solar torques on Charon with a period of 1 Plutonian year. Charon in turn drives Pluto near its precession period. Volatiles, which are expected to shuttle across Pluto's surface between equator and pole as Pluto's obliquity oscillates, might change the planet's dynamical flattening enough so that Pluto crosses the nearby resonance, forcing the planet's equatorial plane to depart from Charon's orbital plane. The mutual tilt can reach as much as 2 deg after integrating over 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years, depending upon how close Pluto is to the resonance and the supply of volatiles. The second resonance is due to the Sun's traveling above and below Charon's orbital plane; it has a period half that of the eccentricity resonance. Reaching this half-Plutonian year resonance requires a much larger but still theoretically possible amount of volatiles. In this case the departure of Charon from an equatorial orbit is about 1 deg after integrating for 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years. The calculations ignore libration and tidal friction. It is not presently known how large the mutual tilt can grow over the age of the solar system, but if it remains only a few degrees, then observing such small angles from a Pluto flyby mission would be difficult. It is not clear why the parameters of the Pluto-Charon system are so close to the eccentricity resonance.

  19. Resonant power supplies for a rapid-cycling accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karady, G.; Thiessen, H. A.; Schneider, E. J.

    1988-10-01

    A resonant power supply has been proposed as an efficient power supply for a future 60-GeV, Kaon-producing accelerator. The engineering design of the electric system of the main-ring power supplies is described. It is shown that the resonant power supply can be built with standard commercially available components. The most critical component is the bypass switch, which requires gate-turn off thyristors, connected in parallel. Standard metal-clad switchgear can be used for the AC system. The resonant power supplies can be fed directly from the 115-kV utility network, but the resonance power supplies draw pulse loads from the utility network. This pulse may produce disturbances. AC filter and reactive power compensation is needed for economical operation.

  20. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  1. Top partner-resonance interplay in a composite Higgs framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, Juan; Zerwekh, Alfonso

    2018-04-01

    Guided us by the scenario of weak scale naturalness and the possible existence of exotic resonances, we have explored in a SO(5) Composite Higgs setup the interplay among three matter sectors: elementary, top partners and vector resonances. We parametrize it through explicit interactions of spin-1 SO(4)-resonances, coupled to the SO(5)-invariant fermionic currents and tensors presented in this work. Such invariants are built upon the Standard Model fermion sector as well as top partners sourced by the unbroken SO(4). The mass scales entailed by the top partner and vector resonance sectors will control the low energy effects emerging from our interplaying model. Its phenomenological impact and parameter spaces have been considered via flavor-dijet processes and electric dipole moments bounds. Finally, the strength of the Nambu-Goldstone symmetry breaking and the extra couplings implied by the top partner mass scales are measured in accordance with expected estimations.

  2. Atom loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric

    2013-07-12

    Atom loss resonances in ultracold trapped atoms have been observed at scattering lengths near atom-dimer resonances, at which Efimov trimers cross the atom-dimer threshold, and near two-dimer resonances, at which universal tetramers cross the dimer-dimer threshold. We propose a new mechanism for these loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms. As the scattering length is ramped to the large final value at which the atom loss rate is measured, the time-dependent scattering length generates a small condensate of shallow dimers coherently from the atom condensate. The coexisting atom and dimer condensates can be described by a low-energy effective field theory with universal coefficients that are determined by matching exact results from few-body physics. The classical field equations for the atom and dimer condensates predict narrow enhancements in the atom loss rate near atom-dimer resonances and near two-dimer resonances due to inelastic dimer collisions.

  3. A New Look at an Old Activity: Resonance Tubes Used to Teach Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is "not" one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach "resonance," not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and…

  4. Non-resonant multipactor--A statistical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, J.; Johansson, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    High power microwave systems operating in vacuum or near vacuum run the risk of multipactor breakdown. In order to avoid multipactor, it is necessary to make theoretical predictions of critical parameter combinations. These treatments are generally based on the assumption of electrons moving in resonance with the electric field while traversing the gap between critical surfaces. Through comparison with experiments, it has been found that only for small system dimensions will the resonant approach give correct predictions. Apparently, the resonance is destroyed due to the statistical spread in electron emission velocity, and for a more valid description it is necessary to resort to rather complicated statistical treatments of the electron population, and extensive simulations. However, in the limit where resonance is completely destroyed it is possible to use a much simpler treatment, here called non-resonant theory. In this paper, we develop the formalism for this theory, use it to calculate universal curves for the existence of multipactor, and compare with previous results. Two important effects that leads to an increase in the multipactor threshold in comparison with the resonant prediction are identified. These are the statistical spread of impact speed, which leads to a lower average electron impact speed, and the impact of electrons in phase regions where the secondary electrons are immediately reabsorbed, leading to an effective removal of electrons from the discharge.

  5. Non-resonant multipactor-A statistical model

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, J.; Johansson, J. F.

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave systems operating in vacuum or near vacuum run the risk of multipactor breakdown. In order to avoid multipactor, it is necessary to make theoretical predictions of critical parameter combinations. These treatments are generally based on the assumption of electrons moving in resonance with the electric field while traversing the gap between critical surfaces. Through comparison with experiments, it has been found that only for small system dimensions will the resonant approach give correct predictions. Apparently, the resonance is destroyed due to the statistical spread in electron emission velocity, and for a more valid description it is necessarymore » to resort to rather complicated statistical treatments of the electron population, and extensive simulations. However, in the limit where resonance is completely destroyed it is possible to use a much simpler treatment, here called non-resonant theory. In this paper, we develop the formalism for this theory, use it to calculate universal curves for the existence of multipactor, and compare with previous results. Two important effects that leads to an increase in the multipactor threshold in comparison with the resonant prediction are identified. These are the statistical spread of impact speed, which leads to a lower average electron impact speed, and the impact of electrons in phase regions where the secondary electrons are immediately reabsorbed, leading to an effective removal of electrons from the discharge.« less

  6. Multi-step production of a diphoton resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    2017-06-01

    Among the questions that would be raised by the observation of a new resonance at the LHC, particularly pressing are those concerning the production mechanism: What is the initial state? Is the resonance produced independently or in association with other particles? Here we present two weakly-coupled renormalizable models for production of a diphoton resonance that differ in both their initial and final states. In one model, a scalar particle produced through gluon fusion decays into a diphoton particle and a light, long-lived pseudoscalar. In another model, a {Z}\\prime boson produced from the annihilation of a strange-antistrange quark pair undergoes a cascade decay that leads to a diphoton particle and two sterile neutrinos. Various kinematic distributions may differentiate these models from the canonical model where a diphoton particle is directly produced in gluon fusion.

  7. Resonant microsphere gyroscope based on a double Faraday rotator system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengfeng; Tang, Jun; Cui, Danfeng; Wu, Dajin; Zhang, Chengfei; Li, Chunming; Zhen, Yongqiu; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2016-10-15

    The resonant microsphere gyroscope is proposed based on a double Faraday rotator system for the resonant microsphere gyroscope (RMSG) that is characterized by low insertion losses and does not destroy the reciprocity of the gyroscope system. Use of the echo suppression structure and the orthogonal polarization method can effectively inhibit both the backscattering noise and the polarization error, and reduce them below the system sensitivity limit. The resonance asymmetry rate dropped from 34.2% to 2.9% after optimization of the backscattering noise and the polarization noise, which greatly improved the bias stability and the scale factor linearity of the proposed system. Additionally, based on the optimum parameters for the double Faraday rotator system, a bias stability of 0.04°/s has been established for an integration time of 10 s in 1000 s in a resonator microsphere gyroscope using a microsphere resonator with a diameter of 1 mm and a Q of 7.2×106.

  8. Kinematic signature of a rotating bar near a resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent work based on H I, star count and emission data suggests that the Milky Way has rotating bar-like features. In this paper, I show that such features cause distinctive stellar kinematic signatures near Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR) and Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR). The effect of these resonances may be observable far from the peak density of the pattern and relatively nearby the solar position. The details of the kinematic signatures depend on the evolutionary history of the 'bar' and therefore velocity data, both systematic and velocity dispersion, may be used to probe the evolutionary history as well as the present state of Galaxy. Kinematic models for a variety of sample scenarios are presented. Models with evolving pattern speeds show significantly stronger dispersion signatures than those with static pattern speeds, suggesting that useful observational constraints are possible. The models are applied to the proposed rotating spheroid and bar models; we find (1) none of these models chosen to represent the proposed large-scale rotating spheroid are consistent with the stellar kinematics and (2) a Galactic bar with semimajor axis of 3 kpc will cause a large increase in velocity dispersion in the vicinity of OLR (approximately 5 kpc) with little change in the net radial motion and such a signature is suggested by K-giant velocity data. Potential future observations and analyses are discussed.

  9. Reducing flow-induced resonance in a cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattafesta, III, Louis N. (Inventor); Wlezien, Richard W. (Inventor); Won, Chin C. (Inventor); Garg, Sanjay (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method and system are provided for reducing flow-induced resonance in a structure's cavity. A time-varying disturbance is introduced into the flow along a leading edge of the cavity. The time-varying disturbance can be periodic and can have the same or different frequency of the natural resonant frequency of the cavity. In one embodiment of the system, flaps are mounted flush with the surface of the structure along the cavity's leading edge. A piezoelectric actuator is coupled to each flap and causes a portion of each flap to oscillate into and out of the flow in accordance with the time-varying function. Resonance reduction can be achieved with both open-loop and closed-loop configurations of the system.

  10. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.

    2015-09-15

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connesmore » (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.« less

  11. A technique for magnetic resonance imaging of equine cadaver specimens.

    PubMed

    Widmer, W R; Buckwalter, K A; Hill, M A; Fessler, J F; Ivancevich, S

    1999-01-01

    We tested an adaptation of a technique for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of human cadaver limbs in the horse. The forelimbs from a normal horse were collected, frozen, and sealed with a paraffin-polymer combination prior to imaging with either a high- or midfield magnetic resonance scanner. Each forelimb was defrosted, scanned, and refrozen on two separate occasions. A five-point scale was used to evaluate the quality of each set of sagittal and transverse, T1-weighted images of each digit. There was no difference in image quality between first and second scans of either specimen (p > 0.05). We conclude that this technique allows investigators to bank tissue specimens for future magnetic resonance imaging without significant loss of image quality.

  12. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. PMID:22399981

  13. Design and Implementation of a Micromechanical Silicon Resonant Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Libin; Yang, Hui; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Liye; Liang, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion coefficients of silicon and glass, the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer based on the Silicon on Glass (SOG) technique is deeply affected by the temperature during the fabrication, packaging and use processes. The thermal stress caused by temperature changes directly affects the frequency output of the accelerometer. Based on the working principle of the micromechanical resonant accelerometer, a special accelerometer structure that reduces the temperature influence on the accelerometer is designed. The accelerometer can greatly reduce the thermal stress caused by high temperatures in the process of fabrication and packaging. Currently, the closed-loop drive circuit is devised based on a phase-locked loop. The unloaded resonant frequencies of the prototype of the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer are approximately 31.4 kHz and 31.5 kHz. The scale factor is 66.24003 Hz/g. The scale factor stability is 14.886 ppm, the scale factor repeatability is 23 ppm, the bias stability is 23 μg, the bias repeatability is 170 μg, and the bias temperature coefficient is 0.0734 Hz/°C. PMID:24256978

  14. Design and implementation of a micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Libin; Yang, Hui; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Liye; Liang, Jinxing

    2013-11-19

    The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion coefficients of silicon and glass, the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer based on the Silicon on Glass (SOG) technique is deeply affected by the temperature during the fabrication, packaging and use processes. The thermal stress caused by temperature changes directly affects the frequency output of the accelerometer. Based on the working principle of the micromechanical resonant accelerometer, a special accelerometer structure that reduces the temperature influence on the accelerometer is designed. The accelerometer can greatly reduce the thermal stress caused by high temperatures in the process of fabrication and packaging. Currently, the closed-loop drive circuit is devised based on a phase-locked loop. The unloaded resonant frequencies of the prototype of the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer are approximately 31.4 kHz and 31.5 kHz. The scale factor is 66.24003 Hz/g. The scale factor stability is 14.886 ppm, the scale factor repeatability is 23 ppm, the bias stability is 23 μg, the bias repeatability is 170 μg, and the bias temperature coefficient is 0.0734 Hz/°C.

  15. Arrangement for damping the resonance in a laser diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.; Yariv, A.; Margalit, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An arrangement for damping the resonance in a laser diode is described. This arrangement includes an additional layer which together with the conventional laser diode form a structure (35) of a bipolar transistor. Therein, the additional layer serves as the collector, the cladding layer next to it as the base, and the active region and the other cladding layer as the emitter. A capacitor is connected across the base and the collector. It is chosen so that at any frequency above a certain selected frequency which is far below the resonance frequency the capacitor impedance is very low, effectively shorting the base to the collector.

  16. EIT Noise Resonance Power Broadening: a probe for coherence dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; O'Leary, Shannon; Snider, Charles

    2012-06-01

    EIT noise correlation spectroscopy holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high resolution spectroscopy used in devices as diverse as magnetometers and clocks. One useful feature of these noise correlation resonances is that they do not power broaden with the EIT window. We report on measurements of the eventual power broadening (at higher optical powers) of these resonances and a simple, quantitative theoretical model that relates the observed power broadening slope with processes such as two-photon detuning gradients and coherence diffusion. These processes reduce the ground state coherence relative to that of a homogeneous system, and thus the power broadening slope of the EIT noise correlation resonance may be a simple, useful probe for coherence dynamics.

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment.

    PubMed

    Issac, Corinne E; Gleave, Christine M; Nasr, Paméla T; Nguyen, Hoang L; Curley, Elizabeth A; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Moore, Eric W; Chen, Lei; Marohn, John A

    2016-04-07

    We report achieving enhanced nuclear magnetization in a magnetic resonance force microscope experiment at 0.6 tesla and 4.2 kelvin using the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) effect. In our experiments a microwire coplanar waveguide delivered radiowaves to excite nuclear spins and microwaves to excite electron spins in a 250 nm thick nitroxide-doped polystyrene sample. Both electron and proton spin resonance were observed as a change in the mechanical resonance frequency of a nearby cantilever having a micron-scale nickel tip. NMR signal, not observable from Curie-law magnetization at 0.6 T, became observable when microwave irradiation was applied to saturate the electron spins. The resulting NMR signal's size, buildup time, dependence on microwave power, and dependence on irradiation frequency was consistent with a transfer of magnetization from electron spins to nuclear spins. Due to the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field introduced by the cantilever's magnetic tip, the electron spins in the sample were saturated in a microwave-resonant slice 10's of nm thick. The spatial distribution of the nuclear polarization enhancement factor ε was mapped by varying the frequency of the applied radiowaves. The observed enhancement factor was zero for spins in the center of the resonant slice, was ε = +10 to +20 for spins proximal to the magnet, and was ε = -10 to -20 for spins distal to the magnet. We show that this bipolar nuclear magnetization profile is consistent with cross-effect DNP in a ∼10(5) T m(-1) magnetic field gradient. Potential challenges associated with generating and using DNP-enhanced nuclear magnetization in a nanometer-resolution magnetic resonance imaging experiment are elucidated and discussed.

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Versatile Technique for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang Hiep; Park, Jeho; Kang, Sebyung; Kim, Moonil

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free detection method which has emerged during the last two decades as a suitable and reliable platform in clinical analysis for biomolecular interactions. The technique makes it possible to measure interactions in real-time with high sensitivity and without the need of labels. This review article discusses a wide range of applications in optical-based sensors using either surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI). Here we summarize the principles, provide examples, and illustrate the utility of SPR and SPRI through example applications from the biomedical, proteomics, genomics and bioengineering fields. In addition, SPR signal amplification strategies and surface functionalization are covered in the review. PMID:25951336

  19. A wide-range variable-frequency resonant tunneling diode oscillator using a variable resonator suitable for simple MEMS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Masayuki; Maezawa, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    A resonant tunneling diode oscillator having a wide frequency variation range based on a novel MEMS resonator was proposed, which exploits the change in the signal propagation velocity on a coplanar waveguide according to a movable ground plane. First, we discussed the velocity modulation mechanism, and clarified the importance of the dielectric constant of the substrate. Then, a prototype device oscillating in a 10 to 20 GHz frequency range was fabricated to demonstrate the basic operation. A large and continuous increase in the oscillation frequency of about two times was achieved with this device. This is promising for various applications including THz spectroscopy.

  20. A multioutput LLC-type parallel resonant converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Lee, C. Q.; Upadhyay, Anand K.

    1992-07-01

    When an LLC-type parallel resonant converter (LLC-PRC) operates above resonant frequency, the switching transistors can be turned off at zero voltage. Further study reveals that the LLC-PRC possesses the advantage of lower converter voltage gain as compared with the conventional PRC. Based on analytic results, a complete set of design curves is obtained, from which a systematic design procedure is developed. Experimental results from a 150 W 150 kHz multioutput LLC-type PRC power supply are presented.

  1. A combined confocal and magnetic resonance microscope for biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majors, Paul D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Holtom, Gary R.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Parkinson, Christopher I.; Weber, Thomas J.; Wind, Robert A.

    2002-12-01

    Complementary data acquired with different microscopy techniques provide a basis for establishing a more comprehensive understanding of cell function in health and disease, particularly when results acquired with different methodologies can be correlated in time and space. In this article, a novel microscope is described for studying live cells simultaneously with both confocal scanning laser fluorescence optical microscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy. The various design considerations necessary for integrating these two complementary techniques are discussed, the layout and specifications of the instrument are given, and examples of confocal and magnetic resonance images of large frog cells and model tumor spheroids obtained with the compound microscope are presented.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  3. Mesoscopic Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Remote Spin Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianyu; Shi, Fazhan; Chen, Sanyou; Guo, Maosen; Chen, Yisheng; Zhang, Yixing; Yang, Yu; Gao, Xingyu; Kong, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Tateishi, Kenichiro; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Bo; Du, Jiangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Quantum sensing based on nitrogen-vacancy (N -V ) centers in diamond has been developed as a powerful tool for microscopic magnetic resonance. However, the reported sensor-to-sample distance is limited within tens of nanometers resulting from the cubic decrease of the signal of spin fluctuation with the increasing distance. Here we extend the sensing distance to tens of micrometers by detecting spin polarization rather than spin fluctuation. We detect the mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectra of polarized electrons of a pentacene-doped crystal, measure its two typical decay times, and observe the optically enhanced spin polarization. This work paves the way for the N -V -based mesoscopic magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging at ambient conditions.

  4. ImagingReso: A Tool for Neutron Resonance Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe

    2017-11-01

    ImagingReso is an open-source Python library that simulates the neutron resonance signal for neutron imaging measurements. By defining the sample information such as density, thickness in the neutron path, and isotopic ratios of the elemental composition of the material, this package plots the expected resonance peaks for a selected neutron energy range. Various sample types such as layers of single elements (Ag, Co, etc. in solid form), chemical compounds (UO 3, Gd 2O 3, etc.), or even multiple layers of both types can be plotted with this package. As a result, major plotting features include display of the transmission/attenuation inmore » wavelength, energy, and time scale, and show/hide elemental and isotopic contributions in the total resonance signal.« less

  5. A new algorithm for reliable and general NMR resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Elena; Güntert, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The new FLYA automated resonance assignment algorithm determines NMR chemical shift assignments on the basis of peak lists from any combination of multidimensional through-bond or through-space NMR experiments for proteins. Backbone and side-chain assignments can be determined. All experimental data are used simultaneously, thereby exploiting optimally the redundancy present in the input peak lists and circumventing potential pitfalls of assignment strategies in which results obtained in a given step remain fixed input data for subsequent steps. Instead of prescribing a specific assignment strategy, the FLYA resonance assignment algorithm requires only experimental peak lists and the primary structure of the protein, from which the peaks expected in a given spectrum can be generated by applying a set of rules, defined in a straightforward way by specifying through-bond or through-space magnetization transfer pathways. The algorithm determines the resonance assignment by finding an optimal mapping between the set of expected peaks that are assigned by definition but have unknown positions and the set of measured peaks in the input peak lists that are initially unassigned but have a known position in the spectrum. Using peak lists obtained by purely automated peak picking from the experimental spectra of three proteins, FLYA assigned correctly 96-99% of the backbone and 90-91% of all resonances that could be assigned manually. Systematic studies quantified the impact of various factors on the assignment accuracy, namely the extent of missing real peaks and the amount of additional artifact peaks in the input peak lists, as well as the accuracy of the peak positions. Comparing the resonance assignments from FLYA with those obtained from two other existing algorithms showed that using identical experimental input data these other algorithms yielded significantly (40-142%) more erroneous assignments than FLYA. The FLYA resonance assignment algorithm thus has the

  6. Analysis of a Precambrian Resonance-Stabilized Day Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, B. C.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Calculations indicate the average rate of decrease of Earth's angular momentum must have been less than its present value in the past; otherwise, the Earth should have a longer day length. Existing stromatolite data suggests the Earth's rotational frequency would have been near that of the atmospheric resonance frequency toward the end of the Precambrian era, approximately 600Ma. The semidiurnal atmospheric tidal torque would have reached a maximum near this day length of 21hr. At this point, the atmospheric torque would have been comparable in magnitude but opposite in direction to the lunar torque, creating a stabilizing effect which could preserve a constant day length while trapped in this resonant state, as suggested by Zahnle and Walker (1987). We examine the hypothesis that this resonant stability was encountered and sustained for a large amount of time during the Precambrian era and was broken by a large and relatively fast increase in global temperature, possibly in the deglaciation period following a snowball event. Computational simulations of this problem were performed, indicating that a persistent increase in temperature larger than around 10K over a period of time less than 107 years will break resonance (though these values vary with Q), but that the resonant stability is not easily broken by random high-amplitude high-frequency atmospheric temperature fluctuation or other forms of thermal noise. Further work also indicates it is possible to escape resonance simply by increasing the lunar tidal torque on the much longer timescale of plate tectonics, particularly for low atmospheric Q-factors, or that resonance could have never formed in the first place, had the lunar torque been very high or Q been very low when the Earth's rotational frequency was near the atmospheric resonance frequency. However, the need to explain the present day length given the current lunar torque favors the interpretation we offer, in which Earth's length of day was

  7. Resonant Magnon-Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-29

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11604 TITLE: Resonant Magnon -Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP011588 thru ADP011680 UNCLASSIFIED 75 Resonant Magnon -Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet I. E...susceptibilities X"aa and X’m << X’m appear, where 77 xem - DPx igEo0 i_ Xxy - hy- C1 (0)2 _ 00t2) 4= -7• 4 3. Phonon and magnon polaritons We solve the

  8. Parameter-induced stochastic resonance with a periodic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Long; Xu, Bo-Hou

    2006-12-01

    In this paper conventional stochastic resonance (CSR) is realized by adding the noise intensity. This demonstrates that tuning the system parameters with fixed noise can make the noise play a constructive role and realize parameter-induced stochastic resonance (PSR). PSR can be interpreted as changing the intrinsic characteristic of the dynamical system to yield the cooperative effect between the stochastic-subjected nonlinear system and the external periodic force. This can be realized at any noise intensity, which greatly differs from CSR that is realized under the condition of the initial noise intensity not greater than the resonance level. Moreover, it is proved that PSR is different from the optimization of system parameters.

  9. Adjusting resonant wavelengths and spectral shapes of ring resonators using a cladding SiN layer or KOH solution.

    PubMed

    Park, Sahnggi; Kim, Kap-Joong; Lee, Jong-Moo; Kim, In-Gyoo; Kim, Gyungock

    2009-07-06

    It is shown that the resonant frequencies and the transmission spectra of ring resonators can be adjusted by depositing or etching the cladding nitride layer on the ring waveguide without introducing an extra loss or extra variations of channel spacing. The cladding nitride layer increases the minimum width of the gap in the coupling region to larger than 150nm which makes it possible to consider photolithography instead of E-beam lithography for the typical design rule of ring filters. KOH silicon etching can also adjust not only the resonance frequencies but also coupling coefficients with a small sacrifice of guiding loss.

  10. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  11. Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  12. Optical pulse response of a fibre ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, G. S.; Seraji, Faramarz E.

    1991-06-01

    This article presents the optical pulse response analysis of a fiber ring resonator. It is shown that several interesting functions, namely optical pulse generation, and equalization of fiber dispersion can be realized by using the resonator. The theory is presented in an easy to understand manner, by first considering the steady-state response. The results of the transient pulse response are explained in relation to the steady state results. The results related to optical pulse shaping will be of interest to the future when coherent optical pulse and switching circuits will become available.

  13. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  14. The hairpin resonator: A plasma density measuring technique revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piejak, R. B.; Godyak, V. A.; Garner, R.; Alexandrovich, B. M.; Sternberg, N.

    2004-04-01

    A microwave resonator probe is a resonant structure from which the relative permittivity of the surrounding medium can be determined. Two types of microwave resonator probes (referred to here as hairpin probes) have been designed and built to determine the electron density in a low-pressure gas discharge. One type, a transmission probe, is a functional equivalent of the original microwave resonator probe introduced by R. L. Stenzel [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 603 (1976)], modified to increase coupling to the hairpin structure and to minimize plasma perturbation. The second type, a reflection probe, differs from the transmission probe in that it requires only one coaxial feeder cable. A sheath correction, based on the fluid equations for collisionless ions in a cylindrical electron-free sheath, is presented here to account for the sheath that naturally forms about the hairpin structure immersed in plasma. The sheath correction extends the range of electron density that can be accurately measured with a particular wire separation of the hairpin structure. Experimental measurements using the hairpin probe appear to be highly reproducible. Comparisons with Langmuir probes show that the Langmuir probe determines an electron density that is 20-30% lower than the hairpin. Further comparisons, with both an interferometer and a Langmuir probe, show hairpin measurements to be in good agreement with the interferometer while Langmuir probe measurements again result in a lower electron density.

  15. Spatiotemporal optical pulse transformation by a resonant diffraction grating

    SciTech Connect

    Golovastikov, N. V.; Bykov, D. A., E-mail: bykovd@gmail.com; Doskolovich, L. L., E-mail: leonid@smr.ru

    The diffraction of a spatiotemporal optical pulse by a resonant diffraction grating is considered. The pulse diffraction is described in terms of the signal (the spatiotemporal incident pulse envelope) passage through a linear system. An analytic approximation in the form of a rational function of two variables corresponding to the angular and spatial frequencies has been obtained for the transfer function of the system. A hyperbolic partial differential equation describing the general form of the incident pulse envelope transformation upon diffraction by a resonant diffraction grating has been derived from the transfer function. A solution of this equation has beenmore » obtained for the case of normal incidence of a pulse with a central frequency lying near the guided-mode resonance of a diffraction structure. The presented results of numerical simulations of pulse diffraction by a resonant grating show profound changes in the pulse envelope shape that closely correspond to the proposed theoretical description. The results of the paper can be applied in creating new devices for optical pulse shape transformation, in optical information processing problems, and analog optical computations.« less

  16. A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on parametric resonance.

    PubMed

    Surappa, Sushruta; Satir, Sarp; Levent Degertekin, F

    2017-07-24

    A capacitive ultrasonic transducer based on a parametric resonator structure is described and experimentally demonstrated. The transducer structure, which we call capacitive parametric ultrasonic transducer (CPUT), uses a parallel plate capacitor with a movable membrane as part of a degenerate parametric series RLC resonator circuit with a resonance frequency of f o . When the capacitor plate is driven with an incident harmonic ultrasonic wave at the pump frequency of 2f o with sufficient amplitude, the RLC circuit becomes unstable and ultrasonic energy can be efficiently converted to an electrical signal at f o frequency in the RLC circuit. An important characteristic of the CPUT is that unlike other electrostatic transducers, it does not require DC bias or permanent charging to be used as a receiver. We describe the operation of the CPUT using an analytical model and numerical simulations, which shows drive amplitude dependent operation regimes including parametric resonance when a certain threshold is exceeded. We verify these predictions by experiments with a micromachined membrane based capacitor structure in immersion where ultrasonic waves incident at 4.28 MHz parametrically drive a signal with significant amplitude in the 2.14 MHz RLC circuit. With its unique features, the CPUT can be particularly advantageous for applications such as wireless power transfer for biomedical implants and acoustic sensing.

  17. Cyclotron Resonance of Electrons Trapped in a Microwave Cavity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the free-electron cyclotron resonance of electrons trapped in a microwave cavity by a Penning trap is observed. The experiment constitutes an attractive alternative to one of the Gardner-Purcell variety. (Author/GS)

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Helicopter Model in Ground Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.

  19. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  20. Temperature and density evolution during decay in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance plasma: off-resonant and resonant cases.

    PubMed

    Cortázar, O D; Megía-Macías, A; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A

    2013-09-01

    Time resolved electron temperature and density measurements during the decay stage in a hydrogen electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma are presented for a resonance and off-resonance magnetic field configurations. The measurements are conducted on a ECR plasma generator excited at 2.45 GHz denominated test-bench for ion-sources plasma studies at ESS Bilbao. The plasma parameters evolution is studied by Langmuir probe diagnostic with synchronized sample technique developed for repetitive pulsed plasmas with a temporal resolution of 200 ns in typical decay processes of about 40 μs. An afterglow transient is clearly observed in the reflected microwave power signal from the plasma. Simultaneously, the electron temperature evolution shows rebounding peaks that may be related to the interplay between density drop and microwave coupling with deep impact on the Electron Energy Distribution Function. The correlation of such structures with the plasma absorbed power and the coupling quality is also reported.

  1. A multiple degree of freedom electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Horowitz, Stephen; Nishida, Toshikazu; Cattafesta, Louis; Sheplak, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The development of a tunable, multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is presented. An EMHR consists of an orifice, backing cavity, and a compliant piezoelectric composite diaphragm. Electromechanical tuning of the acoustic impedance is achieved via passive electrical networks shunted across the piezoceramic. For resistive and capacitive loads, the EMHR is a 2DOF system possessing one acoustic and one mechanical DOF. When inductive ladder networks are employed, multiple electrical DOF are added. The dynamics of the multi-energy domain system are modeled using lumped elements and are represented in an equivalent electrical circuit, which is used to analyze the tunable acoustic input impedance of the EMHR. The two-microphone method is used to measure the acoustic impedance of two EMHR designs with a variety of resistive, capacitive, and inductive shunts. For the first design, the data demonstrate that the tuning range of the second resonant frequency for an EMHR with non-inductive shunts is limited by short- and open-circuit conditions, while an inductive shunt results in a 3DOF system possessing an enhanced tuning range. The second design achieves stronger coupling between the Helmholtz resonator and the piezoelectric backplate, and both resonant frequencies can be tuned with different non-inductive loads.

  2. Microwave photon generation in a doubly tunable superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, I.-M.; Pierre, M.; Simoen, M.; Wustmann, W.; Krantz, P.; Bengtsson, A.; Johansson, G.; Bylander, J.; Shumeiko, V.; Delsing, P.

    2018-03-01

    We have created a doubly tunable resonator, with the intention to simulate relativistic motion of the resonator boundaries in real space. Our device is a superconducting coplanar-waveguide microwave resonator, with fundamental resonant frequency ω 1 /(2π) ~ 5 GHz. Both of its ends are terminated to ground via dc-SQUIDs, which serve as magnetic-flux-controlled inductances. Applying a flux to either SQUID allows the tuning of ω 1 /(2π) by approximately 700 MHz. Using two separate on-chip magnetic-flux lines, we modulate the SQUIDs with two tones of equal frequency, close to 2ω 1. We observe photon generation, at ω 1, above a certain pump amplitude threshold. By varying the relative phase of the two pumps we are able to control this threshold, in good agreement with a theoretical model. At the same time, some of our observations deviate from the theoretical predictions, which we attribute to parasitic couplings resulting in current driving of the SQUIDs.

  3. Electrically tunable Dicke effect in a double-ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Cetin, A. E.; Muestecaplioglu, Oe. E.; Department of Physics, Koc University, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450

    We study the finite-element method analysis of the Dicke effect using numerical simulations in an all-optical system of an optical waveguide side-coupled to two interacting ring resonators in a liquid crystal environment. The system is shown to exhibit all the signatures of the Dicke effect under active and reversible control by an applied voltage.

  4. Decay Times and Quality Factors for a Resonance Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Heather; Tam, Austin; Moloney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The commercial resonance demonstration apparatus shown in Fig. 1 exhibits curious behavior. It consists of three pairs of slender spring-steel rods attached to a horizontal bar. When one of the rods is pulled aside and released, the rod of corresponding length is excited into visible motion, but the other rods remain apparently stationary. This…

  5. A few words about resonances in the electroweak effective Lagrangian

    SciTech Connect

    Rosell, Ignasi; Pich, Antonio; Santos, Joaquín

    Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU (2){sub L} ⊗ SU (2){sub R} → SU (2){sub L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m{sub h} = 126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculationmore » of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first approach to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the case of the purely Higgsless bosonic Lagrangian.« less

  6. Spin resonance and spin fluctuations in a quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, V. L.

    2017-02-01

    This is a review of theoretical works on spin resonance in a quantum wire associated with the spin-orbit interaction. We demonstrate that the spin-orbit induced internal "magnetic field" leads to a narrow spin-flip resonance at low temperatures in the absence of an applied magnetic field. An applied dc magnetic field perpendicular to and small compared with the spin-orbit field enhances the resonance absorption by several orders of magnitude. The component of applied field parallel to the spin-orbit field separates the resonance frequencies of right and left movers and enables a linearly polarized ac electric field to produce a dynamic magnetization as well as electric and spin currents. We start with a simple model of noninteracting electrons and then consider the interaction that is not weak in 1d electron system. We show that electron spin resonance in the spin-orbit field persists in the Luttinger liquid. The interaction produces an additional singularity (cusp) in the spin-flip channel associated with the plasma oscillation. As it was shown earlier by Starykh and his coworkers, the interacting 1d electron system in the external field with sufficiently large parallel component becomes unstable with respect to the appearance of a spin-density wave. This instability suppresses the spin resonance. The observation of the electron spin resonance in a thin wires requires low temperature and high intensity of electromagnetic field in the terahertz diapason. The experiment satisfying these two requirements is possible but rather difficult. An alternative approach that does not require strong ac field is to study two-time correlations of the total spin of the wire with an optical method developed by Crooker and coworkers. We developed theory of such correlations. We prove that the correlation of the total spin component parallel to the internal magnetic field is dominant in systems with the developed spin-density waves but it vanishes in Luttinger liquid. Thus, the

  7. A Scalable Framework For Segmenting Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Hore, Prodip; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Gu, Yuhua; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Darkazanli, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    A fast, accurate and fully automatic method of segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain is introduced. The approach scales well allowing fast segmentations of fine resolution images. The approach is based on modifications of the soft clustering algorithm, fuzzy c-means, that enable it to scale to large data sets. Two types of modifications to create incremental versions of fuzzy c-means are discussed. They are much faster when compared to fuzzy c-means for medium to extremely large data sets because they work on successive subsets of the data. They are comparable in quality to application of fuzzy c-means to all of the data. The clustering algorithms coupled with inhomogeneity correction and smoothing are used to create a framework for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the human brain. The framework is applied to a set of normal human brain volumes acquired from different magnetic resonance scanners using different head coils, acquisition parameters and field strengths. Results are compared to those from two widely used magnetic resonance image segmentation programs, Statistical Parametric Mapping and the FMRIB Software Library (FSL). The results are comparable to FSL while providing significant speed-up and better scalability to larger volumes of data. PMID:20046893

  8. A Computational and Experimental Study of Resonators in Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Ju, H.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous work by the present authors, a computational and experimental investigation of the acoustic properties of two-dimensional slit resonators was carried out. The present paper reports the results of a study extending the previous work to three dimensions. This investigation has two basic objectives. The first is to validate the computed results from direct numerical simulations of the flow and acoustic fields of slit resonators in three dimensions by comparing with experimental measurements in a normal incidence impedance tube. The second objective is to study the flow physics of resonant liners responsible for sound wave dissipation. Extensive comparisons are provided between computed and measured acoustic liner properties with both discrete frequency and broadband sound sources. Good agreements are found over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. Direct numerical simulation confirms the previous finding in two dimensions that vortex shedding is the dominant dissipation mechanism at high sound pressure intensity. However, it is observed that the behavior of the shed vortices in three dimensions is quite different from those of two dimensions. In three dimensions, the shed vortices tend to evolve into ring (circular in plan form) vortices, even though the slit resonator opening from which the vortices are shed has an aspect ratio of 2.5. Under the excitation of discrete frequency sound, the shed vortices align themselves into two regularly spaced vortex trains moving away from the resonator opening in opposite directions. This is different from the chaotic shedding of vortices found in two-dimensional simulations. The effect of slit aspect ratio at a fixed porosity is briefly studied. For the range of liners considered in this investigation, it is found that the absorption coefficient of a liner increases when the open area of the single slit is subdivided into multiple, smaller slits.

  9. RESONATORS. MODES: Modes of a plano - spherical laser resonator with the Gaussian gain distribution of the active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutin, A. A.

    2007-03-01

    Modes of a laser with plano-spherical degenerate and nondegenerate resonators are calculated upon diode pumping producing the Gaussian gain distribution in the active medium. Axially symmetric and off-axis pumpings are considered. It is shown that in the first case the lowest Hermite-Gaussian mode is excited with the largest weight both in the degenerate and nondegenerate resonator if the pump level is sufficiently high or the characteristic size wg of the amplifying region greatly exceeds the mode radius w0. The high-order Ince-Gaussian modes are excited upon weak off-axis pumping in the nondegenerate resonator both in the absence and presence of the symmetry of the gain distribution with respect to the resonator axis. It is found that when the level of off-axis symmetric pumping of the resonator is high enough, modes with the parameters of the TEM00 mode periodically propagating over a closed path in the resonator can exist. The explanation of this effect is given.

  10. Random acoustic metamaterial with a subwavelength dipolar resonance.

    PubMed

    Duranteau, Mickaël; Valier-Brasier, Tony; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Wunenburger, Régis

    2016-06-01

    The effective velocity and attenuation of longitudinal waves through random dispersions of rigid, tungsten-carbide beads in an elastic matrix made of epoxy resin in the range of beads volume fraction 2%-10% are determined experimentally. The multiple scattering model proposed by Luppé, Conoir, and Norris [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(2), 1113-1120 (2012)], which fully takes into account the elastic nature of the matrix and the associated mode conversions, accurately describes the measurements. Theoretical calculations show that the rigid particles display a local, dipolar resonance which shares several features with Minnaert resonance of bubbly liquids and with the dipolar resonance of core-shell particles. Moreover, for the samples under study, the main cause of smoothing of the dipolar resonance of the scatterers and the associated variations of the effective mass density of the dispersions is elastic relaxation, i.e., the finite time required for the shear stresses associated to the translational motion of the scatterers to propagate through the matrix. It is shown that its influence is governed solely by the value of the particle to matrix mass density contrast.

  11. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  12. The prevalence of resonances among large-a transneptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, Brett; Volk, Kathryn; Van Laerhoven, Christa

    2018-04-01

    The detached population consists of transneptunian objects (TNOs) with large semi-major axes and sufficiently high perihelia (roughly q>38 au, but there is no simple cut). However, what constitutes 'large semi-major axis' has been, and continues to be, unclear. Once beyond the apehlia of the classical Kuiper Belt (which extends out to about 60 au), objects with semimajor axes from a=60-150 au can be detached, but there are a reasonable number of objects in this range known to be in mean-motion resonances with Neptune. Beyond a=150 au, however, it is a widely-held belief that resonances become `unimportant', and that a q>38 au cut (or sometimes q>50 au) with a>150 au isolates a set of large semimajor axis detached objects. However, once semimajor axes become this large, the orbit determination of the object discovered near perihelion becomes a much harder task then for low-a TNOs. Because small velocity differences near the perihelion of large-a orbits cause large changes the fitted orbital in semimajor axis, extremely good and long baseline astrometry is required to reduce the semimajor axis uncertainty to be smaller than the few tenths of an astronomical unit widths of mean motion resonances. By carefully analyzing the astrometric data of all known large semimajor axis objects, we show that a very large fraction of the objects are in fact likely in high-order mean-motion resonances with Neptune. This prevealence for actually being resonant with Neptune would imply that hypothesized planets are problematic as they would remove the detached objects from these resonances. Instead, we favor a view in which the large-a population is the surviving remnant of a massive early scattering disk, whose surviving members are sculpted mostly by diffusive gravitational interactions with the four giant planets over the last four gigayears, but whose initial emplacement mechanism (in particular: perihelion lifting mechanism) is still unclear but of critical importance to the early

  13. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.

  14. Magnetically driven oscillator and resonance: a teaching tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, M.; Çolak, İ. Ö.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports a simple magnetically driven oscillator, designed and resolved in order to achieve a better student understanding and to overcome certain instructional difficulties. The apparatus is mainly comprised of an ordinary spring pendulum with a neodymium magnet attached to the bottom, a coil placed in the same vertical direction, an ordinary function generator, an oscilloscope and a smartphone. Driven oscillation and resonance is basically managed by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the coil and tuning the driving frequency to the natural frequency of the pendulum. The resultant oscillation is recorded by a smartphone video application and analyzed via a video analysis programme. The designed apparatus can easily be employed in basic physics laboratories to achieve an enhanced and deeper understanding of driven oscillation and resonance.

  15. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axismore » testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.« less

  16. Scanning properties of a resonant fiber-optic piezoelectric scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhe; Fu, Ling

    2011-12-01

    We develop a resonant fiber-optic scanner using four piezoelectric elements arranged as a square tube, which is efficient to manufacture and drive. Using coupled-field model based on finite element method, scanning properties of the scanner, including vibration mode, resonant frequency, and scanning range, are numerically studied. We also physically measure the effects of geometry sizes and drive signals on the scanning properties, thus providing a foundation for general purpose designs. A scanner adopted in a prototype of imaging system, with a diameter of ˜2 mm and driven by a voltage of 10 V (peak to peak), demonstrates the scanning performance by obtaining an image of resolution target bars. The proposed fiber-optic scanner can be applied to micro-endoscopy that requires two-dimensional scanning of fibers.

  17. Analysis of a Non-resonant Ultrasonic Levitation Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    In this study, a non-resonant configuration of ultrasonic levitation device is presented, which is formed by a small diameter ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. The influence of different levitator parameters on the levitation performance is investigated by using a numerical model that combines the Gor'kov theory with a matrix method based on the Rayleigh integral. In contrast with traditional acoustic levitators, the non-resonant ultrasonic levitation device allows the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be adjusted continually, without requiring the separation distance to be set to a multiple of half-wavelength. It is also demonstrated, both numerically and experimentally, that the levitating particle can be manipulated by maintaining the transducer in a fixed position in space and moving the reflector in respect to the transducer.

  18. A Millimeter Wave BPF using WG Mode High Permittivity Dielectric Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yosuke; Kogami, Yoshinori; Tomabechi, Yoshiro; Matsumura, Kazuhito

    In this paper, a design technique of whispering gallery mode high Q value dielectric disk resonators for a millimeter-wave bandpass filter is described. To minimize the resonator size, some high permittivity materials are used. In this resonator design, unloaded Q value of an interested mode and the higher order modes are calculated and then optimum resonator size for the WG mode dielectric filter is determined. For a designed resonator, the higher order modes are hardly excited while the Q value of the fundamental mode can be maximized. Finally, some 3stage BPFs are constructed at 60GHz by using these designed resonators.

  19. A Wideband Circularly Polarized Pixelated Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2016-08-23

    The design of a wideband circularly polarized pixelated dielectric resonator antenna using a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for far-field wireless power transfer applications. The antenna consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) which is discretized into 8 × 8 grid DR bars. The real-coded GA is utilized to estimate the optimal heights of the 64 DR bars to realize circular polarization. The proposed antenna is excited by a narrow rectangular slot etched on the ground plane. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are 32.32% (2.62-3.63 GHz) and 14.63% (2.85-3.30 GHz), respectively. A measured peak gain of 6.13 dBic is achieved at 3.2 GHz.

  20. Relationship between height and width of resonance peaks in a whispering gallery mode resonator immersed in water and sucrose solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Iwao; Yao, Haibei; Huiyi Luo, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    We employed a recently developed whispering gallery mode (WGM) dip sensor made of silica to obtain spectra for many resonance peaks in water and solutions of sucrose at different concentrations and thus having different refractive indices (RI). The apparent Q factor was estimated by fitting each peak profile in the busy resonance spectrum by a Lorentzian or a sum of Lorentzians. A plot of the Q factor as a function the peak height for all the peaks analyzed indicates a straight line with a negative slope as the upper limit, for each of water and the solutions. A coupling model for a resonator and a pair of fiber tapers to feed and pick up light, developed here, supports the presence of the upper limit. We also found that the round-trip attenuation of WGM was greater than the one estimated from light absorption by water, and the difference increased with the concentration of sucrose.

  1. Bose gases near resonance: Renormalized interactions in a condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Fei, E-mail: feizhou@phas.ubc.ca; Mashayekhi, Mohammad S.

    2013-01-15

    Bose gases at large scattering lengths or beyond the usual dilute limit for a long time have been one of the most challenging problems in many-body physics. In this article, we investigate the fundamental properties of a near-resonance Bose gas and illustrate that three-dimensional Bose gases become nearly fermionized near resonance when the chemical potential as a function of scattering lengths reaches a maximum and the atomic condensates lose metastability. The instability and accompanying maximum are shown to be a precursor of the sign change of g{sub 2}, the renormalized two-body interaction between condensed atoms. g{sub 2} changes from effectivelymore » repulsive to attractive when approaching resonance from the molecular side, even though the scattering length is still positive. This occurs when dimers, under the influence of condensates, emerge at zero energy in the atomic gases at a finite positive scattering length. We carry out our studies of Bose gases via applying a self-consistent renormalization group equation which is further subject to a boundary condition. We also comment on the relation between the approach here and the diagrammatic calculation in an early article [D. Borzov, M.S. Mashayekhi, S. Zhang, J.-L. Song, F. Zhou, Phys. Rev. A 85 (2012) 023620]. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Bose gas becomes nearly fermionized when its chemical potential approaches a maximum near resonance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At the maximum, an onset instability sets in at a positive scattering length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Condensates strongly influence the renormalization flow of few-body running coupling constants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective two-body interaction constant changes its sign at a positive scattering length.« less

  2. Breathers in a locally resonant granular chain with precompression

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; ...

    2016-09-01

    Here we study a locally resonant granular material in the form of a precompressed Hertzian chain with linear internal resonators. Using an asymptotic reduction, we derive an effective nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) modulation equation. In turn, this leads us to provide analytical evidence, subsequently corroborated numerically, for the existence of two distinct types of discrete breathers related to acoustic or optical modes: (a) traveling bright breathers with a strain profile exponentially vanishing at infinity and (b) stationary and traveling dark breathers, exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. Moreover, the stability and bifurcation structure of numerically computedmore » exact stationary dark breathers is also examined. Stationary bright breathers cannot be identified using the NLS equation, which is defocusing at the upper edges of the phonon bands and becomes linear at the lower edge of the optical band.« less

  3. Optoreflectometry determination of the resonance properties of a vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Garrel, Renaud; Nicollas, Richard; Giovanni, Antoine; Ouaknine, Maurice

    2007-09-01

    A new method of measuring the resonance properties of a vocal fold using electromagnetic excitation and laser optoreflectometry for response monitoring is described. Two resonance peaks were experimentally identified with one magnet stuck on the vocal fold at frequencies F0(1m)=54.7 Hz and F0'(1m)=35.8 Hz. The addition of a second magnet allowed calculation of the actual viscoelastic properties of the vocal fold: F0=71.8 Hz; quality factor Q=8.03; mass m=0.057 g; stiffness k=11.6 Nm; and damping zeta=0.0032 Nm(-1). A numerical simulation of a two-layered model verified the experimental data.

  4. Metamaterial split ring resonator as a sensitive mechanical vibration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikha Simon, K.; Chakyar, Sreedevi P.; Andrews, Jolly; Joseph V., P.

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces a sensitive vibration sensor based on microwave metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) capable of detecting any ground vibration. The experimental setup consists of single Broad-side Coupled SRR (BCSRR) unit fixed on a cantilever capable of sensitive vibrations. It is arranged between transmitting and receiving probes of a microwave measurement system. The absorption level variations at the resonant frequency due to the displacement from the reference plane of SRR, which is a function of the strength of external mechanical vibration, is analyzed. This portable and cost effective sensor working on a single frequency is observed to be capable of detecting even very weak vibrations. This may find potential applications in the field of tamper-proofing, mining, quarrying and earthquake sensing.

  5. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance.

    PubMed

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultracold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long-time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a pseudoclassical approximation introduced by Fishman et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 110, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudoclassical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  6. Optical circulation in a multimode optomechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Ruesink, Freek; Mathew, John P; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Alù, Andrea; Verhagen, Ewold

    2018-05-04

    Breaking the symmetry of electromagnetic wave propagation enables important technological functionality. In particular, circulators are nonreciprocal components that can route photons directionally in classical or quantum photonic circuits and offer prospects for fundamental research on electromagnetic transport. Developing highly efficient circulators thus presents an important challenge, especially to realise compact reconfigurable implementations that do not rely on magnetic fields to break reciprocity. We demonstrate optical circulation utilising radiation pressure interactions in an on-chip multimode optomechanical system. Mechanically mediated optical mode conversion in a silica microtoroid provides a synthetic gauge bias for light, enabling four-port circulation that exploits tailored interference between appropriate light paths. We identify two sideband conditions under which ideal circulation is approached. This allows to experimentally demonstrate ~10 dB isolation and <3 dB insertion loss in all relevant channels. We show the possibility of actively controlling the circulator properties, enabling ideal opportunities for reconfigurable integrated nanophotonic circuits.

  7. Resonance energy transfer: when a dipole fails.

    PubMed

    Andrews, David L; Leeder, Jamie M

    2009-05-14

    The Coulombic coupling of electric dipole (E1) transition moments is the most commonly studied and widely operative mechanism for energy migration in multichromophore systems. However a significant number of exceptions exist, in which donor decay and/or acceptor excitation processes are E1-forbidden. The alternative transfer mechanisms that can apply in such cases include roles for higher multipole transitions, exciton- or phonon-assisted interactions, and non-Coulombic interactions based on electron exchange. A quantum electrodynamical formulation provides a rigorous basis to assess the first of these, specifically addressing the relative significance of higher multipole contributions to the process of energy transfer in donor-acceptor systems where electric dipole transitions are precluded by symmetry. Working within the near-zone limit, where donor-acceptor separations are small in comparison to the chromophore scale, the analysis highlights the contributions of both electric quadrupole-electric quadrupole (E2-E2) coupling and the seldom considered second-order electric dipole-electric dipole (E1(2)-E1(2)) coupling. For both forms of interaction, experimentally meaningful rate equations are secured by the use of orientational averaging, and the mechanisms are analyzed with reference to systems in which E1-forbidden transitions are commonly reported.

  8. Resonance fluorescence from an atom in a squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, H. J.; Lane, A. S.; Walls, D. F.

    1987-06-01

    The fluorescent spectrum for a two-level atom which is damped by a squeezed vacuum shows striking differences from the spectrum for ordinary resonance fluorescence. For strong coherent driving fields the Mollow triplet depends on the relative phase of the driving field and the squeezed vacuum field. The central peak may have either subnatural linewidth or supernatural linewidth depending on this phase. The mean atomic polarization also shows a phase sensitivity.

  9. A Resonator for Low-Threshold Frequency Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    A proposed toroidal or disklike dielectric optical resonator (dielectric optical cavity) would be made of an optically nonlinear material and would be optimized for use in parametric frequency conversion by imposition of a spatially periodic permanent electric polarization. The poling (see figure) would suppress dispersions caused by both the material and the geometry of the optical cavity, thereby effecting quasi-matching of the phases of high-resonance-quality (high-Q) whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes. The quasi-phase-matching of the modes would serve to maximize the interactions among them. Such a resonator might be a prototype of a family of compact, efficient nonlinear devices for operation over a broad range of optical wavelengths. A little background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of this proposal: (1) Described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the whispering-gallery modes in a component of spheroidal, disklike, or toroidal shape are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. (2) For the sake of completeness, it must be stated that even though optical resonators of the type considered here are solid dielectric objects and light is confined within them by total internal reflection at dielectric interfaces without need for mirrors, such components are sometimes traditionally called cavities because their effects upon the light propagating within them are similar to those of true cavities bounded by mirrors. (3) For a given set of electromagnetic modes interacting with each other in an optically nonlinear material (e.g., modes associated with the frequencies involved in a frequency-conversion scheme), the threshold power for oscillation depends on the mode volumes and the mode-overlap integral. (4) Whispering-gallery modes are attractive in nonlinear optics because they maximize the effects of

  10. Theory of magnetoelastic resonance in a monoaxial chiral helimagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tereshchenko, A. A.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.; Proskurin, Igor; Sinitsyn, E. V.; Kishine, Jun-ichiro

    2018-05-01

    We study magnetoelastic resonance phenomena in a monoaxial chiral helimagnet belonging to the hexagonal crystal class. By computing the spectrum of a coupled elastic wave and spin wave, it is demonstrated how hybridization occurs depending on their chirality. Specific features of the magnetoelastic resonance are discussed for the conical phase and the soliton lattice phase stabilized in the monoaxial chiral helimagnet. The former phase exhibits appreciable nonreciprocity of the spectrum, and the latter is characterized by a multiresonance behavior. We propose that the nonreciprocal spin wave around the forced-ferromagnetic state has potential capability to convert the linearly polarized elastic wave to a circularly polarized one with the chirality opposite to the spin-wave chirality.

  11. Optically controlled resonant tunneling in a double-barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, S. C.; Wu, S.; Sanders, S.; Griffel, G.; Yariv, A.

    1991-03-01

    The resonant tunneling effect is optically enhanced in a GaAs/GaAlAs double-barrier structure that has partial lateral current confinement. The peak current increases and the valley current decreases simultaneously when the device surface is illuminated, due to the increased conductivity of the top layer of the structure. The effect of the lateral current confinement on the current-voltage characteristic of a double-barrier resonant tunneling structure was also studied. With increased lateral current confinement, the peak and valley current decrease at a different rate such that the current peak-to-valley ratio increases up to three times. The experimental results are explained by solving the electrostatic potential distribution in the structure using a simple three-layer model.

  12. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors.

  13. Parametric resonance in the early Universe—a fitting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Daniel G.; Torrentí, Francisco, E-mail: daniel.figueroa@cern.ch, E-mail: f.torrenti@csic.es

    Particle production via parametric resonance in the early Universe, is a non-perturbative, non-linear and out-of-equilibrium phenomenon. Although it is a well studied topic, whenever a new scenario exhibits parametric resonance, a full re-analysis is normally required. To avoid this tedious task, many works present often only a simplified linear treatment of the problem. In order to surpass this circumstance in the future, we provide a fitting analysis of parametric resonance through all its relevant stages: initial linear growth, non-linear evolution, and relaxation towards equilibrium. Using lattice simulations in an expanding grid in 3+1 dimensions, we parametrize the dynamics' outcome scanningmore » over the relevant ingredients: role of the oscillatory field, particle coupling strength, initial conditions, and background expansion rate. We emphasize the inaccuracy of the linear calculation of the decay time of the oscillatory field, and propose a more appropriate definition of this scale based on the subsequent non-linear dynamics. We provide simple fits to the relevant time scales and particle energy fractions at each stage. Our fits can be applied to post-inflationary preheating scenarios, where the oscillatory field is the inflaton, or to spectator-field scenarios, where the oscillatory field can be e.g. a curvaton, or the Standard Model Higgs.« less

  14. Vector dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Ning, Qiu-Yi; Mo, Hai-Lan; Cui, Hu; Liu, Jin; Wu, Li-Jun; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-04-22

    We report on the vector nature of rectangular pulse operating in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. Apart from the typical signatures of DSR, the rectangular pulse trapping of two polarization components centered at different wavelengths was observed and they propagated as a group-velocity locked vector soliton. Moreover, the polarization resolved soliton spectra show different spectral distributions. The observed results will enhance the understanding of fundamental physics of DSR phenomenon.

  15. The multipole resonance probe: characterization of a prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapke, Martin; Oberrath, Jens; Schulz, Christian; Storch, Robert; Styrnoll, Tim; Zietz, Christian; Awakowicz, Peter; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Musch, Thomas; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Rolfes, Ilona

    2011-08-01

    The multipole resonance probe (MRP) was recently proposed as an economical and industry compatible plasma diagnostic device (Lapke et al 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 051502). This communication reports the experimental characterization of a first MRP prototype in an inductively coupled argon/nitrogen plasma at 10 Pa. The behavior of the device follows the predictions of both an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The obtained electron densities are in excellent agreement with the results of Langmuir probe measurements.

  16. Precession of a rapidly rotating cylinder flow: traverse through resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Marques, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    The flow in a rapidly rotating cylinder that is titled and also rotating around another axis can undergo sudden transitions to turbulence. Experimental observations of this have been associated with triadic resonances. The experimental and theoretical results are well-established in the literature, but there remains a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms at play in the sudden transition from laminar to turbulent flow with very small variations in the governing parameters. Here, we present direct numerical simulations of a traverse in parameter space through an isolated resonance, and describe in detail the bifurcations involved in the sudden transition. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1336410 and Spanish Ministry of Education and Science Grant (with FEDER funds) FIS2013-40880.

  17. First resonant tunneling via a light-hole ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampin, J. F.; Mollot, F.

    1998-07-01

    We report the demonstration of resonant tunneling of light-holes through an AlAs/GaAs 0.7P 0.3 double-barrier heterostructure. The tensile strain in the quantum well reverses the order of the light- and heavy-hole levels, the first light-hole level becoming the ground state. The I( V) characteristics are measured at different temperatures and compared to those of a standard AlAs/GaAs unstrained structure. The peak current density of the first light-hole resonance and its peak-to-valley current ratio are enhanced. They reach 28 A/cm 2 and 3.4 : 1 at 15 K. A negative differential resistance is observed up to 250 K.

  18. Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance as a Sensitive Detector of Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance allows for noninvasive measurements of biochemical reactions in vivo. Although this technique provides a unique tool for assaying enzymatic activities in intact organs, the scope of its application is still elusive for the wider scientific community. The purpose of this review is to provide key principles and parameters to guide the researcher interested in adopting this technology to address a biochemical, biomedical, or medical issue. It is presented in the form of a compendium containing the underlying essential physical concepts as well as suggestions to help assess the potential of the technique within the framework of specific research environments. Explicit examples are used to illustrate the power as well as the limitations of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance. PMID:25369537

  19. Chaos and Beyond in a Water Filled Ultrasonic Resonance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazlo, Adler; Yost, W.; Cantrell, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Finite amplitude ultrasonic wave resonances in a one-dimensional liquid-filled cavity, formed by a narrow band transducer and a plane reflector, are reported. The resonances are observed to include not only the expected harmonic and subharmonic signals (1,2) but chaotic signals as well. The generation mechanism requires attaining a threshold value of the driving amplitude that the liquid-filled cavity system becomes sufficiently nonlinear in response. The nonlinear features of the system were recently investigated via the construction of an ultrasonic interferometer having optical precision. The transducers were compressional, undamped quartz and lithium niobate crystals having the frequency range 1-10 MHz, driven by a high power amplifier. Both an optical diffraction system to characterize the diffraction pattern of laser light normally incident to the cavity and a receiving transducer attached to an aligned reflector with lapped flat and parallel surfaces were used to assess the generated resonance response in the cavity. At least 5 regions of excitation are identified.

  20. Experimental Results from a Resonant Dielectric Laser Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Rodney; McNeur, Joshua; Sozer, Esin; Travish, Gil; Hazra, Kiran Shankar; Matthews, Brian; England, Joel; Peralta, Edgar; Wu, Ziran

    2015-04-01

    Laser-powered accelerators have the potential to operate with very large accelerating gradients (~ GV/m) and represent a path toward extremely compact colliders and accelerator technology. Optical-scale laser-powered devices based on field-shaping structures (known as dielectric laser accelerators, or DLAs) have been described and demonstrated recently. Here we report on the first experimental results from the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), a DLA based on a slab-symmetric resonant optical-scale structure. As a resonant (rather than near-field) device, the MAP is distinct from other DLAs. Its cavity resonance enhances its accelerating field relative to the incoming laser fields, which are coupled efficiently through a diffractive optic on the upper face of the device. The MAP demonstrated modest accelerating gradients in recent experiments, in which it was powered by a Ti:Sapphire laser well below its breakdown limit. More detailed results and some implications for future developments will be discussed. Supported in part by the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (UCLA); U.S. Dept of Energy (SLAC); and DARPA (SLAC).

  1. A new imaging technique based on resonance for arterial vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Fatemi, Mostafa; Greenleaf, James F.

    2003-04-01

    Vibro-acoustography is a new noncontact imaging method based on the radiation force of ultrasound. We extend this technique for imaging of arterial vessels based on vibration resonance. The arterial vessel is excited remotely by ultrasound at a resonant frequency, at which the vibration of the vessel as well as its transmission to the body surface are large enough to be measured. By scanning the ultrasound beam across the vessel plane and measuring the vibration at one single point on the body or vessel surface, an image of the interior artery can be mapped. Theory is developed that predicts the measured velocity is proportional to the value of the mode shape at resonance. Experimental studies were carried out on a silicone tube embedded in a cylindrical gel phantom of large radius, which simulates a large artery and the surrounding body. The fundamental frequency was measured at which the ultrasound transducer scanned across the tube plane with velocity measurement at one single point on the tube or on the phantom by laser. The images obtained show clearly the interior tube and the modal shape of the tube. The present technique offers a new imaging method for arterial vessels.

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance in a topographically modulated permalloy film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklenar, J.; Tucciarone, P.; Lee, R. J.; Tice, D.; Chang, R. P. H.; Lee, S. J.; Nevirkovets, I. P.; Heinonen, O.; Ketterson, J. B.

    2015-04-01

    A major focus within the field of magnonics involves the manipulation and control of spin-wave modes. This is usually done by patterning continuous soft magnetic films. Here, we report on work in which we use topographic modifications of a continuous magnetic thin film, rather than lithographic patterning techniques, to modify the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum. To demonstrate this technique we have performed in-plane, broadband, ferromagnetic resonance studies on a 100-nm-thick permalloy film sputtered onto a colloidal crystal with individual sphere diameters of 200 nm. Effects resulting from the, ideally, sixfold-symmetric underlying colloidal crystal were studied as a function of the in-plane field angle through experiment and micromagnetic modeling. Experimentally, we find two primary modes; the ratio of the intensities of these two modes exhibits a sixfold dependence. Detailed micromagnetic modeling shows that both modes are quasiuniform and nodeless in the unit cell but that they reside in different demagnetized regions of the unit cell. Our results demonstrate that topographic modification of magnetic thin films opens additional directions for manipulating ferromagnetic resonant excitations.

  3. Nondegenerate parametric oscillations in a tunable superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Andreas; Krantz, Philip; Simoen, Michaël; Svensson, Ida-Maria; Schneider, Ben; Shumeiko, Vitaly; Delsing, Per; Bylander, Jonas

    2018-04-01

    We investigate nondegenerate parametric oscillations in a superconducting microwave multimode resonator that is terminated by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The parametric effect is achieved by modulating magnetic flux through the SQUID at a frequency close to the sum of two resonator-mode frequencies. For modulation amplitudes exceeding an instability threshold, self-sustained oscillations are observed in both modes. The amplitudes of these oscillations show good quantitative agreement with a theoretical model. The oscillation phases are found to be correlated and exhibit strong fluctuations which broaden the oscillation spectral linewidths. These linewidths are significantly reduced by applying a weak on-resonant tone, which also suppresses the phase fluctuations. When the weak tone is detuned, we observe synchronization of the oscillation frequency with the frequency of the input. For the detuned input, we also observe an emergence of three idlers in the output. This observation is in agreement with theory indicating four-mode amplification and squeezing of a coherent input.

  4. Properties of nucleon resonances by means of a genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid

    2008-06-15

    We present an optimization scheme that employs a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the properties of low-lying nucleon excitations within a realistic photo-pion production model based upon an effective Lagrangian. We show that with this modern optimization technique it is possible to reliably assess the parameters of the resonances and the associated error bars as well as to identify weaknesses in the models. To illustrate the problems the optimization process may encounter, we provide results obtained for the nucleon resonances {delta}(1230) and {delta}(1700). The former can be easily isolated and thus has been studied in depth, while the latter ismore » not as well known experimentally.« less

  5. A theory of X and Z multiquark resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiani, Luciano; Polosa, Antonio D.; Riquer, Veronica

    2018-03-01

    We introduce the hypothesis that diquarks and antidiquarks in tetraquarks are separated by a potential barrier. We show that this notion can answer satisfactorily long standing questions challenging the diquark-antidiquark model of exotic resonances. The tetraquark description of X and Z resonances is shown to be compatible with present limits on the non-observation of charged partners X±, of the X (3872) and the absence of a hyperfine splitting between two different neutral states. In the same picture, Zc and Zb particles are expected to form complete isospin triplets plus singlets. It is also explained why the decay rate into final states including quarkonia are suppressed with respect to those having open charm/beauty states.

  6. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  7. A microring resonator sensor for sensitive detection of 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules.

  8. Acoustic resonances in cylinder bundles oscillating in a compressibile fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-12-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on acoustic resonances of elastic oscillations of a group of parallel, circular, thin cylinders in an unbounded volume of barotropic, compressible, inviscid fluid. The perturbed motion of the fluid is assumed due entirely to the flexural oscillations of the cylinders. The motion of the fluid disturbances is first formulated in a three-dimensional wave form and then casted into a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation for the harmonic motion in time and in axial space. The acoustic motion in the fluid and the elastic motion in the cylinders are solved simultaneously. Acoustic resonances were approximately determinedmore » from the secular (eigenvalue) equation by the method of successive iteration with the use of digital computers for a given set of the fluid properties and the cylinders' geometry and properties. Effects of the flexural wavenumber and the configuration of and the spacing between the cylinders on the acoustic resonances were thoroughly investigated.« less

  9. A low-g electrostatically actuated resonant switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramini, A.; Younis, M. I.; Su, Q. T.

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates a new concept of an electrostatically actuated resonant switch (EARS) for earthquake detection and low-g seismic applications. The resonator is designed to operate close to the instability bands of frequency-response curves, where it is forced to collapse dynamically (pull-in) if operated within these bands. By careful tuning, the resonator can be made to enter the pull-in instability zone upon the detection of the earthquake signal, thereby snapping down as an electric switch. Such a switching action can be functionalized for alarming purposes or can be used to activate a network of sensors for seismic activity recording. The EARS is modeled and its dynamic response is simulated using a nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model. Experimental investigation is conducted demonstrating the EARS’ capability of being triggered at small levels of acceleration as low as 0.02g. Results for the switching events for several levels of low-g accelerations using both theory and experiments are presented and compared.

  10. Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) as biosensors: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Luo, Jikui; Flewitt, Andrew J; Cai, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiubo

    2018-09-30

    Biosensors play important roles in different applications such as medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, food safety, and the study of biomolecular interactions. Highly sensitive, label-free and disposable biosensors are particularly desired for many clinical applications. In the past decade, film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) have been developed as biosensors because of their high resonant frequency and small base mass (hence greater sensitivity), lower cost, label-free capability and small size. This paper reviews the piezoelectric materials used for FBARs, the optimisation of device structures, and their applications as biosensors in a wide range of biological applications such as the detection of antigens, DNAs and small biomolecules. Their integration with microfluidic devices and high-throughput detection are also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Probing a new strongly interacting sector via composite diboson resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, P.; Yu, Chaehyun; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2017-06-01

    Diphoton resonance was a crucial discovery mode for the 125 GeV Standard Model Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This mode or the more general diboson modes may also play an important role in probing for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this paper, we consider the possibility that a diphoton resonance is due to a composite scalar or pseudoscalar boson, whose constituents are either new hyperquarks Q or scalar hyperquarks Q ˜ confined by a new hypercolor force at a confinement scale Λh. Assuming the mass mQ (or mQ ˜) ≫Λh, a diphoton resonance could be interpreted as either a Q Q ¯ (1S0) state ηQ with JP C=0-+ or a Q ˜ Q˜ †(1S0) state ηQ ˜ with JP C=0++. For the Q Q ¯ scenario, there will be a spin-triplet partner ψQ which is slightly heavier than ηQ due to the hyperfine interactions mediated by hypercolor gluon exchange; while for the Q ˜Q˜† scenario, the spin-triplet partner χQ ˜ arises from higher radial excitation with nonzero orbital angular momentum. We consider productions and decays of ηQ, ηQ ˜, ψQ, and χQ ˜ at the LHC using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach. We discuss how to test these scenarios by using the Drell-Yan process and the forward dijet azimuthal angular distributions to determine the JP C quantum number of the diphoton resonance. Constraints on the parameter space can be obtained by interpreting some of the small diphoton "excesses" reported by the LHC as the composite scalar or pseudoscalar of the model. Another important test of the model is the presence of a nearby hypercolor-singlet but color-octet state like the 1S0 state ηQ8 or ηQ˜8, which can also be constrained by dijet or monojet plus monophoton data. Both possibilities of a large or small width of the resonance can be accommodated, depending on whether the hyper-glueball states are kinematically allowed in the final state or not.

  12. The Spin-orbit resonance of Mercury: a Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoedt, S.; Lemaitre, A.

    2005-04-01

    One of the main characteristics of Mercury is its 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, combined with a 1:1 resonance between the orbital node of its orbit and the angle describing the precession of the rotation axis, both measured on the ecliptic plane. We build an analytical model, using Hamiltonian formalism, that takes into account this phenomenon thanks to the introduction of three resonant variables and conjugated momenta. We calculate the equilibria corresponding to four different configurations, which means four completely different values of the (ecliptic) obliquity; in particular, we focus on the present (stable) situation of Mercury, and thanks to several canonical transformations, we obtain, near the equilibrium, three pairs of angle-action variables, and consequently, three basic frequencies. Let us note that the model is as simple as possible: the gravitational potential is limited to the second degree terms (the only ones for which a value can be presently given), and the orbit of Mercury is Keplerian. The numerical values obtained by our simplified model are validated by the coherence with existing complete numerical models.

  13. Like cures like: a neuroimmunological model based on electromagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Shahram; Kasariyans, Aditya; Noorbakhsh, Farshid

    2013-12-01

    Recent investigations have pointed to the production of characteristic electromagnetic (EM) waves in highly diluted sterile filtrates of different microorganisms and their associated DNA molecules. Analysis of these diluted solutions that are prepared using methods almost identical to the way that homeopathic medicines are prepared has pointed to the existence of nanostructures capable of emitting EM waves. Combining these results with findings that point to the interaction of EM waves with sensory nerves with subsequent activation of homeostatic efferent pathways, we propose a model to describe mechanisms underlying the effects of homeopathic remedies. THE MODEL: Living cells and tissues are capable of generating EM waves in their physiological conditions. When a cell deviates from its physiological state, in addition to normal EM emissions, it starts to produce EM waves with altered characteristics. According to our model, the main cause of the therapeutic effects of homeopathic remedies is the occurrence of resonance between the non-physiological EM waves of the patient and extremely low-frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures present in the homeopathic remedy. Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the patient's non-physiological EM waves and those produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar. Once resonance occurs, stimulation of the patient's sensory neurons, which are sensitized due to inflammation of any origin, leads to triggering of different regulatory mechanisms, including the activation of descending antinociceptive and/or cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, which leads to the restoration of homeostasis.

  14. Tunable geometric Fano resonances in a metal/insulator stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotewohl, Herbert

    We present a theoretical analysis of surface-plasmon-mediated mode-coupling in a planar thin film metal/insulator stack. The spatial overlap of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and a waveguide mode results in a Fano interference analog. Tuning of the material parameters effects the modes and output fields of the system. Lastly, the intensity and phase sensitivity of the system are compared to a standard surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We begin with background information on Fano interference, an interference effect between two indistinguishable pathways. Originally described for autoionization, we discuss the analogs in other systems. We discuss the features of Fano interference in the mode diagrams, and the Fano resonance observed in the output field. The idea of a geometric Fano resonance (GFR) occurring in the angular domain is presented. Background information on surface plasmon polaritons is covered next. The dielectric properties of metals and how they relate to surface plasmons is first reviewed. The theoretical background of SPPs on an infinite planar surface is covered. The modes of a two planar interface metal/insulator stack are reviewed and the leaky properties of the waveguide are shown in the reflectance. We solve for modes of a three interface metal/insulator stack and shows an avoided crossing in the modes indicative of Fano interference. We observe the asymmetric Fano resonance in the angular domain in the reflectance. The tunability of the material parameters tunes the GFR of the system. The GFR tuning is explored and different Fano lineshapes are observed. We also observe a reversal of the asymmetry Fano lineshape, attributed to the relate phase interactions of the non-interacting modes. The phase of the GFR is calculated and discussed for the variations of the parameters. The reflected field is explored as the insulator permittivities are varied. As the waveguide permittivity is varied, we show there is little response from the system. As the

  15. Creating a zero-order resonator using an optical surface transformation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Ge, Xiaochen; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    A novel zero-order resonator has been designed by an optical surface transformation (OST) method. The resonator proposed here has many novel features. Firstly, the mode volume can be very small (e.g. in the subwavelength scale). Secondly, the resonator is open (no reflecting walls are utilized) and resonant effects can be found in a continuous spectrum (i.e. a continuum of eigenmodes). Thirdly, we only need one homogenous medium to realize the proposed resonator. The shape of the resonator can be a ring structure of arbitrary shape. In addition to the natural applications (e.g. optical storage) of an optical resonator, we also suggest some other applications of our novel optical open resonator (e.g. power combination, squeezing electromagnetic energy in the free space). PMID:26888359

  16. Atomic resolution ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with scan rate breaking the resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork resonator.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2011-05-01

    We present an ultra-fast scanning tunneling microscope with atomic resolution at 26 kHz scan rate which surpasses the resonant frequency of the quartz tuning fork resonator used as the fast scan actuator. The main improvements employed in achieving this new record are (1) fully low voltage design (2) independent scan control and data acquisition, where the tuning fork (carrying a tip) is blindly driven to scan by a function generator with the scan voltage and tunneling current (I(T)) being measured as image data (this is unlike the traditional point-by-point move and measure method where data acquisition and scan control are switched many times).

  17. Coherent Raman scattering with incoherent light for a multiply resonant mixture: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Jason C.; Ulness, Darin J.; Stimson, Michael J.; Albrecht, A. C.

    1998-02-01

    The theory for coherent Raman scattering (CRS) with broadband incoherent light is presented for a multiply resonant, multicomponent mixture of molecules that exhibits simultaneous multiple resonances with the frequencies of the driving fields. All possible pairwise hyperpolarizability contributions to the signal intensity are included in the theoretical treatment-(resonant-resonant, resonant-nonresonant, and nonresonant-nonresonant correlations between chromophores) and it is shown how the different types of correlations manifest themselves as differently behaved components of the signal intensity. The Raman resonances are modeled as Lorentzians in the frequency domain, as is the spectral density of the incoherent light. The analytic results for this multiply resonant mixture are presented and applied to a specific binary mixture. These analytic results will be used to recover frequencies and dephasing times in a series of experiments on multiply resonant mixtures.

  18. Noise control using a plate radiator and an acoustic resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control subassembly for reducing noise caused by a source (such as an aircraft engine) independent of the subassembly. A noise radiating panel is bendably vibratable to generate a panel noise canceling at least a portion of the source noise. A piezoceramic actuator plate is connected to the panel. A front plate is spaced apart from the panel and the first plate, is positioned generally between the source noise and the panel, and has a sound exit port. A first pair of spaced-apart side walls each generally abut the panel and the front plate so as to generally enclose a front cavity to define a resonator.

  19. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    Here, we consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  20. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    We consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  1. Ground resonance analysis using a substructure modeling approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S.-Y.; Berman, A.; Austin, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    A convenient and versatile procedure for modeling and analyzing ground resonance phenomena is described and illustrated. A computer program is used which dynamically couples differential equations with nonlinear and time dependent coefficients. Each set of differential equations may represent a component such as a rotor, fuselage, landing gear, or a failed damper. Arbitrary combinations of such components may be formulated into a model of a system. When the coupled equations are formed, a procedure is executed which uses a Floquet analysis to determine the stability of the system. Illustrations of the use of the procedures along with the numerical examples are presented.

  2. Ground resonance analysis using a substructure modeling approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Austin, E. E.; Berman, A.

    1985-01-01

    A convenient and versatile procedure for modeling and analyzing ground resonance phenomena is described and illustrated. A computer program is used which dynamically couples differential equations with nonlinear and time dependent coefficients. Each set of differential equations may represent a component such as a rotor, fuselage, landing gear, or a failed damper. Arbitrary combinations of such components may be formulated into a model of a system. When the coupled equations are formed, a procedure is executed which uses a Floquet analysis to determine the stability of the system. Illustrations of the use of the procedures along with the numerical examples are presented.

  3. Magnetic resonance force microscopy with a paramagnetic probe

    DOE PAGES

    Berman, G. P.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Here, we consider theoretically extension of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) replacing a ferromagnetic probe on a cantilever tip (CT) with a paramagnetic one (PMRFM). The dynamics of the interaction between the paramagnetic probe and a local magnetic moment in a sample is analyzed, using a quasi-classical approach. We show that the application of a proper sequence of electromagnetic pulses provides a significant deflection of the CT from the initial equilibrium position. Periodic application of these sequences of pulses results in quasi-periodic CT deflections from the equilibrium, which can be used for detection of the magnetic moment in a sample.

  4. Phase transitions in trajectories of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a resonator.

    PubMed

    Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P; Lesanovsky, Igor; Armour, Andrew D

    2012-05-01

    Recent progress in the study of dynamical phase transitions has been made with a large-deviation approach to study trajectories of stochastic jumps using a thermodynamic formalism. We study this method applied to an open quantum system consisting of a superconducting single-electron transistor, near the Josephson quasiparticle resonance, coupled to a resonator. We find that the dynamical behavior shown in rare trajectories can be rich even when the mean dynamical activity is small, and thus the formalism gives insights into the form of fluctuations. The structure of the dynamical phase diagram found from the quantum-jump trajectories of the resonator is studied, and we see that sharp transitions in the dynamical activity may be related to the appearance and disappearance of bistabilities in the state of the resonator as system parameters are changed. We also demonstrate that for a fast resonator, the trajectories of quasiparticles are similar to the resonator trajectories.

  5. Development of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Double Saw Resonator System at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yunusa, Zainab; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Ismail, Alyani; Isa, Maryam Mohd; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Rahmanian, Saeed; Ibrahim, Siti Azlida; Shabaneh, Arafat A.A

    2015-01-01

    A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%. PMID:25730480

  6. A 10kW series resonant converter design, transistor characterization, and base-drive optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R.; Hancock, D.

    1981-01-01

    Transistors are characterized for use as switches in resonant circuit applications. A base drive circuit to provide the optimal base drive to these transistors under resonant circuit conditions is developed and then used in the design, fabrication and testing of a breadboard, spaceborne type 10 kW series resonant converter.

  7. Analysis of the effect of a rectangular cavity resonator on acoustic wave transmission in a waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R.; Evans, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The transmission of acoustic waves along a two-dimensional waveguide which is coupled through an opening in its wall to a rectangular cavity resonator is considered. The resonator acts as a classical band-stop filter, significantly reducing acoustic transmission across a range of frequencies. Assuming wave frequencies below the first waveguide cut-off, the solution for the reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes is formulated exactly within the framework of inviscid linear acoustics. The main aim of the paper is to develop an approximation in closed form for reflected and transmitted amplitudes when the gap in the thin wall separating the waveguide and the cavity resonator is assumed to be small. This approximation is shown to accurately capture the effect of all cavities resonances, not just the fundamental Helmholtz resonance. It is envisaged this formula (and more generally the mathematical approach adopted) could be used in the development of acoustic metamaterial devices containing resonator arrays.

  8. Frequency comb generation in a silicon ring resonator modulator.

    PubMed

    Demirtzioglou, Iosif; Lacava, Cosimo; Bottrill, Kyle R H; Thomson, David J; Reed, Graham T; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2018-01-22

    We report on the generation of an optical comb of highly uniform in power frequency lines (variation less than 0.7 dB) using a silicon ring resonator modulator. A characterization involving the measurement of the complex transfer function of the ring is presented and five frequency tones with a 10-GHz spacing are produced using a dual-frequency electrical input at 10 and 20 GHz. A comb shape comparison is conducted for different modulator bias voltages, indicating optimum operation at a small forward-bias voltage. A time-domain measurement confirmed that the comb signal was highly coherent, forming 20.3-ps-long pulses.

  9. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  10. A dissipative self-sustained optomechanical resonator on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. G.; Li, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Cai, H.; Gu, Y. D.; Karim, M. F.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, T. N.; Yang, Z. C.; Hao, Y. L.; Qiu, C. W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we report the experimental demonstration of a dissipative self-sustained optomechanical resonator on a silicon chip by introducing dissipative optomechanical coupling between a vertically offset bus waveguide and a racetrack optical cavity. Different from conventional blue-detuning limited self-oscillation, the dissipative optomechanical resonator exhibits self-oscillation in the resonance and red detuning regime. The anti-damping effects of dissipative optomechanical coupling are validated by both numerical simulation and experimental results. The demonstration of the dissipative self-sustained optomechanical resonator with an extended working range has potential applications in optomechanical oscillation for on-chip signal modulation and processing.

  11. Teaching the Concept of Resonance with the Help of a Classical Guitar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasar, M. Kaan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Sengoren, Serap Kaya

    2012-12-01

    Resonance refers to the vibrations of larger amplitude that are produced under the effect of a harmonic driving force. Although resonance is an essential concept behind many events happening in nature, students usually have difficulty in learning and explaining the phenomenon. Various demonstrations are carried out in physics classes to clarify the concept of resonance.2-6

  12. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  13. Method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Matkso, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of fabricating a whispering gallery mode resonator (WGMR) is provided. The WGMR can be fabricated from a particular material, annealed, and then polished. The WGMR can be repeatedly annealed and then polished. The repeated polishing of the WGMR can be carried out using an abrasive slurry. The abrasive slurry can have a predetermined, constant grain size. Each subsequent polishing of the WGMR can use an abrasive slurry having a grain size that is smaller than the grain size of the abrasive slurry of the previous polishing iteration.

  14. A versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarr, C. E.; Nickerson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A digital pulse programmer producing the standard pulse sequences required for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. In addition, a 'saturation burst' sequence, useful in the measurement of long relaxation times in solids, is provided. Both positive and negative 4 V trigger pulses are produced that are fully synchronous with a crystal-controlled time base, and the pulse programmer may be phase-locked with a maximum pulse jitter of 3 ns to the oscillator of a coherent pulse spectrometer. Medium speed TTL integrated circuits are used throughout.

  15. A smart magnetic resonance contrast agent for selective copper sensing.

    PubMed

    Que, Emily L; Chang, Christopher J

    2006-12-20

    We describe the synthesis and properties of Copper-Gad-1 (CG1), a new type of smart magnetic resonance (MR) sensor for selective detection of copper. CG1 is composed of a gadolinium contrast agent core tethered to copper-selective recognition motif. Cu2+-induced modulation of inner-sphere water access to the Gd3+ center provides a sensing mechanism for reporting Cu2+ levels by reading out changes in longitudinal proton relaxivity values. CG1 features good selectivity for Cu2+ over abundant biological cations and a 41% increase in relaxivity upon Cu2+ binding and is capable of detecting micromolar changes in Cu2+ concentrations in aqueous media.

  16. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew T S; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-11-02

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. The work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths.

  17. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Adam M.; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; DeRose, Christopher T.; ...

    2015-10-27

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. Furthermore, the work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths.

  18. Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Valentina; Giovannetti, Giulio; Vanello, Nicola; Lombardi, Massimo; Landini, Luigi; Simi, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients’ and workers’ safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle. PMID:19578460

  19. Resonances in a Chaotic Attractor Crisis of the Lorenz Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, Alexis; Lucarini, Valerio; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2018-02-01

    Local bifurcations of stationary points and limit cycles have successfully been characterized in terms of the critical exponents of these solutions. Lyapunov exponents and their associated covariant Lyapunov vectors have been proposed as tools for supporting the understanding of critical transitions in chaotic dynamical systems. However, it is in general not clear how the statistical properties of dynamical systems change across a boundary crisis during which a chaotic attractor collides with a saddle. This behavior is investigated here for a boundary crisis in the Lorenz flow, for which neither the Lyapunov exponents nor the covariant Lyapunov vectors provide a criterion for the crisis. Instead, the convergence of the time evolution of probability densities to the invariant measure, governed by the semigroup of transfer operators, is expected to slow down at the approach of the crisis. Such convergence is described by the eigenvalues of the generator of this semigroup, which can be divided into two families, referred to as the stable and unstable Ruelle-Pollicott resonances, respectively. The former describes the convergence of densities to the attractor (or escape from a repeller) and is estimated from many short time series sampling the state space. The latter is responsible for the decay of correlations, or mixing, and can be estimated from a long times series, invoking ergodicity. It is found numerically for the Lorenz flow that the stable resonances do approach the imaginary axis during the crisis, as is indicative of the loss of global stability of the attractor. On the other hand, the unstable resonances, and a fortiori the decay of correlations, do not flag the proximity of the crisis, thus questioning the usual design of early warning indicators of boundary crises of chaotic attractors and the applicability of response theory close to such crises.

  20. Resonances in a Chaotic Attractor Crisis of the Lorenz Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantet, Alexis; Lucarini, Valerio; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2017-12-01

    Local bifurcations of stationary points and limit cycles have successfully been characterized in terms of the critical exponents of these solutions. Lyapunov exponents and their associated covariant Lyapunov vectors have been proposed as tools for supporting the understanding of critical transitions in chaotic dynamical systems. However, it is in general not clear how the statistical properties of dynamical systems change across a boundary crisis during which a chaotic attractor collides with a saddle. This behavior is investigated here for a boundary crisis in the Lorenz flow, for which neither the Lyapunov exponents nor the covariant Lyapunov vectors provide a criterion for the crisis. Instead, the convergence of the time evolution of probability densities to the invariant measure, governed by the semigroup of transfer operators, is expected to slow down at the approach of the crisis. Such convergence is described by the eigenvalues of the generator of this semigroup, which can be divided into two families, referred to as the stable and unstable Ruelle-Pollicott resonances, respectively. The former describes the convergence of densities to the attractor (or escape from a repeller) and is estimated from many short time series sampling the state space. The latter is responsible for the decay of correlations, or mixing, and can be estimated from a long times series, invoking ergodicity. It is found numerically for the Lorenz flow that the stable resonances do approach the imaginary axis during the crisis, as is indicative of the loss of global stability of the attractor. On the other hand, the unstable resonances, and a fortiori the decay of correlations, do not flag the proximity of the crisis, thus questioning the usual design of early warning indicators of boundary crises of chaotic attractors and the applicability of response theory close to such crises.

  1. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Seán M.; Maccabe, Gregory S.; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-01

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 +/- 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements.

  2. A fast and accurate surface plasmon resonance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Sánchez, Y. M.; Luna Moreno, D.; Noé Arias, E.; Garnica Campos, G.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we propose a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) system driven by Labview software which produces a fast, simple and accuracy measurements of samples. The system takes 2000 data in a range of 20 degrees in 20 seconds and 0.01 degrees of resolution. All the information is sent from the computer to the microcontroller as an array of bytes in hexadecimal format to be analyzed. Besides to using the system in SPR measurement is possible to make measurement of the critic angle, and Brewster angle using the Abeles method.

  3. A resonance-free nano-film airborne ultrasound emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daschewski, Maxim; Harrer, Andrea; Prager, Jens; Kreutzbruck, Marc; Beck, Uwe; Lange, Thorid; Weise, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we present a novel thermo-acoustic approach for the generation of broad band airborne ultrasound and investigate the applicability of resonance-free thermo-acoustic emitters for very short high pressure airborne ultrasound pulses. We report on measurements of thermo-acoustic emitter consisting of a 30 nm thin metallic film on a usual soda-lime glass substrate, generating sound pressure values of more than 140 dB at 60 mm distance from the transducer and compare the results with conventional piezoelectric airborne ultrasound transducers. Our experimental investigations show that such thermo-acoustic devices can be used as broad band emitters using pulse excitation.

  4. Universal feature in optical control of a p -wave Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Zhang, Ren; Huang, Lianghui; Li, Donghao; Meng, Zengming; Wang, Pengjun; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    We report the experimental results on the optical control of a p -wave Feshbach resonance by utilizing a laser-driven bound-to-bound transition to shift the energy of a closed-channel molecule state. The magnetic field location for the p -wave resonance as a function of laser detuning can be captured by a simple formula with essentially one parameter, which describes how sensitively the resonance depends on the laser detuning. The key result of this work is to demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, that the ratio between this parameter for the m =0 component of the resonance and that for the m =±1 component, to a large extent, is universal. We also show that this optical control can create intriguing situations where interesting few- and many-body physics can occur, such as a p -wave resonance overlapping with an s -wave resonance or the three components of a p -wave resonance being degenerate.

  5. Nonlinear Parameter Identification of a Resonant Electrostatic MEMS Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Majed S.; Alneamy, Ayman M.; Park, Sangtak; Li, Beichen; Khater, Mahmoud E.; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab M.; Heppler, Glenn R.; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the primary superharmonic of order two and subharmonic of order one-half resonances of an electrostatic MEMS actuator under direct excitation. We identify the parameters of a one degree of freedom (1-DOF) generalized Duffing oscillator model representing it. The experiments were conducted in soft vacuum to reduce squeeze-film damping, and the actuator response was measured optically using a laser vibrometer. The predictions of the identified model were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. We also identified the noise spectral density of process (actuation voltage) and measurement noise. PMID:28505097

  6. Nonlinear Parameter Identification of a Resonant Electrostatic MEMS Actuator.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Majed S; Alneamy, Ayman M; Park, Sangtak; Li, Beichen; Khater, Mahmoud E; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab M; Heppler, Glenn R; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-05-13

    We experimentally investigate the primary superharmonic of order two and subharmonic of order one-half resonances of an electrostatic MEMS actuator under direct excitation. We identify the parameters of a one degree of freedom (1-DOF) generalized Duffing oscillator model representing it. The experiments were conducted in soft vacuum to reduce squeeze-film damping, and the actuator response was measured optically using a laser vibrometer. The predictions of the identified model were found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. We also identified the noise spectral density of process (actuation voltage) and measurement noise.

  7. A resonance phenomenon observed in a swept frequency experiment on a mother-daughter ionospheric rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkestad, K.; Troim, J.

    1974-01-01

    The report presents observations obtained in a swept frequency experiment conducted in a mother-daughter rocket flight at auroral latitudes. The discussion is essentially restricted to the possible interpretation of the experimental signal structures noted at and in the vicinity of a resonance frequency where signal components apparently are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. Various resonance frequencies have been considered in attempts to identify this multichannel response frequency. It is concluded that of all the possibilities invoked, the best consistency is provided by identifying the frequency concerned with the cone resonance frequency demonstrated experimentally in the case of a laboratory plasma by Fisher and Gould (1971).

  8. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  10. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.

  11. A Secular Resonance Between Iapetus and the Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuk, Matija; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Nesvorny, David; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2017-06-01

    Iapetus is the outermost of the regular satellites of Saturn, and its origin and evolution present a number of unsolved problems. From the point of view of orbital dynamics, it is remarkable that Iapetus has a large inclination (8 degrees) and a significantly smaller eccentricity (0.03), contrary to the pattern expected if its orbit was excited by encounters between Saturn and other planets early in the Solar System's history (Nesvorny et al, 2014). Here we report our long-term numerical integrations of Iapetus's orbit that show multi-Myr oscillations of Iapetus's eccentricity with an amplitude on the order of 0.01. We find that the basic argument causing this behavior is the sum of the longitude of pericenter and the longitude of the node of Iapetus, with a 0.3 Myr period. This argument appears to be in resonance with the period of the g5 mode in the eccentricity and perihelion of Saturn. We find that our nominal solution, including Saturn's oblateness, Titan, Iapetus and all four giant planets, shows librations of the argument: ǎrpi_Iapetus - ǎrpi_g5 + \\Omega_Iapetus - \\Omega_SaturnEq, where ǎrpi and \\Omega are the longitudes of pericenters and nodes, respectively, and \\Omega_SaturnEq is Saturn's equinox. While planetary perturbations are crucial in generating the g5 mode and therefore maintaining this resonance, we find that Iapetus is affected by the planets only indirectly, with the Sun being the dominant direct perturber. The libration is stable for tens of Myr for the nominal rate of Saturn's pole precession (French et al, 2017), and appears stable indefinitely if we assume a secular resonance between Saturn's node and the secular mode g18 (Ward and Hamilton, 2004; Hamilton and Ward, 2004). We will present the implication of this resonance for the origin of Iapetus's orbit and the dynamical history of Saturn's system. This research is funded by NASA Outer Planets Research Program award NNX14AO38G. References: French, R. G., McGhee-French, C. A

  12. Dielectric perturbations and Rayleigh scattering from an optical fiber near a superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Kristen; Hertzberg, Jared; Dutta, Sudeep; Budoyo, Rangga; Ballard, Cody; Lobb, Chris; Wellstood, Frederick

    As part of an experiment to optically trap 87Rb atoms near a superconducting device, we have coupled an optical fiber to a translatable thin-film lumped-element superconducting Al microwave resonator that is cooled to 15 mK in a dilution refrigerator. The lumped-element resonator has a resonance frequency of 6.15 GHz, a quality factor of 8 x 105 at high powers, and is mounted inside a superconducting aluminum 3D cavity. The 60-µm-diameter optical fiber passes through small openings in the cavity and close to the lumped-element resonator. The 3D cavity is mounted on an x-z Attocube-translation stage that allows the lumped-element resonator and optical fiber to be moved relative to each other. When the resonator is brought near to the fiber, we observe a shift in resonance frequency, of up to 8 MHz, due to the presence of the fiber dielectric. When optical power is sent through the fiber, Rayleigh scattering in the fiber causes a position-dependent weak illumination of the thin-film resonator affecting its resonance frequency and Q. We model the optical response of the resonator by taking into account optical production, recombination, and diffusion of quasiparticles as well as the non-uniform position-dependent illumination of the resonator.

  13. Analytic Solution of the Electromagnetic Eigenvalues Problem in a Cylindrical Resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Checchin, Mattia; Martinello, Martina

    Resonant accelerating cavities are key components in modern particles accelerating facilities. These take advantage of electromagnetic fields resonating at microwave frequencies to accelerate charged particles. Particles gain finite energy at each passage through a cavity if in phase with the resonating field, reaching energies even of the order of $TeV$ when a cascade of accelerating resonators are present. In order to understand how a resonant accelerating cavity transfers energy to charged particles, it is important to determine how the electromagnetic modes are exited into such resonators. In this paper we present a complete analytical calculation of the resonating fields formore » a simple cylindrical-shaped cavity.« less

  14. A new quadrature annular resonator for 3 T MRI based on artificial-dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Mikhailovskaya, Anna A; Shchelokova, Alena V; Dobrykh, Dmitry A; Sushkov, Ivan V; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Webb, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Dielectric resonators have previously been constructed for ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. However, it is challenging to design these dielectric resonators at clinical field strengths due to their intrinsically large dimensions, especially when using materials with moderate permittivity. Here we propose and characterize a novel approach using artificial-dielectrics which reduces substantially the required outer diameter of the resonator. For a resonator designed to operate in a 3 Tesla scanner using water as the dielectric, a reduction in outer diameter of 37% was achieved. When used in an inductively-coupled wireless mode, the sensitivity of the artificial-dielectric resonator was measured to be slightly higher than that of a standard dielectric resonator operating in its degenerate circularly-polarized hybrid electromagnetic modes (HEM 11 ). This study demonstrates the first application of an artificial-dielectric approach to MR volume coil design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new quadrature annular resonator for 3 T MRI based on artificial-dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailovskaya, Anna A.; Shchelokova, Alena V.; Dobrykh, Dmitry A.; Sushkov, Ivan V.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Webb, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Dielectric resonators have previously been constructed for ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. However, it is challenging to design these dielectric resonators at clinical field strengths due to their intrinsically large dimensions, especially when using materials with moderate permittivity. Here we propose and characterize a novel approach using artificial-dielectrics which reduces substantially the required outer diameter of the resonator. For a resonator designed to operate in a 3 Tesla scanner using water as the dielectric, a reduction in outer diameter of 37% was achieved. When used in an inductively-coupled wireless mode, the sensitivity of the artificial-dielectric resonator was measured to be slightly higher than that of a standard dielectric resonator operating in its degenerate circularly-polarized hybrid electromagnetic modes (HEM11). This study demonstrates the first application of an artificial-dielectric approach to MR volume coil design.

  16. The eccentric Kozai-Lidov effect as a resonance phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Vladislav V.

    2018-01-01

    Exploring weakly perturbed Keplerian motion within the restricted three-body problem, Lidov (Planet Space Sci 9:719-759, 1962) and, independently, Kozai (Astron J 67:591-598, 1962) discovered coupled oscillations of eccentricity and inclination (the KL cycles). Their classical studies were based on an integrable model of the secular evolution, obtained by double averaging of the disturbing function approximated with its first non-trivial term. This was the quadrupole term in the series expansion with respect to the ratio of the semimajor axis of the disturbed body to that of the disturbing body. If the next (octupole) term is kept in the expression for the disturbing function, long-term modulation of the KL cycles can be established (Ford et al. in Astrophys J 535:385-401, 2000; Naoz et al. in Nature 473:187-189, 2011; Katz et al. in Phys Rev Lett 107:181101, 2011). Specifically, flips between the prograde and retrograde orbits become possible. Since such flips are observed only when the perturber has a nonzero eccentricity, the term "eccentric Kozai-Lidov effect" (or EKL effect) was proposed by Lithwick and Naoz (Astrophys J 742:94, 2011) to specify such behavior. We demonstrate that the EKL effect can be interpreted as a resonance phenomenon. To this end, we write down the equations of motion in terms of "action-angle" variables emerging in the integrable Kozai-Lidov model. It turns out that for some initial values the resonance is degenerate and the usual "pendulum" approximation is insufficient to describe the evolution of the resonance phase. Analysis of the related bifurcations allows us to estimate the typical time between the successive flips for different parts of the phase space.

  17. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a nanostructured diamond chip.

    PubMed

    Kehayias, P; Jarmola, A; Mosavian, N; Fescenko, I; Benito, F M; Laraoui, A; Smits, J; Bougas, L; Budker, D; Neumann, A; Brueck, S R J; Acosta, V M

    2017-08-04

    Sensors using nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond are a promising tool for small-volume nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, but the limited sensitivity remains a challenge. Here we show nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in concentration sensitivity over previous nitrogen-vacancy and picoliter NMR studies. We demonstrate NMR spectroscopy of picoliter-volume solutions using a nanostructured diamond chip with dense, high-aspect-ratio nanogratings, enhancing the surface area by 15 times. The nanograting sidewalls are doped with nitrogen-vacancies located a few nanometers from the diamond surface to detect the NMR spectrum of roughly 1 pl of fluid lying within adjacent nanograting grooves. We perform 1 H and 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at room temperature in magnetic fields below 50 mT. Using a solution of CsF in glycerol, we determine that 4 ± 2 × 10 12 19 F spins in a 1 pl volume can be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 in 1 s of integration.Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centres in diamond can be used for NMR spectroscopy, but increased sensitivity is needed to avoid long measurement times. Kehayias et al. present a nanostructured diamond grating with a high density of NV centres, enabling NMR spectroscopy of picoliter-volume solutions.

  18. Formalism of photons in a nonlinear microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Quang Loc; Yupapin, Preecha

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, using short Gaussian pulses input from a monochromatic light source, we simulate the photon distribution and analyse the output gate's signals of PANDA nonlinear ring resonator. The present analysis is restricted to directional couplers characterized by two parameters, the power coupling coefficient κ and power coupling loss γ. Add/drop filters are also employed and investigated for the suitable to implement in the practical communication system. The experiment was conducted by using the combination of Lumerical FDTD Solutions and Lumerical MODE Solutions software.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for the ophthalmologist: A primer

    PubMed Central

    Simha, Arathi; Irodi, Aparna; David, Sarada

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) have added a new dimension in the diagnosis and management of ocular and orbital diseases. Although CT is more widely used, MRI is the modality of choice in select conditions and can be complimentary to CT in certain situations. The diagnostic yield is best when the ophthalmologist and radiologist work together. Ophthalmologists should be able to interpret these complex imaging modalities as better clinical correlation is then possible. In this article, we attempt to describe the basic principles of MRI and its interpretation, avoiding confusing technical terms. PMID:22824600

  20. Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.

  1. Nonlinear resonances and antiresonances of a forced sonic vacuum

    DOE PAGES

    Pozharskiy, D.; Zhang, Y.; Williams, M. O.; ...

    2015-12-23

    We consider a harmonically driven acoustic medium in the form of a (finite length) highly nonlinear granular crystal with an amplitude- and frequency-dependent boundary drive. Despite the absence of a linear spectrum in the system, we identify resonant periodic propagation whereby the crystal responds at integer multiples of the drive period and observe that this can lead to local maxima of transmitted force at its fixed boundary. In addition, we identify and discuss minima of the transmitted force (“antiresonances”) between these resonances. Representative one-parameter complex bifurcation diagrams involve period doublings and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations as well as multiple isolas (e.g., ofmore » period-3, -4, or -5 solutions entrained by the forcing). We combine them in a more detailed, two-parameter bifurcation diagram describing the stability of such responses to both frequency and amplitude variations of the drive. This picture supports a notion of a (purely) “nonlinear spectrum” in a system which allows no sound wave propagation (due to zero sound speed: the so-called sonic vacuum). As a result, we rationalize this behavior in terms of purely nonlinear building blocks: apparent traveling and standing nonlinear waves.« less

  2. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  3. Diagnostic resonant cavity for a charged particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Barov, Nikolai

    2007-10-02

    Disclosed is a diagnostic resonant cavity for determining characteristics of a charged particle beam, such as an electron beam, produced in a charged particle accelerator. The cavity is based on resonant quadrupole-mode and higher order cavities. Enhanced shunt impedance in such cavities is obtained by the incorporation of a set of four or more electrically conductive rods extending inwardly from either one or both of the end walls of the cavity, so as to form capacitive gaps near the outer radius of the beam tube. For typical diagnostic cavity applications, a five-fold increase in shunt impedance can be obtained. In alternative embodiments the cavity may include either four or more opposing pairs of rods which extend coaxially toward one another from the opposite end walls of the cavity and are spaced from one another to form capacitative gaps; or the cavity may include a single set of individual rods that extend from one end wall to a point adjacent the opposing end wall.

  4. A variable torque motor compatible with magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeck, W. W.; Ha, S.-H.; Farmaka, S.; Nalcioglu, O.

    2009-04-01

    High magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) do not allow the employment of conventional motors due to various incompatibility issues. This paper reports on a new motor that can operate in or near high field magnets used for MRI. The motor was designed to be operational with the MRI equipment and could be used in a rotating imaging gantry inside the magnet designed for dual modality imaging. Furthermore, it could also be used for image guided robotic interventional procedures inside a MRI system if so desired. The prototype motor was developed using magnetic resonance (MR) compatible materials, and its functionality with MR imaging was evaluated experimentally by measuring the performance of the motor and its effect on the MR image quality. Since in our application, namely, single photon emission tomography, the motor has to perform precise stepping of the gantry in small angular steps the most important parameter is the start-up torque. The experimental results showed that the motor has a start-up torque up to 1.37 Nm and rotates at 196 rpm when a constant voltage difference of 12 V is applied at a magnetic field strength of 1 T. The MR image quality was quantified by measuring the signal-to-noise of images acquired under different conditions. The results presented here indicate that the motor is MR compatible and could be used for rotating an imaging gantry or a surgical device inside the magnet.

  5. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  6. Fractional order implementation of Integral Resonant Control - A nanopositioning application.

    PubMed

    San-Millan, Andres; Feliu-Batlle, Vicente; Aphale, Sumeet S

    2017-10-04

    By exploiting the co-located sensor-actuator arrangement in typical flexure-based piezoelectric stack actuated nanopositioners, the polezero interlacing exhibited by their axial frequency response can be transformed to a zero-pole interlacing by adding a constant feed-through term. The Integral Resonant Control (IRC) utilizes this unique property to add substantial damping to the dominant resonant mode by the use of a simple integrator implemented in closed loop. IRC used in conjunction with an integral tracking scheme, effectively reduces positioning errors introduced by modelling inaccuracies or parameter uncertainties. Over the past few years, successful application of the IRC control technique to nanopositioning systems has demonstrated performance robustness, easy tunability and versatility. The main drawback has been the relatively small positioning bandwidth achievable. This paper proposes a fractional order implementation of the classical integral tracking scheme employed in tandem with the IRC scheme to deliver damping and tracking. The fractional order integrator introduces an additional design parameter which allows desired pole-placement, resulting in superior closed loop bandwidth. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate the theory. A 250% improvement in the achievable positioning bandwidth is observed with proposed fractional order scheme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Spatiotemporal behavior and nonlinear dynamics in a phase conjugate resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Siuying Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The work described can be divided into two parts. The first part is an investigation of the transient behavior and stability property of a phase conjugate resonator (PCR) below threshold. The second part is an experimental and theoretical study of the PCR's spatiotemporal dynamics above threshold. The time-dependent coupled wave equations for four-wave mixing (FWM) in a photorefractive crystal, with two distinct interaction regions caused by feedback from an ordinary mirror, was used to model the transient dynamics of a PCR below threshold. The conditions for self-oscillation were determined and the solutions were used to define the PCR's transfer function and analyze its stability. Experimental results for the buildup and decay times confirmed qualitatively the predicted behavior. Experiments were carried out above threshold to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the PCR as a function of Pragg detuning and the resonator's Fresnel number. The existence of optical vortices in the wavefront were identified by optical interferometry. It was possible to describe the transverse dynamics and the spatiotemporal instabilities by modeling the three-dimensional-coupled wave equations in photorefractive FWM using a truncated modal expansion approach.

  8. Quantum speed limit time in a magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    A visualization for dynamics of a qudit spin vector in a time-dependent magnetic field is realized by means of mapping a solution for a spin vector on the three-dimensional spherical curve (vector hodograph). The obtained results obviously display the quantum interference of precessional and nutational effects on the spin vector in the magnetic resonance. For any spin the bottom bounds of the quantum speed limit time (QSL) are found. It is shown that the bottom bound goes down when using multilevel spin systems. Under certain conditions the non-nil minimal time, which is necessary to achieve the orthogonal state from the initial one, is attained at spin S = 2. An estimation of the product of two and three standard deviations of the spin components are presented. We discuss the dynamics of the mutual uncertainty, conditional uncertainty and conditional variance in terms of spin standard deviations. The study can find practical applications in the magnetic resonance, 3D visualization of computational data and in designing of optimized information processing devices for quantum computation and communication.

  9. The preparation of a plasmonically resonant VO2 thermochromic pigment.

    PubMed

    Bai, Huaping; Cortie, Michael B; Maaroof, Abbas I; Dowd, Annette; Kealley, Catherine; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2009-02-25

    Vanadium dioxide (VO(2)) undergoes a reversible metal-insulator transition, normally at approximately 68 degrees C. While the properties of continuous semi-transparent coatings of VO(2) are well known, there is far less information available concerning the potential use of discrete VO(2) nanoparticles as a thermochromic pigment in opaque coatings. Individual VO(2) nanoparticles undergo a localized plasmon resonance with near-infrared light at about 1100 nm and this resonance can be switched on and off by simply varying the temperature of the system. Therefore, incorporation of VO(2) nanoparticles into a coating system imbues the coating with the ability to self-adaptively modulate its own absorptive efficiency in the near-infrared. Here we examine the magnitude and control of this phenomenon. Prototype coatings are described, made using VO(2) powder produced by an improved process. The materials are characterized using calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and by measurement of optical properties.

  10. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion

    PubMed Central

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps− (e−e+e−). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps−, using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of 1Po symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations. PMID:26983496

  11. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  12. Dynamics of multiple bodies in a corotation resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Joseph; Hedman, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    The orbital evolution of multiple massive bodies trapped in the same corotation resonance site has not yet been studied in depth, but could be relevant to the origins and history of small moons like Saturn's moon Aegaeon. We conduct numerical simulations of multiple bodies trapped within a corotation resonance and examine what happens to these bodies when they have close encounters. Compared to simulations with equal mass bodies, simulations with one body more massive than the others may be more likely to feature an asymmetry in the phase space of semi-major axis and mean longitude. That is, bodies on one side of phase space have a slightly greater tendency to lose angular momentum, while bodies on the other side gain angular momentum. With this asymmetry, the transfer of angular momentum during gravitational encounters makes it more likely for the most massive body rather than other bodies to approach the center of the corotation site. More work is needed to determine if this sort of process can significantly affect the orbital evolution of small moons like Aegaeon.

  13. A statistical model for combustion resonance from a DI diesel engine with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodisco, Timothy; Low Choy, Samantha; Masri, Assaad; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Introduced in this paper is a Bayesian model for isolating the resonant frequency from combustion chamber resonance. The model shown in this paper focused on characterising the initial rise in the resonant frequency to investigate the rise of in-cylinder bulk temperature associated with combustion. By resolving the model parameters, it is possible to determine: the start of pre-mixed combustion, the start of diffusion combustion, the initial resonant frequency, the resonant frequency as a function of crank angle, the in-cylinder bulk temperature as a function of crank angle and the trapped mass as a function of crank angle. The Bayesian method allows for individual cycles to be examined without cycle-averaging-allowing inter-cycle variability studies. Results are shown for a turbo-charged, common-rail compression ignition engine run at 2000 rpm and full load.

  14. A micromachined device describing over a hundred orders of parametric resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yu; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2018-04-01

    Parametric resonance in mechanical oscillators can onset from the periodic modulation of at least one of the system parameters, and the behaviour of the principal (1st order) parametric resonance has long been well established. However, the theoretically predicted higher orders of parametric resonance, in excess of the first few orders, have mostly been experimentally elusive due to the fast diminishing instability intervals. A recent paper experimentally reported up to 28 orders in a micromachined membrane oscillator. This paper reports the design and characterisation of a micromachined membrane oscillator with a segmented proof mass topology, in an attempt to amplify the inherent nonlinearities within the membrane layer. The resultant oscillator device exhibited up to over a hundred orders of parametric resonance, thus experimentally validating these ultra-high orders as well as overlapping instability transitions between these higher orders. This research introduces design possibilities for the transducer and dynamic communities, by exploiting the behaviour of these previously elusive higher order resonant regimes.

  15. A diurnal resonance in the ocean tide and in the earth's load response due to the resonant free 'core nutation'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, J. M.; Sasao, T.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the oceans, which are subject to a resonance due to a free rotational eigenmode of an elliptical, rotating earth with a fluid outer core having an eigenfrequency of (1 + 1/460) cycle/day, on the body tide and nutational response of the earth to the diurnal luni-tidal force are computed. The response of an elastic, rotating, elliptical, oceanless earth with a fluid outer core to a given load distribution on its surface is first considered, and the tidal sea level height for equilibrium and nonequilibrium oceans is examined. Computations of the effects of equilibrium and nonequilibrium oceans on the nutational and deformational responses of the earth are then presented which show small but significant perturbations to the retrograde 18.6-year and prograde six-month nutations, and more important effects on the earth body tide, which is also resonant at the free core notation eigenfrequency.

  16. Achieving a multi-band metamaterial perfect absorber via a hexagonal ring dielectric resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Yang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Fu; Qu, Shao-Bo

    2015-06-01

    A multi-band absorber composed of high-permittivity hexagonal ring dielectric resonators and a metallic ground plate is designed in the microwave band. Near-unity absorptions around 9.785 GHz, 11.525 GHz, and 12.37 GHz are observed for this metamaterial absorber. The dielectric hexagonal ring resonator is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. The mechanism for the near-unity absorption is investigated via the dielectric resonator theory. It is found that the absorption results from electric and magnetic resonances where enhanced electromagnetic fields are excited inside the dielectric resonator. In addition, the resonance modes of the hexagonal resonator are similar to those of standard rectangle resonators and can be used for analyzing hexagonal absorbers. Our work provides a new research method as well as a solid foundation for designing and analyzing dielectric metamaterial absorbers with complex shapes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331005, 11204378, 11274389, 11304393, and 61302023), the Aviation Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20132796018 and 20123196015), the Natural Science Foundation for Post-Doctoral Scientists of China (Grant Nos. 2013M532131 and 2013M532221), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JM6005), and the Special Funds for Authors of Annual Excellent Doctoral Degree Dissertations of China (Grant No. 201242).

  17. Exceptional points of resonant states on a periodic slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrabou, Amgad; Lu, Ya Yan

    2018-06-01

    A special kind of degeneracy, known as exceptional points (EPs), for resonant states on a dielectric periodic slab are investigated. Due to their unique properties, EPs have found important applications in lasing, sensing, unidirectional operations, etc. In general, EPs may appear in non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems, including those related to -parity-time-symmetric systems and those for open dielectric structures (due to the existence of radiation loss). In this paper, we study EPs on a simple periodic structure: a slab with a periodic array of gaps. By using an efficient numerical method, we calculate the EPs and study their dependence on geometric parameters. Analytic results are obtained for the limit as the periodic slab approaches a uniform one. Our work provides a simple platform for further studies concerning EPs on dielectric periodic structures, their unusual properties, and applications.

  18. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. Anmore » analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.« less

  19. Superconducting resonator used as a beam phase detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharamentov, S. I.; Pardo, R. C.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2003-05-01

    Beam-bunch arrival time has been measured for the first time by operating superconducting cavities, normally part of the linac accelerator array, in a bunch-detecting mode. The very high Q of the superconducting cavities provides high sensitivity and allows for phase-detecting low-current beams. In detecting mode, the resonator is operated at a very low field level comparable to the field induced by the bunched beam. Because of this, the rf field in the cavity is a superposition of a 'pure' (or reference) rf and the beam-induced signal. A new method of circular phase rotation (CPR), allowing extraction of the beam phasemore » information from the composite rf field was developed. Arrival time phase determination with CPR is better than 1{sup o} (at 48 MHz) for a beam current of 100 nA. The electronics design is described and experimental data are presented.« less

  20. Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ).

    PubMed

    Ahlander, Britt-Marie; Årestedt, Kristofer; Engvall, Jan; Maret, Eva; Ericsson, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Anxiety Questionnaire. Questionnaires measuring patients' anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients' experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbach's alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Geometry effects on cooling in a standing wave cylindrical thermoacousic resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Ghazali, Normah; Ghazali, Ahmad Dairobi; Ali, Irwan Shah; Rahman, Muhammad Aminullah A.

    2012-06-01

    Numerous reports have established the refrigeration applications of thermoacoustic cooling without compressors and refrigerants. Significant cooling effects can be obtained in a thermoacoustic resonator fitted with a heat exchanging stack and operated at resonance frequency. Past studies, however, have hardly referred to the fundamental relationship between resonant frequency and the resonator geometry. This paper reports the thermoacoustic cooling effects at resonance obtained by changing the diameter of the resonator while holding the length constant and vice versa. Experiments were completed at atmospheric pressure with air as the working fluid using a number of pvc tubes having parallel plate stack from Mylar. The temperature difference measured across the stack showed that a volume increase in the working fluid in general increases the temperature gradient for the quarter-and half-wavelength resonators. Doubling the diameter from 30 mm to 60 mm produced the highest temperature difference due to the greater number of stack plates resulting in a higher overall thermoacaoustic cooling. Increasing the resonator length only produced a small increase in temperature gradient since the resonant frequency at operation is only slightly changed. Investigation on the aspect ratio exhibits no influence on the temperature difference across the stack. This study have shown that the resonator length and diameter do affect the temperature difference across the thermoacoustic stack, and further research should be done to consider the contribution of the stack mass on the overall desired thermoacoustic cooling.

  2. Designing a 25-kilowatt high frequency series resonant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of processing 25 kW of power with a single, transistorized, 20 kHz, series resonant converter stage has been demonstrated by the successful design, development, fabrication, and testing of such a device. It employs four Westinghouse D7ST transistors in a full-bridge configuration and operates from a 250-to-350-Vdc input bus. The unit has an overall worst-case efficiency of 93.5% at its full rated output of 1000 V and 25 A dc. A solid-state dc input circuit breaker and output-transient-current limiters are included in and integrated into the design. Circuit details of the converter are presented along with test data.

  3. Ultra-wideband tunable resonator based on varactor-loaded complementary split-ring resonators on a substrate-integrated waveguide for microwave sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Sam, Somarith; Lim, Sungjoon

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the modeling, design, fabrication, and measurement of an ultra-wideband tunable twoport resonator in which the substrate-integrated waveguide, complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs), and varactors are embedded on the same planar platform. The tuning of the passband frequency is generated by a simple single dc voltage of 0 to 36 V, which is applied to each varactor on the CSRRs. Different capacitance values and resonant frequencies are produced while a nearly constant absolute bandwidth is maintained. The resonant frequency is varied between 0.83 and 1.58 GHz and has a wide tuning ratio of 90%.

  4. Resonant spin wave excitations in a magnonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Prabhakar, A.

    2018-03-01

    Spin polarized electric current, injected into permalloy (Py) through a nano contact, exerts a torque on the magnetization. The spin waves (SWs) thus excited propagate radially outward. We propose an antidot magnonic crystal (MC) with a three-hole defect (L3) around the nano contact, designed so that the frequency of the excited SWs, lies in the band gap of the MC. L3 thus acts as a resonant SW cavity. The energy in this magnonic crystal cavity can be tapped by an adjacent MC waveguide (MCW). An analysis of the simulated micromagnetic power spectrum, at the output port of the MCW reveals stable SW oscillations. The quality factor of the device, calculated using the decay method, was estimated as Q > 105 for an injected spin current density of 7 ×1012 A/m2.

  5. QUANTUM MECHANICS. Quantum squeezing of motion in a mechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Wollman, E E; Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C

    2015-08-28

    According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Sensing a heart infarction marker with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Ulrich; Katerkamp, Andreas; Renneberg, Reinhard; Spener, Friedrich; Cammann, Karl

    1995-02-01

    In this study a direct immunosensor for heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP) based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) is presented. FABP can be used as a heart infarction marker in clinical diagnostics. The development of a simple and cheap direct optical sensor device is reported in this paper as well as immobilization procedures and optimization of the measuring conditions. The correct working of the SPRS device is controlled by comparing the signals with theoretical calculated values. Two different immunoassay techniques were optimized for a sensitive FABP-analysis. The competitive immunoassay was superior to the sandwich configuration as it had a lower detection limit (100 ng/ml), needed less antibodies and could be carried out in one step.

  7. Interference effect in the resonant emission of a semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassabois, G.; Bogani, F.; Triques, A. L.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.

    2001-07-01

    We present a phenomenological description of the coherent emission from a semiconductor microcavity in the strong-coupling regime. We consider two main contributions which are calculated in the framework of the semiclassical approach of the linear dispersion theory: reflectivity corresponds to the response of a uniform microcavity while resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) arises from disorder. Our simulations are compared to experimental results obtained at normal incidence in a backscattering geometry by means of cw spectroscopy and interferometric correlation with subpicosecond resolution. In this geometry, a fair agreement is reached assuming interferences between the two aforementioned contributions. This interference effect gives evidence of the drastic modification of the RRS emission pattern of the embedded quantum well induced by the Fabry-Pérot cavity.

  8. Cerebral hypoxia during cardiopulmonary bypass: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Mutch, W A; Ryner, L N; Kozlowski, P; Scarth, G; Warrian, R K; Lefevre, G R; Wong, T G; Thiessen, D B; Girling, L G; Doiron, L; McCudden, C; Saunders, J K

    1997-09-01

    Neurocognitive deficits after open heart operations have been correlated to jugular venous oxygen desaturation on rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a porcine model, we looked for evidence of cerebral hypoxia by magnetic resonance imaging during CPB. Brain oxygenation was assessed by T2*-weighted imaging, based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent effect (decreased T2*-weighted signal intensity with increased tissue concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin). Pigs were placed on normothermic CPB, then cooled to 28 degrees C for 2 hours of hypothermic CPB, then rewarmed to baseline temperature. T2*-weighted, imaging was undertaken before CPB, during normothermic CPB, at 30-minute intervals during hypothermic CPB, after rewarming, and then 15 minutes after death. Imaging was with a Bruker 7.0 Tesla, 40-cm bore magnetic resonance scanner with actively shielded gradient coils. Regions of interest from the magnetic resonance images were analyzed to identify parenchymal hypoxia and correlated with jugular venous oxygen saturation. Post-hoc fuzzy clustering analysis was used to examine spatially distributed regions of interest whose pixels followed similar time courses. Attention was paid to pixels showing decreased T2* signal intensity over time. T2* signal intensity decreased with rewarming and in five of seven experiments correlated with the decrease in jugular venous oxygen saturation. T2* imaging with fuzzy clustering analysis revealed two diffusely distributed pixel groups during CPB. One large group of pixels (50% +/- 13% of total pixel count) showed increased T2* signal intensity (well-oxygenated tissue) during hypothermia, with decreased intensity on rewarming. Changes in a second group of pixels (34% +/- 8% of total pixel count) showed a progressive decrease in T2* signal intensity, independent of temperature, suggestive of increased brain hypoxia during CPB. Decreased T2* signal intensity in a diffuse spatial distribution indicates that

  9. New Methods for Rotation Sensing by Using a Two-Coupler Fiber-Optic Ring Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraji, Faramarz E.

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of new methods for rotation sensing by using a two-coupler type fiber-optic ring resonator. It is shown that in the proposed methods a resonance spike can be generated whose amplitude gives a direct measure of the rotation rates. The approaches are simple and have a major advantage of not using a closed-loop to control the operating points for resonance.

  10. A Study of Standing Pressure Waves Within Open and Closed Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2002-01-01

    The first section of the results presented herein was conducted on an axisymmetric resonator configured with open ventilation ports on either end of the resonator, but otherwise closed and free from obstruction. The remaining section presents the results of a similar resonator shape that was closed, but contained an axisymmetric blockage centrally located through the axis of the resonator. Ambient air was used as the working fluid. In each of the studies, the resonator was oscillated at the resonant frequency of the fluid contained within the cavity while the dynamic pressure, static pressure, and temperature of the fluid were recorded at both ends of the resonator. The baseline results showed a marked reduction in the amplitude of the dynamic pressure waveforms over previous studies due to the use of air instead of refrigerant as the working fluid. A sharp reduction in the amplitude of the acoustic pressure waves was expected and recorded when the configuration of the resonators was modified from closed to open. A change in the resonant frequency was recorded when blockages of differing geometries were used in the closed resonator, while acoustic pressure amplitudes varied little from baseline measurements.

  11. Viscoelastic effects on frequency tuning of a dielectric elastomer membrane resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianyou; Jiang, Liying, E-mail: lyjiang@eng.uwo.ca; Khayat, Roger E.

    2014-03-28

    As a recent application of dielectric elastomers (DEs), DE resonators have become an alternative to conventional silicon-based resonators used in MEMS and have attracted much interest from the research community. However, most existing modeling works for the DE resonators ignore the intrinsic viscoelastic effect of the material that may strongly influence their dynamic performance. Based on the finite-deformation viscoelasticity theory for dielectrics, this paper theoretically examines the in-plane oscillation of a DE membrane resonator to demonstrate how the material viscoelasticity affects the actuation and frequency tuning processes of the resonator. From the simulation results, it is concluded that not onlymore » the applied voltage can change the natural frequency of the resonator, but also the inelastic deformation contributes to frequency tuning. Due to the viscoelasticity of the material, the electrical loading rate influences the actuation process of the DE resonator, while it has little effect on the final steady frequency tuned by the prescribed voltage within the safety range. With the consideration of the typical failure modes of the resonator and the evolution process of the material, the tunable frequency range and the safe range of the applied voltage of the DE membrane resonator with different dimension parameters are determined in this work, which are found to be dependent on the electrical loading rate. This work is expected to provide a better understanding on the frequency tuning of viscoelastic DE membrane resonators and a guideline for the design of DE devices.« less

  12. A Computational and Experimental Study of Slit Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Ju, H.; Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Parrott, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Computational and experimental studies are carried out to offer validation of the results obtained from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow and acoustic fields of slit resonators. The test cases include slits with 90-degree corners and slits with 45-degree bevel angle housed inside an acoustic impedance tube. Three slit widths are used. Six frequencies from 0.5 to 3.0 kHz are chosen. Good agreement is found between computed and measured reflection factors. In addition, incident sound waves having white noise spectrum and a prescribed pseudo-random noise spectrum are used in subsequent series of tests. The computed broadband results are again found to agree well with experimental data. It is believed the present results provide strong support that DNS can eventually be a useful and accurate prediction tool for liner aeroacoustics. The usage of DNS as a design tool is discussed and illustrated by a simple example.

  13. Evidence for a shear horizontal resonance in supported thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Manghnani, M. H.; Every, A. G.

    2000-07-01

    We report evidence for a different type of acoustic film excitation, identified as a shear horizontal resonance, in amorphous silicon oxynitride films on GaAs substrate. Observation of this excitation has been carried out using surface Brillouin scattering of light. A Green's function formalism is used for analyzing the experimental spectra, and successfully simulates the spectral features associated with this mode. The attributes of this mode are described; these include its phase velocity which is nearly equal to that of a bulk shear wave propagating parallel to the surface and is almost independent of film thickness and scattering angle, its localization mainly in the film, and its polarization in the shear horizontal direction.

  14. Resonance fluorescence and quantum interference of a single NV center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Wu, E.

    2017-11-01

    The detection of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond has attracted much interest, since it is expected to lead to innovative applications in various domains of quantum information, including quantum metrology, information processing and communications, as well as in various nanotechnologies, such as biological and subdiffraction limit imaging, and tests of entanglement in quantum mechanics. We propose a novel scheme of a single NV center coupled with a multi-mode superconducting microwave cavity driven by coherent fields in squeezed vacuum. We numerically investigate the spectra in-phase quadrature and out-of-phase quadrature for different driving regimes with or without detunings. It shows that the maximum squeezing can be obtained for optimal Rabi fields. Moreover, with the same parameters, the maximum squeezing is greatly increased when the detunings are nonzero compared to the resonance case.

  15. Planar Multipol-Resonance-Probe: A Spectral Kinetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichs, Michael; Gong, Junbo; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Oberrath, Jens; Wilczek, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Measuring plasma parameters, e.g. electron density and electron temperature, is an important procedure to verify the stability and behavior of a plasma process. For this purpose the multipole resonance probe (MRP) represents a satisfying solution to measure the electron density. However the influence of the probe on the plasma through its physical presence makes it unattractive for some processes in industrial application. A solution to combine the benefits of the spherical MRP with the ability to integrate the probe into the plasma reactor is introduced by the planar model of the MRP (pMRP). Introducing the spectral kinetic formalism leads to a reduced simulation-circle compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The model of the pMRP is implemented and first simulation results are presented.

  16. Generation of Optical Combs in a WGM Resonator from a Bichromatic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Optical combs generated by a monolithic resonator with Kerrmedium can be used in a number of applications, including orbital clocks and frequency standards of extremely high accuracy, such as astronomy, molecular spectroscopy, and the like. The main difficulty of this approach is the relatively high pump power that has to be used in such devices, causing undesired thermorefractive effects, as well as stimulated Raman scattering, and limiting the optical comb quality and utility. In order to overcome this problem, this innovation uses a different approach to excitation of the nonlinear oscillations in a Kerr-nonlinear whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator and generation of the optical comb. By coupling to the resonator two optical pump frequencies instead of just one, the efficiency of the comb source can be increased considerably. It therefore can operate in a lowerpower regime where the undesirable effects are not present. This process does not have a power threshold; therefore, the new optical component can easily be made strong enough to generate further components, making the optical comb spread in a cascade fashion. Additionally, the comb spacing can be made in an arbitrary number of the resonator free spectral ranges (FSR). The experimental setup for this innovation used a fluorite resonator with OMEGA= 13.56 GHz. This material has very low dispersion at the wavelength of 1.5 microns, so the resonator spectrum around this wavelength is highly equidistant. Light was coupled in and out of the resonator using two optical fibers polished at the optimal coupling angle. The gap between the resonator and the fibers, affecting the light coupling and the resonator loading, was controlled by piezo positioners. The light from the input fiber that did not go into the resonator reflected off of its rim, and was collected by a photodetector. This enabled observation and measurement of the (absorption) spectrum of the resonator. The input fiber combined light from two

  17. Scalar Resonant Relaxation of Stars around a Massive Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Fouvry, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-06-01

    In nuclear star clusters, the potential is governed by the central massive black hole (MBH), so that stars move on nearly Keplerian orbits and the total potential is almost stationary in time. Yet, the deviations of the potential from the Keplerian one, due to the enclosed stellar mass and general relativity, will cause the stellar orbits to precess. Moreover, as a result of the finite number of stars, small deviations of the potential from spherical symmetry induce residual torques that can change the stars’ angular momentum faster than the standard two-body relaxation. The combination of these two effects drives a stochastic evolution of orbital angular momentum, a process named “resonant relaxation” (RR). Owing to recent developments in the description of the relaxation of self-gravitating systems, we can now fully describe scalar resonant relaxation (relaxation of the magnitude of the angular momentum) as a diffusion process. In this framework, the potential fluctuations due to the complex orbital motion of the stars are described by a random correlated noise with statistical properties that are fully characterized by the stars’ mean field motion. On long timescales, the cluster can be regarded as a diffusive system with diffusion coefficients that depend explicitly on the mean field stellar distribution through the properties of the noise. We show here, for the first time, how the diffusion coefficients of scalar RR, for a spherically symmetric system, can be fully calculated from first principles, without any free parameters. We also provide an open source code that evaluates these diffusion coefficients numerically.

  18. Schumann Resonances on Mars - a Two-layer Ground Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakiewicz, J.; Kulak, A.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2012-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are global resonances of electromagnetic waves in the range of extremely low frequencies (ELF) propagating in a cavity formed by a planetary surface and a lower ionosphere. SR are induced by electrical discharges, which on Earth are associated mainly with lightning. They were predicted by Winfried Otto Schumann in 1952. SR are supposed to occur on Mars, although many properties of the Martian environment are still unknown. One of the most important problems in modeling SR on Mars is to estimate electrical properties of the Martian ground and their influence on ELF waves propagation. The Martian crust is composed mainly of basaltic materials. Water, which causes significant increase in electrical conductivity of rocks, does not exist in liquid state at the surface of Mars. Therefore the Martian ground is believed to be a low conductive one. However, it is possible that some liquid water may be present at various depths below the surface. In our previous study we have developed an analytical model, based on the characteristic electric and magnetic altitudes' formalism, that has allowed us to take into consideration the Martian ground. Using this new model, we found that basaltic ground of low conductivity greatly influenced the SR parameters. In this work, we carried out simulations in order to characterize an influence of vertical changes in ground properties on the parameters of the Martian ground-ionosphere waveguide. We have considered several cases of a two-layer ground, in which the lower layer was of higher conductivity than the upper one. The obtained results indicate how the SR parameters depend on electrical conductivity, permittivity, and depth of the layers. The results also point out the importance of studying SR on Mars and the need for further research in propagation of ELF waves in the Martian environment. SR can be used as a remote sensing tool for exploration of the Martian crust. Furthermore, they can be especially useful

  19. Orbital State Manipulation of a Diamond Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Using a Mechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. Y.; MacQuarrie, E. R.; Fuchs, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    We study the resonant optical transitions of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center that is coherently dressed by a strong mechanical drive. Using a gigahertz-frequency diamond mechanical resonator that is strain coupled to a NV center's orbital states, we demonstrate coherent Raman sidebands out to the ninth order and orbital-phonon interactions that mix the two excited-state orbital branches. These interactions are spectroscopically revealed through a multiphonon Rabi splitting of the orbital branches which scales as a function of resonator driving amplitude and is successfully reproduced in a quantum model. Finally, we discuss the application of mechanical driving to engineering NV-center orbital states.

  20. A simple anaesthetic and monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rejger, V S; Cohn, B F; Vielvoye, G J; de Raadt, F B

    1989-09-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a digital tomographic technique which utilizes radio waves emitted by hydrogen protons in a powerful magnetic field to form an image of soft-tissue structures and abnormalities within the body. Unfortunately, because of the relatively long scanning time required and the narrow deep confines of the MRI tunnel and Faraday cage, some patients cannot be examined without the use of heavy sedation or general anaesthesia. Due to poor access to the patient and the strong magnetic field, several problems arise in monitoring and administering anaesthesia during this procedure. In this presentation these problems and their solutions, as resolved by our institution, are discussed. Of particular interest is the anaesthesia circuit specifically adapted for use during MRI scanning.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of a 20 kHz resonant power system - Fault identification and fault recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasynczuk, O.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed simulation of a dc inductor resonant driver and receiver is used to demonstrate the transient characteristics of a 20 kHz resonant power system during fault and overload conditions. The simulated system consists of a dc inductor resonant inverter (driver), a 50-meter transmission cable, and a dc inductor resonant receiver load. Of particular interest are the driver and receiver performance during fault and overload conditions and on the recovery characteristics following removal of the fault. The information gained from these studies sets the stage for further work in fault identification and autonomous power system control.

  2. Application of semiclassical and geometrical optics theories to resonant modes of a coated sphere.

    PubMed

    Bambino, Túlio M; Breitschaft, Ana Maria S; Barbosa, Valmar C; Guimarães, Luiz G

    2003-03-01

    This work deals with some aspects of the resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves by a metallic sphere covered by a dielectric layer, in the weak-absorption approximation. We carry out a geometrical optics treatment of the scattering and develop semiclassical formulas to determine the positions and widths of the system resonances. In addition, we show that the mean lifetime of broad resonances is strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident light.

  3. A quasioptically stabilized resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator for the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Elliott R.; Parker, Christopher D.; Molvar, Karen M.; Stephan, Karl D.

    1992-01-01

    A semiconfocal open-cavity resonator has been used to stabilize a resonant-tunneling-diode waveguide oscillator at frequencies near 100 GHz. The high quality factor of the open cavity resulted in a linewidth of approximately 10 kHz at 10 dB below the peak, which is about 100 times narrower than the linewidth of an unstabilized waveguide oscillator. This technique is well suited for resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators in the submillimeter-wave region.

  4. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery.

    PubMed

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M

    2006-04-01

    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.

  5. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  6. Magnetic resonance of porous media (MRPM): a perspective.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Qiao

    2013-04-01

    Porous media are ubiquitous in our environment and their application is extremely broad. The common connection between these diverse materials is the importance of the microstructure (μm to mm scale) in determining the physical, chemical and biological functions and properties. Magnetic resonance and its imaging modality have been essential for noninvasive characterization of these materials, in the development of catalysts, understanding cement hydration, fluid transport in rocks and soil, geological prospecting, and characterization of tissue properties for medical diagnosis. The past two decades have witnessed significant development of MRPM that couples advances in physics, chemistry and engineering with a broad range of applications. This article will summarize key advances in basic physics and methodology, examine their limitations and envision future R&D directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-purpose electromagnetic actuator for magnetic resonance elastography.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Zhu, Mo; Qiu, Suhao; Shen, Ping; Ma, Shengyuan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Hu, Chun-Hong; Guo, Liang

    2018-04-19

    An electromagnetic actuator was designed for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The actuator is unique in that it is simple, portable, and capable of brain, abdomen, and phantom imagings. A custom-built control unit was used for controlling the vibration frequency and synchronizing the trigger signals. An actuation unit was built and mounted on the specifically designed clamp and holders for different imaging applications. MRE experiments with respect to gel phantoms, brain, and liver showed that the actuator could produce stable and consistent mechanical waves. Estimated shear modulus using local frequency estimate method demonstrated that the measurement results were in line with that from MRE studies using different actuation systems. The relatively easy setup procedure and simple design indicated that the actuator system had the potential to be applied in many different clinical studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of (TMTSF) 2PF 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBrierty, V. J.; Douglass, D. C.; Wudl, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inverse linewidths and spin-lattice relaxation times of fluorine and proton magnetic resonance spectra are used to examine molecular motion in the organic superconductor (TMTSF) 2PF 6. The results clearly show that rotation of the PF 6- anion is the principal agent for the observed relaxation of fluorine contrary to some suggestions in the current literature. This interpretation is based upon qualitative comparison with relaxation in plastic crystals, where molecular rotation is well characterized, and upon the quantitative agreement between the calculated and observed linewidth change near 90K and the maximum spin-lattice relaxation rate at 140K. There is also motional evidence, supported by X-ray structure measurements, that a phase transition occurs in the vicinity of 160K.

  9. Flavor-dependent eigenvolume interactions in a hadron resonance gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba, P.; Vovchenko, V.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Stoecker, H.

    2018-06-01

    Eigenvolume effects in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model are studied for experimental hadronic yields in nucleus-nucleus collisions. If particle eigenvolumes are different for different hadron species, the excluded volume HRG (EV-HRG) improves fits to multiplicity data. In particular, using different mass-volume relations for strange and non-strange hadrons we observe a remarkable improvement in the quality of the fits. This effect appears to be rather insensitive to other details in the schemes employed in the EV-HRG. We show that the parameters found from fitting the data of the ALICE Collaboration in central Pb+Pb collisions at the collision energy √{sNN } = 2.76 TeV entail the same improvement for all centralities at the same collision energy, and for the RHIC and SPS data at lower collision energies. Our findings are put in the context of recent fits of lattice QCD results.

  10. Lossless crossing of a resonance stopband during tune modulation by synchrotron oscillations

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, G. M.; Shaftan, T.; Smaluk, V.; ...

    2017-09-14

    Modern high performance circular accelerators require sophisticated corrections of nonlinear lattices. The beam betatron tune footprint may cross many resonances, reducing dynamic aperture and causing particle loss. But, if particles cross a resonance reasonably fast, the beam deterioration may be minimized. This paper describes the experiments with the beam passing through a half-integer resonance stopband via tune modulation by exciting synchrotron oscillations. This is the first time that beam dynamics have been kept under precise control while the beam crosses a half-integer resonance. These results convincingly demonstrate that particles can cross the half-integer resonance without being lost if the passagemore » is reasonably fast and the resonance stopband is sufficiently narrow.« less

  11. Lossless crossing of a resonance stopband during tune modulation by synchrotron oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G. M.; Shaftan, T.; Smaluk, V.

    Modern high performance circular accelerators require sophisticated corrections of nonlinear lattices. The beam betatron tune footprint may cross many resonances, reducing dynamic aperture and causing particle loss. But, if particles cross a resonance reasonably fast, the beam deterioration may be minimized. This paper describes the experiments with the beam passing through a half-integer resonance stopband via tune modulation by exciting synchrotron oscillations. This is the first time that beam dynamics have been kept under precise control while the beam crosses a half-integer resonance. These results convincingly demonstrate that particles can cross the half-integer resonance without being lost if the passagemore » is reasonably fast and the resonance stopband is sufficiently narrow.« less

  12. PITCH-ANGLE SCATTERING: RESONANCE VERSUS NONRESONANCE, A BASIC TEST OF THE QUASILINEAR DIFFUSIVE RESULT

    SciTech Connect

    Ragot, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the very broad range of the scales available for the development of turbulence in space and astrophysical plasmas, the energy at the resonant scales of wave-particle interaction often constitutes only a tiny fraction of the total magnetic turbulent energy. Despite the high efficiency of resonant wave-particle interaction, one may therefore question whether resonant interaction really is the determining interaction process between particles and turbulent fields. By evaluating and comparing resonant and nonresonant effects in the frame of a quasilinear calculation, the dominance of resonance is here put to the test. By doing so, a basic test of themore » classical resonant quasilinear diffusive result for the pitch-angle scattering of charged energetic particles is also performed.« less

  13. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging phantoms: A review and the need for a system phantom.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kathryn E; Ainslie, Maureen; Barker, Alex J; Boss, Michael A; Cecil, Kim M; Charles, Cecil; Chenevert, Thomas L; Clarke, Larry; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Finn, Paul; Gembris, Daniel; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Hill, Derek L G; Jack, Clifford R; Jackson, Edward F; Liu, Guoying; Russek, Stephen E; Sharma, Samir D; Steckner, Michael; Stupic, Karl F; Trzasko, Joshua D; Yuan, Chun; Zheng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    The MRI community is using quantitative mapping techniques to complement qualitative imaging. For quantitative imaging to reach its full potential, it is necessary to analyze measurements across systems and longitudinally. Clinical use of quantitative imaging can be facilitated through adoption and use of a standard system phantom, a calibration/standard reference object, to assess the performance of an MRI machine. The International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine AdHoc Committee on Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance was established in February 2007 to facilitate the expansion of MRI as a mainstream modality for multi-institutional measurements, including, among other things, multicenter trials. The goal of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee was to provide a framework to ensure that quantitative measures derived from MR data are comparable over time, between subjects, between sites, and between vendors. This paper, written by members of the Standards for Quantitative Magnetic Resonance committee, reviews standardization attempts and then details the need, requirements, and implementation plan for a standard system phantom for quantitative MRI. In addition, application-specific phantoms and implementation of quantitative MRI are reviewed. Magn Reson Med 79:48-61, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Applications and Methods of Operating a Three-dimensional Nano-electro-mechanical Resonator and Related Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor); Epp, Larry W. (Inventor); Bagge, Leif (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber resonator devices, methods for use, and applications of said devices are disclosed. Carbon nanofiber resonator devices can be utilized in or as high Q resonators. Resonant frequency of these devices is a function of configuration of various conducting components within these devices. Such devices can find use, for example, in filtering and chemical detection.

  15. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and its recent trend—a survey

    PubMed Central

    Chilla, Geetha Soujanya; Tan, Cher Heng

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1985, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging has been evolving and is becoming instrumental in diagnosis and investigation of tissue functions in various organs including brain, cartilage, and liver. Even though brain related pathology and/or investigation remains as the main application, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is becoming a standard in oncology and in several other applications. This review article provides a brief introduction of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, challenges involved and recent advancements. PMID:26029644

  16. Nanoscale welding aerosol sensing based on whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical silica resonator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Aram; Mills, Thomas; Xu, Yong

    2015-03-23

    We report an experimental technique where one uses a standard silica fiber as a cylindrical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator to sense airborne nanoscale aerosols produced by electric arc welding. We find that the accumulation of aerosols on the resonator surface induces a measurable red-shift in resonance frequency, and establish an empirical relation that links the magnitude of resonance shift with the amount of aerosol deposition. The WGM quality factors, by contrast, do not decrease significantly, even for samples with a large percentage of surface area covered by aerosols. Our experimental results are discussed and compared with existing literature on WGM-based nanoparticle sensing.

  17. Tunable Thin-Film Resonator Coupled to Two Qubits in a 3D Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Cody; Dutta, S. K.; Budoyo, R. P.; Voigt, K. D.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    We present preliminary results on using a tunable, thin-film lumped element LC resonator to couple two transmon qubits in a 3D microwave cavity. The cavity, which is used for readout, is made of aluminum and has a TE101 mode at 6.3 GHz. The LC resonator has a base frequency of about 5 GHz and the inductor contains two loops, each having a single Josephson junction. Applying magnetic flux to the loops modulates the overall inductance of the resonator allowing tuning over a 500 MHz range. Two Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubits are fabricated on the same sapphire substrate as the resonator, and are designed to have a charging energy of 200 MHz and a frequency that falls within the tuning range of the resonator. Observing the perturbations of the resonant frequencies of the qubits and the cavity as the LC resonator is tuned allows us to determine the coupling strengths between each qubit and the LC resonator and between the LC resonator and the cavity.

  18. Mass spectrometry based on a coupled Cooper-pair box and nanomechanical resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Chen, Bin; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-10-01

    Nanomechanical resonators (NRs) with very high frequency have a great potential for mass sensing with unprecedented sensitivity. In this study, we propose a scheme for mass sensing based on the NR capacitively coupled to a Cooper-pair box (CPB) driven by two microwave currents. The accreted mass landing on the resonator can be measured conveniently by tracking the resonance frequency shifts because of mass changes in the signal absorption spectrum. We demonstrate that frequency shifts induced by adsorption of ten 1587 bp DNA molecules can be well resolved in the absorption spectrum. Integration with the CPB enables capacitive readout of the mechanical resonance directly on the chip.

  19. Photonic spectra of a Bragg microresonator with a ferroelectric resonator layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Irina V.; Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Sementsov, Dmitrij I.

    2018-05-01

    Transmission spectra of a photonic crystal resonator structure have been obtained where the Bragg dielectric mirrors contain a finite number of periods with an inverted order of layers and the resonator layer is made of a ferroelectric with a permittivity many times exceeding the permittivity of the layers in Bragg mirrors. Almost a complete transmission suppression was detected not only in the photonic band gap (except for a narrow region of the defect mode), but also outside the forbidden band.

  20. Development of a micro nuclear magnetic resonance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloshevsky, Artem

    Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to on-line/in-line control of industrial processes is currently limited by equipment costs and requirements for installation. A superconducting magnet generating strong fields is the most expensive part of a typical NMR instrument. In industrial environments, fringe magnetic fields make accommodation of NMR instruments difficult. However, a portable, low-cost and low-field magnetic resonance system can be used in virtually any environment. Development of a number of hardware components for a portable, low-cost NMR instrument is reported in this dissertation. Chapter one provides a discussion on a miniaturized Helmholtz spiral radio-frequency (RF) coil (average diameter equal to 3.5 mm) and an NMR probe built around a capillary (outer diameter = 1.59 mm and inner diameter = 1.02 mm) for flow imaging. Experiments of NMR spectroscopy, static and dynamic (flow) imaging, conducted with the use of the miniaturized coil, are described. Chapter two presents a microfabricated package of two biaxial gradient coils and a Helmholtz RF coil. Planar configuration of discrete wires was used to create magnetic field gradients. Performance of the microfabricated gradient coils while imaging water flow compared well with a commercial gradient set of much larger size. Chapter three reports on flow imaging experiments with power law fluids (aqueous solutions of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) of different viscosities, carried out in the NMR probe with the miniaturized RF coil and capillary. Viscosities of the CMC solutions were determined based on the curve fits of the velocity profiles and simultaneous measurements of the flow rates. The curve fits were carried out according to the power law model equations. The NMR viscosity measurements compared well with measurements of the same CMC samples, performed on a conventional rotational rheometer. A portable, home-built transceiver, designed for NMR applications utilizing a

  1. Above-threshold scattering about a Feshbach resonance for ultracold atoms in an optical collider.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Milena S J; Thomas, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2017-09-06

    Ultracold atomic gases have realized numerous paradigms of condensed matter physics, where control over interactions has crucially been afforded by tunable Feshbach resonances. So far, the characterization of these Feshbach resonances has almost exclusively relied on experiments in the threshold regime near zero energy. Here, we use a laser-based collider to probe a narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance of rubidium above threshold. By measuring the overall atomic loss from colliding clouds as a function of magnetic field, we track the energy-dependent resonance position. At higher energy, our collider scheme broadens the loss feature, making the identification of the narrow resonance challenging. However, we observe that the collisions give rise to shifts in the center-of-mass positions of outgoing clouds. The shifts cross zero at the resonance and this allows us to accurately determine its location well above threshold. Our inferred resonance positions are in excellent agreement with theory.Studies on energy-dependent scattering of ultracold atoms were previously carried out near zero collision energies. Here, the authors observe a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Rb collisions for above-threshold energies and their method can also be used to detect higher partial wave resonances.

  2. Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Balakrishnan, Rohini; Robert, Daniel

    2012-05-29

    Despite their small size, some insects, such as crickets, can produce high amplitude mating songs by rubbing their wings together. By exploiting structural resonance for sound radiation, crickets broadcast species-specific songs at a sharply tuned frequency. Such songs enhance the range of signal transmission, contain information about the signaler's quality, and allow mate choice. The production of pure tones requires elaborate structural mechanisms that control and sustain resonance at the species-specific frequency. Tree crickets differ sharply from this scheme. Although they use a resonant system to produce sound, tree crickets can produce high amplitude songs at different frequencies, varying by as much as an octave. Based on an investigation of the driving mechanism and the resonant system, using laser Doppler vibrometry and finite element modeling, we show that it is the distinctive geometry of the crickets' forewings (the resonant system) that is responsible for their capacity to vary frequency. The long, enlarged wings enable the production of high amplitude songs; however, as a mechanical consequence of the high aspect ratio, the resonant structures have multiple resonant modes that are similar in frequency. The drive produced by the singing apparatus cannot, therefore, be locked to a single frequency, and different resonant modes can easily be engaged, allowing individual males to vary the carrier frequency of their songs. Such flexibility in sound production, decoupling body size and song frequency, has important implications for conventional views of mate choice, and offers inspiration for the design of miniature, multifrequency, resonant acoustic radiators.

  3. A dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.

  4. Methods and devices for maintaining a resonant wavelength of a photonic microresonator

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Adam; Zortman, William A.

    2015-07-14

    A photonic microresonator incorporates a localized heater element within a section of an optical bus waveguide that is in proximity to the resonator structure. The application of an adjustable control voltage to the heater element provides a localized change in the refractive index value of the bus waveguide, compensating for temperature-induced wavelength drift and maintaining a stabilized value of the microresonator's resonant wavelength.

  5. Harmonic Resonances in Metal Rods--Easy Experimentation with a Smartphone and Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirth, Michael; Gröber, Sebastian; Kuhn, Jochen; Müller, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A variety of experiments with smartphones and tablet PCs allow a precise analysis of acoustic phenomena. For example, we recently described an experiment in which a noise signal simultaneously triggered harmonic acoustic resonances in the air column of a tube open at both ends and a tube closed at one end. The measured resonant frequencies were…

  6. A large-signal dynamic simulation for the series resonant converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simple nonlinear discrete-time dynamic model for the series resonant dc-dc converter is derived using approximations appropriate to most power converters. This model is useful for the dynamic simulation of a series resonant converter using only a desktop calculator. The model is compared with a laboratory converter for a large transient event.

  7. A model for precalculus students to determine the resonance frequency of a trumpet mouthpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    The trumpet mouthpiece as a Helmholtz resonator is used to show precalculus students a mathematical model for determining the approximate resonance frequency of the mouthpiece. The mathematics is limited to algebra and trigonometry. Using a system of mouthpieces that have interchangeable cups and backbores, students are introduced to the acoustics of this resonator. By gathering data on 51 different configurations of mouthpieces, the author modifies the existing Helmholtz resonator equation to account for both cup volumes and backbore configurations. Students then use this model for frequency predictions. Included are how to measure the different physical attributes of a trumpet mouthpiece at minimal cost. This includes methods for measuring cup volume, backbore volume, backbore length, throat area, etc. A portion of this phase is de-signed for students to become acquainted with some of the vocabulary of acoustics and the physics of sound.

  8. Development of a Hybrid Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Victoria; Rivens, Ian; Collins, David J.; Leach, Martin O.; ter Haar, Gail R.

    2014-01-01

    A system which allows magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) image data to be acquired simultaneously has been developed. B-mode and Doppler US were performed inside the bore of a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner using a clinical 1–4 MHz US transducer with an 8-metre cable. Susceptibility artefacts and RF noise were introduced into MR images by the US imaging system. RF noise was minimised by using aluminium foil to shield the transducer. A study of MR and B-mode US image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of transducer-phantom separation was performed using a gel phantom. This revealed that a 4 cm separation between the phantom surface and the transducer was sufficient to minimise the effect of the susceptibility artefact in MR images. MR-US imaging was demonstrated in vivo with the aid of a 2 mm VeroWhite 3D-printed spherical target placed over the thigh muscle of a rat. The target allowed single-point registration of MR and US images in the axial plane to be performed. The system was subsequently demonstrated as a tool for the targeting and visualisation of high intensity focused ultrasound exposure in the rat thigh muscle. PMID:25177702

  9. Coupling a single electron spin to a microwave resonator: Part I: controlling transverse and longitudinal couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Beaudoin, Félix; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Coish, William A.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    Novel quantum technologies can be combined within hybrid systems to benefit from the complementary capabilities of individual components. For example, microwave-frequency superconducting resonators are ideally suited to perform qubit readout and to mediate two-qubit gates, while spin qubits offer long coherence times and high-fidelity single-qubit gates. In this talk, we consider strong coupling between a microwave resonator and an electron-spin qubit in a double quantum dot due to an inhomogeneous magnetic field generated by a nearby nanomagnet.. Considering realistic parameters, we estimate spin-resonator couplings of order 1 MHz. Further, we show that the position of the double dot relative to the nanomagnet allows us to select between purely longitudinal and transverse couplings. While the transverse coupling may be used for quantum state transfer between the spin qubit and the resonator, the longitudinal coupling could be used in a new qubit readout scheme recently introduced for superconducting qubits.

  10. Random perturbations of a periodically driven nonlinear oscillator: escape from a resonance zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingala, Nishanth; Sri Namachchivaya, N.; Pavlyukevich, Ilya

    2017-04-01

    For nonlinear oscillators, frequency of oscillations depends on the oscillation amplitude. When a nonlinear oscillator is periodically driven, the phase space consists of many resonance zones where the oscillator frequency and the driving frequency are commensurable. It is well known that, a small subset of initial conditions can lead to capture in one of the resonance zones. In this paper we study the effect of weak noise on the escape from a resonance zone. Using averaging techniques we obtain the mean exit time from a resonance zone and study the dependence of the exit rate on the parameters of the oscillator. Paper dedicated to Professor Peter W Sauer of University of Illinois on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  11. Nuclear resonance tomography with a toroid cavity detector

    DOEpatents

    Woelk, K.; Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1996-11-12

    A toroid cavity detection system is described for determining the spectral properties and distance from a fixed point for a sample using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The detection system consists of a toroid with a central conductor oriented along the main axis of the toroidal cylinder and perpendicular to a static uniform magnetic field oriented along the main axis of the toroid. An rf signal is input to the central conductor to produce a magnetic field perpendicular to the central axis of the toroid and whose field strength varies as the inverse of the radius of the toroid. The toroid cavity detection system can be used to encapsulate a sample, or the detection system can be perforated to allow a sample to flow into the detection device or to place the samples in specified sample tubes. The central conductor can also be coated to determine the spectral property of the coating and the coating thickness. The sample is then subjected to the respective magnetic fields and the responses measured to determine the desired properties. 4 figs.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: achieving a quantitative optical response

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Alexander W.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.; Elliott, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging allows real-time label-free imaging based on index of refraction, and changes in index of refraction at an interface. Optical parameter analysis is achieved by application of the Fresnel model to SPR data typically taken by an instrument in a prism based configuration. We carry out SPR imaging on a microscope by launching light into a sample, and collecting reflected light through a high numerical aperture microscope objective. The SPR microscope enables spatial resolution that approaches the diffraction limit, and has a dynamic range that allows detection of subnanometer to submicrometer changes in thickness of biological material at a surface. However, unambiguous quantitative interpretation of SPR changes using the microscope system could not be achieved using the Fresnel model because of polarization dependent attenuation and optical aberration that occurs in the high numerical aperture objective. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate a model to correct for polarization diattenuation and optical aberrations in the SPR data, and develop a procedure to calibrate reflectivity to index of refraction values. The calibration and correction strategy for quantitative analysis was validated by comparing the known indices of refraction of bulk materials with corrected SPR data interpreted with the Fresnel model. Subsequently, we applied our SPR microscopy method to evaluate the index of refraction for a series of polymer microspheres in aqueous media and validated the quality of the measurement with quantitative phase microscopy. PMID:27782542

  13. Nuclear resonance tomography with a toroid cavity detector

    DOEpatents

    Woelk, Klaus; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A toroid cavity detection system for determining the spectral properties and distance from a fixed point for a sample using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The detection system consists of a toroid with a central conductor oriented along the main axis of the toroidal cylinder and perpendicular to a static uniform magnetic field oriented along the main axis of the toroid. An rf signal is inputted to the central conductor to produce a magnetic field perpendicular to the central axis of the toroid and whose field strength varies as the inverse of the radius of the toroid. The toroid cavity detection system can be used to encapsulate a sample, or the detection system can be perforated to allow a sample to flow into the detection device or to place the samples in specified sample tubes. The central conductor can also be coated to determine the spectral property of the coating and the coating thickness. The sample is then subjected to the respective magnetic fields and the responses measured to determine the desired properties.

  14. A versatile computer-controlled pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Gregory; MacNamara, Ernesto; Santini, Robert E.; Raftery, Daniel

    1999-12-01

    A new, pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectrometer capable of performing a variety of pulsed and swept experiments is described. The spectrometer features phase locked, superheterodyne detection using a commercial spectrum analyzer and a fully automatic, computer-controlled tuning and matching network. The tuning and matching network employs stepper motors which turn high power air gap capacitors in a "moving grid" optimization strategy to minimize the reflected power from a directional coupler. In the duplexer circuit, digitally controlled relays are used to switch different lengths of coax cable appropriate for the different radio frequencies. A home-built pulse programmer card controls the timing of radio frequency pulses sent to the probe, while data acquisition and control software is written in Microsoft Quick Basic. Spin-echo acquisition experiments are typically used to acquire the data, although a variety of pulse sequences can be employed. Scan times range from one to several hours depending upon the step resolution and the spectral range required for each experiment. Pure NQR spectra of NaNO2 and 3-aminopyridine are discussed.

  15. Pneumatocyst, mimicking a sclerotic bony lesion on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Fariba; Iranpour, Pooya

    2010-04-01

    Intravertebral pneumatocyst is an uncommon benign lesion, not related to conditions, such as osteomyelitis and postsurgical state, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The purpose of the study was to report a case of cervical pneumatocyst resembling a sclerotic lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and review of literature. The study was designed to be a case report. The patient chosen was a 48-year-old woman with the chief complaint of neck pain and bilateral upper extremity paresthesia of 6 months duration. Neurologic examination and results of routine hematologic and biochemical examination were normal. Cervical spine MRI revealed a low signal bony lesion on T1 and T2 images. Considering the signal characteristics, initial diagnosis of sclerosis was made. Reviewing the cervical X-ray, a round faint lytic lesion was detected. Correlation with cervical computed tomography scan showed the lesion being of air density, compatible with the diagnosis of pneumatocyst. Intraosseous pneumatocyst of cervical spine is a benign finding, which needs no specific treatment; however, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of lucent vertebral lesions seen on conventional radiography and should be differentiated from bony neoplasm and osteomyelitis by its characteristic imaging findings.

  16. Resonant x-ray scattering from a skyrmion lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Langner, M. C.; Mishra, S. K.; Lee, J. C. T.; Shi, X. W.; Hossain, M. A.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Kevan, S. D.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Seki, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Topologically protected novel phases in condensed matter systems are a current research topic of tremendous interest due to both the unique physics and their potential in device applications. Skyrmions are a topological phase that in magnetic systems manifest as a hexagonal lattice of spin-swirls. We report the first observation of the skyrmion lattice using resonant soft x-ray diffraction in Cu2OSeO3, a cubic insulator that exhibits degenerate helical magnetic structures along <100> axes in zero magnetic field. Within a narrow window of temperature and applied magnetic field we observed the six fold symmetric satellite peaks due to the skyrmion lattice around the (001) lattice Bragg peak. As a function of incident photon energy a rotational splitting of the skyrmion satellite peaks was observed that we ascribe to the two Cu sublattices of Cu2OSeO3, with different magnetically active orbitals. The splitting implies a long wavelength modulation of the skyrmion lattice. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  17. The bead on a rotating hoop revisited: an unexpected resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raviola, Lisandro A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Rodríguez, Eduardo E.

    2017-01-01

    The bead on a rotating hoop is a typical problem in mechanics, frequently posed to junior science and engineering students in basic physics courses. Although this system has a rich dynamics, it is usually not analysed beyond the point particle approximation in undergraduate textbooks, nor empirically investigated. Advanced textbooks show the existence of bifurcations owing to the system's nonlinear nature, and some papers demonstrate, from a theoretical standpoint, its points of contact with phase transition phenomena. However, scarce experimental research has been conducted to better understand its behaviour. We show in this paper that a minor modification to the problem leads to appealing consequences that can be studied both theoretically and empirically with the basic conceptual tools and experimental skills available to junior students. In particular, we go beyond the point particle approximation by treating the bead as a rigid spherical body, and explore the effect of a slightly non-vertical hoop's rotation axis that gives rise to a resonant behaviour not considered in previous works. This study can be accomplished by means of digital video and open source software. The experience can motivate an engaging laboratory project by integrating standard curriculum topics, data analysis and experimental exploration.

  18. Modelling and simulation of a thermally induced optical transparency in a dual micro-ring resonator

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the simulation and modelling of a novel dual micro-ring resonator. The geometric configuration of the resonators, and the implementation of a simulated broadband excitation source, results in the realization of optical transparencies in the combined through port output spectrum. The 130 nm silicon on insulator rib fabrication process is adopted for the simulation of the dual-ring configuration. Two titanium nitride heaters are positioned over the coupling regions of the resonators, which can be operated independently, to control the spectral position of the optical transparency. A third heater, centrally located above the dual resonator rings, can be used to red shift the entire spectrum to a required reference resonant wavelength. The free spectral range with no heater currents applied is 4.29 nm. For a simulated heater current of 7 mA (55.7 mW heater power) applied to one of the through coupling heaters, the optical transparency exhibits a red shift of 1.79 nm from the reference resonant wavelength. The ring-to-ring separation of approximately 900 nm means that it can be assumed that there is a zero ring-to-ring coupling field in this model. This novel arrangement has potential applications as a gas mass airflow sensor or a gas species identification sensor. PMID:28791167

  19. Modelling and simulation of a thermally induced optical transparency in a dual micro-ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Lydiate, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    This paper introduces the simulation and modelling of a novel dual micro-ring resonator. The geometric configuration of the resonators, and the implementation of a simulated broadband excitation source, results in the realization of optical transparencies in the combined through port output spectrum. The 130 nm silicon on insulator rib fabrication process is adopted for the simulation of the dual-ring configuration. Two titanium nitride heaters are positioned over the coupling regions of the resonators, which can be operated independently, to control the spectral position of the optical transparency. A third heater, centrally located above the dual resonator rings, can be used to red shift the entire spectrum to a required reference resonant wavelength. The free spectral range with no heater currents applied is 4.29 nm. For a simulated heater current of 7 mA (55.7 mW heater power) applied to one of the through coupling heaters, the optical transparency exhibits a red shift of 1.79 nm from the reference resonant wavelength. The ring-to-ring separation of approximately 900 nm means that it can be assumed that there is a zero ring-to-ring coupling field in this model. This novel arrangement has potential applications as a gas mass airflow sensor or a gas species identification sensor.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in active surveillance—a modern approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Caroline M.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, active surveillance has been increasingly adopted as a conservative management approach to low and sometimes intermediate risk prostate cancer, to avoid or delay treatment until there is evidence of higher risk disease. A number of studies have investigated the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in this setting. MpMRI refers to the use of multiple MRI sequences (T2-weighted anatomical and functional imaging which can include diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced imaging, spectroscopy). Each of the parameters investigates different aspects of the prostate gland (anatomy, cellularity, vascularity, etc.). In addition to a qualitative assessment, the radiologist can also extrapolate quantitative imaging biomarkers from these sequences, for example the apparent diffusion coefficient from diffusion-weighted imaging. There are many different types of articles (e.g., reviews, commentaries, consensus meetings, etc.) that address the use of mpMRI in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. In this paper, we compare original articles that investigate the role of the different mpMRI sequences in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer, in order to discuss the relative utility of the different sequences, and combinations of sequences. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed for manuscripts published from inception to 1st December 2017. The search terms used were (prostate cancer or prostate adenocarcinoma or prostatic carcinoma or prostate carcinoma or prostatic adenocarcinoma) and (MRI or NMR or magnetic resonance imaging or mpMRI or multiparametric MRI) and active surveillance. Overall, 425 publications were found. All abstracts were reviewed to identify papers with original data. Twenty-five papers were analysed and summarised. Some papers based their analysis only on one mpMRI sequence, while others assessed two or more. The evidence from this review suggests that qualitative assessments and quantitative data from

  1. Eigenmode resonance in a two-layer stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Isao; Linden, P. F.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, we study the velocity field at the density interface of a two-layer stratification system when the flow is forced at the mid-depth of the lower layer by the source sink forcing method. It is known that, in a sufficiently strong linear stratification, the source sink forcing in certain configurations produces a single-vortex pattern which corresponds to the lowest eigenmode of the Helmholtz equation (Kanda & Linden 2001). Two types of forcing configuration are used for the two-layer experiments: one that leads to a steady single-vortex pattern in a linear stratification, and one that results in an unsteady irregular state. Strong single-vortex patterns appear intermittently for the former configurations despite the absence of stratification at the forcing height. When the single-vortex pattern occurs at the density interface, a similar flow field extends down to the forcing height. The behaviour is explained as the coupling of the resonant eigenmode at the interface with the horizontal component of the forcing jets. The results show that stratification can organise a flow, even though it is forced by an apparently random three-dimensional forcing.

  2. Method of using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy standard

    DOEpatents

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy, wherein the resonance peaks of either .sup.1 H, .sup.13 C, .sup.15 N, or .sup.29 Si may be used as a reference.

  3. A new high pressure sapphire nuclear magnetic resonance cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shi; Taylor, Craig M.; Mayne, Charles L.; Pugmire, Ronald J.; Grant, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of a single-crystal sapphire high pressure nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) cell is described that is capable of controlling the sample pressure independent of the temperature. A movable piston inside the cell adjusts and controls the sample pressure from ambient conditions to 200 atm within ±0.3 atm. The linewidth at half-height for a 13C spectrum of carbon dioxide at 15 °C and 57.8 atm is found to be 0.5 Hz. The carbon dioxide gas/liquid phase transition is clearly observed by measuring 13C chemical shifts as the sample pressure approaches equilibrium. The time required for this NMR cell to reach equilibrium with its surroundings is relatively short, usually 15-30 min. The cell body has the same outer dimensions of a standard spinning turbine and fits into a standard 10 mm commercial probehead capable of controlling the sample temperature using the spectrometer's variable temperature unit. The flexibility of the device and the increased speed in making the measurement is demonstrated. Such control of important thermodynamic variables facilitates the NMR study of important biochemical and chemical reactions in gas, liquid, and supercritical fluid environments.

  4. Matter-neutrino resonance in a multiangle neutrino bulb model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasenko, Alexey; McLaughlin, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations of neutrino flavor evolution in compact merger environments have shown that neutrino flavor, and hence nucleosynthesis, can be strongly affected by the presence of matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs), where there is a cancelation between the matter and the neutrino potential. Simulations performed thus far follow flavor evolution along a single neutrino trajectory, but self-consistency requires all trajectories to be treated simultaneously, and it has not been known whether MNR phenomena would still occur in multiangle models. In this paper, we present the first fully multi-angle calculations of MNR. We find that familiar MNR phenomena, where neutrinos transform to a greater extent than anti-neutrinos and a feedback mechanism maintains the cancellation between the matter and neutrino potential, still occurs for a subset of angular bins, although the flavor transformation is not as efficient as in the single-angle case. In addition, we find other types of flavor transformation that are not seen in single-angle simulations. These flavor transformation phenomena appear to be robust and are present for a wide range of model parameters, as long as an MNR is present. Although computational constraints currently limit us to models with spherical symmetry, our results suggest that the presence of an MNR generally leads to large-scale neutrino flavor evolution in multiangle systems.

  5. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%.

  6. A Lateral Differential Resonant Pressure Microsensor Based on SOI-Glass Wafer-Level Vacuum Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Xing, Yonghao; Wang, Yanshuang; Chen, Jian; Chen, Deyong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a resonant pressure microsensor based on SOI-glass wafer-level vacuum packaging. The SOI-based pressure microsensor consists of a pressure-sensitive diaphragm at the handle layer and two lateral resonators (electrostatic excitation and capacitive detection) on the device layer as a differential setup. The resonators were vacuum packaged with a glass cap using anodic bonding and the wire interconnection was realized using a mask-free electrochemical etching approach by selectively patterning an Au film on highly topographic surfaces. The fabricated resonant pressure microsensor with dual resonators was characterized in a systematic manner, producing a quality factor higher than 10,000 (~6 months), a sensitivity of about 166 Hz/kPa and a reduced nonlinear error of 0.033% F.S. Based on the differential output, the sensitivity was increased to two times and the temperature-caused frequency drift was decreased to 25%. PMID:26402679

  7. A haptic unit designed for magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tse, Z T H; Elhawary, H; Rea, M; Young, I; Davis, B L; Lamperth, M

    2009-02-01

    The magnetic fields present in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment impose severe constraints on any mechatronic device present in its midst, requiring alternative actuators, sensors, and materials to those conventionally used in traditional system engineering. In addition the spatial constraints of closed-bore scanners require a physical separation between the radiologist and the imaged region of the patient. This configuration produces a loss of the sense of touch from the target anatomy for the clinician, which often provides useful information. To recover the force feedback from the tissue, an MR-compatible haptic unit, designed to be integrated with a five-degrees-of-freedom mechatronic system for MR-guided prostate biopsy, has been developed which incorporates position control and force feedback to the operator. The haptic unit is designed to be located inside the scanner isocentre with the master console in the control room. MR compatibility of the device has been demonstrated, showing a negligible degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio and virtually no geometric distortion. By combining information from the position encoder and force sensor, tissue stiffness measurement along the needle trajectory is demonstrated in a lamb liver to aid diagnosis of suspected cancerous tissue.

  8. A magnetic-resonance-imaging-compatible remote catheter navigation system.

    PubMed

    Tavallaei, Mohammad Ali; Thakur, Yogesh; Haider, Syed; Drangova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    A remote catheter navigation system compatible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to facilitate MRI-guided catheterization procedures. The interventionalist's conventional motions (axial motion and rotation) on an input catheter - acting as the master - are measured by a pair of optical encoders, and a custom embedded system relays the motions to a pair of ultrasonic motors. The ultrasonic motors drive the patient catheter (slave) within the MRI scanner, replicating the motion of the input catheter. The performance of the remote catheter navigation system was evaluated in terms of accuracy and delay of motion replication outside and within the bore of the magnet. While inside the scanner bore, motion accuracy was characterized during the acquisition of frequently used imaging sequences, including real-time gradient echo. The effect of the catheter navigation system on image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also evaluated. The results show that the master-slave system has a maximum time delay of 41 ± 21 ms in replicating motion; an absolute value error of 2 ± 2° was measured for radial catheter motion replication over 360° and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm in axial catheter motion replication over 100 mm of travel. The worst-case SNR drop was observed to be 2.5%.

  9. Ferromagnetic Resonance of a Single Magnetochiral Metamolecule of Permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Toshiyuki; Tomita, Satoshi; Kato, Takeshi; Oshima, Daiki; Iwata, Satoshi; Okamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Nobuaki; Kitakami, Osamu; Hosoito, Nobuyoshi; Yanagi, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of a single chiral structure of a ferromagnetic metal—the magnetochiral (MCh) metamolecule. Using a strain-driven self-coiling technique, micrometer-sized MCh metamolecules of metallic permalloy (Py) are fabricated without any residual Py films. The magnetization curves of ten Py MCh metamolecules obtained by an alternating gradient magnetometer show soft magnetic behavior. In cavity FMR with a magnetic-field sweep and coplanar-waveguide (CPW) FMR with a frequency sweep, the Kittel-mode FMR of the single Py metamolecule is observed. The CPW-FMR results, which are consistent with the cavity-FMR results, bring about the effective g factor, effective magnetization, and Gilbert damping of the single metamolecule. Together with calculations using these parameters, the angle-resolved cavity FMR reveals that the magnetization in the Py MCh metamolecule is most likely to be the hollow-bar type of configuration when the external magnetic field is applied parallel to the chiral axis, although the expected magnetization state at remanence is the corkscrew type of configuration.

  10. Gaussian-reflectivity mirror resonator for a high-power transverse-flow CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Ling, Dongxiong; Chen, Junruo; Li, Junchang

    2006-05-01

    A Gaussian-reflectivity mirror resonator is proposed to achieve high-quality laser beams. To analyze the laser fields in a Gaussian-reflectivity mirror resonator, the diffraction integral equations of a Gaussian-reflectivity mirror resonator are converted to the finite-sum matrix equations. Consequently, according to the Fox-Li laser self-reproducing principle, we describe the mode fields and their losses in the proposed resonator as eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a transfer matrix. The conclusion can be drawn from the numerical results that, if a Gaussian-reflectivity mirror is adopted for a plano-concave resonator, a fundamental mode can easily be obtained from a transverse-flow CO2 laser and high-quality laser beams can be expected.

  11. A mystery of black-hole gravitational resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Hod, Shahar; The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem 91010

    More than three decades ago, Detweiler provided an analytical formula for the gravitational resonant frequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes. In the present work we shall discuss an important discrepancy between the famous analytical prediction of Detweiler and the recent numerical results of Zimmerman et al. In addition, we shall refute the claim that recently appeared in the physics literature that the Detweiler-Teukolsky-Press resonance equation for the characteristic gravitational eigenfrequencies of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes is not valid in the regime of damped quasinormal resonances with ℑω/T{sub BH}≫1 (here ω and T{sub BH} are respectively the characteristic quasinormal resonant frequencymore » of the Kerr black hole and its Bekenstein-Hawking temperature). The main goal of the present paper is to highlight and expose this important black-hole quasinormal mystery (that is, the intriguing discrepancy between the analytical and numerical results regarding the gravitational quasinormal resonance spectra of rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes).« less

  12. A graph theory approach to identify resonant and non-resonant transmission paths in statistical modal energy distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonès, Àngels; Maxit, Laurent; Guasch, Oriol

    2015-08-01

    Statistical modal energy distribution analysis (SmEdA) extends classical statistical energy analysis (SEA) to the mid frequency range by establishing power balance equations between modes in different subsystems. This circumvents the SEA requirement of modal energy equipartition and enables applying SmEdA to the cases of low modal overlap, locally excited subsystems and to deal with complex heterogeneous subsystems as well. Yet, widening the range of application of SEA is done at a price with large models because the number of modes per subsystem can become considerable when the frequency increases. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to have at one's disposal tools for a quick identification and ranking of the resonant and non-resonant paths involved in modal energy transmission between subsystems. It will be shown that previously developed graph theory algorithms for transmission path analysis (TPA) in SEA can be adapted to SmEdA and prove useful for that purpose. The case of airborne transmission between two cavities separated apart by homogeneous and ribbed plates will be first addressed to illustrate the potential of the graph approach. A more complex case representing transmission between non-contiguous cavities in a shipbuilding structure will be also presented.

  13. Resonant frequency calculations using a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation Galerkin technique is applied to the problem of determining the resonant frequencies of one or several degree of freedom nonlinear systems involving a parameter. In one step, the Lindstedt-Poincare method is used to determine perturbation solutions which are formally valid about one or more special values of the parameter (e.g., for large or small values of the parameter). In step two, a subset of the perturbation coordinate functions determined in step one is used in Galerkin type approximation. The technique is illustrated for several one degree of freedom systems, including the Duffing and van der Pol oscillators, as well as for the compound pendulum. For all of the examples considered, it is shown that the frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique using only a few terms from the perturbation solutions are significantly more accurate than the perturbation results on which they are based, and they compare very well with frequencies obtained by purely numerical methods.

  14. A possible application of magnetic resonance imaging for pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Joanna; Tritt-Goc, Jadwiga

    2011-03-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive method, the experiment can be conducted in situ and allows the studying of the sample and the different processes in vitro or in vivo. 1D, 2D or 3D imaging can be undertaken. MRI is nowadays most widely used in medicine as a clinical diagnostic tool, but has still seen limited application in the food and pharmaceutical sciences. The different imaging pulse sequences of MRI allow to image the processes that take place in a wide scale range from ms (dissolution of compact tablets) to hours (hydration of drug delivery systems) for mobile as well as for rigid spins, usually protons. The paper gives examples of MRI application of in vitro imaging of pharmaceutical dosage based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose which have focused on water-penetration, diffusion, polymer swelling, and drug release, characterized with respect to other physical parameters such as pH and the molecular weight of polymer. Tetracycline hydrochloride was used as a model drug. NMR imaging of density distributions and fast kinetics of the dissolution behavior of compact tablets is presented for paracetamol tablets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence ofmore » both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.« less

  16. A mathematical solution for the parameters of three interfering resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Shen, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multiple-solution problem in determining the parameters of three interfering resonances from a fit to an experimentally measured distribution is considered from a mathematical viewpoint. It is shown that there are four numerical solutions for a fit with three coherent Breit-Wigner functions. Although explicit analytical formulae cannot be derived in this case, we provide some constraint equations between the four solutions. For the cases of nonrelativistic and relativistic Breit-Wigner forms of amplitude functions, a numerical method is provided to derive the other solutions from that already obtained, based on the obtained constraint equations. In real experimental measurements with more complicated amplitude forms similar to Breit-Wigner functions, the same method can be deduced and performed to get numerical solutions. The good agreement between the solutions found using this mathematical method and those directly from the fit verifies the correctness of the constraint equations and mathematical methodology used. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11575017, 11761141009), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856701) and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  17. Construction of a Magnetic Induction Antenna to Detect Schumann Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernald, Trevr; Bowers, Alexis; Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Maxwell; Reid, John, , Dr.

    2016-03-01

    An antenna was designed and built to detect magnetic field changes in the form of Schumann resonances. This was done in hopes of eventually being able to correlate data with sprite occurrence. A square loop was constructed with one meter sides using 2x4s and was wrapped with six hundred turns of 0.2mm thick copper wire. The antenna was tested in a rural location in northern Pennsylvania, chosen for its isolation and expectations of low electrical noise. Detected signals were filtered using a band-pass filter and observed using an oscilloscope. The signal had too much interference to make it possible to see any unmistakably Schumann character, but a Fourier Transform function made it possible to see the contribution of each component frequency to the overall interference. This function revealed possible presence of Schumann character in the signal, indicating mostly 2nd and 3rd mode Schumann frequencies. The fundamental mode may have been observed as well, but was less consistent and pronounced than the other frequencies. The performance of the filter was somewhat questionable and electrical noise was evident, so further experimentation is necessary.

  18. A 32-bit Ultrafast Parallel Correlator using Resonant Tunneling Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shriram; Mazumder, Pinaki; Haddad, George I.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast 32-bit pipeline correlator has been implemented using resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and hetero-junction bipolar transistors (HBT). The negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics of RTD's is the basis of logic gates with the self-latching property that eliminates pipeline area and delay overheads which limit throughput in conventional technologies. The circuit topology also allows threshold logic functions such as minority/majority to be implemented in a compact manner resulting in reduction of the overall complexity and delay of arbitrary logic circuits. The parallel correlator is an essential component in code division multi-access (CDMA) transceivers used for the continuous calculation of correlation between an incoming data stream and a PN sequence. Simulation results show that a nano-pipelined correlator can provide and effective throughput of one 32-bit correlation every 100 picoseconds, using minimal hardware, with a power dissipation of 1.5 watts. RTD plus HBT based logic gates have been fabricated and the RTD plus HBT based correlator is compared with state of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) implementations.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Endodontics: A Review.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, Dario; Gambarini, Gianluca; Capuani, Silvia; Testarelli, Luca

    2018-04-01

    This review analyzes the increasing role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dentistry and its relevance in endodontics. Limits and new strategies to develop MRI protocols for endodontic purposes are reported and discussed. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed databases. Only original articles on dental structures, anatomy, and endodontics investigated by in vitro and in vivo MRI were included in this review. Original articles on MRI in dentistry not concerning anatomy and endodontics were excluded. All the consulted studies showed well-defined images of pathological conditions such as caries and microcracks. The enhanced contrast of pulp provided a high-quality reproduction of the tooth shape and root canal in vitro and in vivo. Assessment of periapical lesions is possible even without the use of contrast medium. MRI is a nonionizing technique characterized by high tissue contrast and high image resolution of soft tissues; it could be considered a valid and safe diagnostic investigation in endodontics because of its potential to identify pulp tissues, define root canal shape, and locate periapical lesions. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A review: aluminum nitride MEMS contour-mode resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunhong, Hou; Meng, Zhang; Guowei, Han; Chaowei, Si; Yongmei, Zhao; Jin, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several decades, the technology of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) has advanced. A clear need of miniaturization and integration of electronics components has had new solutions for the next generation of wireless communications. The aluminum nitride (AlN) MEMS contour-mode resonator (CMR) has emerged and become promising and competitive due to the advantages of the small size, high quality factor and frequency, low resistance, compatibility with integrated circuit (IC) technology, and the ability of integrating multi-frequency devices on a single chip. In this article, a comprehensive review of AlN MEMS CMR technology will be presented, including its basic working principle, main structures, fabrication processes, and methods of performance optimization. Among these, the deposition and etching process of the AlN film will be specially emphasized and recent advances in various performance optimization methods of the CMR will be given through specific examples which are mainly focused on temperature compensation and reducing anchor losses. This review will conclude with an assessment of the challenges and future trends of the CMR. Project supported by National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61274001, 61234007, 61504130), the Nurturing and Development Special Projects of Beijing Science and Technology Innovation Base's Financial Support (No. Z131103002813070), and the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Fund of CAS (No. CXJJ-14-M32).

  2. A 77-118 GHz RESONANCE-FREE SEPTUM POLARIZER

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiueh, Tzihong; Teng, Hsiao-Feng, E-mail: chiuehth@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of polarized radiation often reveal specific physical properties of emission sources, such as the strengths and orientations of magnetic fields offered by synchrotron radiation and Zeeman line emission, and the electron density distribution caused by free-free emission. Polarization-capable, millimeter/sub-millimeter telescopes are normally equipped with either septum polarizers or ortho-mode transducers (OMT) to detect polarized radiation. Though the septum polarizer is limited to a significantly narrower bandwidth than the OMT, it possesses advantageous features unparalleled by the OMT when it comes to determining astronomical polarization measurements. We design an extremely wide-band circular waveguide septum polarizer, covering 42% bandwidth, from 77more » GHz to 118 GHz, without any undesired resonance, challenging the conventional bandwidth limit. Stokes parameters, constructed from the measured data between 77 GHz and 115 GHz, show that the leakage from I to Q and U is below ±2%, and the Q – U mutual leakage is below ±1%. Such a performance is comparable to other modern polarizers, but the bandwidth of this polarizer can be at least twice as wide. This extremely wide-band design removes the major weakness of the septum polarizer and opens up a new window for future astronomical polarization measurements.« less

  3. Mechanical Properties of a Primary Cilium Measured by Resonant Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnick, Andrew

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous mammalian cellular substructures implicated in an ever-increasing number of regulatory pathways. The well-established `ciliary hypothesis' states that physical bending of the cilium (for example, due to fluid flow) initiates signaling cascades, yet the mechanical properties of the cilium remain incompletely measured, resulting in confusion regarding the biological significance of flow-induced ciliary mechanotransduction. In this work we measure the mechanical properties of a primary cilium by using an optical trap to induce resonant oscillation of the structure. Our data indicate 1), the primary cilium is not a simple cantilevered beam, 2), the base of the cilium may be modeled as a nonlinear rotatory spring, the linear spring constant `k' of the cilium base calculated to be (4.6 +/- 0.62)*10-12 N/rad and nonlinear spring constant ` α' to be (-1 +/- 0.34) *10-10 N/rad2 , and 3) the ciliary base may be an essential regulator of mechanotransduction signalling. Our method is also particularly suited to measure mechanical properties of nodal cilia, stereocilia, and motile cilia, anatomically similar structures with very different physiological functions.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Based Electrical Properties Tomography: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Liu, Jiaen

    2014-01-01

    Frequency-dependent electrical properties (EPs; conductivity and permittivity) of biological tissues provide important diagnostic information (e.g. tumor characterization), and also play an important role in quantifying radiofrequency (RF) coil induced Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) which is a major safety concern in high- and ultrahigh-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. Cross-sectional imaging of EPs has been pursued for decades. Recently introduced Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) approaches utilize the measurable RF magnetic field induced by the RF coil in an MRI system to quantitatively reconstruct the EP distribution in vivo and non-invasively with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters or less. This paper reviews the Electrical Properties Tomography approach from its basic theory in electromagnetism to the state of the art research outcomes. Emphasizing on the imaging reconstruction methods rather than experimentation techniques, we review the developed imaging algorithms, validation results in physical phantoms and biological tissues, as well as their applications in in vivo tumor detection and subject-specific SAR prediction. Challenges for future research are also discussed. PMID:24803104

  5. Study of a possible S = + 1 dynamically generated baryonic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sourav; Oset, E.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2005-05-01

    Starting from the lowest-order chiral Lagrangian for the interaction of the baryon decuplet with the octet of pseudoscalar mesons we find an attractive interaction in the ΔK channel with L = 0 and I = 1, while the interaction is repulsive for I = 2. The attractive interaction leads to a pole in the second Riemann sheet of the complex plane and manifests itself in a large strength of the ΔK scattering amplitude close to the ΔK threshold, which is not the case for I = 2. However, we also make a study of uncertainties in the model and conclude that the existence of this pole depends sensitively upon the input used and can disappear within reasonable variations of the input parameters. We take advantage to study the stability of the other poles obtained for the {{3}/{2}}- dynamically generated resonances of the model and conclude that they are stable and not contingent to reasonable changes in the input of the theory.

  6. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Gaurav; Alexander, Gregory S; Bakas, Spyridon; Nikam, Rahul; Talekar, Kiran; Palmer, Joshua D; Shi, Wenyin

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common and most rapidly progressing primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system, continues to portend a dismal prognosis, despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies over the last 20 years. The standard of care radiographic characterization of glioblastoma is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a widely utilized examination in the diagnosis and post-treatment management of patients with glioblastoma. Basic MRI modalities available from any clinical scanner, including native T1-weighted (T1w) and contrast-enhanced (T1CE), T2-weighted (T2w), and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) sequences, provide critical clinical information about various processes in the tumor environment. In the last decade, advanced MRI modalities are increasingly utilized to further characterize glioblastomas more comprehensively. These include multi-parametric MRI sequences, such as dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), higher order diffusion techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Significant efforts are ongoing to implement these advanced imaging modalities into improved clinical workflows and personalized therapy approaches. Functional MRI (fMRI) and tractography are increasingly being used to identify eloquent cortices and important tracts to minimize postsurgical neuro-deficits. A contemporary review of the application of standard and advanced MRI in clinical neuro-oncologic practice is presented here.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a CNT forest integrated micromechanical resonator for a rarefied gas analyzer in a medium vacuum atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugano, Koji; Matsumoto, Ryu; Tsutsui, Ryota; Kishihara, Hiroyuki; Matsuzuka, Naoki; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Isono, Yoshitada

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the development of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest integrated micromechanical resonator working as a rarefied gas analyzer for nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2) gases in a medium vacuum atmosphere. The resonant response is detected in the form of changes in the resonant frequency or damping effects, depending on the rarefied gas species. The carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on the resonator enhances the effective specific surface area of the resonator, such that the variation of the resonant frequency and the damping effect based on the gas species increase significantly. We developed the fabrication process for the proposed resonator, which consists of standard micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) processes and high-density CNT synthesis on the resonator mass. The high-density CNT synthesis was realized using multistep alternate coating of two types of ferritin proteins that act as catalytic iron particles. Two devices with different CNT densities were fabricated and characterized to evaluate the effect of the surface area of the CNT forest on the resonant response as a function of gas pressures ranging from 0.011 to 1 Pa for N2 and H2. Considering the damping effect, we found that the device with higher density was able to distinguish N2 and H2 clearly, whereas the device with lower density showed no difference between N2 and H2. We confirmed that a larger surface area showed a higher damping effect. These results were explained based on the kinetic theory of gases. In the case of resonant frequency, the relative resonant frequency shift increased with gas pressure and surface area because of the adsorption of gas molecules on the resonator surfaces. Higher density CNT forest adsorbed more gas molecules on the surfaces. The developed CNT forest integrated micromechanical resonator could successfully detect N2 and H2 gases and distinguish between them under pressures of 1 Pa.

  8. The effect of a gamma ray flare on Schumann resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Kudintseva, I. G.; Pechony, O.; Hayakawa, M.; Hobara, Y.; Tanaka, Y. T.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the ionospheric modification by the SGR 1806-20 gamma flare (27 December 2004) seen in the global electromagnetic (Schumann) resonance. The gamma rays lowered the ionosphere over the dayside of the globe and modified the Schumann resonance spectra. We present the extremely low frequency (ELF) data monitored at the Moshiri observatory, Japan (44.365° N, 142.24° E). Records are compared with the expected modifications, which facilitate detection of the simultaneous abrupt change in the dynamic resonance pattern of the experimental record. The gamma flare modified the current of the global electric circuit and thus caused the "parametric" ELF transient. Model results are compared with observations enabling evaluation of changes in the global electric circuit.

  9. 4H Leukodystrophy: A Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Vrij-van den Bos, Suzanne; Hol, Janna A; La Piana, Roberta; Harting, Inga; Vanderver, Adeline; Barkhof, Frederik; Cayami, Ferdy; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Pouwels, Petra J W; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Bernard, Geneviève; Wolf, Nicole I

    2017-06-01

    4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy (4H) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating white matter (WM) disorder with neurologic, dental, and endocrine abnormalities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for 4H. A scoring system (0-54) was developed to quantify hypomyelination and atrophy of different brain regions. Pons diameter and bicaudate ratio were included as measures of cerebral and brainstem atrophy, and reference values were determined using controls. Five independent raters completed the scoring system in 40 brain MRI scans collected from 36 patients with genetically proven 4H. Interrater reliability (IRR) and correlations between MRI scores, age, gross motor function, gender, and mutated gene were assessed. IRR for total MRI severity was found to be excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.92) but varied between different items with some (e.g., myelination of the cerebellar WM) showing poor IRR. Atrophy increased with age in contrast to hypomyelination scores. MRI scores (global, hypomyelination, and atrophy scores) significantly correlated with clinical handicap ( p  < 0.01 for all three items) and differed between the different genotypes. Our 4H MRI scoring system reliably quantifies hypomyelination and atrophy in patients with 4H, and MRI scores reflect clinical disease severity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A Hitchhiker's Guide to Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soares, José M.; Magalhães, Ricardo; Moreira, Pedro S.; Sousa, Alexandre; Ganz, Edward; Sampaio, Adriana; Alves, Victor; Marques, Paulo; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have become increasingly popular both with clinicians and researchers as they are capable of providing unique insights into brain functions. However, multiple technical considerations (ranging from specifics of paradigm design to imaging artifacts, complex protocol definition, and multitude of processing and methods of analysis, as well as intrinsic methodological limitations) must be considered and addressed in order to optimize fMRI analysis and to arrive at the most accurate and grounded interpretation of the data. In practice, the researcher/clinician must choose, from many available options, the most suitable software tool for each stage of the fMRI analysis pipeline. Herein we provide a straightforward guide designed to address, for each of the major stages, the techniques, and tools involved in the process. We have developed this guide both to help those new to the technique to overcome the most critical difficulties in its use, as well as to serve as a resource for the neuroimaging community. PMID:27891073

  11. The decay widths, the decay constants, and the branching fractions of a resonant state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the differential and the total decay widths of a resonant (Gamow) state decaying into a continuum of stable states. When the resonance has several decay modes, we introduce the corresponding partial decay widths and branching fractions. In the approximation that the resonance is sharp, the expressions for the differential, partial and total decay widths of a resonant state bear a close resemblance with the Golden Rule. In such approximation, the branching fractions of a resonant state are the same as the standard branching fractions obtained by way of the Golden Rule. We also introduce dimensionless decay constants along with their associated differential decay constants, and we express experimentally measurable quantities such as the branching fractions and the energy distributions of decay events in terms of those dimensionless decay constants.

  12. Numerical study of heterogeneous mean temperature and shock wave in a resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Takeru

    2015-10-28

    When a frequency of gas oscillation in an acoustic resonator is sufficiently close to one of resonant frequencies of the resonator, the amplitude of gas oscillation becomes large and hence the nonlinear effect manifests itself. Then, if the dissipation effects due to viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gas are sufficiently small, the gas oscillation may evolve into the acoustic shock wave, in the so-called consonant resonators. At the shock front, the kinetic energy of gas oscillation is converted into heat by the dissipation process inside the shock layer, and therefore the temperature of the gas in the resonator rises.more » Since the acoustic shock wave travels in the resonator repeatedly over and over again, the temperature rise becomes noticeable in due course of time even if the shock wave is weak. We numerically study the gas oscillation with shock wave in a resonator of square cross section by solving the initial and boundary value problem of the system of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a finite difference method. In this case, the heat conduction across the boundary layer on the wall of resonator causes a spatially heterogeneous distribution of mean (time-averaged) gas temperature.« less

  13. Quantum statistics of four-wave mixing by a nonlinear resonant microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Schomerus, Henning; Fal'ko, Vladimir

    2014-09-01

    We analyze the correlation and spectral properties of two-photon states resonantly transmitted by a nonlinear optical microcavity. We trace the correlation properties of transmitted two-photon states to the decay spectrum of multiphoton resonances in the nonlinear microcavity.

  14. Note: surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small changes of temperature: a thermometric "magnifying glass".

    PubMed

    Kryshtal, R G; Medved, A V

    2014-02-01

    Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small changes of temperature from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally.

  15. Ultra-wide band signal generation using a coupling-tunable silicon microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunhong; Huang, Bo; Peucheret, Christophe; Xu, Jing; Ou, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2014-03-10

    Ultra-wide band signal generation using a silicon microring resonator tuned to an NRZ-DPSK modulated optical carrier is proposed and demonstrated. The scheme is shown to enable the generation of UWB signals with switchable polarity and tunable bandwidth by simply tuning the coupling regions of the microring resonator. Monocycle pulses with both negative and positive polarities are successfully synthesized experimentally.

  16. An all-optical switch based on a surface plasmon polariton resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zijuan; Lang, Peilin; Duan, Gaoyan

    2018-04-01

    All-optical switch is one of the key parts of optical circuit. We employ a temperature-sensitive resonator to form an optical switch. The resonator deforms under the applied light and adjusts the transmittance of the structure. To our knowledge, this is the first design of an all-optical surface plasmon polariton (SPP) switch based on the heat deformation effect.

  17. A novel photonic crystal ring resonator configuration for add/drop filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Hao; Ding, Yipeng; Wang, Yang

    2018-07-01

    A novel compact photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) configuration is proposed to realize high-efficiency waveguided add-drop filtering. Its wavelength selection and dropping-direction exchange functions are demonstrated numerically. The working mechanism of this nested dual-loop resonant cavity structure is analyzed in detail.

  18. Teaching the Concept of Resonance with the Help of a Classical Guitar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasar, M. Kaan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Sengoren, Serap Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Resonance refers to the vibrations of larger amplitude that are produced under the effect of a harmonic driving force. Although resonance is an essential concept behind many events happening in nature, students usually have difficulty in learning and explaining the phenomenon. Various demonstrations are carried out in physics classes to clarify…

  19. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  20. A comprehensive literatures update of clinical researches of superparamagnetic resonance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Idée, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to update the clinical researches using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent published during the past five years. PubMed database was used for literature search, and the search terms were (SPIO OR superparamagnetic iron oxide OR Resovist OR Ferumoxytol OR Ferumoxtran-10) AND (MRI OR magnetic resonance imaging). The literature search results show clinical research on SPIO remains robust, particularly fuelled by the approval of ferumoxytol for intravenously administration. SPIOs have been tested on MR angiography, sentinel lymph node detection, lymph node metastasis evaluation; inflammation evaluation; blood volume measurement; as well as liver imaging. Two experimental SPIOs with unique potentials are also discussed in this review. A curcumin-conjugated SPIO can penetrate brain blood barrier (BBB) and bind to amyloid plaques in Alzheime’s disease transgenic mice brain, and thereafter detectable by MRI. Another SPIO was fabricated with a core of Fe3O4 nanoparticle and a shell coating of concentrated hydrophilic polymer brushes and are almost not taken by peripheral macrophages as well as by mononuclear phagocytes and reticuloendothelial system (RES) due to the suppression of non-specific protein binding caused by their stealthy ‘‘brush-afforded’’ structure. This SPIO may offer potentials for the applications such as drug targeting and tissue or organ imaging other than liver and lymph nodes. PMID:28275562

  1. A Micro-Resonant Gas Sensor with Nanometer Clearance between the Pole Plates.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaorui; Xu, Lizhong

    2018-01-26

    In micro-resonant gas sensors, the capacitive detection is widely used because of its simple structure. However, its shortcoming is a weak signal output caused by a small capacitance change. Here, we reduced the initial clearance between the pole plates to the nanometer level, and increased the capacitance between the pole plates and its change during resonator vibration. We propose a fabricating process of the micro-resonant gas sensor by which the initial clearance between the pole plates is reduced to the nanometer level and a micro-resonant gas sensor with 200 nm initial clearance is fabricated. With this sensor, the resonant frequency shifts were measured when they were exposed to several different vapors, and high detection accuracies were obtained. The detection accuracy with respect to ethanol vapor was 0.4 ppm per Hz shift, and the detection accuracy with respect to hydrogen and ammonias vapors was 3 ppm and 0.5 ppm per Hz shift, respectively.

  2. A 25-kW Series-Resonant Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, R. J.; Robson, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Prototype exhibited efficiency of 93.9 percent. 25-kW resonant dc/dc power converter designed, developed, fabricated, and tested, using Westinghouse D7ST transistors as high-power switches. D7ST transistor characterized for use as switch in series-resonant converters, and refined base-drive circuit developed. Technical base includes advanced switching magnetic, and filter components, mathematical circuit models, control philosophies, and switch-drive strategies. Power-system benefits such as lower losses when used for high-voltage distribution, and reduced magnetics and filter mass realized.

  3. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  4. Architecture of baked breads depicted by a magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishida, N; Takano, H; Naito, S; Isobe, S; Uemura, K; Haishi, T; Kose, K; Koizumi, M; Kano, H

    2001-07-01

    The architecture of baked breads made of fresh dough and frozen dough was depicted by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pieces of bread (16 mm cubic cakes) were soaked in organic solvents containing various concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Fe(3+)) and images of the grain structure of the breads were obtained. Of the organic solvents tested, acetone was preferable because of its single peak that prevents chemical shift effects on images, the retention of the bread structure, and the solubility of heavy metals. The heavy metals, especially Fe(3+), shortened the overly long relaxation times of acetone to practical lengths for imaging and stained the materials to provide high contrasts. The images obtained in acetone with 8 mM Fe(3+) were suitable for analyzing crumb grain structures. The bread of fresh dough showed a uniform distribution of pores of various sizes made of thin gluten sheets, whereas the pores in the bread of frozen dough were less, prominently large, non-uniformly distributed, and made of thick gluten sheets.

  5. Neurochemistry of major depression: a study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Beata R; Near, Jamie; Cowen, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an acceptable non-invasive means of studying brain neurochemistry in depression. Previous studies in depressed patients have focused on measurement of the amino acid neurotransmitters, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. The aim of this study is to use MRS in conjunction with the ultrashort echo time 'SPECIAL' technique to measure cortical levels of GABA, glutamate and glutathione (GSH) levels in unmedicated patients with major depression. We also examined the effect of 6-week treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, escitalopram. We studied patients with DSM-IV major depression and healthy age-matched controls using proton MRS. GABA, glutamate and GSH were measured relative to creatine in a voxel placed in occipital cortex. There was no difference in GABA or glutamate levels between depressed participants and controls; however, depressed patients had lower GSH levels. Six-week escitalopram treatment, which resulted in significant clinical responses in some patients, did not alter concentrations of GABA, glutamate or GSH. The sources of variability of GABA and glutamate measures in different studies of depressed patients require further study. Our results suggest that concomitant treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is unlikely to be an important confounding factor. If lowered GSH levels can be confirmed, they may represent the presence of oxidative stress in some depressed patients.

  6. A numerical study of non-collinear wave mixing and generated resonant components.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenghao; Li, Fucai; Li, Hongguang

    2016-09-01

    Interaction of two non-collinear nonlinear ultrasonic waves in an elastic half-space with quadratic nonlinearity is investigated in this paper. A hyperbolic system of conservation laws is applied here and a semi-discrete central scheme is used to solve the numerical problem. The numerical results validate that the model can be used as an effective method to generate and evaluate a resonant wave when two primary waves mix together under certain resonant conditions. Features of the resonant wave are analyzed both in the time and frequency domains, and variation trends of the resonant waves together with second harmonics along the propagation path are analyzed. Applied with the pulse-inversion technique, components of resonant waves and second harmonics can be independently extracted and observed without distinguishing times of flight. The results show that under the circumstance of non-collinear wave mixing, both sum and difference resonant components can be clearly obtained especially in the tangential direction of their propagation. For several rays of observation points around the interaction zone, the further it is away from the excitation sources, generally the earlier the maximum of amplitude arises. From the parametric analysis of the phased array, it is found that both the length of array and the density of element have impact on the maximum of amplitude of the resonant waves. The spatial distribution of resonant waves will provide necessary information for the related experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung as an Alternative for a Pregnant Woman with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schloß, Manuel; Heckrodt, Jan; Schneider, Christian; Discher, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele Anja

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a pregnant 21-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in which magnetic resonance imaging of the lung was used to assess the extent and characteristics of the pathological changes. Although the lung has been mostly ignored in magnetic resonance imaging for many decades, today technical development enables detailed examinations of the lung. The technique is now entering the clinical arena and its indications are increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung is not only an alternative method without radiation exposure, it can provide additional information in pulmonary imaging compared to other modalities including computed tomography. We describe a successful application of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung and the imaging appearance of post-primary tuberculosis. This case report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging of the lung can potentially be the first choice imaging technique in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.

  8. Resonance phenomena in a time-dependent, three-dimensional model of an idealized eddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Pratt, L. J.; Wang, P.; Äe; -zgökmen, T. M.; Mezic, I.

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the geometry of Lagrangian motion and material barriers in a time-dependent, three-dimensional, Ekman-driven, rotating cylinder flow, which serves as an idealization for an isolated oceanic eddy and other overturning cells with cylindrical geometry in the ocean and atmosphere. The flow is forced at the top through an oscillating upper lid, and the response depends on the frequency and amplitude of lid oscillations. In particular, the Lagrangian geometry changes near the resonant tori of the unforced flow, whose frequencies are rationally related to the forcing frequencies. Multi-scale analytical expansions are used to simplify the flow in the vicinity of resonant trajectories and to investigate the resonant flow geometries. The resonance condition and scaling can be motivated by simple physical argument. The theoretically predicted flow geometries near resonant trajectories have then been confirmed through numerical simulations in a phenomenological model and in a full solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fistul, M. V.

    2002-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such systems display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that in the quantum regime as the system is driven on the resonance, coherent Rabi oscillations between the quantum levels of EOs occur. At variance with the classical regime the magnitude and the width of resonances are determined by the frequency of Rabi oscillations that in turn, depends in a peculiar manner on an externally applied magnetic field and the parameters of the system.

  10. Multiquark resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-12-02

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building.more » Lastly, data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.« less

  11. Test of a virtual cylindrical acoustic resonator for determining the Boltzmann constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X. J.; Lin, H.; Gillis, K. A.; Moldover, M. R.; Zhang, J. T.

    2015-10-01

    We report progress toward determining the Boltzmann constant kB using the concept of a virtual acoustic resonator, a hypothetical resonator that is mathematically equivalent to a cylindrical cavity with periodic boundary conditions. We derived the virtual resonator by combining the measured frequencies of the longitudinal acoustic modes of two argon-filled, cylindrical cavity resonators in such a way to minimize the effects of the cavities’ ends, including transducers and ducts attached to the ends. The cavities had lengths of 80 mm and 160 mm and were operated in their longitudinal (ℓ,0,0) modes. We explored virtual resonators that combine modes of the two resonators that have nearly the same frequencies. The virtual resonator formed from the (2,0,0) mode of the 80 mm resonator combined with the (4,0,0) mode of the 160 mm resonator yielded a value for kB that is, fractionally, only (0.2  ±  1.5)  ×  10-6 larger than the 2010 CODATA-recommended value of kB. (The estimated uncertainty is one standard uncertainty corresponding to a 68% confidence level.) The same virtual resonator yielded values of the pressure derivatives of the speed of sound c in argon, (∂c2/∂p)T and (∂c2/∂p2)T, that differed from literature values by 1% and 2%, respectively. By comparison, when each cavity was considered separately, the values of kB, (∂c2/∂p)T, and (∂c2/∂p2)T differed from literature values by up to 7 ppm, 10%, and 5%, respectively. However, combining the results from the (3,0,0) or (4,0,0) modes of shorter resonator with the results from the (6,0,0) or (8,0,0) modes of the longer resonator yielded incorrect values of kB that varied from run-to-run. We speculate that these puzzling results originated in an unmodeled coupling, either between the two cavities (that resonated at nearly identical resonance frequencies in the same pressure vessel) or between the cavities and modes of the pressure vessel.

  12. Split-ball resonator as a three-dimensional analogue of planar split-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Hsing Fu, Yuan; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Ying Pan, Zhen; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S.; Luk'Yanchuk, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Split-ring resonators are basic elements of metamaterials, which can induce a magnetic response in metallic nanosctructures. Tunability of such response up to the visible frequency range is still a challenge. Here we introduce the concept of the split-ball resonator and demonstrate the strong magnetic response in the visible for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometre scale cuts. We realize this concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect metallic spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the clean straight sidewalls and nanometre resolution. The magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. This method can be applied to the structuring of arbitrary three-dimensional features on the surface of nanoscale resonators. It provides new ways for engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-field enhancement.

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach to High Throughput Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pourmodheji, Hossein; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Magierowski, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a non-contact, powerful structure-elucidation technique for biochemical analysis. NMR spectroscopy is used extensively in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. However, existing NMR technology is limited in that it cannot run a large number of experiments simultaneously in one unit. Recent advances in micro-fabrication technologies have attracted the attention of researchers to overcome these limitations and significantly accelerate the drug discovery process by developing the next generation of high-throughput NMR spectrometers using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS). In this paper, we examine this paradigm shift and explore new design strategies for the development of the next generation of high-throughput NMR spectrometers using CMOS technology. A CMOS NMR system consists of an array of high sensitivity micro-coils integrated with interfacing radio-frequency circuits on the same chip. Herein, we first discuss the key challenges and recent advances in the field of CMOS NMR technology, and then a new design strategy is put forward for the design and implementation of highly sensitive and high-throughput CMOS NMR spectrometers. We thereafter discuss the functionality and applicability of the proposed techniques by demonstrating the results. For microelectronic researchers starting to work in the field of CMOS NMR technology, this paper serves as a tutorial with comprehensive review of state-of-the-art technologies and their performance levels. Based on these levels, the CMOS NMR approach offers unique advantages for high resolution, time-sensitive and high-throughput bimolecular analysis required in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. PMID:27294925

  14. Surface Plasmon Resonance: An Introduction to a Surface Spectroscopy Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yijun; Zeng, Xiangqun; Liang, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become an important optical biosensing technology in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and medical sciences because of its real-time, label-free, and noninvasive nature. The high cost of commercial devices and consumables has prevented SPR from being introduced in the undergraduate laboratory. Here, we present…

  15. Analysis of driving force and exciting voltage for a bi-material infrared resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Dacheng

    2018-01-01

    For a designed sensor with bi-material resonator which is used to detect infrared (IR) radiation by means of tracking the change in resonance frequency of the resonator with temperature attributed to the IR radiation from targets, in accordance with electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the electrical driving force exerted on the resonator and the exciting voltage applied across two electrodes of the capacitor in the sensor is presented. According to vibration theory, the dependence of the driving force on the exciting voltage is analyzed. The result of analysis is used to guide the vibration mode and frequency-amplitude response simulations of the resonator. The simulation value is approximately equal to the measured value, which demonstrates that the analysis result is effective and practicable.

  16. Cardiac magnetic resonance radiofrequency tissue tagging for diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Power, John A; Thompson, Diane V; Rayarao, Geetha; Doyle, Mark; Biederman, Robert W W

    2016-05-01

    Invasive cardiac catheterization is the venerable "gold standard" for diagnosing constrictive pericarditis. However, its sensitivity and specificity vary dramatically from center to center. Given the ability to unequivocally define segments of the pericardium with the heart via radiofrequency tissue tagging, we hypothesize that cardiac magnetic resonance has the capability to be the new gold standard. All patients who were referred for cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation of constrictive pericarditis underwent cardiac magnetic resonance radiofrequency tissue tagging to define visceral-parietal pericardial adherence to determine constriction. This was then compared with intraoperative surgical findings. Likewise, all preoperative cardiac catheterization testing was reviewed in a blinded manner. A total of 120 patients were referred for clinical suspicion of constrictive pericarditis. Thirty-nine patients were defined as constrictive pericarditis positive solely via radiofrequency tissue-tagging cardiac magnetic resonance, of whom 21 were positive, 4 were negative, and 1 was equivocal for constrictive pericarditis, as defined by cardiac catheterization. Of these patients, 16 underwent pericardiectomy and were surgically confirmed. There was 100% agreement between cardiac magnetic resonance-defined constrictive pericarditis positivity and postsurgical findings. No patients were misclassified by cardiac magnetic resonance. In regard to the remaining constrictive pericarditis-positive patients defined by cardiac magnetic resonance, 10 were treated medically, declined, were ineligible for surgery, or were lost to follow-up. Long-term follow-up of those who were constrictive pericarditis negative by cardiac magnetic resonance showed no early or late crossover to the surgery arm. Cardiac magnetic resonance via radiofrequency tissue tagging offers a unique, efficient, and effective manner of defining clinically and surgically relevant constrictive pericarditis

  17. A Latin-cross-shaped integrated resonant cantilever with second torsion-mode resonance for ultra-resoluble bio-mass sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Li, Xinxin

    2008-03-01

    Second torsion-mode resonance is proposed for microcantilever biosensors for ultra-high mass-weighing sensitivity and resolution. By increasing both the resonant frequency and Q-factor, the higher mode torsional resonance is favorable for improving the mass-sensing performance. For the first time, a Latin-cross-shaped second-mode resonant cantilever is constructed and optimally designed for both signal-readout and resonance-exciting elements. The cantilever sensor is fabricated by using silicon micromachining techniques. The transverse piezoresistive sensing element and the specific-shaped resonance-exciting loop are successfully integrated in the cantilever. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) antibody-antigen specific binding is implemented for the sensing experiment. The proposed cantilever sensor is designed with significantly superior sensitivity to the previously reported first torsion-mode one. After analysis with an Allan variance algorithm, which can be easily embedded in the sensing system, the Latin-cross-shaped second torsion-mode resonant cantilever is evaluated with ultra-high mass resolution. Therefore, the high-performance integrated micro-sensor is promising for on-the-spot bio-molecule detection.

  18. Achromatic synesthesias - a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Melero, H; Ríos-Lago, M; Peña-Melián, A; Álvarez-Linera, J

    2014-09-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience consistent, automatic and idiosyncratic colors associated with specific letters and numbers. Frequently, these specific associations exhibit achromatic synesthetic qualities (e.g. white, black or gray). In this study, we have investigated for the first time the neural basis of achromatic synesthesias, their relationship to chromatic synesthesias and the achromatic congruency effect in order to understand not only synesthetic color but also other components of the synesthetic experience. To achieve this aim, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed in a group of associator grapheme-color synesthetes and matched controls who were stimulated with real chromatic and achromatic stimuli (Mondrians), and with letters and numbers that elicited different types of grapheme-color synesthesias (i.e. chromatic and achromatic inducers which elicited chromatic but also achromatic synesthesias, as well as congruent and incongruent ones). The information derived from the analysis of Mondrians and chromatic/achromatic synesthesias suggests that real and synesthetic colors/achromaticity do not fully share neural mechanisms. The whole-brain analysis of BOLD signals in response to the complete set of synesthetic inducers revealed that the functional peculiarities of the synesthetic brain are distributed, and reflect different components of the synesthetic experience: a perceptual component, an (attentional) feature binding component, and an emotional component. Additionally, the inclusion of achromatic experiences has provided new evidence in favor of the emotional binding theory, a line of interpretation which constitutes a bridge between grapheme-color synesthesia and other developmental modalities of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Verification of a Case of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Shatri, Jeton; Hasbahta, Gazmend

    2016-08-01

    Although rare, sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common congenital neoplasm, occurring in 1 in 40,000 infants. Approximately 75% of affected infants are female. The aim of the present study was to correlate ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Three pregnant women in 27th week of gestation underwent fetal MRI after ultrasonography examination, with findings suggestive for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Tumor size, location, extent and content were evaluated both by MRI and ultrasonography. Findings regarding tumor location, size and content were similar for both methods. There was a large well-circumscribed mixed, cystic/solid oval mass, originating from right sacro-gluteal region and projecting into the amniotic cavity, 132 × 110 × 76 mm in size. The mass had a heterogeneous appearance. The T1 high signal suggested fat component of the tumor, while T1 and T2 hypointense components suggested calcified/bony components. There was also T1 hypointense component consistent with cystic and fluid component. The imaging findings were characteristic for sacrococcygeal teratoma. There was not obvious lumbar or thoracic spinal involvement. There was no gross intrapelvic or abdominal extension, and even sacrum and coccyx appeared deformed. The amount of amniotic fluid was increased. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the exact tumor extent, accurately demonstrating pelvic involvement in all of the three cases. Fetal MRI has shown to be a valuable adjunct to obstetric sonography in the evaluation of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma, because of its higher accuracy in the determination of tumors extent and content, playing a significant role in the therapeutic planning and increasing the chances of cure for these fetuses.

  20. Endoclip Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening: A Local Practice Review.

    PubMed

    Accorsi, Fabio; Lalonde, Alain; Leswick, David A

    2018-05-01

    Not all endoscopically placed clips (endoclips) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible. At many institutions, endoclip screening is part of the pre-MRI screening process. Our objective is to determine the contribution of each step of this endoclip screening protocol in determining a patient's endoclip status at our institution. A retrospective review of patients' endoscopic histories on general MRI screening forms for patients scanned during a 40-day period was performed to assess the percentage of patients that require endoclip screening at our institution. Following this, a prospective evaluation of 614 patients' endoclip screening determined the percentage of these patients ultimately exposed to each step in the protocol (exposure), and the percentage of patients whose endoclip status was determined with reasonable certainty by each step (determination). Exposure and determination values for each step were calculated as follows (exposure, determination): verbal interview (100%, 86%), review of past available imaging (14%, 36%), review of endoscopy report (9%, 57%), and new abdominal radiograph (4%, 96%), or CT (0.2%, 100%) for evaluation of potential endoclips. Only 1 patient did not receive MRI because of screening (in situ gastrointestinal endoclip identified). Verbal interview is invaluable to endoclip screening, clearing 86% of patients with minimal monetary and time investment. Conversely, the limited availability of endoscopy reports and relevant past imaging somewhat restricts the determination rates of these. New imaging (radiograph or computed tomography) is required <5% of the time, and although costly and associated with patient irradiation, has excellent determination rates (above 96%) when needed. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Verification of a Case of Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Dedushi, Kreshnike; Kabashi, Serbeze; Mucaj, Sefedin; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Shatri, Jeton; Hasbahta, Gazmend

    2016-01-01

    Although rare, sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common congenital neoplasm, occurring in 1 in 40,000 infants. Approximately 75% of affected infants are female. The aim of the present study was to correlate ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Three pregnant women in 27th week of gestation underwent fetal MRI after ultrasonography examination, with findings suggestive for fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Tumor size, location, extent and content were evaluated both by MRI and ultrasonography. Findings regarding tumor location, size and content were similar for both methods. There was a large well-circumscribed mixed, cystic/solid oval mass, originating from right sacro-gluteal region and projecting into the amniotic cavity, 132 × 110 × 76 mm in size. The mass had a heterogeneous appearance. The T1 high signal suggested fat component of the tumor, while T1 and T2 hypointense components suggested calcified/bony components. There was also T1 hypointense component consistent with cystic and fluid component. The imaging findings were characteristic for sacrococcygeal teratoma. There was not obvious lumbar or thoracic spinal involvement. There was no gross intrapelvic or abdominal extension, and even sacrum and coccyx appeared deformed. The amount of amniotic fluid was increased. MRI was superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the exact tumor extent, accurately demonstrating pelvic involvement in all of the three cases. Fetal MRI has shown to be a valuable adjunct to obstetric sonography in the evaluation of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma, because of its higher accuracy in the determination of tumors extent and content, playing a significant role in the therapeutic planning and increasing the chances of cure for these fetuses. PMID:28983369

  2. A simple model for coupled acoustic-structure resonance in Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Jerry H.

    2005-04-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project of NASA and the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt that has mounted a 2.5 m, 20 000 kg infrared telescope on a bulkhead of a specially modified Boeing 747-SP. A large sliding door will expose the observation bay to the exterior flow field at Mach 0.85 and 13 km altitude. In the open configuration the interaction of turbulence vortices generated at the leading and trailing edges of the opening has the possibility of inducing a strong acoustic signal. A concern has been raised that the peak frequencies of such a signal might coincide with the cavity resonances. The present work examines the transfer function for a known source in order to identify the cavity resonances. Simplistic reasoning argues that the worst case would occur if the cavity resonant frequencies are close to structural resonances. However, the structure's impedance is very low at its resonances, which means that the cavity resonant frequencies are shifted from their nominal values. The present work uses a simple one-dimensional waveguide model, in which one end is terminated by a damped single-degree-of-freedom oscillator, to explain the coupled-fluid structure resonance. The characteristic equation and formulas for the pressure and displacement transfer functions are derived. Analysis of these results leads to some surprising insights regarding the role of a structure's stiffness and mass. [Work supported by the NASA.

  3. A Secular Resonant Origin for the Loneliness of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of inquiry, the origin of giant planets residing within a few tenths of an astronomical unit from their host stars remains unclear. Traditionally, these objects are thought to have formed further out before subsequently migrating inwards. However, the necessity of migration has been recently called into question with the emergence of in situ formation models of close-in giant planets. Observational characterization of the transiting subsample of close-in giants has revealed that “warm” Jupiters, possessing orbital periods longer than roughly 10 days more often possess close-in, co-transiting planetary companions than shorter period “hot” Jupiters, that are usually lonely. This finding has previously been interpreted as evidence that smooth, early migration or in situ formation gave rise to warm Jupiter-hosting systems, whereas more violent, post-disk migration pathways sculpted hot Jupiter-hosting systems. In this work, we demonstrate that both classes of planet may arise via early migration or in situ conglomeration, but that the enhanced loneliness of hot Jupiters arises due to a secular resonant interaction with the stellar quadrupole moment. Such an interaction tilts the orbits of exterior, lower-mass planets, removing them from transit surveys where the hot Jupiter is detected. Warm Jupiter-hosting systems, in contrast, retain their coplanarity due to the weaker influence of the host star’s quadrupolar potential relative to planet-disk interactions. In this way, hot Jupiters and warm Jupiters are placed within a unified theoretical framework that may be readily validated or falsified using data from upcoming missions, such as TESS.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A review of genetic damage investigations.

    PubMed

    Vijayalaxmi; Fatahi, Mahsa; Speck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging technique widely used to acquire detailed information about anatomy and function of different organs in the body, in both health and disease. It utilizes electromagnetic fields of three different frequency bands: static magnetic field (SMF), time-varying gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in the kHz range and pulsed radiofrequency fields (RF) in the MHz range. There have been some investigations examining the extent of genetic damage following exposure of bacterial and human cells to all three frequency bands of electromagnetic fields, as used during MRI: the rationale for these studies is the well documented evidence of positive correlation between significantly increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis. Overall, the published data were not sufficiently informative and useful because of the small sample size, inappropriate comparison of experimental groups, etc. Besides, when an increased damage was observed in MRI-exposed cells, the fate of such lesions was not further explored from multiple 'down-stream' events. This review provides: (i) information on the basic principles used in MRI technology, (ii) detailed experimental protocols, results and critical comments on the genetic damage investigations thus far conducted using MRI equipment and, (iii) a discussion on several gaps in knowledge in the current scientific literature on MRI. Comprehensive, international, multi-centered collaborative studies, using a common and widely used MRI exposure protocol (cardiac or brain scan) incorporating several genetic/epigenetic damage end-points as well as epidemiological investigations, in large number of individuals/patients are warranted to reduce and perhaps, eliminate uncertainties raised in genetic damage investigations in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S E; Danilov, A V; Adamyan, A; Kubatkin, S E

    2013-02-01

    We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 μV, approaching low enough photon population (N ∼ 1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6.4 × 10(-20) F/Hz, limited by mechanical noise. We believe that the results presented here are a significant step towards probing quantum systems at the nanoscale using near-field scanning microwave microscopy.

  6. Numerical simulation of a slit resonator in a grazing flow under acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Ju, Hongbin; Walker, Bruce E.

    2008-06-01

    It is known experimentally that a grazing flow has significant influence on the performance of a resonant acoustic liner. As yet, detailed understanding of the effect in fluid dynamics or acoustics terms is not available. One principal reason for this is the small size of the openings of the resonators of present day jet engine acoustic liners. The small size of the holes makes in-depth experimental observation and mapping of the fluid flow field around the opening of a resonator in the presence of a grazing flow extremely difficult. As a result, there is a genuine lack of data leading directly to a lack of understanding. The face sheet of an acoustic liner is entirely covered with holes (the openings of resonators underneath). There is, therefore, a possibility of fluid mechanical interaction between neighboring resonators. However, evidence for such interaction is not available at this time. One of the objectives of the present work is to shed light on whether this is possible and what is a possible interaction mechanism. In this study, numerical simulations of the flow field around a slit resonator in the presence of a grazing flow under acoustic forcing are carried out. It is observed that at high sound pressure level, vortices are shed from the corners of the resonator opening. Some of these vortices merge together. Others are absorbed by the wall boundary layer or dissipated by viscosity. The simulated results indicate that a strong merged vortex is convected downstream by the grazing flow and persists for a long distance. This suggests that possible fluid mechanical interaction between neighboring resonators of an acoustic liner could, indeed, be possible because of the interference of this convected vortex with the flow field of the downstream resonator. This interaction, as far as is known, has not been included in any theoretical or semi-empirical model of acoustic liners. Detailed formulation of the computational model, as well as computational algorithm

  7. Negative refraction, surface modes, and superlensing effect via homogenization near resonances for a finite array of split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Farhat, M; Guenneau, S; Enoch, S; Movchan, A B

    2009-10-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of liquid surface waves (LSWs) localized at the boundary of a phononic crystal consisting of split-ring resonators (SRRs). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the fluid-filled structure using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. In the limit when the wavelength of the LSW is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the phononic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial fluid with an anisotropic effective shear modulus and a dispersive effective-mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with LSW propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigensolutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. The main emphasis is given to the study of localized modes within such a periodic fluid-filled structure and to the control of low-frequency stop bands associated with resonances of SRRs. Considering a macrocell, we are able to compute the dispersion of LSW supported by a semi-infinite phononic crystal of SRRs. We find that the dispersion of this evanescent mode nearly sits within the first stop band of the doubly periodic structure. We further discover that it is linked to the frequency at which the effective-mass density of the homogenized phononic crystal becomes negative. We demonstrate that this surface mode displays the hallmarks of all-angle negative refraction and it leads to a superlensing effect. Last, we note that our homogenization results for the velocity potential can be applied mutatis mutandis to designs of electromagnetic and acoustic superlenses for transverse electric waves propagating in arrays of infinite conducting SRRs and antiplane shear waves in arrays of cracks shaped as SRRs.

  8. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  9. Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy: Evaluation of a fluiddynamic-model of the planar multipole resonance probe using functional analytic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrichs, Michael; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Oberrath, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Measuring plasma parameters, e.g. electron density and electron temperature, is an important procedure to verify the stability and behavior of a plasma process. For this purpose the multipole resonance probe (MRP) represents a satisfying solution to measure the electron density. However the influence of the probe on the plasma through its physical presence makes it unattractive for some processes in industrial application. A solution to combine the benefits of the spherical MRP with the ability to integrate the probe into the plasma reactor is introduced by the planar model of the MRP. By coupling the model of the cold plasma with the maxwell equations for electrostatics an analytical model for the admittance of the plasma is derivated, adjusted to cylindrical geometry and solved analytically for the planar MRP using functional analytic methods.

  10. Protection layers on a superconducting microwave resonator toward a hybrid quantum system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongmin, E-mail: jongmin.lee@sandia.gov; Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123; Park, Dong Hun, E-mail: leomac@umd.edu

    2015-10-07

    We propose a protection scheme of a superconducting microwave resonator to realize a hybrid quantum system, where cold neutral atoms are coupled with a single microwave photon through magnetic dipole interaction at an interface inductor. The evanescent field atom trap, such as a waveguide/nanofiber atom trap, brings both surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation which result in quasiparticles and a low quality factor at the resonator. A proposed multiband protection layer consists of pairs of two dielectric layers and a thin nanogrid conductive dielectric layer above the interface inductor. We show numerical simulations of quality factors and reflection/absorption spectra,more » indicating that the proposed multilayer structure can protect a lumped-element microwave resonator from optical photons and blackbody radiation while maintaining a reasonably high quality factor.« less

  11. Wireless Strain Measurement with a Micromachined Magnetoelastic Resonator Using Ringdown Frequency Locking

    PubMed Central

    Green, Scott R.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2017-01-01

    Resonant magnetoelastic devices are widely used as anti-theft tags and are also being investigated for a range of sensing applications. The vast majority of magnetoelastic devices are operated at resonance, and rely upon an external interface to wirelessly detect the resonant frequency, and other characteristics. For micromachined devices, this detection method must accommodate diminished signal strength and elevated resonant frequencies. Feedthrough of the interrogating stimulus to the detector also presents a significant challenge. This paper describes a method of interrogating wireless magnetoelastic strain sensors using a new frequency-lock approach. Following a brief excitation pulse, the sensor ring-down is analyzed and a feedback loop is used to match the excitation frequency and the resonant frequency. Data acquisition hardware is used in conjunction with custom software to implement the frequency-lock loop. Advantages of the method include temporal isolation of interrogating stimulus from the sensor response and near real-time tracking of resonant frequencies. The method was investigated using a family of wireless strain sensors with resonant frequencies ranging from 120 to 240 kHz. Strain levels extending to 3.5 mstrain and sensitivities up to 14300 ppm/mstrain were measured with response times faster than 0.5 s. The standard deviation of the locked frequency did not exceed 0.1%. PMID:28713873

  12. Asymmetric resonance response analysis of a thermally excited silicon microcantilever for mass-sensitive nanoparticle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertke, Maik; Hamdana, Gerry; Wu, Wenze; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Peiner, Erwin

    2017-06-01

    The asymmetric resonance responses of a thermally actuated silicon microcantilever of a portable, cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (Cantor) is analysed. For airborne nanoparticle concentration measurements, the cantilever is excited in its first in-plane bending mode by an integrated p-type heating actuator. The mass-sensitive nanoparticle (NP) detection is based on the resonance frequency (f0) shifting due to the deposition of NPs. A homemade phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit is developed for tracking of f0. For deflection sensing the cantilever contains an integrated piezo-resistive Wheatstone bridge (WB). A new fitting function based on the Fano resonance is proposed for analysing the asymmetric resonance curves including a method for calculating the quality factor Q from the fitting parameters. To obtain a better understanding, we introduce an electrical equivalent circuit diagram (ECD) comprising a series resonant circuit (SRC) for the cantilever resonator and voltage sources for the parasitics, which enables us to simulate the asymmetric resonance response and discuss the possible causes. Furthermore, we compare the frequency response of the on-chip thermal excitation with an external excitation using an in-plane piezo actuator revealing parasitic heating of the WB as the origin of the asymmetry. Moreover, we are able to model the phase component of the sensor output using the ECD. Knowing and understanding the phase response is crucial to the design of the PLL and thus the next generation of Cantor.

  13. Tilting Styx and Nix but not Uranus with a Spin-Precession-Mean-motion resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Noyelles, Benoît; Loane, Santiago

    2018-02-01

    A Hamiltonian model is constructed for the spin axis of a planet perturbed by a nearby planet with both planets in orbit about a star. We expand the planet-planet gravitational potential perturbation to first order in orbital inclinations and eccentricities, finding terms describing spin resonances involving the spin precession rate and the two planetary mean motions. Convergent planetary migration allows the spinning planet to be captured into spin resonance. With initial obliquity near zero, the spin resonance can lift the planet's obliquity to near 90° or 180° depending upon whether the spin resonance is first or zeroth order in inclination. Past capture of Uranus into such a spin resonance could give an alternative non-collisional scenario accounting for Uranus's high obliquity. However, we find that the time spent in spin resonance must be so long that this scenario cannot be responsible for Uranus's high obliquity. Our model can be used to study spin resonance in satellite systems. Our Hamiltonian model explains how Styx and Nix can be tilted to high obliquity via outward migration of Charon, a phenomenon previously seen in numerical simulations.

  14. Maturation of limbic regions in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Finian M; Page, Lisa; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Bolton, Patrick; Sharma, Ajay; Baird, Gillian; Daly, Eileen; Hallahan, Brian; Conroy, Ronán M; Foy, Catherine; Curran, Sarah; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-11-30

    People with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, including Asperger syndrome) may have developmental abnormalities in the amygdala-hippocampal complex (AHC). However, in vivo, age-related comparisons of both volume and neuronal integrity of the AHC have not yet been carried out in people with Asperger syndrome (AS) versus controls. We compared structure and metabolic activity of the right AHC of 22 individuals with AS and 22 healthy controls aged 10-50 years and examined the effects of age between groups. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to measure the volume of the AHC, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr+PCr), myo-inositol (mI) and choline (Cho). The bulk volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus did not differ significantly between groups, but there was a significant difference in the effect of age on the hippocampus in controls. Compared with controls, young (but not older) people with AS had a significantly higher AHC concentration of NAA and a significantly higher NAA/Cr ratio. People with AS, but not controls, had a significant age-related reduction in NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio. Also, in people with AS, but not controls, there was a significant relationship between concentrations of choline and age so that choline concentrations reduced with age. We therefore suggest that people with AS have significant differences in neuronal and lipid membrane integrity and maturation of the AHC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study of the influence of different resonators on thermoacoustic conversion performance of a thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine.

    PubMed

    Luo, E C; Ling, H; Dai, W; Yu, G Y

    2006-12-22

    In this paper, an experimental study of the effect of the resonator shape on the performance of a traveling-wave thermoacoustic engine is presented. Two different resonators were tested in the thermoacoustic-Stirling heat. One resonator is an iso-diameter one, and the other is a tapered one. To have a reasonable comparison reference, we keep the same traveling-wave loop, the same resonant frequency and the same operating pressure. The experiment showed that the resonator shape has significant influence on the global performance of the thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine. The tapered resonator gives much better performance than the iso-diameter resonator. The tapered resonator system achieved a maximum pressure ratio of about 1.3, a maximum net acoustical power output of about 450 W and a highest thermoacoustic efficiency of about 25%.

  16. A Novel Approach to Resonant Absorption of the Fast Magnetohydrodynamic Eigenmodes of a Coronal Arcade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindman, Bradley W.; Jain, Rekha

    2018-05-01

    The arched field lines forming coronal arcades are often observed to undulate as magnetohydrodynamic waves propagate both across and along the magnetic field. These waves are most likely a combination of resonantly coupled fast magnetoacoustic waves and Alfvén waves. The coupling results in resonant absorption of the fast waves, converting fast wave energy into Alfvén waves. The fast eigenmodes of the arcade have proven difficult to compute or derive analytically, largely because of the mathematical complexity that the coupling introduces. When a traditional spectral decomposition is employed, the discrete spectrum associated with the fast eigenmodes is often subsumed into the continuous Alfvén spectrum. Thus fast eigenmodes become collective modes or quasi-modes. Here we present a spectral decomposition that treats the eigenmodes as having real frequencies but complex wavenumbers. Using this procedure we derive dispersion relations, spatial damping rates, and eigenfunctions for the resonant, fast eigenmodes of the arcade. We demonstrate that resonant absorption introduces a fast mode that would not exist otherwise. This new mode is heavily damped by resonant absorption, travelling only a few wavelengths before losing most of its energy.

  17. Probing Majorana modes in the tunneling spectra of a resonant level.

    PubMed

    Korytár, R; Schmitteckert, P

    2013-11-27

    Unambiguous identification of Majorana physics presents an outstanding problem whose solution could render topological quantum computing feasible. We develop a numerical approach to treat finite-size superconducting chains supporting Majorana modes, which is based on iterative application of a two-site Bogoliubov transformation. We demonstrate the applicability of the method by studying a resonant level attached to the superconductor subject to external perturbations. In the topological phase, we show that the spectrum of a single resonant level allows us to distinguish peaks coming from Majorana physics from the Kondo resonance.

  18. A photonic crystal ring resonator formed by SOI nano-rods.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Yu; Huang, Tai-Wei; Wu, Yen-Hsiang; Chan, Yi-Jen; Hou, Chia-Hunag; Chien, Huang Ta; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2007-11-12

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) two-dimensional photonic crystal ring resonator are demonstrated in this study. The structure of the photonic crystal is comprised of silicon nano-rods arranged in a hexagonal lattice on an SOI wafer. The photonic crystal ring resonator allows for the simultaneous separation of light at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55mum. The device is fabricated by e-beam lithography. The measurement results confirm that a 1.31mum/1.55mum wavelength ring resonator filter with a nano-rod photonic crystal structure can be realized.

  19. Conversion between EIT and Fano spectra in a microring-Bragg grating coupled-resonator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zecen; Ng, Geok Ing; Hu, Ting; Qiu, Haodong; Guo, Xin; Wang, Wanjun; Rouifed, Mohamed Saïd; Liu, Chongyang; Wang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    A conversion between the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) transmission and Fano transmission is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated in an all-pass microring-Bragg grating (APMR-BG) coupled-resonator system. In this work, the coupling between the two resonators (the microring resonator and the Fabry-Perot resonator formed by two Bragg gratings) gives rise to the EIT and Fano transmissions. The resonant status strongly depends on the round-trip attenuation of the microring and the coupling strength. By tuning the coupling strength, the EIT and Fano transmissions can be controlled and converted. The device performance has been theoretically calculated and analyzed with a specially developed numerical model based on the transfer matrix method. The APMR-BG coupled-resonator systems with different gap widths were designed, fabricated, and characterized on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The conversion of resonance was experimentally observed and verified. In addition, this on-chip system has the advantage of a small footprint, and the fabrication process is compatible with the planar waveguide fabrication process.

  20. Sinonasal papilloma: what influences the decision to request a magnetic resonance imaging scan?

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, A V; Swords, C; Attlmayr, B; Kulkarni, T; Swift, A C

    2018-06-18

    Computed tomography is the standard pre-operative imaging modality for sinonasal papilloma. The complementary use of magnetic resonance imaging as an additional investigation is debated. This study aimed to establish whether magnetic resonance imaging can accurately detect tumour extent and is a useful adjunct to computed tomography. A retrospective review was conducted on 19 patients with sinonasal papilloma. The interpretation of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, by three clinicians, was conducted by comparing prediction of tumour extent. The perceived necessity of magnetic resonance imaging was compared between clinicians. The addition of magnetic resonance imaging improved accuracy of pre-operative interpretation; specifically, this finding was significant in cases with frontal sinus involvement. Surgeons were more likely than a radiologist to request magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when computed tomography indicated frontal sinus disease. Pre-operative combined magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography helped predict disease in the frontal sinus better than computed tomography alone. A close working relationship between the ENT and radiology departments is important for accurate tumour localisation.

  1. Exact transition probabilities for a linear sweep through a Kramers-Kronig resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chen; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.

    2015-11-19

    We consider a localized electronic spin controlled by a circularly polarized optical beam and an external magnetic field. When the frequency of the beam is tuned near an optical resonance with a continuum of higher energy states, effective magnetic fields are induced on the two-level system via the inverse Faraday effect. We explore the process in which the frequency of the beam is made linearly time-dependent so that it sweeps through the optical resonance, starting and ending at the values far away from it. In addition to changes of spin states, Kramers-Kronig relations guarantee that a localized electron can alsomore » escape into a continuum of states. We argue that probabilities of transitions between different possible electronic states after such a sweep of the optical frequency can be found exactly, regardless the shape of the resonance. In conclusion, we also discuss extension of our results to multistate systems.« less

  2. Impedance-matching system for a flexible surface-coil-type resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Ono, Mitsuhiro

    1997-09-01

    This article describes an impedance-matching system for a flexible surface-coil-type resonator (FSCR) used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. To design the matching system, the input impedance of the FSCR was formulated using transmission line theory, and then the parameters of a matching circuit using varicap diodes were calculated. Experimental measurements of input impedance showed the validity of the formulation and the usefulness of the matching system. The matching circuit made by the varicap diodes 1SV186 offered the tunable bandwidth of 50 MHz for the prototype FSCR. Such a matching system also offers the possibility of remotely tuning EPR resonators electronically.

  3. New ultra-high resolution dye laser spectrometer utilizing a non-tunable reference resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmcke, J.; Snyder, J. J.; Morinaga, A.; Mensing, F.; Gläser, M.

    1987-06-01

    A new dye laser spectrometer utilizing a non-tunable reference resonator is described. The resonator consists of two Zerodur mirrors optically contacted to a Zerodur spacer. Frequency scanning of the laser is provided by acoustooptic modulation. Residual drifts of the resonator frequency — measured on line — are compensated automatically by corresponding corrections of the modulation frequency. The stability during several hours and the resettability of the dye laser frequency are±2.5 kHz and±10 kHz, respectively.

  4. A circuit model for nonlinear simulation of radio-frequency filters using bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masanori; Iwaki, Masafumi; Nishihara, Tokihiro; Satoh, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a circuit model for the analysis of nonlinearity in the filters based on radiofrequency (RF) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The nonlinear output is expressed by a current source connected parallel to the linear resonator. Amplitude of the nonlinear current source is programmed proportional to the product of linear currents flowing in the resonator. Thus, the nonlinear analysis is performed by the common linear analysis, even for complex device structures. The analysis is applied to a ladder-type RF BAW filter, and frequency dependence of the nonlinear output is discussed. Furthermore, this analysis is verified through comparison with experiments.

  5. Sound Transmission Loss Through a Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panel with Integrated Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Zalewski, Bart F; Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the effect of structurally integrated resonators on the transmission loss of a sandwich panel. The sandwich panel has facesheets over a corrugated core, which creates long aligned chambers that run parallel to the facesheets. When ports are introduced through the facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as low-frequency acoustic resonators. By integrating the resonators within the structure they contribute to the static load bearing capability of the panel while also attenuating noise. An analytical model of a panel with embedded resonators is derived and compared with numerical simulations. Predictions show that acoustic resonators can significantly improve the transmission loss of the sandwich panel around the natural frequency of the resonators. In one configuration with 0.813 m long internal chambers, the diffuse field transmission loss is improved by more than 22 dB around 104 Hz. The benefit is achieved with no added mass or volume relative to the baseline structure. The embedded resonators are effective because they radiate sound out-of-phase with the structure. This results in destructive interference, which leads to less transmitted sound power.

  6. Brain lesions in septic shock: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sharshar, Tarek; Carlier, Robert; Bernard, Francis; Guidoux, Céline; Brouland, Jean-Philippe; Nardi, Olivier; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Aboab, Jérôme; Gray, Françoise; Menon, David; Annane, Djillali

    2007-05-01

    Understanding of sepsis-induced brain dysfunction remains poor, and relies mainly on data from animals or post-mortem studies in patients. The current study provided findings from magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in septic shock. Nine patients with septic shock and brain dysfunction [7 women, median age 63 years (interquartile range 61-79 years), SAPS II: 48 (44-56), SOFA: 8 (6-10)] underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including gradient echo T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2-weighted and diffusion isotropic images, and mapping of apparent diffusion coefficient. Brain imaging was normal in two patients, showed multiple ischaemic strokes in two patients, and in the remaining patients showed white matter lesions at the level of the centrum semiovale, predominating around Virchow-Robin spaces, ranging from small multiple areas to diffuse lesions, and characterised by hyperintensity on FLAIR images. The main lesions were also characterised by reduced signal on diffusion isotropic images and increased apparent diffusion coefficient. The lesions of the white matter worsened with increasing duration of shock and were correlated with Glasgow Outcome Score. This preliminary study showed that sepsis-induced brain lesions can be documented by magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions predominated in the white matter, suggesting increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and were associated with poor outcome.

  7. Resonant Frequency Shifts of a Fluid Filled Cavity Caused by a Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hailan; Wang, Xiuming; Chen, Dehua; Che, Chengxuan

    2009-03-01

    In the previous studies for estimating acoustic wave velocities and attenuations of a rock specimen in a low frequency range using an acoustic resonance spectroscopy method, it was found that bubbles in a fluid filled cavity reduce the resonant frequency of the cavity significantly, which makes the measurement unstable. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained by using a simple model of a spherical fluid filled cavity with a single air bubble. It is pointed out that air bubble effects are caused by the vibration of the bubble coupled with the vibration of the cavity and, therefore, the measurement must be carefully prepared to prevent any air bubbles from entering the cavity.

  8. Method For Chemical Sensing Using A Microfabricated Teeter-Totter Resonator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray; Heller, Edwin J.; Shul, Randy J.

    2004-11-30

    A method for sensing a chemical analyte in a fluid stream comprises providing a microfabricated teeter-totter resonator that relies upon a Lorentz force to cause oscillation in a paddle, applying a static magnetic field substantially aligned in-plane with the paddle, energizing a current conductor line on a surface of the paddle with an alternating electrical current to generate the Lorentz force, exposing the resonator to the analyte, and detecting the response of the oscillatory motion of the paddle to the chemical analyte. Preferably, a chemically sensitive coating is disposed on at least one surface of the paddle to enhance the sorption of the analyte by the paddle. The concentration of the analyte in a fluid stream can be determined by measuring the change in the resonant frequency or phase of the teeter-totter resonator as the chemical analyte is added to or removed from the paddle.

  9. A model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro-prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the "petal" mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest-order modes of this type of resonator. Further use of the model reveals the formation of more complex beam patterns, and the nature of these patterns is investigated. Also, the output of stable and unstable resonator modes is presented.

  10. Resonant Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.; Clem, M. M.; Brown, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    A resonant interaction between a large aspect ratio rectangular jet and a flat-plate is addressed in this experimental study. The plate is placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. At high subsonic conditions and for certain relative locations of the plate, the resonance accompanied by an audible tone is encountered. The trends of the tone frequency variation exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences from, corresponding trends of the well-known edge-tone phenomenon. Under the resonant condition flow visualization indicates a periodic flapping motion of the jet column. Phase-averaged Mach number data obtained near the plate's trailing edge illustrate that the jet cross-section goes through large contortions within the period of the tone. Farther downstream a clear 'axis switching' takes place. These results suggest that the assumption of two-dimensionality should be viewed with caution in any analysis of the flow.

  11. III-V semiconductor resonators: A new strategy for broadband light perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian; Liu, Jiasong; Huang, Zhenping; Yu, Meidong; Pan, Pingping; Liu, Zhengqi

    2017-11-01

    Broadband light perfect absorbers (BPAs) are desirable for applications in numerous optoelectronics devices. In this work, a semiconductor-based broadband light perfect absorber (S-BPA) has been numerically demonstrated by utilizing plasmonlike resonances of high-index semiconductor resonators. A maximal absorption of 99.7% is observed in the near-infrared region. By taking the absorption above 80% into account, the spectral bandwidth reaches 340 nm. The absorption properties mainly originate from the optical cavity modes induced by the cylinder resonators and ultrathin semiconductor film. These optical properties and simple structural features can maintain the absorber platform with wide applications in semiconductor optoelectronics.

  12. Strain-assisted optomechanical coupling of polariton condensate spin to a micromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Be'er, O.; Ohadi, H.; del Valle-Inclan Redondo, Y.; Ramsay, A. J.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    We report spin and intensity coupling of an exciton-polariton condensate to the mechanical vibrations of a circular membrane microcavity. We optically drive the microcavity resonator at the lowest mechanical resonance frequency while creating an optically trapped spin-polarized polariton condensate in different locations on the microcavity and observe spin and intensity oscillations of the condensate at the vibration frequency of the resonator. Spin oscillations are induced by vibrational strain driving, whilst the modulation of the optical trap due to the displacement of the membrane causes intensity oscillations in the condensate emission. Our results demonstrate spin-phonon coupling in a macroscopically coherent condensate.

  13. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  14. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei, E-mail: lei.ren@duke.edu; Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. Methods and Materials: One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of themore » deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results: Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust

  15. Sub-Fourier characteristics of a δ-kicked-rotor resonance.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, I; Shrestha, R; Summy, G S

    2010-07-30

    We experimentally investigate the sub-Fourier behavior of a δ-kicked-rotor resonance by performing a measurement of the fidelity or overlap of a Bose-Einstein condensate exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave. The temporal width of the fidelity resonance peak centered at the Talbot time and zero initial momentum exhibits an inverse cube pulse number (1/N3)-dependent scaling compared to a 1/N2 dependence for the mean energy width at the same resonance. A theoretical analysis shows that for an accelerating potential the width of the resonance in acceleration space depends on 1/N3, a property which we also verify experimentally. Such a sub-Fourier effect could be useful for high precision gravity measurements.

  16. Acoustic Streaming and Microparticle Enrichment within a Microliter Droplet Using a Lamb-Wave Resonator Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Tang, Zifan; Wang, Zhan; Pan, Shuting; Han, Ziyu; Sun, Chongling; Zhang, Menglun; Duan, Xuexin; Pang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    We report the nonlinear acoustic streaming effect and the fast manipulation of microparticles by microelectromechanical Lamb-wave resonators in a microliter droplet. The device, consisting of four Lamb-wave resonators on a silicon die, generates cylindrical traveling waves in a liquid and efficiently drives nine horizontal vortices within a 1 -μ l droplet; the performance of the device coincides with the numerical model prediction. Experimentally, the particles are enriched at the stagnation center of the main vortex on the free surface of the droplet in open space without microfluidic channels. In addition, the trajectories of the particles in the droplet can be controlled by the excitation power.

  17. The Sound Field Around a Tuning Fork and the Role of a Resonance Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2015-02-01

    Atypical two-tine tuning fork is barely audible when held vibrating at an arm's length. It is enough, however, to touch its base to a table or, better, to a resonance box and the emitted sound becomes much louder. An inquiring student may pose questions: Why is a bare tuning fork such a weak emitter of sound?What is the role of the resonance box?Where does energy connected with larger intensity of emitted acoustic waves come from?

  18. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  19. Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, W. R.; Hall, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The resonance frequency of an electric dipole placed near a conducting surface is shifted by the dipole-surface interaction. The observation and measurement of these shifts at optical frequencies is reported for an experimental system that consists of a metal-island film spaced a distance d from a continuous Ag film. The dependence of the shift in the frequency of the island resonance on d shows good agreement with that predicted by a classical theory of the dipole-surface interaction.

  20. Analysis of a highly birefringent asymmetric photonic crystal fibre based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Famei; Zheng, Shijie; Sun, Tao; Lv, Jingwei; Liu, Qiang; Yang, Lin; Mu, Haiwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre is proposed and characterized based on a surface plasmon resonance sensor. The birefringence of the sensor is numerically analyzed by the finite-element method. In the numerical simulation, the resonance wavelength can be directly positioned at this birefringence abrupt change point and the depth of the abrupt change of birefringence reflects the intensity of excited surface plasmon. Consequently, the novel approach can accurately locate the resonance peak of the system without analyzing the loss spectrum. Simulated average sensitivity is as high as 1131 nm/RIU, corresponding to a resolution of 1 × 10-4 RIU in this sensor. Therefore, results obtained via the approach not only show polarization independence and less noble metal consumption, but also reveal better performance in terms of accuracy and computation efficiency.

  1. Enhanced Fano resonance in a non-adiabatic tapered fiber coupled with a microresonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Yue; Wu, Yi-Hui

    2017-08-01

    We achieved enhanced Fano resonance by coupling a bottle resonator with a special non-adiabatic tapered fiber, where there is a high intensity distribution ratio between high-order and fundamental modes in the tapered region, as well as single mode propagation in the waist region. The resonance line shape is theoretically proved to be related to the intensity distribution ratio of the two fiber modes and their phase shift. An enhanced Fano line shape with an extinction ratio over 15 dB is experimentally reached by improving the intensity distribution ratio and tuning the phase shift. The results can remarkably improve the sensitivity of whispering-gallery mode microresonators in the field of optical sensing.

  2. Switching of transmission resonances in a two-channels coupler: A Boundary Wall Method scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, A.; Zanetti, F.M.; Lyra, M.L., E-mail: marcelo@fis.ufal.br

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we study the transmission characteristics of a two-channels coupler model system using the Boundary Wall Method (BWM) to determine the solution of the corresponding scattering problem of an incident plane wave. We show that the BWM provides detailed information regarding the transmission resonances. In particular, we focus on the case of single channel input aiming to explore the energy switching performance of the coupler. We show that the coupler geometry can be tailored to allow for the first transmission resonances to be predominantly transmitted on specific output channels, an important characteristic for the realization of logical operations.more » - Highlights: • The switching performance of a coupled waveguide device is studied via the boundary wall method. • The method efficiently identifies all resonant transmission modes. • Energy switching is controlled and optimized as a function of the device geometry.« less

  3. Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansuek; Chen, Tong; Li, Jiang; Yang, Ki Youl; Jeon, Seokmin; Painter, Oskar; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2012-06-01

    Ultrahigh-Q optical resonators are being studied across a wide range of fields, including quantum information, nonlinear optics, cavity optomechanics and telecommunications. Here, we demonstrate a new resonator with a record Q-factor of 875 million for on-chip devices. The fabrication of our device avoids the requirement for a specialized processing step, which in microtoroid resonators has made it difficult to control their size and achieve millimetre- and centimetre-scale diameters. Attaining these sizes is important in applications such as microcombs and potentially also in rotation sensing. As an application of size control, stimulated Brillouin lasers incorporating our device are demonstrated. The resonators not only set a new benchmark for the Q-factor on a chip, but also provide, for the first time, full compatibility of this important device class with conventional semiconductor processing. This feature will greatly expand the range of possible `system on a chip' functions enabled by ultrahigh-Q devices.

  4. Detectivity enhancement in quantum well infrared photodetectors utilizing a photonic crystal slab resonator.

    PubMed

    Kalchmair, S; Gansch, R; Ahn, S I; Andrews, A M; Detz, H; Zederbauer, T; Mujagić, E; Reininger, P; Lasser, G; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G

    2012-02-27

    We characterize the performance of a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), which is fabricated as a photonic crystal slab (PCS) resonator. The strongest resonance of the PCS is designed to coincide with the absorption peak frequency at 7.6 µm of the QWIP. To accurately characterize the detector performance, it is illuminated by using single mode mid-infrared lasers. The strong resonant absorption enhancement yields a detectivity increase of up to 20 times. This enhancement is a combined effect of increased responsivity and noise current reduction. With increasing temperature, we observe a red shift of the PCS-QWIP resonance peak of -0.055 cm(-1)/K. We attribute this effect to a refractive index change and present a model based on the revised plane wave method.

  5. A model for active control of helicopter air resonance in hover and forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, M. D.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis is presented. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with the experimental data. The sensitivity of the open loop damping of the unstable air resonance mode to such modeling effects as blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, forward flight, periodic terms, and trim solution is illustrated by numerous examples. Subsequently, the model is used in conjunction with linear optimal control theory to stabilize the air resonance mode. The influence of the modeling effects mentioned before on active air resonance control is then investigated.

  6. Realization of a double-barrier resonant tunneling diode for cavity polaritons.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H S; Vishnevsky, D; Sturm, C; Tanese, D; Solnyshkov, D; Galopin, E; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Malpuech, G; Bloch, J

    2013-06-07

    We report on the realization of a double-barrier resonant tunneling diode for cavity polaritons, by lateral patterning of a one-dimensional cavity. Sharp transmission resonances are demonstrated when sending a polariton flow onto the device. We show that a nonresonant beam can be used as an optical gate and can control the device transmission. Finally, we evidence distortion of the transmission profile when going to the high-density regime, signature of polariton-polariton interactions.

  7. Mixed pyruvate labeling enables backbone resonance assignment of large proteins using a single experiment.

    PubMed

    Robson, Scott A; Takeuchi, Koh; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Coote, Paul W; Dubey, Abhinav; Hyberts, Sven; Wagner, Gerhard; Arthanari, Haribabu

    2018-01-24

    Backbone resonance assignment is a critical first step in the investigation of proteins by NMR. This is traditionally achieved with a standard set of experiments, most of which are not optimal for large proteins. Of these, HNCA is the most sensitive experiment that provides sequential correlations. However, this experiment suffers from chemical shift degeneracy problems during the assignment procedure. We present a strategy that increases the effective resolution of HNCA and enables near-complete resonance assignment using this single HNCA experiment. We utilize a combination of 2- 13 C and 3- 13 C pyruvate as the carbon source for isotope labeling, which suppresses the one bond ( 1 J αβ ) coupling providing enhanced resolution for the Cα resonance and amino acid-specific peak shapes that arise from the residual coupling. Using this approach, we can obtain near-complete (>85%) backbone resonance assignment of a 42 kDa protein using a single HNCA experiment.

  8. A new method for wideband characterization of resonator-based sensing platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, Farasat; Wathen, Adam; Hunt, William D.

    2011-03-01

    A new approach to the electronic instrumentation for extracting data from resonator-based sensing devices (e.g., microelectromechanical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, and acoustic) is suggested and demonstrated here. Traditionally, oscillator-based circuitry is employed to monitor shift in the resonance frequency of the resonator. These circuits give a single point measurement at the frequency where the oscillation criterion is met. However, the resonator response itself is broadband and contains much more information than a single point measurement. Here, we present a method for the broadband characterization of a resonator using white noise as an excitation signal. The resonator is used in a two-port filter configuration, and the resonator output is subjected to frequency spectrum analysis. The result is a wideband spectral map analogous to the magnitude of the S21 parameters of a conventional filter. Compared to other sources for broadband excitation (e.g., frequency chirp, multisine, or narrow time domain pulse), the white noise source requires no design of the input signal and is readily available for very wide bandwidths (1 MHz-3 GHz). Moreover, it offers simplicity in circuit design as it does not require precise impedance matching; whereas such requirements are very strict for oscillator-based circuit systems, and can be difficult to fulfill. This results in a measurement system that does not require calibration, which is a significant advantage over oscillator circuits. Simulation results are first presented for verification of the proposed system, followed by measurement results with a prototype implementation. A 434 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator and a 5 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) are measured using the proposed method, and the results are compared to measurements taken by a conventional bench-top network analyzer. Maximum relative differences in the measured resonance frequencies of the SAW and QCM resonators are 0.0004% and 0

  9. A tunable optical Kerr switch based on a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2010-05-21

    We have theoretically demonstrated the large enhancement of the optical Kerr effect in a scheme of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a quantum dot and shown that this phenomenon can be used to realize a fast optical Kerr switch by turning the control field on or off. Due to the vibration of the nanoresonator, as we pump on the strong control beam, the optical spectrum shows that the magnitude of this optical Kerr effect is proportional to the intensity of the control field. In this case, a fast and tunable optical Kerr switch can be implemented easily by an intensity-adjustable laser. Based on this tunable optical Kerr switch, we also provide a detection method to measure the frequency of the nanomechanical resonator in this coupled system.

  10. A study of spin isovector giant resonances with the208Pb(n, p)208Tl reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moinester, M. A.; Trudel, A.; Raywood, K.; Yen, S.; Spicer, B. M.; Abegg, R.; Alford, W. P.; Auerbach, N.; Celler, A.; Frekers, D.; Häusser, O.; Helmer, R. L.; Henderson, R.; Hicks, K. H.; Jackson, K. P.; Jeppesen, R. G.; King, N. S. P.; Long, S.; Miller, C. A.; Vetterli, M.; Watson, J.; Yavin, A. I.

    1989-10-01

    The208Pb(n, p)208Tl reaction was studied at 198 and 458 MeV in a search for isovector spin giant resonances. Peaks at 5.1 MeV and 13.6 MeV excitation in208Tl are observed and discussed as candidates for the T> spin giant dipole resonance (SGDR), the spin isovector monopole resonance (SIVM), and the spin isovector quadrupole resonance (SIVQ).

  11. Theoretical analysis of polarization-coupled mode splitting in a single microfiber knot-ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Weiqia; Zhou, Junjie; Yu, Jianhui; Xiao, Yi; Lu, Huihui; Guan, Heyuan; Zhong, Yongchun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhe

    2016-06-01

    We established a theoretical model for a single knot-ring resonator and investigated the transmission spectrum by Jones matrix. The numerical results show that two orthogonal polarization modes of knot-ring, which are originally resonated at the same wavelength, will split into two resonant modes with different wavelengths. The mode splitting is due to the coupling between the two orthogonal polarization modes in the knot-ring when the twisted angle of the twist coupler is not exactly equal to 2mπ (m is an integer). It is also found that the separation of the mode splitting is linearly proportional to the deviation angle δθ with a high correlation coefficient of 99.6% and a slope of 3.17 nm/rad. Furthermore, a transparency phenomenon analogous to coupled-resonator-induced transparency was also predicted by the model. These findings may have potential applications in lasers and sensors.

  12. Two-slot coiled coaxial cable resonator: reaching critical coupling at a reduced number of coils.

    PubMed

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the experimental demonstration of a coiled coaxial cable resonator capable of meeting the critical coupling condition using a reduced number of coils relative to previously reported coiled resonators. By introducing a second slot along the length of the device, a two-slot coiled coaxial cable resonator was fabricated and critical coupling observed at 22 turns. An additional device with one-slot, but otherwise identically constructed, was also fabricated. After 44 turns, the one-slot device had yet to reach critical coupling. An ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (greater than 70 dB) was observed at critical coupling of the two-slot device. This reduction in number of slots necessary to reach critical coupling, and the corresponding reduction of physical length of the device, makes this demonstration of the control of critical coupling a potentially important step towards the successful application of coiled coaxial cable resonators to microwave communication and robust sensing applications.

  13. Resonance in quantum dot fluorescence in a photonic bandgap liquid crystal host.

    PubMed

    Lukishova, Svetlana G; Bissell, Luke J; Winkler, Justin; Stroud, C R

    2012-04-01

    Microcavity resonance is demonstrated in nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence in a one-dimensional (1D) chiral photonic bandgap cholesteric-liquid crystal host under cw excitation. The resonance demonstrates coupling between quantum dot fluorescence and the cholesteric microcavity. Observed at a band edge of a photonic stop band, this resonance has circular polarization due to microcavity chirality with 4.9 times intensity enhancement in comparison with polarization of the opposite handedness. The circular-polarization dissymmetry factor g(e) of this resonance is ~1.3. We also demonstrate photon antibunching of a single quantum dot in a similar glassy cholesteric microcavity. These results are important in cholesteric-laser research, in which so far only dyes were used, as well as for room-temperature single-photon source applications.

  14. Realizing a Circuit Analog of an Optomechanical System with Longitudinally Coupled Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Petta, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency L C resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field. Our results pave the way towards the exploration of optomechanical effects in a fully superconducting platform and could enable quantum optics experiments with photons in the yet unexplored radio frequency band.

  15. Observation of Resonant Quantum Magnetoelectric Effect in a Multiferroic Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying; Shen, Shipeng; Cong, Junzhuang; Yan, Liqin; Wang, Shouguo; Sun, Young

    2016-01-27

    A resonant quantum magnetoelectric coupling effect has been demonstrated in the multiferroic metal-organic framework of [(CH3)2NH2]Fe(HCOO)3. This material shows a coexistence of a spin-canted antiferromagnetic order and ferroelectricity as well as clear magnetoelectric coupling below TN ≈ 19 K. In addition, a component of single-ion quantum magnets develops below ∼ 8 K because of an intrinsic magnetic phase separation. The stair-shaped magnetic hysteresis loop at 2 K signals resonant quantum tunneling of magnetization. Meanwhile, the magnetic field dependence of dielectric permittivity exhibits sharp peaks just at the critical tunneling fields, evidencing the occurrence of resonant quantum magnetoelectric coupling effect. This resonant effect enables a simple electrical detection of quantum tunneling of magnetization.

  16. Realizing a Circuit Analog of an Optomechanical System with Longitudinally Coupled Superconducting Resonators.

    PubMed

    Eichler, C; Petta, J R

    2018-06-01

    We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency LC resonator. By applying sideband drive fields we enhance the intrinsic coupling strength of about 15 kHz up to 280 kHz by controlling the amplitude of the drive field. Our results pave the way towards the exploration of optomechanical effects in a fully superconducting platform and could enable quantum optics experiments with photons in the yet unexplored radio frequency band.

  17. Design of a terahertz parametric oscillator based on a resonant cavity in a terahertz waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K., E-mail: k-saito@material.tohoku.ac.jp; Oyama, Y.; Tanabe, T.

    We demonstrate ns-pulsed pumping of terahertz (THz) parametric oscillations in a quasi-triply resonant cavity in a THz waveguide. The THz waves, down converted through parametric interactions between the pump and signal waves at telecom frequencies, are confined to a GaP single mode ridge waveguide. By combining the THz waveguide with a quasi-triply resonant cavity, the nonlinear interactions can be enhanced. A low threshold pump intensity for parametric oscillations can be achieved in the cavity waveguide. The THz output power can be maximized by optimizing the quality factors of the cavity so that an optical to THz photon conversion efficiency, η{submore » p}, of 0.35, which is near the quantum-limit level, can be attained. The proposed THz optical parametric oscillator can be utilized as an efficient and monochromatic THz source.« less

  18. Anomalous resonances of an optical microcavity with a hyperbolic metamaterial core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, Evgenij; Kiel, Thomas; Sadofev, Sergey; Busch, Kurt; Benson, Oliver; Kalusniak, Sascha

    2018-05-01

    We embed a hyperbolic metamaterial based on stacked layer pairs of epitaxially grown ZnO/ZnO:Ga in a monolithic optical microcavity, and we investigate the arising unique resonant effects experimentally and theoretically. Unlike traditional metals, the semiconductor-based approach allows us to utilize all three permittivity regions of the hyperbolic metamaterial in the near-infrared spectral range. This configuration gives rise to modes of identical orders appearing at different frequencies, a zeroth-order resonance in an all-positive permittivity region, and a continuum of high-order modes. In addition, an unusual lower cutoff frequency is introduced to the resonator mode spectrum. The observed effects expand the possibilities for customization of optical resonators; in particular, the zeroth-order and high-order modes hold strong potential for the realization of deeply subwavelength cavity sizes.

  19. Electrically detected magnetic resonance in a W-band microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, V.; Lo, C. C.; George, R. E.; Lyon, S. A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Ardavan, A.; Morton, J. J. L.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a low-temperature sample probe for the electrical detection of magnetic resonance in a resonant W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavity. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by experiments on silicon field-effect transistors. A comparison with conventional low-frequency measurements at X-band (9.7 GHz) on the same devices reveals an up to 100-fold enhancement of the signal intensity. In addition, resonance lines that are unresolved at X-band are clearly separated in the W-band measurements. Electrically detected magnetic resonance at high magnetic fields and high microwave frequencies is therefore a very sensitive technique for studying electron spins with an enhanced spectral resolution and sensitivity.

  20. The Spin-Orbit Resonances of the Solar System: A Mathematical Treatment Matching Physical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognini, Francesco; Biasco, Luca; Chierchia, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    In the mathematical framework of a restricted, slightly dissipative spin-orbit model, we prove the existence of periodic orbits for astronomical parameter values corresponding to all satellites of the Solar System observed in exact spin-orbit resonance.

  1. Monolithic integration of a resonant tunneling diode and a quantum well semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grave, I.; Kan, S. C.; Griffel, G.; Wu, S. W.; Sa'Ar, A.

    1991-01-01

    A monolithic integration of a double barrier AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode and a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser is reported. Negative differential resistance and negative differential optical response are observed at room temperature. The device displays bistable electrical and optical characteristics which are voltage controlled. Operation as a two-state optical memory is demonstrated.

  2. Levitation and propulsion of a Mie-resonance particle by a surface plasmon.

    PubMed

    Maslov, A V

    2017-09-01

    It is predicted that the optical force induced by a surface plasmon can form a stable equilibrium position for a resonant particle at a finite distance from the surface. The levitated particle can be efficiently propelled along the surface without touching it. The levitation originates from the strong interaction of the particle with the surface.

  3. Vertical and pitching resonance of train cars moving over a series of simple beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Yau, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    The resonant response, including both vertical and pitching motions, of an undamped sprung mass unit moving over a series of simple beams is studied by a semi-analytical approach. For a sprung mass that is very small compared with the beam, we first simplify the sprung mass as a constant moving force and obtain the response of the beam in closed form. With this, we then solve for the response of the sprung mass passing over a series of simple beams, and validate the solution by an independent finite element analysis. To evaluate the pitching resonance, we consider the cases of a two-axle model and a coach model traveling over rough rails supported by a series of simple beams. The resonance of a train car is characterized by the fact that its response continues to build up, as it travels over more and more beams. For train cars with long axle intervals, the vertical acceleration induced by pitching resonance dominates the peak response of the train traveling over a series of simple beams. The present semi-analytical study allows us to grasp the key parameters involved in the primary/sub-resonant responses. Other phenomena of resonance are also discussed in the exemplar study.

  4. On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Dongxu, E-mail: sudx@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko

    Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analyticalmore » model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation.« less

  5. A Markov Random Field Framework for Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays a critical role in structural genomics, and serves as a primary tool for determining protein structures, dynamics and interactions in physiologically-relevant solution conditions. The current speed of protein structure determination via NMR is limited by the lengthy time required in resonance assignment, which maps spectral peaks to specific atoms and residues in the primary sequence. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to address the backbone resonance assignment problem [68,2,10,37,14,64,1,31,60], little work has been done to automate side-chain resonance assignment [43, 48, 5]. Most previous attempts in assigning side-chain resonances depend on a set of NMR experiments that record through-bond interactions with side-chain protons for each residue. Unfortunately, these NMR experiments have low sensitivity and limited performance on large proteins, which makes it difficult to obtain enough side-chain resonance assignments. On the other hand, it is essential to obtain almost all of the side-chain resonance assignments as a prerequisite for high-resolution structure determination. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel side-chain resonance assignment algorithm based on alternative NMR experiments measuring through-space interactions between protons in the protein, which also provide crucial distance restraints and are normally required in high-resolution structure determination. We cast the side-chain resonance assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF) framework, and extend and apply combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute the optimal solution that best interprets the NMR data. Our MRF framework captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NMR spectra, and exploits the structural information available from the backbone conformations determined by orientational restraints and a set of discretized side-chain conformations (i.e., rotamers). A Hausdorff

  6. Whole-lung resonance in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2003-07-01

    An acoustic backscatter technique was used to estimate in vivo whole-lung resonant frequencies in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Subjects were trained to submerge and position themselves near an underwater sound projector and a receiving hydrophone. Acoustic pressure measurements were made near the thorax while the subject was insonified with pure tones at frequencies from 16 to 100 Hz. Whole-lung resonant frequencies were estimated by comparing pressures measured near the subject's thorax to those measured from the same location without the subject present. Experimentally measured resonant frequencies for the white whale and dolphin lungs were 30 and 36 Hz, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those predicted using a free-spherical air bubble model. Experimentally measured damping ratios and quality factors at resonance were 0.20 and 2.5, respectively, for the white whale, and 0.16 and 3.1, respectively, for the dolphin.

  7. A Study of a Mulilayer BPF with Attenuation Poles by Using Folded Resonators with Open-Circuited End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasamai, Masashi; Usie, Masahiko; Wada, Kouji

    We propose a multilayer bandpass filter(BPF) with attenuation poles using folded resonators with open-circuited end. Firstly, the basic characteristics of a folded resonator with open-circuited end under the change of the parameters is examined by an electromagnetic simulator. Secondly, 3-pole multilayer BPFs using the resonators above are proposed, simulated and experimented. As a result, the bandpass characteristics with attenuation poles near the lower and higher side of the center frequency is realized by the proposed structure.

  8. Sound reflection by a resonator array in a multimode cylindrical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapin, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    The paper considers the problem of scattering of the mth symmetric mode by an array of Q rings of identical, closely located Helmholtz resonators joined by necks to the walls of a wide circular pipe. The distance between rings is equal to half the wavelength of this mode at frequency ω, equal or close to the eigen-frequency of the resonator ring with allowance for the connected mass and interaction of neighboring rings via inhomogeneous modes. The coefficient of reflection of the mth mode from this grating array is calculated.

  9. Interrogation of a ring-resonator ultrasound sensor using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Peternella, Fellipe Grillo; Ouyang, Boling; Horsten, Roland; Haverdings, Michael; Kat, Pim; Caro, Jacob

    2017-12-11

    We experimentally demonstrate an interrogation procedure of a ring-resonator ultrasound sensor using a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The sensor comprises a silicon ring resonator (RR) located on a silicon-oxide membrane, designed to have its lowest vibrational mode in the MHz range, which is the range of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging. Ultrasound incident on the membrane excites its vibrational mode and as a result induces a modulation of the resonance wavelength of the RR, which is a measure of the amplitude of the ultrasound waves. The interrogation procedure developed is based on the mathematical description of the interrogator operation presented in Appendix A, where we identify the amplitude of the angular deflection Φ 0 on the circle arc periodically traced in the plane of the two orthogonal interrogator voltages, as the principal sensor signal. Interrogation is demonstrated for two sensors with membrane vibrational modes at 1.3 and 0.77 MHz, by applying continuous wave ultrasound in a wide pressure range. Ultrasound is detected at a pressure as low as 1.2 Pa. Two optical path differences (OPDs) of the MZI are used. Thus, different interference conditions of the optical signals are defined, leading to a higher apparent sensitivity for the larger OPD, which is accompanied by a weaker signal, however. Independent measurements using the modulation method yield a resonance modulation per unit of pressure of 21.4 fm/Pa (sensor #1) and 103.8 fm/Pa (sensor #2).

  10. A Resonance Overlap Criterion for the Onset of Chaos in Systems of Two Eccentric Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    I will desrcribe a new analytic criterion to predict the onset of chaos in systems consisting of two massive, eccentric planets. Given a planet pair's spacing and masses, the criterion predicts the eccentricities at which the onset of large-scale chaos occurs. The onset of chaos is predicted based on overlap of mean motion resonances as in Wisdom (1980)'s pioneering work. Whereas Wisdom's work was limited to the overlap of first-order resonance and therefore to nearly circular planets, we account for resonances of all orders. This allows us to consider resonance overlap for planets with arbitrary eccentricities (up to orbit-crossing). Our results show excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  11. Multiple Spatial Coherence Resonances and Spatial Patterns in a Noise-Driven Heterogeneous Neuronal Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Ye; Ding, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    Heterogeneity of the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network. In this paper, Gaussian white noise induced spatial patterns including spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances are studied in a network composed of Morris—Lecar neurons with heterogeneity characterized by parameter diversity. The relationship between the resonances and the transitions between ordered spiral waves and disordered spatial patterns are achieved. When parameter diversity is introduced, the maxima of multiple resonances increases first, and then decreases as diversity strength increases, which implies that the coherence degrees induced by noise are enhanced at an intermediate diversity strength. The synchronization degree of spatial patterns including ordered spiral waves and disordered patterns is identified to be a very low level. The results suggest that the nervous system can profit from both heterogeneity and noise, and the multiple spatial coherence resonances are achieved via the emergency of spiral waves instead of synchronization patterns.

  12. Fabrication and characterisation of nanocrystalline graphite MEMS resonators using a geometric design to control buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishlock, S. J.; O'Shea, S. J.; McBride, J. W.; Chong, H. M. H.; Pu, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    The simulation, fabrication and characterisation of nanographite MEMS resonators is reported in this paper. The deposition of nanographite is achieved using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition directly onto numerous substrates such as commercial silicon wafers. As a result, many of the reliability issues of devices based on transferred graphene are avoided. The fabrication of the resonators is presented along with a simple undercutting method to overcome buckling, by changing the effective stress of the structure from ~436 MPa compressive, to ~13 MPa tensile. The characterisation of the resonators using electrostatic actuation and laser Doppler vibrometry is reported, demonstrating resonator frequencies from 5-640 kHz and quality factor above 1819 in vacuum obtained.

  13. Non-monotonic resonance in a spatially forced Lengyel-Epstein model

    DOE PAGES

    Haim, Lev; Hagberg, Aric; Meron, Ehud

    2015-06-02

    Here, we study resonant spatially periodic solutions of the Lengyel-Epstein model modified to describe the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction under spatially periodic illumination. Using multiple-scale analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain the stability ranges of 2:1 resonant solutions, i.e., solutions with wavenumbers that are exactly half of the forcing wavenumber. We show that the width of resonant wavenumber response is a non-monotonic function of the forcing strength, and diminishes to zero at sufficiently strong forcing. Furthermore, we show that strong forcing may result in a π/2 phase shift of the resonant solutions, and argue that the nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch front bifurcationmore » can be reversed. Finally, we attribute these behaviors to an inherent property of forcing by periodic illumination, namely, the increase of the mean spatial illumination as the forcing amplitude is increased.« less

  14. Sympathetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2018-06-01

    This short paper describes a useful teaching tool, ideal for demonstration purposes within the classroom or lab setting. It is based on the simple dynamic response of flexible cantilevers and evolves naturally from the underlying principles of a vibrating reed tachometer. Utilizing a 3D-printer, these ideas conveniently encompass the phenomenon of resonance in which all the cantilevers of a similar length respond in harmony when just one of their number is plucked.

  15. Resonant fast dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    A resonant fast dynamo is found in chaotic shear flows. The dynamo effect is produced by resonant perturbations of the velocity field, similar to resonant diffusion in plasma physics. The dynamo is called fast because the flow produces an electric field independent of the fluid resistivity.

  16. A new boundary integral approach to the determination of the resonant modes of arbitrary shaped cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Arcioni, P.; Bressan, M.; Perregrini, L.

    1995-08-01

    Computer codes for the electromagnetic analysis of arbitrarily shaped cavities are very important for many applications, in particular for the design of interaction structures for particle accelerators. The design of accelerating cavities results in complicated shapes, that are obtained carrying on repeated analyses to optimize a number of parameters, such as Q-factors, beam coupling impedances, higher-order-mode spectrum, and so on. The interest in the calculation of many normalized modes derives also from the important role they play in the eigenvector expansion of the electromagnetic field in a closed region. The authors present an efficient algorithm to determine the resonant frequenciesmore » and the normalized modal fields of arbitrarily shaped cavity resonators filled with a lossless, isotropic, and homogeneous medium. The algorithm is based on the boundary integral method (BIM). The unknown current flowing on the cavity wall is considered inside a spherical resonator, rather than in free-space, as it is usual in the standard BIM. The electric field is expressed using the Green`s function of the spherical resonator, approximated by a real rational function of the frequency. Consequently, the discretized problem can be cast into the form of a real matrix linear eigenvalue problem, whose eigenvalues and eigenvectors yield the resonant frequencies and the associated modal currents. Since the algorithm does not require any frequency-by-frequency recalculation of the system matrices, computing time is much shorter than in the standard BIM, especially when many resonances must be found.« less

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensing device based on a piezoelectric array.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abbi; Masamune, Ken; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Lamperth, Michael; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a widely used medical technique, one of the drawbacks of which is the loss of direct sense of touch during the operation. Palpation is the use of fingertips to explore and make fast assessments of tissue morphology. Although technologies are developed to equip minimally invasive surgery tools with haptic feedback capabilities, the majority focus on tissue stiffness profiling and tool-tissue interaction force measurement. For greatly increased diagnostic capability, a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible tactile sensor design is proposed, which allows minimally invasive surgery to be performed under image guidance, combining the strong capability of magnetic resonance imaging soft tissue and intuitive palpation. The sensing unit is based on a piezoelectric sensor methodology, which conforms to the stringent mechanical and electrical design requirements imposed by the magnetic resonance environment The sensor mechanical design and the device integration to a 0.2 Tesla open magnetic resonance imaging scanner are described, together with the device's magnetic resonance compatibility testing. Its design limitations and potential future improvements are also discussed. A tactile sensing unit based on a piezoelectric sensor principle is proposed, which is designed for magnetic resonance imaging guided interventions.

  18. Effects of Aperture Size on Q factor and Shielding Effectiveness of a Cubic Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, Stefan; Chromy, Stephan; Dickmann, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The EMC properties of a cubic metallic shield are highly affected by its resonances. At the resonant frequencies, the shielding effectiveness (SE) collapses, which results in high field strengths inside the cavity. This can cause failure or even breakdown of electronic devices inside the shield. The resonant behaviour is mainly determined by the quality or Q factor of the shield. In this paper, the effects of the aperture size on the Q factor and the SE of an electrically large, cubic shield are analysed. At first, a method is developed in order to determine the Q factor based on the resonance behaviour of the shield in time domain. Only the first resonance of the shield is considered therefore. The results are evaluated for different aperture diameters and compared with theory for the Q factor. The dominant coupling mechanism of electromagnetic energy into the shield is thus identified. Then the effect of aperture size on the SE is analysed. The excitation of resonances is very probable if the interfering signal is an ultrawideband (UWB) pulse, which constitutes a typical intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) scenario. Therefore, the relation between aperture size and SE is analysed using the theory of the transient SE for a broadband signal with a constant spectral density distribution. The results show, that a worst case aperture size exists, where the SE has its minimum.

  19. A Three-Body Resonance Confines the Ring-Arcs of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark; Lissauer, Jack J.; de Pater, Imke; French, Robert S.

    2017-10-01

    Two prominent arcs in Neptune's Adams ring have persisted for more than thirty years. Absent active confinement, the arcs would have dissipated in a few years due to Kepler shear. Based on nearly 30 years of astrometry from Voyager and the Hubble Space Telescope, we now find that the orbital semimajor axis of the arcs falls within ~ 10 meters of a strong three-body mean motion resonance, which involves the two nearest moons, Galatea and Larissa. Resonances of comparable strength are typically spaced by several km in the vicinity of the ring, making this particular association unlikely to be a coincidence. Furthermore, each arc falls within the longitudinal boundaries of one of the 39 corotation sites that this resonance creates. Collisionless numerical simulations confirm that the resonance is capable of confining ring material within these corotation sites; more realistic, collisional simulations are in progress. The dynamics appears to be generally similar to that from an earlier model in which the arcs were confined by a two-body resonance with Galatea (Porco, Science 253, 995-1001, 1991). However, subsequent observations have shown that the arcs' mean motion is definitively outside the resonance as originally proposed. Subsequent models have invoked one or more embedded moonlets to confine the arcs, but this new model eliminates the need to invoke additional unseen moonlets. We hypothesize that the arcs comprise debris ejected from an impact into the Adams ring multiple decades ago. Only a fraction of that debris landed precisely in the resonance. The additional arcs imaged by Voyager in 1990 comprise material that orbited close to, but not in, the resonance; that material has dispersed slowly over the subsequent decades, leaving only two arcs that persist to this day.

  20. Demonstration of acoustic resonances in a cylindrical cavity applying the photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, N. L.; Vallespi, A. S.; Zajarevich, N. M.; Peuriot, A. L.; Slezak, V. B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present some experiments which can be performed in college or on the first courses of university to acquire knowledge about resonant acoustical phenomena in closed cavities in a tangible way, through experiments based on the photoacoustic effect in gases. This phenomenon consists in the generation of acoustic waves after optical excitation of an absorbing gas and further local heating of the non-absorbing surrounding gas by energy exchange through collisions between molecules of both species. Simple experiments, performed with daily live elements, can be very useful for teachers and students to get in touch with the phenomenon of acoustic resonances with the addition of concepts about light-matter interaction. The setups consist of the resonant cavity, the illumination source and the signal detection-acquisition scheme. In this paper a closed glass test tube is used as the resonant cavity and is filled with a mixture of nitrogen dioxide and air. The illumination is performed by a pulsed power LED modulated at different resonant frequencies of the cavity. A microphone inside the tube is connected to an oscilloscope which displays the photoacoustic signal. The LED is moved along the tube showing how different resonant modes can be excited.

  1. Tunable Fano resonance using weak-value amplification with asymmetric spectral response as a natural pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ankit K.; Ray, Subir K.; Chandel, Shubham; Pal, Semanti; Gupta, Angad; Mitra, P.; Ghosh, N.

    2018-05-01

    Weak measurement enables faithful amplification and high-precision measurement of small physical parameters and is under intensive investigation as an effective tool in metrology and for addressing foundational questions in quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate weak-value amplification using the asymmetric spectral response of Fano resonance as the pointer arising naturally in precisely designed metamaterials, namely, waveguided plasmonic crystals. The weak coupling between the polarization degree of freedom and the spectral response of Fano resonance arises due to a tiny shift in the asymmetric spectral response between two orthogonal linear polarizations. By choosing the preselected and postselected polarization states to be nearly mutually orthogonal, we observe both real and imaginary weak-value amplifications manifested as a spectacular shift of the Fano-resonance peak and narrowing (or broadening) of the resonance linewidth, respectively. The remarkable control and tunability of Fano resonance in a single device enabled by weak-value amplification may enhance active Fano-resonance-based applications in the nano-optical domain. In general, weak measurements using Fano-type spectral response broadens the domain of applicability of weak measurements using natural spectral line shapes as a pointer in a wide range of physical systems.

  2. OSSOS. IV. Discovery of a Dwarf Planet Candidate in the 9:2 Resonance with Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Benecchi, Susan; Chen, Ying-Tung; Delsanti, Audrey; Fraser, Wesley C.; Gladman, Brett; Granvik, Mikael; Grundy, Will M.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery and orbit of a new dwarf planet candidate, 2015 RR245, by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS). The orbit of 2015 RR245 is eccentric (e 0.586), with a semimajor axis near 82 au, yielding a perihelion distance of 34 au. 2015 RR245 has g - r 0.59 +/- 0.11 and absolute magnitude Hr 3.6 +/- 0.1; for an assumed albedo of pV 12, the object has a diameter of approximately 670 km. Based on astrometric measurements from OSSOS and Pan-STARRS1, we find that 2015 RR245 is securely trapped on ten-megayear timescales in the 9:2 mean-motion resonance with Neptune. It is the first trans-Neptunian object (TNO) identied in this resonance. On hundred-megayear timescales, particles in 2015 RR245-like orbits depart and sometimes return to the resonance, indicating that 2015 RR245 likely forms part of the long-lived metastable population of distant TNOs that drift between resonance sticking and actively scattering via gravitational encounters with Neptune. The discovery of a 9:2 TNO stresses the role of resonances in the long-term evolution of objects in the scattering disk and reinforces the view that distant resonances are heavily populated in the current solar system. This object further motivates detailed modeling of the transient sticking population.

  3. Non-resonant interactions between superconducting circuits coupled through a dc-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X. Y.; Lecocq, F.; Cicak, K.; Kotler, S. S.; Peterson, G. A.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.; Simmonds, R. W.

    We use a flux-biased direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) to generate non-resonant tunable interactions between transmon qubits and resonators modes. By modulating the flux to the dc-SQUID, we can create an interaction with variable coupling rates from zero to greater than 100 MHz. We explore this system experimentally and describe its operation. Parametric coupling is important for constructing larger coupled systems, useful for both quantum information architectures and quantum simulators.

  4. Characterizing Quality Factor of Niobium Resonators Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban; Tang, Qing Yang; McGeehan, Ryan

    The next generation of radiation detectors in high precision Cosmology, Astronomy, and particle-astrophysics experiments will rely heavily on superconducting microwave resonators and kinetic inductance devices. Understanding the physics of energy loss in these devices, in particular at low temperatures and powers, is vital. We present a comprehensive analysis framework, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, to characterize loss due to two-level system in concert with quasi-particle dynamics in thin-film Nb resonators in the GHz range.

  5. Characterization of a Continuous Wave Laser for Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Analysis in Nuclear Forensics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    OF A CONTINUOUS WAVE LASER FOR RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS by Sunny G. Lau June 2015 Thesis...IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sunny G. Lau 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...200 words) The application of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to nuclear forensics involves the use of lasers to selectively ionize

  6. A proposed method for electronic feedback compensation of damping in ferromagnetic resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Zohar, S.; Sterbinsky, G. E.

    2017-07-10

    Here, we propose an experimental technique for extending feedback compensation of dissipative radiation used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to encompass ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). This method uses a balanced microwave power detector whose output is phase shifted π/2, amplified, and fed back to drive precession. Using classical control theory, we predict an electronically controllable narrowing of field swept FMR line-widths. This technique is predicted to compensate other sources of spin dissipation in addition to radiative loss.

  7. A proposed method for electronic feedback compensation of damping in ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, S.; Sterbinsky, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    We propose an experimental technique for extending feedback compensation of dissipative radiation used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to encompass ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). This method uses a balanced microwave power detector whose output is phase shifted π / 2 , amplified, and fed back to drive precession. Using classical control theory, we predict an electronically controllable narrowing of field swept FMR line-widths. This technique is predicted to compensate other sources of spin dissipation in addition to radiative loss.

  8. The influence of thermal and conductive temperatures in a nanoscale resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobiny, Aatef; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the thermoelastic interaction in a nano-scale resonator based on two-temperature Green-Naghdi model is established. The nanoscale resonator ends were simply supported. In the Laplace's domain, the analytical solution of conductivity temperature and thermodynamic temperature, the displacement and the stress components are obtained. The eigenvalue approach resorted to for solutions. In the vector-matrix differential equations form, the essential equations were written. The numerical results for all variables are presented and are illustrated graphically.

  9. A low-level rf control system for a quarter-wave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwon; Hwang, Churlkew

    2012-06-01

    A low-level rf control system was designed and built for an rf deflector, which is a quarter wave resonator, and was designed to deflect a secondary electron beam to measure the bunch length of an ion beam. The deflector has a resonance frequency near 88 MHz, its required phase stability is approximately ±1° and its amplitude stability is less than ±1%. The control system consists of analog input and output components and a digital system based on a field-programmable gate array for signal processing. The system is cost effective, while meeting the stability requirements. Some basic properties of the control system were measured. Then, the capability of the rf control was tested using a mechanical vibrator made of a dielectric rod attached to an audio speaker system, which could induce regulated perturbations in the electric fields of the resonator. The control system was flexible so that its parameters could be easily configured to compensate for the disturbance induced in the resonator.

  10. Theoretical modeling of a coupled plasmon waveguide resonance sensor based on multimode optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Xue, Meng; Jiang, Junfeng; Wang, Tao; Chang, Pengxiang; Liu, Tiegen

    2018-03-01

    A coupled plasmon waveguide resonance (CPWR) sensor based on metal/dielectric-coated step index multimode optical fiber is proposed. Theoretical simulations using the four-layer Fresnel equations based on a bi-dimensional optical fiber model were implemented on four structures: Ag-ZnO, Au-ZnO, Ag-TiO2 and Au-TiO2. By controlling the thickness of dielectric layer, we managed to manipulate the CPWR resonance wavelengths. When a CPWR resonance dip is in the short wavelength region, it is insensitive to the change of surrounding refractive index (SRI) and can be used as a reference to improve the sensing accuracy of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mode. With the increase of the thickness of the dielectric layer, the CPWR resonance dips shift to longer wavelength and the corresponding sensitivities increase. When the 1st CPWR resonance wavelength is near 1550 nm and SRI is around 1.333, the sensitivities of four structures reach 1360.61 nm/RIU, 1375.76 nm/RIU, 1048.48 nm/RIU and 1015.15 nm/RIU, respectively. The values are close to that of the conventional SPR optical fiber sensor while the spectral bandwidths of the optical fiber CPWR sensors are narrower.

  11. Interference effect on a heavy Higgs resonance signal in the γ γ and Z Z channels

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Yeo Woong; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-03-24

    The resonance-continuum interference is usually neglected when the width of a resonance is small compared to the resonance mass. We reexamine this standard by studying the interference effects in high-resolution decay channels, γγ and ZZ, of the heavy Higgs boson H in nearly aligned two-Higgs-doublet models. For the H with a sub-percent width-to-mass ratio, we find that, in the parameter space where the LHC 14 TeV ZZ resonance search can be sensitive, the interference effects can modify the ZZ signal rate by O(10)% and the exclusion reach by O(10) GeV. In other parameter space where the ZZ or γγ signalmore » rate is smaller, the LHC 14 TeV reach is absent, but a resonance shape can be much more dramatically changed. In particular, the γγ signal rate can change by O(100)%. Relevant to such parameter space, we suggest variables that can characterize a general resonance shape. Furthermore, we also illustrate the relevance of the width on the interference by adding nonstandard decay modes of the heavy Higgs boson.« less

  12. Autapse-induced multiple stochastic resonances in a modular neuronal network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, XiaoLi; Yu, YanHu; Sun, ZhongKui

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the nontrivial effects of autapse on stochastic resonance in a modular neuronal network subjected to bounded noise. The resonance effect of autapse is detected by imposing a self-feedback loop with autaptic strength and autaptic time delay to each constituent neuron. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that bounded noise with the proper level of amplitude can induce stochastic resonance; moreover, the noise induced resonance dynamics can be significantly shaped by the autapse. In detail, for a specific range of autaptic strength, multiple stochastic resonances can be induced when the autaptic time delays are appropriately adjusted. These appropriately adjusted delays are detected to nearly approach integer multiples of the period of the external weak signal when the autaptic strength is very near zero; otherwise, they do not match the period of the external weak signal when the autaptic strength is slightly greater than zero. Surprisingly, in both cases, the differences between arbitrary two adjacent adjusted autaptic delays are always approximately equal to the period of the weak signal. The phenomenon of autaptic delay induced multiple stochastic resonances is further confirmed to be robust against the period of the external weak signal and the intramodule probability of subnetwork. These findings could have important implications for weak signal detection and information propagation in realistic neural systems.

  13. A New Method for Generating Probability Tables in the Unresolved Resonance Region

    DOE PAGES

    Holcomb, Andrew M.; Leal, Luiz C.; Rahnema, Farzad; ...

    2017-04-18

    One new method for constructing probability tables in the unresolved resonance region (URR) has been developed. This new methodology is an extensive modification of the single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW) pseudo-resonance pair sequence method commonly used to generate probability tables in the URR. The new method uses a Monte Carlo process to generate many pseudo-resonance sequences by first sampling the average resonance parameter data in the URR and then converting the sampled resonance parameters to the more robust R-matrix limited (RML) format. Furthermore, for each sampled set of pseudo-resonance sequences, the temperature-dependent cross sections are reconstructed on a small grid around themore » energy of reference using the Reich-Moore formalism and the Leal-Hwang Doppler broadening methodology. We then use the effective cross sections calculated at the energies of reference to construct probability tables in the URR. The RML cross-section reconstruction algorithm has been rigorously tested for a variety of isotopes, including 16O, 19F, 35Cl, 56Fe, 63Cu, and 65Cu. The new URR method also produced normalized cross-section factor probability tables for 238U that were found to be in agreement with current standards. The modified 238U probability tables were shown to produce results in excellent agreement with several standard benchmarks, including the IEU-MET-FAST-007 (BIG TEN), IEU-MET-FAST-003, and IEU-COMP-FAST-004 benchmarks.« less

  14. On the Chaotic Vibrations of Electrostatically Actuated Arch Micro/Nano Resonators: A Parametric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajaddodianfar, Farid; Hairi Yazdi, Mohammad Reza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat

    Motivated by specific applications, electrostatically actuated bistable arch shaped micro-nano resonators have attracted growing attention in the research community in recent years. Nevertheless, some issues relating to their nonlinear dynamics, including the possibility of chaos, are still not well known. In this paper, we investigate the chaotic vibrations of a bistable resonator comprised of a double clamped initially curved microbeam under combined harmonic AC and static DC distributed electrostatic actuation. A reduced order equation obtained by the application of the Galerkin method to the nonlinear partial differential equation of motion, given in the framework of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, is used for the investigation in this paper. We numerically integrate the obtained equation to study the chaotic vibrations of the proposed system. Moreover, we investigate the effects of various parameters including the arch curvature, the actuation parameters and the quality factor of the resonator, which are effective in the formation of both static and dynamic behaviors of the system. Using appropriate numerical tools, including Poincaré maps, bifurcation diagrams, Fourier spectrum and Lyapunov exponents we scrutinize the effects of various parameters on the formation of chaotic regions in the parametric space of the resonator. Results of this work provide better insight into the problem of nonlinear dynamics of the investigated family of bistable micro/nano resonators, and facilitate the design of arch resonators for applications such as filters.

  15. Mass perturbation techniques for tuning and decoupling of a Disk Resonator Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, David

    Axisymmetric microelectromechanical (MEM) vibratory rate gyroscopes are designed so that the two Coriolis-coupled modes exploited for rate sensing possess equal modal frequencies and so that the central post which attaches the resonator to the sensor case is a nodal point of the these two modes. The former quality maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor, while the latter quality eliminates any coupling of linear acceleration to the modes of interest, which, if present, creates spurious rate signals in response to linear vibration of the sensor case. When the gyro resonators are fabricated, however, small mass and stiffness asymmetries cause the frequencies of the two modes to deviate from each other and couple these modes to linear acceleration. In a resonator post-fabrication step, these effects can be reduced by altering the mass distribution of the resonator. In this dissertation, a scale model of the axisymmetric resonator of the Disk Resonator Gyroscope (DRG) is used to develop and test methods that successfully reduce frequency detuning (Part I) and linear acceleration coupling (Part II) through guided mass perturbations.

  16. A new design of a miniature filter on microstrip resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, B. A.; Serzhantov, A. M.; Bal'va, Ya. F.; Leksikov, An. A.; Galeev, R. G.

    2015-05-01

    A microstrip bandpass filter of new design based on original resonators with an interdigital structure of conductors has been studied. The proposed filters of third to sixth order are distinguished for their high frequency-selective properties and much smaller size than analogs. It is established that a broad stop band, extending up to a sixfold central bandpass frequency, is determined by low unloaded Q of higher resonance mode and weak coupling of resonators in the pass band. It is shown for the first time that, as the spacing of interdigital stripe conductors decreases, the Q of higher resonance mode monotonically drops, while the Q value for the first operating mode remains high. A prototype fourth-order filter with a central frequency of 0.9 GHz manufactured on a ceramic substrate with dielectric permittivity ɛ = 80 has microstrip topology dimensions of 9.5 × 4.6 × 1 mm3. The electrodynamic 3D model simulations of the filter characteristics agree well with the results of measurements.

  17. Head and neck resonance in a rhesus monkey - a comparison with results from a human model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinniswood, Adam; Gandhi, Om P.

    1999-03-01

    The use of primates for examining the effects of electromagnetic radiation on behavioural patterns is well established. Rats have also been used for this purpose. However, the monkey is of greater interest as its physiological make-up is somewhat closer to that of the human. Since the behavioural effects are likely to occur at lower field strengths for resonant absorption conditions for the head and neck, the need for determination of resonance frequencies for this region is obvious. Numerical techniques are ideal for the prediction of coupling to each of the organs, and accurate anatomically based models can be used to pinpoint the conditions for maximum absorption in the head in order to focus the experiments. In this paper we use two models, one of a human male and the other of a rhesus monkey, and find the mass-averaged power absorption spectra for both. The frequencies at which highest absorption (i.e. resonance) occurs in both the whole body and the head and neck region are determined. The results from these two models are compared for both E-polarization and k-polarization, and are shown to obey basic electromagnetic scaling principles.

  18. Stochastic resonance on a modular neuronal network of small-world subnetworks with a subthreshold pacemaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2011-12-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on a modular neuronal network consisting of several small-world subnetworks with a subthreshold periodic pacemaker. Numerical results show that the correlation between the pacemaker frequency and the dynamical response of the network is resonantly dependent on the intensity of additive spatiotemporal noise. This effect of pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance of the system depends extensively on the local and the global network structure, such as the intra- and inter-coupling strengths, rewiring probability of individual small-world subnetwork, the number of links between different subnetworks, and the number of subnetworks. All these parameters play a key role in determining the ability of the network to enhance the noise-induced outreach of the localized subthreshold pacemaker, and only they bounded to a rather sharp interval of values warrant the emergence of the pronounced stochastic resonance phenomenon. Considering the rather important role of pacemakers in real-life, the presented results could have important implications for many biological processes that rely on an effective pacemaker for their proper functioning.

  19. Dynamic strain-mediated coupling of a single diamond spin to a mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Lee, Kenneth W.; Myers, Bryan A.; Jayich, Ania C. Bleszynski

    2014-07-01

    The development of hybrid quantum systems is central to the advancement of emerging quantum technologies, including quantum information science and quantum-assisted sensing. The recent demonstration of high-quality single-crystal diamond resonators has led to significant interest in a hybrid system consisting of nitrogen-vacancy centre spins that interact with the resonant phonon modes of a macroscopic mechanical resonator through crystal strain. However, the nitrogen-vacancy spin-strain interaction has not been well characterized. Here, we demonstrate dynamic, strain-mediated coupling of the mechanical motion of a diamond cantilever to the spin of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy centre. Via quantum control of the spin, we quantitatively characterize the axial and transverse strain sensitivities of the nitrogen-vacancy ground-state spin. The nitrogen-vacancy centre is an atomic scale sensor and we demonstrate spin-based strain imaging with a strain sensitivity of 3 × 10-6 strain Hz-1/2. Finally, we show how this spin-resonator system could enable coherent spin-phonon interactions in the quantum regime.

  20. Impact of depth and location of the wells on vibrational resonance in a triple-well system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhijuan; Ning, Lijuan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of depth and location of a triple-well potential on vibrational resonance is investigated in a quintic oscillator driven by a low-frequency force and a high-frequency force. The values of low-frequency ω and amplitude g of the high-frequency force at which vibrational resonance occurs are derived both numerically and theoretically. It is found that: as ω varies, at most one resonance takes place and the response amplitude at resonance depends on the depth and the location of the potential wells. When g is altered, the depth and location of wells can control the number of resonances, resulting in two, three and four resonances. The system parameters can be adjusted by controlling the depth and position of the wells to achieve optimum vibrational resonance. Furthermore, the changes induced by these two quantities in the tristable system are found to be richer than those induced in bistable systems.

  1. Analysis and experimental study on the effect of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic levitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai; Liu, Jianfang; Lv, Qingqing; Gu, Shoudong; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Li, Minjiao; Zhang, Shasha

    2016-09-01

    The influence of a resonant tube on the performance of acoustic standing wave-based levitation device (acoustic levitation device hereinafter) is studied by analyzing the acoustic pressure and levitation force of four types of acoustic levitation devices without a resonance tube and with resonance tubes of different radii R using ANSYS and MATLAB. Introducing a resonance tube either enhances or weakens the levitation strength of acoustic levitation device, depending on the resonance tube radii. Specifically, the levitation force is improved to a maximum degree when the resonance tube radius is slightly larger than the size of the reflector end face. Furthermore, the stability of acoustic levitation device is improved to a maximum degree by introducing a resonance tube of R=1.023λ. The experimental platform and levitation force measurement system of the acoustic levitation device with concave-end-face-type emitter and reflector are developed, and the test of suspended matters and liquid drops is conducted. Results show that the Φ6.5-mm steel ball is suspended easily when the resonance tube radius is 1.023λ, and the Φ5.5-mm steel ball cannot be suspended when the resonance tube radius is 1.251λ. The levitation capability of the original acoustic levitation device without a resonance tube is weakened when a resonance tube of R=1.251λ is applied. These results are consistent with the ANSYS simulation results. The levitation time of the liquid droplet with a resonance tube of R=1.023λ is longer than without a resonance tube. This result is also supported by the MATLAB simulation results. Therefore, the performance of acoustic levitation device can be improved by introducing a resonant tube with an appropriate radius.

  2. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Lara F; Gobato, Yara Galvão; Teodoro, Márcio D; Lopez-Richard, Victor; Marques, Gilmar E; Brasil, Maria Jsp; Orlita, Milan; Kunc, Jan; Maude, Duncan K; Henini, Mohamed; Airey, Robert J

    2011-01-25

    We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.

  3. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL) in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW) PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T). The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects. PMID:21711613

  4. Brain Biochemistry and Personality: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryman, Sephira G.; Gasparovic, Chuck; Bedrick, Edward J.; Flores, Ranee A.; Marshall, Alison N.; Jung, Rex E.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biochemical correlates of normal personality we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Our sample consisted of 60 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 32 (27 females). Personality was assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We measured brain biochemistry within the precuneus, the cingulate cortex, and underlying white matter. We hypothesized that brain biochemistry within these regions would predict individual differences across major domains of personality functioning. Biochemical models were fit for all personality domains including Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Our findings involved differing concentrations of Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cre), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in regions both within (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex) and white matter underlying (i.e., precuneus) the Default Mode Network (DMN). These results add to an emerging literature regarding personality neuroscience, and implicate biochemical integrity within the default mode network as constraining major personality domains within normal human subjects. PMID:22073190

  5. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing: a prospective cross sectional study in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Kuehle, Christiane A; Langhorst, Jost; Ladd, Susanne C; Zoepf, Thomas; Nuefer, Michael; Grabellus, Florian; Barkhausen, Joerg; Gerken, Guido; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) without bowel cleansing in a screening population and compare the results to colonoscopy as a standard of reference. Methods 315 screening patients, older than 50 years with a normal risk profile for colorectal cancer, were included in this study. For MRC, a tagging agent (5.0% Gastrografin, 1.0% barium sulphate, 0.2% locust bean gum) was ingested with each main meal within 2 days prior to MRC. No bowel cleansing was applied. For the magnetic resonance examination, a rectal water enema was administered. Data collection was based on contrast enhanced T1 weighted images and TrueFISP images. Magnetic resonance data were analysed for image quality and the presence of colorectal lesions. Conventional colonoscopy and histopathological samples served as reference. Results In 4% of all colonic segments, magnetic resonance image quality was insufficient because of untagged faecal material. Adenomatous polyps >5 mm were detected by means of MRC, with a sensitivity of 83.0%. Overall specificity was 90.2% (false positive findings in 19 patients). However, only 16 of 153 lesions <5 mm and 9 of 127 hyperplastic polyps could be visualised on magnetic resonance images. Conclusions Faecal tagging MRC is applicable for screening purposes. It provides good accuracy for the detection of relevant (ie, adenomatous) colorectal lesions >5 mm in a screening population. However, refinements to optimise image quality of faecal tagging are needed. PMID:17341542

  6. Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Vieira, R. S. S.; Barros, D. A.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from the spiral arm structure can play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (in the context of nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: We expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and we expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes of initial conditions are constructed numerically in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the co-rotation and Lindblad resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identification of fundamental oscillatory patterns in the stellar motion. Results: Our approach allows a precise description of the resonance chains in the whole phase space, giving a broader view of the dynamics of the system when compared to the classical epicyclic approach. We generalize the concept of Lindblad resonances and extend it to cases of resonant orbits with large radial excursions, even for objects in retrograde motion. The analysis of the solar neighbourhood shows that, depending on the current azimuthal phase of the Sun with respect to the spiral arms, a star with solar kinematic parameters (SSP) may evolve in dynamically distinct regions, either inside the stable co-rotation resonance or in a chaotic zone. Conclusions: Our approach contributes to quantifying the domains of resonant orbits and the degree of chaos in the whole Galactic phase-space structure. It may serve as a

  7. Radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses at superluminal velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.; Tolmachev, Yu A.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in generation of optical pulses of durations comparable to one optical cycle has presented great opportunities for studies of the fundamental processes in matter as well as time-resolved spectroscopy of ultrafast processes in nonlinear media. It opened up a new area of research in modern ultrafast nonlinear optics and led to appearance of the attosecond science. In parallel, a new research area related to emission from resonant media excited by superluminally propagating ultrashort bursts of electromagnetic radiation has been actively developed over the last few years. In this paper, we review our recent results on theoretical analysis of the Cherenkov-type radiation of a resonant medium excited by few-cycle optical pulses propagating at superluminal velocity. This situation can be realized when an electromagnetic pulse with a plane wavefront incidents on a straight string of resonant atoms or a spot of light rotates at very large angular frequency and excites a distant circular string of resonant dipoles. Theoretical analysis revealed some unusual and remarkable features of the Cherenkov radiation generated in this case. This radiation arises in a transient regime which leads to the occurrence of new frequencies in the radiation spectrum. Analysis of the characteristics of this radiation can be used for the study of the resonant structure properties. In addition, a nonlinear resonant medium excited at superluminal velocity can emit unipolar optical pulses, which can be important in ultrafast control of wave-packet dynamics of matter. Specifics of the few-cycle pulse-driven optical response of a resonant medium composed of linear and nonlinear oscillators is discussed.

  8. A mass reconstruction technique for a heavy resonance decaying to τ + τ -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Li-Gang

    2016-11-01

    For a resonance decaying to τ + τ -, it is difficult to reconstruct its mass accurately because of the presence of neutrinos in the decay products of the τ leptons. If the resonance is heavy enough, we show that its mass can be well determined by the momentum component of the τ decay products perpendicular to the velocity of the τ lepton, p ⊥, and the mass of the visible/invisible decay products, m vis/inv, for τ decaying to hadrons/leptons. By sampling all kinematically allowed values of p ⊥ and m vis/inv according to their joint probability distributions determined by the MC simulations, the mass of the mother resonance is assumed to lie at the position with the maximal probability. Since p ⊥ and m vis/inv are invariant under the boost in the τ lepton direction, the joint probability distributions are independent upon the τ’s origin. Thus this technique is able to determine the mass of an unknown resonance with no efficiency loss. It is tested using MC simulations of the physics processes pp → Z/h(125)/h(750) + X → ττ + X at 13 TeV. The ratio of the full width at half maximum and the peak value of the reconstructed mass distribution is found to be 20%-40% using the information of missing transverse energy. Supported by General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M581062)

  9. Ferromagnetic movements of middle ear implants and stapes prostheses in a 3-T magnetic resonance field.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Michael H; Gutt, Jason J

    2005-03-01

    A 3-T magnetic resonance field may cause motion or displacement of middle ear implants not seen in studies with 1.5-T magnets. Previous publications have described the safety limitations of some otologic implants in 1.5-T magnetic resonance fields. Several company-wide recalls of implants were issued. No studies to date have been reported for otologic implants within a 3-T magnetic resonance field, nor have there been comparisons with a 1.5-T field strength. Eighteen commonly used middle ear implants and prostheses were selected. In Part 1, the prostheses were placed in Petri dishes and exposed to a 3-T magnetic resonance field. In Part 2, the particular prostheses that showed movement in Part 1 were placed into their intended use positions within temporal bone laboratory specimens and exposed to a 3-T field. Both parts were repeated in a 1.5-T field. In Part 1, three prostheses moved dramatically from their start positions when exposed to the 3-T magnetic resonance field. In Part 2, the three particular prostheses that showed movement in Part 1 showed no gross displacement or movement from their start positions within the temporal bone laboratory specimens. No implants moved in the 1.5-T field in either Part 1 or Part 2. Certain stapes prostheses move dramatically in Petri dishes in 3-T fields. When placed into temporal bone laboratory specimens, the same prostheses show no signs of movement from the surgical site in a 3-T field, and it appears that the surgical position holds the implants firmly in place. Results of published 1.5-T field studies should not be used directly for safety recommendations in a 3-T magnetic resonance. Heat, voltage induction, and vibration during exposure to the magnetic resonance fields should be considered as additional possible safety issues. Preference should be given to platinum and titanium implants in manufacturing processes and surgical selection.

  10. Resonance analysis of a high temperature piezoelectric disc for sensitivity characterization.

    PubMed

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N; Bond, Leonard J

    2018-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for high temperature (200 °C+) applications are a key enabling technology for advanced nuclear power systems and in a range of chemical and petro-chemical industries. Design, fabrication and optimization of such transducers using piezoelectric materials remains a challenge. In this work, experimental data-based analysis is performed to investigate the fundamental causal factors for the resonance characteristics of a piezoelectric disc at elevated temperatures. The effect of all ten temperature-dependent piezoelectric constants (ε 33 , ε 11 , d 33 , d 31 , d 15 , s 11 , s 12 , s 13 , s 33 , s 44 ) is studied numerically on both the radial and thickness mode resonances of a piezoelectric disc. A sensitivity index is defined to quantify the effect of each of the temperature-dependent coefficients on the resonance modes of the modified lead zirconium titanate disc. The temperature dependence of s 33 showed highest sensitivity towards the thickness resonance mode followed by ε 33 , s 11 , s 13 , s 12 , d 31 , d 33 , s 44 , ε 11 , and d 15 in the decreasing order of the sensitivity index. For radial resonance modes, the temperature dependence of ε 33 showed highest sensitivity index followed by s 11 , s 12 and d 31 coefficient. This numerical study demonstrates that the magnitude of d 33 is not the sole factor that affects the resonance characteristics of the piezoelectric disc at high temperatures. It appears that there exists a complex interplay between various temperature dependent piezoelectric coefficients that causes reduction in the thickness mode resonance frequencies which is found to be agreement in with the experimental data at an elevated temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of active temperature compensated composite free-free beam MEMS resonators in a standard process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xereas, George; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency references are used in almost every modern electronic device including mobile phones, personal computers, and scientific and medical instrumentation. With modern consumer mobile devices imposing stringent requirements of low cost, low complexity, compact system integration and low power consumption, there has been significant interest to develop batch-manufactured MEMS resonators. An important challenge for MEMS resonators is to match the frequency and temperature stability of quartz resonators. We present 1MHz and 20MHz temperature compensated Free-Free beam MEMS resonators developed using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial multi-user process available from MEMSCAP. We introduce a novel temperature compensation technique that enables high frequency stability over a wide temperature range. We used three strategies: passive compensation by using a structural gold (Au) layer on the resonator, active compensation through using a heater element, and a Free-Free beam design that minimizes the effects of thermal mismatch between the vibrating structure and the substrate. Detailed electro-mechanical simulations were performed to evaluate the frequency response and Quality Factor (Q). Specifically, for the 20MHz device, a Q of 10,000 was obtained for the passive compensated design. Finite Element Modeling (FEM) simulations were used to evaluate the Temperature Coefficient of frequency (TCf) of the resonators between -50°C and 125°C which yielded +0.638 ppm/°C for the active compensated, compared to -1.66 ppm/°C for the passively compensated design and -8.48 ppm/°C for uncompensated design for the 20MHz device. Electro-thermo-mechanical simulations showed that the heater element was capable of increasing the temperature of the resonators by approximately 53°C with an applied voltage of 10V and power consumption of 8.42 mW.

  12. Fast 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting for a whole-brain coverage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra; Mehta, Bhairav; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate the acquisition and reconstruction time of 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scans. A 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan was accelerated by using a single-shot spiral trajectory with an undersampling factor of 48 in the x-y plane, and an interleaved sampling pattern with an undersampling factor of 3 through plane. Further acceleration came from reducing the waiting time between neighboring partitions. The reconstruction time was accelerated by applying singular value decomposition compression in k-space. Finally, a 3D premeasured B 1 map was used to correct for the B 1 inhomogeneity. The T 1 and T 2 values of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology MRI phantom showed a good agreement with the standard values, with an average concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99, and coefficient of variation of 7% in the repeatability scans. The results from in vivo scans also showed high image quality in both transverse and coronal views. This study applied a fast acquisition scheme for a fully quantitative 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan with a total acceleration factor of 144 as compared with the Nyquist rate, such that 3D T 1 , T 2 , and proton density maps can be acquired with whole-brain coverage at clinical resolution in less than 5 min. Magn Reson Med 79:2190-2197, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Electro-optic guided-mode resonance tuning suppressible by optically induced screening in a vertically coupled hybrid GaN/Si microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thubthimthong, B.; Sasaki, T.; Hane, K.

    2018-02-01

    GaN as a nanophotonic material has gained much attention in recent years. Using the hybrid GaN/Si platform, we report the electro-optic tuning of guided-mode resonance in a vertically coupled hybrid GaN/Si microring resonator operating in the 1.5 μm window with up to a 6 dB extinction ratio and a 1.5 MHz modulation frequency (test equipment limit). The electro-optic tuning could be optically suppressed by electron-hole-originated screening induced by an ultraviolet excitation at 325 nm. Our work may benefit in externally intervenable optical interconnects for uninterrupted secure photonic networks.

  14. Stochastic P-bifurcation and stochastic resonance in a noisy bistable fractional-order system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. H.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Liu, H. G.; Litak, G.; Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the stochastic response of a noisy bistable fractional-order system when the fractional-order lies in the interval (0, 2]. We focus mainly on the stochastic P-bifurcation and the phenomenon of the stochastic resonance. We compare the generalized Euler algorithm and the predictor-corrector approach which are commonly used for numerical calculations of fractional-order nonlinear equations. Based on the predictor-corrector approach, the stochastic P-bifurcation and the stochastic resonance are investigated. Both the fractional-order value and the noise intensity can induce an stochastic P-bifurcation. The fractional-order may lead the stationary probability density function to turn from a single-peak mode to a double-peak mode. However, the noise intensity may transform the stationary probability density function from a double-peak mode to a single-peak mode. The stochastic resonance is investigated thoroughly, according to the linear and the nonlinear response theory. In the linear response theory, the optimal stochastic resonance may occur when the value of the fractional-order is larger than one. In previous works, the fractional-order is usually limited to the interval (0, 1]. Moreover, the stochastic resonance at the subharmonic frequency and the superharmonic frequency are investigated respectively, by using the nonlinear response theory. When it occurs at the subharmonic frequency, the resonance may be strong and cannot be ignored. When it occurs at the superharmonic frequency, the resonance is weak. We believe that the results in this paper might be useful for the signal processing of nonlinear systems.

  15. Room temperature, very sensitive thermometer using a doubly clamped microelectromechanical beam resonator for bolometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: zhangya@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Watanabe, Y.; Hosono, S.

    We propose a room temperature, all electrical driving and detecting, very sensitive thermometer structure using a microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonator for bolometer applications. We have fabricated a GaAs doubly clamped MEMS beam resonator whose oscillation can be excited and detected by the piezoelectric effect. When a heating power is applied to a NiCr film deposited on the MEMS beam surface, internal thermal stress is generated in the beam, leading to a reduction in the resonance frequency. The present device detects the shift in the resonance frequency caused by heating and works as a very sensitive thermometer. When the resonator was drivenmore » by a voltage slightly below the threshold for the nonlinear, hysteretic oscillation, the thermometer showed a voltage responsivity of about 3300 V/W, while keeping a low noise spectral density of about 60 nV/Hz{sup 1/2}, demonstrating a noise equivalent power of <20 pW/Hz{sup 1/2} even at room temperature. The observed effect can be used for realizing high-sensitivity terahertz bolometers for room-temperature operation.« less

  16. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOEpatents

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  17. Resonant and Inelastic Andreev Tunneling Observed on a Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Gramich, J; Baumgartner, A; Schönenberger, C

    2015-11-20

    We report the observation of two fundamental subgap transport processes through a quantum dot (QD) with a superconducting contact. The device consists of a carbon nanotube contacted by a Nb superconducting and a normal metal contact. First, we find a single resonance with position, shape, and amplitude consistent with the theoretically predicted resonant Andreev tunneling (AT) through a single QD level. Second, we observe a series of discrete replicas of resonant AT at a separation of ~145 μeV, with a gate, bias, and temperature dependence characteristic for boson-assisted, inelastic AT, in which energy is exchanged between a bosonic bath and the electrons. The magnetic field dependence of the replica's amplitudes and energies suggest that two different bosons couple to the tunnel process.

  18. Method and apparatus for sensing a target characteristic by measuring both impedance and resonant frequency of a tank circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskowski, Edward L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for sensing a target characteristic, such as relative distance between the apparatus and target, target thickness, target material, or lateral position between the apparatus and the target, includes a coil for directing an electro-magnetic field at the target. A voltage controlled oscillator energizes the coil at a resonant frequency which is functionally related to the target characteristic. The coil has an effective impedance value at resonance functionally related to the target characteristic. A frequency monitor measures the resonant frequency. An impedance monitor determines the impedance value when the drive frequency is at the resonant value. A PROM or controller determines the target characteristic in response to the measured resonant frequency and the determined impedance value. The PROM or controller provides a signal responsive to the determined target characteristic.

  19. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  20. Clinical implications of a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging based nomogram applied to prostate cancer active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Truong, Hong; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Stamatakis, Lambros; Logan, Jennifer; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Simon, Richard M; Pinto, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging may be beneficial in the search for rational ways to decrease prostate cancer intervention in patients on active surveillance. We applied a previously generated nomogram based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to predict active surveillance eligibility based on repeat biopsy outcomes. We reviewed the records of 85 patients who met active surveillance criteria at study entry based on initial biopsy and who then underwent 3.0 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging with subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion guided prostate biopsy between 2007 and 2012. We assessed the accuracy of a previously published nomogram in patients on active surveillance before confirmatory biopsy. For each cutoff we determined the number of biopsies avoided (ie reliance on magnetic resonance imaging alone without rebiopsy) over the full range of nomogram cutoffs. We assessed the performance of the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging active surveillance nomogram based on a decision to perform biopsy at various nomogram generated probabilities. Based on cutoff probabilities of 19% to 32% on the nomogram the number of patients who could be spared repeat biopsy was 27% to 68% of the active surveillance cohort. The sensitivity of the test in this interval was 97% to 71% and negative predictive value was 91% to 81%. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging based nomograms may reasonably decrease the number of repeat biopsies in patients on active surveillance by as much as 68%. Analysis over the full range of nomogram generated probabilities allows patient and caregiver preference based decision making on the risk assumed for the benefit of fewer repeat biopsies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.