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Sample records for a-007 topical gel

  1. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  2. A novel lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel for topical ocular anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, HR; Reichel, E; Busbee, BG

    2010-01-01

    Topical anesthetics play an important role in the practice of ophthalmology, both for procedures in the office and in the operating room. The need for safe, long-acting topical ocular anesthetic agents is ongoing, and has been highlighted by the increase of intravitreal administration of pharmacologic agents. Current practices for ocular anesthesia include subconjunctival injection of 2% aqueous lidocaine, topical 2% lidocaine drops and topical 0.5% tetracaine. Tetracaine is not yet FDA approved, and is associated with corneal epithelial toxicity and delayed epithelial healing after multiple administrations. Lidocaine jelly (2%) preparations have been reported to be beneficial in several systemic procedures, including those of the upper airway, dental, urogenital, and gastrointestinal. It has been theorized, and recent studies support the idea, that gel formulations of lidocaine may enhance anesthetic effect, and therefore be superior to anesthetic solutions for topical cataract surgery. The viscous nature of gel formulations is thought to lengthen contact time, resulting in better anesthesia at lower drug concentrations. Furthermore, several studies suggest that lidocaine is bactericidal and bacteriostatic, and may have a supplementary role in preventing and treating surgical site infections. Akten™, lidocaine 3.5% gel (Akorn, Buffalo Grove, IIlinois) was FDA approved for all ophthalmic procedures in October 2008. This gel is a preservative-free, lidocaine-based anesthetic gel consisting of 35 mg/mL of lidocaine hydrochloride. We describe the properties, including chemical structure, indications, evidence of support, use, adverse effects, and precautions, which we believe enable Akten to provide superior anesthesia, while minimizing side effects. PMID:22915870

  3. Prevention of postsurgical scars: comparsion of efficacy and convenience between silicone gel sheet and topical silicone gel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue-Min; Choi, Jung-Sik; Lee, Jung-Ho; Kim, Young-Jin; Jun, Young-Joon

    2014-11-01

    To date, few studies have compared the effectiveness of topical silicone gels versus that of silicone gel sheets in preventing scars. In this prospective study, we compared the efficacy and the convenience of use of the 2 products. We enrolled 30 patients who had undergone a surgical procedure 2 weeks to 3 months before joining the study. These participants were randomly assigned to 2 treatment arms: one for treatment with a silicone gel sheet, and the other for treatment with a topical silicone gel. Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) scores were obtained for all patients; in addition, participants completed scoring patient questionnaires 1 and 3 months after treatment onset. Our results reveal not only that no significant difference in efficacy exists between the 2 products but also that topical silicone gels are more convenient to use. While previous studies have advocated for silicone gel sheets as first-line therapies in postoperative scar management, we maintain that similar effects can be expected with topical silicone gel. The authors recommend that, when clinicians have a choice of silicone-based products for scar prevention, they should focus on each patient's scar location, lifestyle, and willingness to undergo scar prevention treatment.

  4. Evaluation of hyaluronan gel (Gengigel(®) ) as a topical applicant in the treatment of gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Sapna, Nadiger; Vandana, Kharidi Laxman

    2011-08-01

      To clinically and histopathologically evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of 0.2% hyaluronan gel alone and with mechanical therapy on gingivitis. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining technique was attempted to routinely determine its diagnostic and prognostic dependability for periodontal lesions.   In each of the 28 gingivitis patients, the four quadrants were subjected to different treatments: scaling, scaling + topical hyaluronan gel, only topical hyaluronan gel, and topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, and on days 7, 14, and 21. Biopsies were taken from each quadrant, inflammatory infiltrates were graded, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count was measured before and after treatment.   A significant reduction was seen in clinical parameters, inflammatory infiltrates, and the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count within the groups. The effect of topical + intrasulcular gel was equivalent to scaling (P > 0.05). Topical + intrasulcular hyaluronan gel application demonstrated a better reduction than topical hyaluronan gel alone.   Hyaluronan gel is an effective topical agent for treating gingivitis, along with scaling and intrasulcular application. The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count can be used as a histopathological indicator in cases of non-responsive gingivitis to assess the severity of gingival inflammation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Lidocaine gel versus combined topical anesthesia using bupivacaine, oxybuprocaine and diclofenac eyedrops in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Thill, Michelle; Zeitz, Oliver; Richard, Ines; Richard, Gisbert

    2005-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of two topical anesthesia regimes for cataract surgery. 21 patients received a combination of 4 times bupivacaine 0.5, oxybuprocaine and diclofenac eyedrops, 18 patients were given a single topical application of lidocaine gel 2%. A single intracameral injection of lidocaine 1% was administered to all subjects. The extent to which the surgeon was bothered by patient motility was graded as low in about two thirds of all procedures. Patients reported lower intraoperative pain levels with a single application of lidocaine gel supplemented with intracameral lidocaine than with a fourfold application of the combination topical anesthesia plus intracameral anesthesia. A single application of lidocaine gel 2% combined with intracameral anesthesia provides at least as good analgesia than multiple administration of combined topical anesthesia supplemented with intracameral anesthesia and is equally safe.

  6. A comparison of a refrigerant and a topical anesthetic gel as preinjection anesthetics: a clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kosaraju, Amar; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2009-01-01

    The authors used a split-mouth design to determine the effectiveness of a refrigerant compared with that of a topical anesthetic gel in reducing the pain experienced during a posterior palatal anesthetic injection. Sixteen participants received a five-second application of a refrigerant (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane/1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) and a two-minute application of a topical anesthetic gel (20 percent benzocaine gel) in the posterior palatal area before an injection of a local anesthetic solution was administered with a 30-gauge needle. Participants rated the pain they experienced after each injection by using a 100-millimeter visual analog scale (VAS) with endpoints of "no pain" and "worst possible pain." The authors calculated VAS scores by measuring the distance in millimeters from the no pain end of the scale. They analyzed data with a paired t test (alpha = .05). The group receiving the refrigerant had a mean VAS score of 17.7 +/- 15.3 mm, and the group receiving the topical anesthetic gel had a VAS score of 26.2 +/- 18.0 mm. The use of the refrigerant compared with the use of topical anesthetic gel significantly reduced the pain experienced during administration of local anesthetic injections (P = .02). The use of a refrigerant as a preinjection anesthetic was more effective compared with the use of a topical anesthetic gel in reducing the pain experienced by participants who received a posterior palatal injection. The potential benefits of using a refrigerant rather than a topical anesthetic gel are pain reduction, decreased application time, ease of application and avoidance of displeasing taste.

  7. Diacerein niosomal gel for topical delivery: development, in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Say, Khalid M; Abd-Allah, Fathy I; Lila, Ahmed E; Hassan, Abd El-Saboor A; Kassem, Alaa Eldin A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to load diacerein (DCR) in niosomes by applying response surface methodology and incorporate these niosomes in gel base for topical delivery. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of charge-inducing agent (X1), surfactant HLB (X2) and sonication time (X3) on the vesicle size (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and cumulative drug released (Y3). DCR niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method. The optimized formula was incorporated in different gel bases. DCR niosomal gels were evaluated for homogeneity, rheological behavior; in vitro release and pharmacodynamic activity by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method in the rat compared with DCR commercial gel. The results revealed that the mean vesicle sizes of the prepared niosomes ranged from 7.33 to 23.72 µm and the entrapment efficiency ranged from 9.52% to 58.43% with controlled release pattern over 8 h. DCR niosomal gels exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic behavior. The pharmacodynamic activity of DCR niosomal gel in 3% HPMC showed significant, 37.66%, maximum inhibition of edema size in comparison with 20.83% for the commercial gel (p < 0.05). These results recommended the incorporation of DCR niosomes in 3% HPMC for topical application as a potent anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  8. Evaluation of β-blocker gel and effect of dosing volume for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chantasart, Doungdaw; Li, S Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Although topical administration of β-blockers is desired because of the improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced systemic adverse effects compared with systemic administration in the treatment of infantile hemangioma, the permeation of β-blockers across skin under finite dose conditions has not been systematically studied and an effective topical β-blocker formulation for skin application is not available. The present study evaluated the permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, and timolol across human epidermal membrane (HEM) from a topical gel in Franz diffusion cells in vitro under various dosing conditions. The effects of occlusion and dosing volume on percutaneous absorption of β-blockers from the gel were studied. The permeation data were compared with those of finite dose diffusion theory. The results showed that skin permeation of β-blockers generally could be enhanced two to three times by skin occlusion. The cumulative amounts of β-blockers permeated across HEM increased with increasing dosing volume. An adequate fit was obtained between the theoretical curve and experimental permeation data, indicating that the experimental results of the gel are consistent with finite dose diffusion theory. In conclusion, the findings suggest the feasibility of using topical gels of β-blockers for infantile hemangioma treatment and topical application with skin occlusion is preferred. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Iraji, Fariba; Sadeghinia, Ali; Shahmoradi, Zabiholahi; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Jooya, Abolfazl

    2007-01-01

    Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI) were recorded and compared using Student's t-test. Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P = 0.002). ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P = 0.001), i.e, azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  10. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p < .001, 70% achieving normal T-levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  11. Analgesic effect of topical oral capsaicin gel in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of repeated topical application of oral capsaicin gel in two different concentrations for relief of burning/stinging sensations in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This randomized double-blind cross-over study included 22 female patients with BMS. The patients were randomized for topical application of either 0.01% or 0.025% oral capsaicin gel on the dorsal part of tongue three times daily for 14 days, followed by 14 days wash-out period, and finally treatment with the other concentration of oral gel three times daily for 14 days. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the severity of pain five times during the intervention period. 18 patients completed the intervention. Their VAS score at baseline was 5.5 ± 0.6 cm (mean ± SD). Treatment with the two concentrations of capsaicin gels significantly improved the burning/stinging symptoms assessed on VAS compared with baseline (p = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference between the two concentrations of the gels on relieving symptoms. Four patients dropped out during the intervention period due to gastrointestinal side-effects. Topical capsaicin might be an alternative for the short-term treatment of BMS. However, further studies are needed to investigate especially the gastro-intestinal side-effects which may limit its long-term use.

  12. Topical Colchicine Gel versus Diclofenac Sodium Gel for the Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Elahipoor, Azam; Iraji, Fariba; Behfar, Shadi; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs), a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated in terms of their lesion size, treatment complications, and recurrence at 7, 30, 60, and 120 days after treatment. Results. The mean of changes in the size was significant in both groups both before and after treatment (<0.001). The mean lesion size before treatment and at 30, 60, and 120 days was not different between the two groups (p > 0.05). No case of erythema was seen in the colchicine group, while erythema was seen in 22.9% (eight cases) of patients in the diclofenac sodium group (p = 0.005). Conclusions. 1% colchicine gel was a safe and effective medication with fewer side effects and lack of recurrence of the lesion.

  13. The influence of topical application of grapeseed extract gel on enamel surface hardness after demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragih, D. A.; Herda, E.; Triaminingsih, S.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of topical application of 6.5% and 12.5% grapeseed extract gels for duration of application 16 and 32 minutes on the enamel surface hardness following tooth demineralization by an energy drink. The samples were 21 bovine teeth that underwent demineralization by immersion in the energy drink for 5 minutes in an incubator at 37°C. The demineralized specimens were randomly divided into a control group and 2 treatment groups. The control group was immersed in artificial saliva for 6 hours at 37°C, whereas the treatment groups were treated with topical 6.5% and 12.5% grapeseed extract gels for durations of 16 and 32 minutes and then immersed in artificial saliva for 6 hours at 37°C. The hardness was measured with a Knoop hardness tester. Statistical analysis by repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA revealed a significant increase in the enamel hardness value (p<0.05) after the application of the topical grapeseed extract gels at both concentrations. Application of 12.5% topical grapeseed extract gel for 32 minutes resulted in a restored hardness that insignificant diffrence from the initial hardness value obtained before demineralization (p>0.05).

  14. Piercing Ear Keloid: Excision Using Loupe Magnification and Topical Liquid Silicone Gel as Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Bellam A.; Mohan, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Keloid is an abnormal growth of scar at the site of skin injury, which usually does not regress. It proliferates beyond the original scar. The ear keloid usually develops after piercing injury to wear ornaments. A patient usually asks for removal of keloid, as it is aesthetically unpleasant. Patient may sometimes complain of itching and pain. Aim: The study was conducted to analyze results following excision of keloid with its tract and topical silicone gel as the postsurgical adjuvant. Materials and Methods: Ear keloids measuring less than 0.5cm or more than 5cm in maximum dimension were excluded from the study. Nonpiercing causes such as burns, trauma, and recurrent keloid were excluded from the study. The study was carried out on 22 patients who had keloid because of piercing injury, including 4 cases with both ear keloids. Of 26 ear keloids, 19 had the tract or connecting tissue. The lesion was excised under anesthesia using magnification. For all the operated cases, topical liquid silicone gel was used as postsurgical adjuvant therapy. The method of application of topical silicone gel was taught to each patient and was considered significant. Result: The magnification helped in identification of tract in 73% of the cases in this study. Twenty patients had successfully responded to proposed treatment, and two patients developed recurrence while using topical silicone gel as the adjuvant. These two patients were managed with conventional triamcinolone injection. Conclusion: The topical silicone gel as postsurgical adjuvant therapy avoided the use of painful postsurgical injection or radiotherapy for the 1–3cm primary ear keloids. The advantages of magnification were better clearance of keloid tissue, easier identification of tract and removal of keloid pseudopods, meticulous suturing, and comfortable elevation of a small local flap. PMID:29731586

  15. Microemulsion and Microemulsion-Based Gels for Topical Antifungal Therapy with Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Boonme, Prapaporn; Kaewbanjong, Jarika; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Andreani, Tatiana; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2016-01-01

    Skin fungal infections are regular injuries suffered by people living in tropical areas. Most common pathogens are Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton which can cause skin lesions in many parts of body. Topical antifungal phytochemicals are commonly used to avoid systemic adverse events and are more convenient for patient application than those administered by other routes. However, the effectiveness of topical treatments in eradicating fungal infection is more limited since the stratum corneum acts as the skin barrier, resulting in long treatment duration and low patient's compliance. The goal of this work is to identify optimized drug delivery systems to improve topic clinical efficacy. Microemulsions i.e. liquid dispersions of oil and water stabilized with an interfacial film of surfactant are well known drug delivery systems. A thickening agent may be included to form microemulsion-based gels to increase skin adhesion. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can be loaded with several hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs because they are composed of both water and oil phases. Microemulsions and microemulsion-based gels can also be used for the delivery of many drugs including antifungal drugs through stratum corneum due to their capacity to act as skin penetration enhancement. In addition to a comprehensive review of microemulsion and microemulsion-based gels as suitable carriers for skin delivery of various antifungal drugs, this review also aims to discuss the delivery of antifungal phytochemicals.

  16. Rosemary Essential Oil-Loaded Lipid Nanoparticles: In Vivo Topical Activity from Gel Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Lucia; Zappalà, Agata; Parenti, Carmela

    2017-01-01

    Although rosemary essential oil (EO) shows many biological activities, its topical benefits have not been clearly demonstrated. In this work, we assessed the effects on skin hydration and elasticity of rosemary EO after topical application via gel vehicles in human volunteers. To improve its topical efficacy, rosemary EO was loaded into lipid nanoparticles (NLCs) consisting of cetyl palmitate as a solid lipid, and non-ionic surfactants. Such NLCs were prepared using different ratios of EO/solid lipid and those containing EO 3% w/w and cetyl pamitate 7% w/w were selected for in vivo studies, showing the best technological properties (small particle size, low polydispersity index and good stability). Gels containing free EO or EO-loaded NLCs were applied on the hand skin surface of ten healthy volunteers twice a day for one week. Skin hydration and elasticity changes were recorded using the instrument Soft Plus. Gels containing EO-loaded NLCs showed a significant increase in skin hydration in comparison with gels containing free EO. Skin elasticity increased, as well, although to a lesser extent. The results of this study point out the usefulness of rosemary EO-loaded NLCs for the treatment of cutaneous alterations involving loss of skin hydration and elasticity. PMID:29065483

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Creams and Gels Containing Metal Ions for Topical Application

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei X.; Alexander, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin infections occur commonly and often present therapeutic challenges to practitioners due to the growing concerns regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal strains. The antimicrobial properties of zinc sulfate and copper sulfate are well known and have been investigated for many years. However, the synergistic activity between these two metal ions as antimicrobial ingredients has not been evaluated in topical formulations. Objective. The aims of the present study were to (1) formulate topical creams and gels containing zinc and copper alone or in combination and (2) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of these metal ions in the formulations. Method. Formulation of the gels and creams was followed by evaluating their organoleptic characteristics, physicochemical properties, and in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Zinc sulfate and copper sulfate had a strong synergistic antibacterial activity in the creams and gels. The minimum effective concentration was found to be 3 w/w% for both active ingredients against the two tested microorganisms. Conclusions. This study evaluated and confirmed the synergistic in vitro antibacterial effect of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate in a cream and two gels. PMID:27885352

  18. Assessment of dermatopharmacokinetic approach in the bioequivalence determination of topical tretinoin gel products.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Nelson, Joel L; Corlett, Judy L; Shrivastava, Surendra P; Hare, Don B; Shah, Vinod P

    2003-05-01

    A new dermatopharmacokinetic (DPK) approach has been proposed for bioequivalence determination of topical drug products by comparing the drug content kinetics in stratum corneum. We sought to establish any correlation between clinical safety/efficacy and DPK approach in bioequivalence determination of tretinoin gel 0.025%. Tretinoin and isotretinoin were quantified in human volar forearm stratum corneum as a function of time with 3 tretinoin gel 0.025% products in 49 patients. Stratum corneum layers were harvested using multiple adhesive disks, which were subsequently extracted and quantified for both isomers by high-performance liquid chromatography. Products with similar composition and therapeutic equivalence were found bioequivalent, and products with different composition and clinical profiles were found bioinequivalent by DPK methodology. There is a direct correlation between DPK parameters in healthy patients and clinical safety/efficacy of tretinoin gel products in patients with acne. Data support the use of DPK parameters and methodology in the bioequivalence assessment of topical tretinoin gel products.

  19. Efficacy of topical diclofenac diethylamine gel in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Niethard, Fritz U; Gold, Morris S; Solomon, Gail S; Liu, Jiun-Min; Unkauf, Markus; Albrecht, Helmut H; Elkik, Francois

    2005-12-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac diethylamine gel, 1.16%, 4 g applied qid for 3 weeks to relieve the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients with OA of the knee washed out their OA medications for at least 5 drug half-lives. Patients with adequately high baseline pain scores were randomized to apply either double-blind active or placebo gel for 3 weeks. Acetaminophen (up to 2 g/day) was supplied as rescue medication. In a diary, patients recorded compliance to dosing and use of rescue medication and assessed daily pain on movement, spontaneous pain, and pain relief. At weekly site visits, patients completed the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index Questionnaire, which includes assessment of pain, stiffness, and physical function, and assessed pain intensity "right now." At the final visit, a global assessment of treatment efficacy was completed. Of 238 randomized patients, 237 were included in the intent to treat efficacy analysis. Treatments differed significantly for daily pain on movement at Day 5, and continued on most days through end of study. Peak differences were achieved in the second week. On the primary outcome, average pain on movement over Days 1-14, diclofenac gel was significantly superior to placebo gel. Scores for all 3 WOMAC indices for diclofenac gel treatment were significantly superior to placebo at Weeks 2 and 3. A significant difference was achieved on pain intensity "right now" at all 3 weeks. At the end of the study, patients rated diclofenac gel as significantly more effective in treating the pain of OA of the knee (p = 0.03) compared to placebo. There were no safety issues concerning adverse events or laboratory values. Diclofenac gel was effective and safe for relief of symptoms of OA of the knee over 3 weeks of dosing.

  20. UV-curable gel formulations: Potential drug carriers for the topical treatment of nail diseases.

    PubMed

    Kerai, Laxmi Valji; Hilton, Stephen; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2015-08-15

    Nail diseases are common, cause significant distress and treatments are far from successful. Our aim was to investigate the potential of UV-curable gels - currently used as cosmetics - as topical drug carriers for their treatment. These formulations have a long residence on the nail, which is expected to increase patient compliance and the success of topical therapy. The gels are composed of the diurethane dimethacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropiophenone, an antifungal drug (amorolfine HCl or terbinafine HCl) and an organic liquid (ethanol or NMP) as drug solvent. Following its application to a substrate and exposure to a UVA lamp for 2 min, the gel polymerises and forms a smooth, glossy and amorphous film, with negligible levels of residual monomers. No drug-polymer interactions were found and drug loading did not affect the film's properties, such as thickness, crystallinity and transition temperatures. In contrast, the organic solvent did influence the film's properties; NMP-containing films had lower glass transition temperatures, adhesion and water resistance than ethanol-based ones. Water-resistance being a desired property, ethanol-based formulations were investigated further for stability, drug release and ungual permeation. The films were stable under accelerated stability testing conditions. Compared to terbinafine, amorolfine was released to a greater extent, had a higher ungual flux, but a lower concentration in the nailplate. However, both drugs were present at considerably high levels in the nail when their MICs are taken into account. We thus conclude that UV-curable gels are promising candidates as topical nail medicines. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of 15% azelaic acid gel and 0.75% metronidazole gel in the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea: results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni E; Fleischer, Alan B; Pariser, David M

    2003-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel formulation of 15% azelaic acid gel (Finacea; Berlex Laboratories, Inc, Montville, NJ) with 0.75% metronidazole gel (MetroGel; Galderma Laboratories LP, Fort Worth, Tex) as topical therapy for moderate, papulopustular facial rosacea. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study. Thirteen US centers. A total of 251 patients with papulopustular rosacea with persistent erythema and telangiectasia. Patients were randomized to receive azelaic acid gel or metronidazole gel twice daily for 15 weeks. Nominal and percent change in inflammatory lesion count, change in erythema and telangiectasia severity ratings, investigator's global assessment of rosacea, and investigator's and patient's overall improvement ratings. Azelaic acid gel was superior to metronidazole gel in reduction of mean nominal lesion count (-12.9 vs -10.7, respectively) (P =.003) and mean percent decrease in inflammatory lesions (-72.7% vs -55.8%, respectively) (P<.001). With respect to erythema severity, 56% of azelaic acid gel-treated patients were rated improved vs 42% of metronidazole gel-treated patients (P =.02). The effectiveness of metronidazole gel on these variables seemed to plateau after week 8, whereas azelaic acid gel demonstrated progressive improvement through week 15. Neither treatment had a clinically appreciable effect on telangiectasia. Both the investigator's global assessment (P =.02) and overall assessment of improvement (P =.005) showed a significant therapeutic advantage for azelaic acid gel. Azelaic acid gel also scored higher on the patient's overall assessment of efficacy. Both treatments were rated as having high cosmetic acceptability. No serious or systemic treatment-related adverse events were reported in either group. Use of 15% azelaic acid gel twice daily for 15 weeks demonstrated significant superiority over using 0.75% metronidazole gel in improving principal signs of rosacea (inflammatory lesions and

  2. Ultrasonication-assisted preparation and characterization of emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay K; Behera, Baikuntha; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study describes the use of ultrasonication for the preparation of biphasic emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery. Sorbitan monostearate (SMS) was used as the surfactant for stabilizing the interface of sesame oil (apolar phase) and water (polar phase). Emulsions were formed at lower concentrations of SMS, whereas emulsion gels were formed at higher concentrations of SMS. The formulations were characterized by fluorescent microscopy, X-ray diffraction, viscosity, stress relaxation, spreadability, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Fluorescence microscopy suggested formation of oil-in-water type of formulations. There was an increase in the viscosity, bulk resistance, and firmness of the formulations as the proportions of SMS was increased. The emulsion gels were viscoelastic in nature. Thermal studies suggested higher thermodynamic stability at higher proportions of either SMS or water. Metronidazole, a model antimicrobial drug, was incorporated within the formulations. The release of the drug from the formulations was found to be diffusion mediated. The drug-loaded formulations showed sufficient antimicrobial efficiency to be used as carriers for topical antimicrobial drug delivery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of optimized oxybenzone microsponge gel for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Atmaram P; Gholap, Aditya P; Kuchekar, Ashwin B; Bothiraja, C; Mali, Ashwin J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oxybenzone, a broad spectrum sunscreen agent widely used in the form of lotion and cream, has been reported to cause skin irritation, dermatitis, and systemic absorption. Aim. The objective of the present study was to formulate oxybenzone loaded microsponge gel for enhanced sun protection factor with reduced toxicity. Material and Method. Microsponge for topical delivery of oxybenzone was successfully prepared by quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. The effects of ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane were optimized by the 3(2) factorial design. The optimized microsponges were dispersed into the hydrogel and further evaluated. Results. The microsponges were spherical with pore size in the range of 0.10-0.22 µm. The optimized formulation possesses the particle size and entrapment efficiency of 72 ± 0.77 µm and 96.9 ± 0.52%, respectively. The microsponge gel showed the controlled release and was nonirritant to the rat skin. In creep recovery test it had shown highest recovery indicating elasticity. The controlled release of oxybenzone from microsponge and barrier effect of gel result in prolonged retention of oxybenzone with reduced permeation activity. Conclusion. Evaluation study revealed remarkable and enhanced topical retention of oxybenzone for prolonged period of time. It also showed the enhanced sun protection factor compared to the marketed preparation with reduced irritation and toxicity.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Optimized Oxybenzone Microsponge Gel for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Atmaram P.; Gholap, Aditya P.; Kuchekar, Ashwin B.; Bothiraja, C.; Mali, Ashwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oxybenzone, a broad spectrum sunscreen agent widely used in the form of lotion and cream, has been reported to cause skin irritation, dermatitis, and systemic absorption. Aim. The objective of the present study was to formulate oxybenzone loaded microsponge gel for enhanced sun protection factor with reduced toxicity. Material and Method. Microsponge for topical delivery of oxybenzone was successfully prepared by quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. The effects of ethyl cellulose and dichloromethane were optimized by the 32 factorial design. The optimized microsponges were dispersed into the hydrogel and further evaluated. Results. The microsponges were spherical with pore size in the range of 0.10–0.22 µm. The optimized formulation possesses the particle size and entrapment efficiency of 72 ± 0.77 µm and 96.9 ± 0.52%, respectively. The microsponge gel showed the controlled release and was nonirritant to the rat skin. In creep recovery test it had shown highest recovery indicating elasticity. The controlled release of oxybenzone from microsponge and barrier effect of gel result in prolonged retention of oxybenzone with reduced permeation activity. Conclusion. Evaluation study revealed remarkable and enhanced topical retention of oxybenzone for prolonged period of time. It also showed the enhanced sun protection factor compared to the marketed preparation with reduced irritation and toxicity. PMID:25789176

  5. Photoacoustic study of percutaneous absorption of Carbopol and transdermic gels for topic use in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R. C. P.; de Paiva, R. F.; da Silva, M. D.; Barja, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Topical medicine application has been used to treat a good number of pathological processes. Its efficacy is associated to an efficient penetration of the drug in the internal skin layers, promoting systemic effects and excluding the possibility of drug degradation by the digestive tract and hepatic elimination. This work analyzes the penetration kinetics of two soluble bases employed as vehicles for topic application: superficial gel (Carbopol 940) and transdermic (transdermal) gel. Analysis was performed with the photoacoustic technique, based upon the absorption of modulated light by a sample with subsequent conversion of the absorbed energy in heat, generating acoustic waves in the air layer adjacent to the sample. Each of the two vehicles was evaluated through in vivo (human skin) and in vitro application. Measurements in vitro employed samples of VitroSkin (synthetic material with properties similar to those of real skin, employed in the pharmaceutical industry research). Results show that the permeation was faster for the transdermal gel, both for in vivo and in vitro measurements, indicating that in vitro measurements may be utilized in qualitative, comparative permeation studies.

  6. Lidocaine 20% patch vs lidocaine 5% gel for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bågesund, Mats; Tabrizi, Parisa

    2008-11-01

    Topical anaesthetics are important to provide pain control at dental injection. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intraoral topical anaesthetics lidocaine 20% patch (DentiPatch) and lidocaine 5% gel. The randomized unblinded cross-over study included 31 patients (ten boys, 21 girls) aged 13.5 +/- 2.5 years. Application of lidocaine patch or gel was randomly used at first and second visit in the upper premolar region. Heart rate was measured before and at each needle insertion after 2.5, 5, and 15 min and at injection after 15 min. Discomfort and pain were expressed in visual analogue scales (VAS). Paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistic analyses. Heart rate at buccal injection decreased more when the patch was used (P = 0.0149). Heart rate was lower at the second visit (P = 0.0287). Patients expressed less discomfort when the patch was used on both buccal (P = 0.0150) and palatal (P = 0.0391) site. Boys had lower heart rate and VAS pain scale ratings than girls. Good pain control can reduce the patients' anxiety level--expressed in heart rate--at the second appointment. The patch and gel seem to provide similar pain reduction at needle stick and injection of local anaesthetics.

  7. Bio-based topical system for enhanced salicylic acid delivery: preparation and performance of gels.

    PubMed

    Langasco, Rita; Spada, Gianpiera; Tanriverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Özer, Özgen; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    New salicylic acid (SA)-loaded gels were developed using excipients made from renewable materials, and our goal was to improve drug permeation in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. We studied the preparation parameters to obtain suitable gel formulations. Only naturally occurring polymers were used as gelling agents. Two hydrogels and three lipogels were selected and characterized in terms of drug loading, pH, viability cells, rheology, mechanical properties and in vitro permeation; these hydrogels and lipogels were compared with the traditional ointment. We also evaluated skin parameters before and after gel application. The formulations that we studied are non-Newtonian fluids; they have high drug loading and suitable mechanical properties. Lipogels exhibit a slower and more linear in vitro permeation profile compared with hydrogels. The different vehicles that we used affected drug permeation and improve patient compliance. Cytotoxicity studies suggest that all of the formulations are non-toxic. Lipogels demonstrate appropriate technological features and improved performance compared with the traditional ointment with regard to their composition. Lipogels may represent a new bio-based topical system for SA delivery. The use of 'green' excipients leads to 'skin-friendly' formulations that are able to satisfy environmental safety. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Severe methemoglobinemia linked to gel-type topical benzocaine use: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Nam-Young; Batra, Rajni; Itzkevitch, Myrzia; Boruchov, Donna; Baldauf, Mary

    2010-06-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of tissue hypoxia, but it can be life threatening if it is not identified and treated promptly. To highlight the importance of understanding the potential risks of over-the-counter medications, especially in unsupervised use. Topical benzocaine must be used with caution, even in the healthy population. We report a case of methemoglobinemia secondary to topical benzocaine gel. A 6-year-old boy presented to our Pediatric Emergency Department with cyanosis, vomiting, and lethargy after using a gel-type, 7.5% benzocaine (Baby Orajel) for a toothache. Physical examination revealed dusky blue skin, tachycardia, tachypnea, and a normal neurologic examination. His percutaneous oxygen saturation remained 77-83% despite the administration of 100% oxygen. His arterial blood sample had a dark chocolate color appearance, and methemoglobinemia was suspected. His methemoglobin level was 69.9%, which is considered a lethal level. After a single dose of methylene blue (1 mg/kg/dose), cyanosis was reduced and oxygenation improved. Over-the-counter topical benzocaine should be used with caution, and the presence of methemoglobinemia must be promptly identified and treated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Topical adapalene gel 0.1% vs. isotretinoin gel 0.05% in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, D; Rigopoulos, D; Katsambas, A

    2002-09-01

    Topical application of isotretinoin and adapalene has proved effective in treating acne vulgaris. Both drugs demonstrate therapeutic advantages and less irritancy over tretinoin, the most widely used treatment for acne. They both act as retinoid agonists, but differ in their affinity profile for nuclear and cytosolic retinoic acid receptors. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene gel 0.1% and isotretinoin gel 0.05% in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, in a randomized open-label clinical trial. Eighty patients were enrolled and were instructed to apply adapalene gel 0.1% or isotretinoin gel 0.05% once daily over a 12-week treatment period. Efficacy determination included noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts by the investigator and global evaluation of improvement. Cutaneous tolerance was assessed by determining erythema, scaling and burning with pruritus. Adapalene and isotretinoin gels were highly effective in treating facial acne. Adapalene gel produced greater reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts than did isotretinoin gel, but differences between treatments were not statistically significant. Adapalene gel was significantly better tolerated than isotretinoin gel during the whole treatment period. The two gels studied demonstrated comparable efficacy. When adapalene and isotretinoin were compared, significantly lower skin irritation was noted with adapalene, indicating that adapalene may begin a new era of treatment with low-irritant retinoids.

  10. The effect of topical application of 0.15% ganciclovir gel on cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Noriko; Miyazaki, Dai; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Ohtani, Fumie; Kandori-Inoue, Michiko; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Sotozono, Chie; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Horikiri, Tomoko; Ueta, Mayumi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Ohashi, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and drug transfer of topical application of 0.15% ganciclovir (GCV) gel on cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis. This study is a multicentre, prospective, interventional case series. Seven eyes of seven immunocompetent patients diagnosed with CMV corneal endotheliitis, based on clinical manifestations and qualitative PCR, were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with topical applications of 0.15% GCV gel six times daily for 12 weeks without concomitant systemic GCV. Clinical evaluations and quantitative PCR of CMV were performed, and GCV concentrations in aqueous humour were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical improvement of coin-shaped lesions, other types of keratic precipitates, corneal oedema, and anterior chamber inflammation was confirmed at the 4-week visit in all seven eyes. The GCV treatment significantly decreased the CMV copy numbers (p<0.0001). After 12 weeks of treatment, six eyes recovered clear corneas with good vision, and endothelial function was well maintained. Detectable levels of GCV were confirmed in the aqueous humour of all the eyes. The mean GCV concentration in the anterior chamber was 162.0±202.4 ng/mL. The re-emergence of CMV without symptoms was observed in one eye with lower drug transfer. No side effects were observed. Clinical improvement and reduced CMV copy numbers in the aqueous humour were confirmed in the CMV corneal endotheliitis cases. Although the case numbers are limited and long-term follow-up is necessary, the topical application of 0.15% GCV gel appears to be a useful treatment option for CMV endotheliitis. UMIN000012435. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Naftifine Hydrochloride Gel 2%: An Effective Topical Treatment for Moccasin-Type Tinea Pedis.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F; Vlahovic, Tracey; Verma, Amit; Olayinka, Babajide; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-10-01

    Naftifine hydrochloride (naftifine) is a topical antifungal of the allylamine class, displaying fungicidal and fungistatic activity. Naftifine is generally used to treat interdigital tinea pedis; however, systemic therapy is often prescribed by healthcare providers for moccasin tinea pedis. Well-controlled clinical data on topical antifungal therapy for moccasin tinea pedis is limited. The objective of this analysis is to present data from two pooled randomized, vehicle-controlled studies that evaluated efficacy of once daily topical naftifine gel 2% and vehicle at end of treatment (week 2) and at 4 weeks post-treatment in subjects with moccasin tinea pedis. At visit 1, subjects were randomized to naftifine gel 2% or vehicle groups and subjects underwent baseline mycology culture, KOH, and symptom (erythema, scaling, and pruritus) severity grading. Naftifine gel 2% and vehicle treatment were applied once daily for 2 weeks and the subjects returned at weeks 2 and 6 for efficacy evaluation (mycology culture and grading of symptom severity). A total of 1174 subjects were enrolled with interdigital tinea pedis with or without moccasin infection. Of these subjects, 674 subjects had interdigital presentation while 500 subjects had moccasin infection in addition to the interdigital presentation. All 1174 subjects with interdigital presentation satisfied the inclusion criteria of a minimum of moderate erythema and scaling, and mild pruritus. Of the 500 subjects who had moccasin presentation, 380 satisfied the same inclusion criteria as mentioned above. Since data was analyzed as observed cases, between 337 and 349 subjects had data available for analysis of efficacy. Mycologic cure is defined as a negative dermatophyte culture and KOH, treatment effectiveness is defined as mycologic cure and symptom severity scores of 0 or 1, and complete cure is defined as mycologic cure and symptoms severity scores of 0. At week 6, the cure rates in the naftifine arm vs. the vehicle were

  12. Formulation of topical bioadhesive gel of aceclofenac using 3-level factorial design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Parhi, Rabinarayan; Garg, Anuj

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop bioadhesive topical gel of Aceclofenac with the help of response-surface approach. Experiments were performed according to a 3-level factorial design to evaluate the effects of two independent variables [amount of Poloxamer 407 (PL-407 = X1) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose K100 M (HPMC = X2)] on the bioadhesive character of gel, rheological property of gel (consistency index), and in-vitro drug release. The best model was selected to fit the data. Mathematical equation was generated by Design Expert® software for the model which assists in determining the effect of independent variables. Response surface plots were also generated by the software for analyzing effect of the independent variables on the response. Quadratic model was found to be the best for all the responses. Both independent variable (X1 and X2) were found to have synergistic effect on bioadhesion (Y1) but the effect of HPMC was more pronounced than PL-407. Consistency index was enhanced by increasing the level of both independent variables. An antagonistic effect of both independent variables was found on cumulative percentage release of drug in 2 (Y3) and 8 h (Y4). Both independent variables approximately equally contributed the antagonistic effect on Y3 whereas antagonistic effect of HPMC was more pronounced than PL-407. The effect of formulation variables on the product characteristics can be easily predicted and precisely interpreted by using a 3-level factorial experimental design and generated quadratic mathematical equations.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of timolol in aqueous humor sampled by microdialysis after topical administration of thermosetting gels.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gang; Ding, Ping-Tian; Zheng, Jun-Min; Lu, Wei-Yue

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a thermosetting gel-based formulation, the ocular pharmacokinetics of timolol was studied utilizing microdialysis sampling technique after topical administration. A linear microdialysis probe was characterized and implanted in the anterior chamber of a rabbit. Dialysate samples collected from the aqueous humor (AH) were directly injected into the HPLC system without any pre-treatment and no interference was observed in the blank sample. The measured in vitro recovery of the probe was 57.67%; however, the in vivo recovery significantly decreased to 16.78% when assessed by the retrodialysis method, which was used to calculate the timolol concentration in AH. Although in the initial 15 min the drug concentrations in AH were comparable to that of the timolol solution, increased Cmax and significantly improved ocular bioavailability were obtained for the gel. When sodium deoxycholate (DC) was incorporated in the gel as a penetration enhancer, a 2-fold increment in the ocular bioavailability was achieved with an increased Cmax and significantly suspended Tmax. The results demonstrated that microdialysis coupled to HPLC is a powerful tool to investigate the ocular pharmacokinetic, and hence facilitates the design of ophthalmic formulations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic method optimization for ondansetron assay in extemporaneous topical gel and in marketed products.

    PubMed

    Quamrun, Masuda; Mamoon, Rashid; Nasheed, Shams; Randy, Mullins

    2014-01-01

    The compounding and evaluation of ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate topical gel, 2.5% w/w, were conducted in this study. The gelling agent was Carbopol 940. Ethanol 70% in purified water was used to dissolve the drug and disperse the gelling agent. A gel was formed by adding drops of 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution. To assay this gel, we developed a simple and reproducible stability--indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. This method was validated for specificity, accuracy, and precision. The compounded gel was assayed in triplicate, and the average recovery was 98.3%. Ondansetron marketed products were analyzed for comparison with the compounded formulation. Assay, accuracy, and precision data of the compounded topical gel were comparable to the marketed products.

  15. Synergistically enhanced transdermal permeation and topical analgesia of tetracaine gel containing menthol and ethanol in experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Liu, Yi; Ye, Xun; Rong, Zheng-xing; Feng, Xue-mei; Jiang, Chan-bing; Chen, Hong-zhuan

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the synergistically enhanced percutaneous penetration and skin analgesia of tetracaine gel containing menthol and ethanol through experimental and clinical studies. Four anesthetic gels containing 4% tetracaine in carbomer vehicle named T-gel (containing no menthol or ethanol), 5%M/T-gel (containing 5% menthol), 70%E/T-gel (containing 70% ethanol, an optimal concentration for antiseptic), and 5%M+70%E/T-gel (containing both 5% menthol and 70% ethanol), respectively, were fabricated. The in vitro mouse skin permeation was investigated using a Franz diffusion cell. The mouse skin morphology was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The in vivo skin analgesic effect in mice was evaluated using the von Frey tests. To determine the efficacy of tetracaine gels for managing the pain in human volunteers, a paralleled, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial design combined with verbal pain scores (VPS) was performed. The combination of menthol and ethanol (5%M+70%E/T-gel) conferred significantly higher tetracaine diffusion across full-thickness mouse skin than 5%M/T-gel, 70%E/T-gel, and T-gel. The ultra structure changes of mouse skin stratum corneum treated with 5%M+70%E/T-gel were more marked compared with those of any other tetracaine gel. von Frey tests in mice showed a synergistically enhanced effect of menthol and ethanol on the analgesia of tetracaine gel. The mean VPS were significantly lower for volunteers treated with 5%M+70%E/T-gel than those receiving other gels or the EMLA cream. 5%M+70%E/T-gel possessed the shortest anesthesia onset time, the longest anesthesia duration and the strongest anesthesia efficacy. Seventy percent ethanol in 5%M+70%E/T-gel not only improved the analgesic efficacy of the tetracaine gel through synergistically enhanced percutaneous permeation with menthol but also served as an antiseptic agent keeping drug application site from infection. 5%M+70%E/T-gel is a potential

  16. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  17. Topical Application of a Silicone Gel Sheet with Verapamil Microparticles in a Rabbit Model of Hypertrophic Scar.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Tae-Jung; Yoo, Gyeol; Rhie, Jong Won; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Il-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The authors developed a novel treatment based on the topical application of a silicone gel sheet containing verapamil microparticles. The ability of these silicone gel sheets to inhibit hypertrophic scar in a rabbit ear wound model was examined. Ten New Zealand White rabbits with a total of 80 wounds in both ears were used in this study. The rabbits were divided into five groups (control; silicone gel sheet; and silicone gel sheet plus 0.25, 2.5, and 25 mg of verapamil per gram). Histopathologic findings were quantified. The mean scar elevation index, fibroblast counts, and capillary counts differed significantly among the five groups (p < 0.05). The median scar elevation index was significantly lower in the silicone gel sheet plus 2.5 mg of verapamil per gram group than in the silicone gel sheet group (1.2 versus 2.2). The median number of fibroblasts was significantly lower in the silicone gel sheet plus 0.25 mg of verapamil per gram group than in the silicone gel sheet group (172.5 versus 243). In the median number of capillary lumina, there was no significant difference between the silicone gel sheet group and the silicone gel sheet plus 0.25, 2.5, and 25 mg of verapamil per gram groups (28.5, 18, 20, and 18, respectively). Topical application of a silicone gel sheet with verapamil microparticles may be a novel, effective treatment method for hypertrophic scar, but its safety and efficacy in humans must be tested in clinical trials.

  18. Intranasal delivery of ciprofloxacin to rats: A topical approach using a thermoreversible in situ gel.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Oliveira, Paula; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2017-01-15

    Intranasal administration of antibiotics is an alternative and attractive delivery approach in the treatment of local infections such as chronic rhinosinusitis. This topical route has the advantage of delivering high drug concentrations directly to the site of infection when trying to eradicate the highly resistant bacterial biofilms. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin following intranasal and intravenous administrations to rats in plasma, olfactory bulb and nasal mucosa of two different nasal regions. For intranasal administration a thermoreversible in situ gel was used to increase drug residence time in nasal cavity. Ciprofloxacin concentration time-profile in nasal mucosa of the studied anterior region (at naso- and maxilloturbinates level) was markedly higher after intranasal administration (0.24mg/kg) than that following intravenous administration (10mg/kg), while in nasal mucosa of the more posterior region (at ethmoidal turbinates level) ciprofloxacin concentrations were found to be higher after intranasal administration when the different dose administered by both routes is taken into account. A plateau in ciprofloxacin concentration was observed in nasal mucosa of both studied regions after intranasal administration, suggesting a slow delivery of the drug over a period of time using the nasal gel formulation. In plasma and olfactory bulb, concentration of ciprofloxacin was residual after intranasal administration, which demonstrates this is a safe administration route by preventing systemic and particularly central nervous system adverse effects. Dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin exposure to nasal mucosa revealed higher values after intranasal delivery not only in the anterior region but also in the posterior nasal region. In conclusion, topical intranasal administration appears to be advantageous for delivering ciprofloxacin to the biophase, with negligible systemic

  19. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  1. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marinho, V C C; Higgins, J P T; Logan, S; Sheiham, A

    2003-01-01

    Topical fluoride therapy (TFT) in the form of varnish, gel, mouthrinse or toothpaste has been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. To determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride varnishes, gels, mouthrinses, and toothpastes in the prevention of dental caries in children and to examine factors potentially modifying their effect. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (May 2000), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2000), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2000), plus several other databases. We handsearched journals, reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials with blind outcome assessment, comparing fluoride varnish, gel, mouthrinse, or toothpaste with placebo or no treatment in children up to 16 years during at least 1 year. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (D(M)FS). Inclusion decisions, quality assessment and data extraction were duplicated in a random sample of one third of studies, and consensus achieved by discussion or a third party. Authors were contacted for missing data. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF) that is the difference in mean caries increments between the treatment and control groups expressed as a percentage of the mean increment in the control group. Random effects meta-analyses were performed where data could be pooled. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random effects metaregression analyses. There were 144 studies included. For the 133 that contributed data for meta-analysis (involving 65,169 children) the D(M)FS pooled prevented fraction estimate was 26% (95% CI, 24% to 29%; p < 0.0001). There was substantial heterogeneity, confirmed statistically (p < 0.0001), but the direction of effect was consistent. The effect of topical fluoride varied according to type of control group used

  2. Comparative effect of topical silicone gel and topical tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation and the improvement of scars.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S Y; Park, S D; Park, K

    2014-08-01

    Numerous modalities have been used to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars; however, optimal treatment has not yet been established. Therefore, prevention is the mainstay. Recently, silicone gel and tretinoin cream have been shown to be useful for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids. However, there has been no comparative study of the two topical agents thus far. To determine and compare the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from postoperative wounds and for scar improvement. This study included 26 patients with 44 different wounds. The postoperative wounds were divided into two treatment groups and one control group. The patients in the first and second treatment group applied silicone gel and tretinoin cream, respectively, twice a day on their wounds after their stitches were removed. In contrast, the control group patients did not apply anything. We used the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream just after stitches removal, and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after removal of the stitches. The silicone gel and tretinoin cream effectively prevented hypertrophic scars and keloids and improved scar effects in the two treatment groups compared with those in the control group. However, no significant difference was noted between the two treatment groups. To prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids and improve scars after surgery, application of a silicone gel or a tretinoin cream to the wounds is needed. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Pharmacodynamic activity of Dapivirine and Maraviroc single entity and combination topical gels for HIV-1 prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A.; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. Methods 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. Results The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm2/min1/2), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm2/min1/2). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. Conclusions The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention. PMID:26078001

  4. Pharmacodynamic Activity of Dapivirine and Maraviroc Single Entity and Combination Topical Gels for HIV-1 Prevention.

    PubMed

    Dezzutti, Charlene S; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R; Rohan, Lisa C

    2015-11-01

    Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm(2)/min(1/2)), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm(2)/min(1/2)). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention.

  5. Topical simvastatin gel as a novel therapeutic modality for palatal donor site wound healing following free gingival graft procedure.

    PubMed

    Madi, Marwa; Kassem, Abeer

    2018-04-01

    Autogenous soft-tissue grafting is a commonly used procedure nowadays in dentistry. However, the prolonged healing time needed for the donor site leads to increase the patient's pain and discomfort. Statin has been observed to be beneficial in reducing bacterial burden, improving epithelization and wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra-oral topical application of simvastatin/chitosan gel (10 mg/mL) over the palatal donor site following free gingival graft (FGG) procedure. Subjects indicated for FGG procedure were divided into four groups. Group I: Simvastatin suspension (S), group II: simvastatin/chitosan gel (SC), group III: chitosan gel (C), group IV: petroleum gel (P). Treatment was applied three times/day for the following 7 days. Wound healing was evaluated at day 3, 7 and 14 post-surgery. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the experienced discomfort at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days. Statistical significant reduction in wound-healing scores was observed after 3 and 7 days for group II compared to other groups (p  = .015). A significant reduction was also observed in VAS score for group II compared to other groups at day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Topical application of S/C gel could be used as a novel therapeutic modality that improved healing and reduced pain in the palatal donor site following FGG procedure.

  6. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel as a topical ocular anesthetic for use in ophthalmic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Page, Michael A; Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review the current literature on safety, efficacy, and measures of surgeon and patient satisfaction with lidocaine hydrochloride gel as a tool for ocular anesthesia. Methods: Pubmed search using keywords “lidocaine gel,” “ophthalmic,” and “surgery” and compiling cross-references. Twenty-six total references were reviewed, including 15 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs, total N = 933, average N = 62), 6 nonrandomized prospective studies (total N = 234, average N = 39), 2 animal studies, 1 microbiologic study, and 2 letters to the editor. Results: The RCTs and nonrandomized prospective studies evaluated a number of measures including timing of onset of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative pain, need for additional anesthetic applications, intracameral lidocaine levels, and adverse effects. Control groups received topical drops, subconjunctival anesthetic, retrobulbar anesthetic, or sham gel. Lidocaine gel was shown to be at least as effective for pain control as alternative therapies in all studies, with longer duration of action than topical drops. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high, and adverse effects were rare and comparable to those for anesthetic drop formulations. Surgical settings included cataract, pterygium, trabeculectomy, strabismus, intravitreal injection, vitrectomy, and penetrating keratoplasty. Conclusions: Lidocaine gel is a safe, effective, and potentially underutilized tool for ophthalmic surgery. PMID:19898665

  7. Novel isotretinoin microemulsion-based gel for targeted topical therapy of acne: formulation consideration, skin retention and skin irritation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mrunali R.; Patel, Rashmin B.; Parikh, Jolly R.; Patel, Bharat G.

    2016-04-01

    Isotretinoin was formulated in novel microemulsion-based gel formulation with the aim of improving its solubility, skin tolerability, therapeutic efficacy, skin-targeting efficiency and patient compliance. Microemulsion was formulated by the spontaneous microemulsification method using 8 % isopropyl myristate, 24 % Labrasol, 8 % plurol oleique and 60 % water as an external phase. All plain and isotretinoin-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for the desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of isotretinoin through rat skin from selected microemulsion formulation followed zero-order kinetics. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971 in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of isotretinoin, indicating its potential in improving topical delivery of isotretinoin. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne.

  8. A multicenter study of topical azelaic acid 15% gel in combination with oral doxycycline as initial therapy and azelaic acid 15% gel as maintenance monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, Diane M; Fleischer, Alan B; Del Rosso, James Q; Rich, Phoebe

    2009-07-01

    This two-phase, multicenter study was undertaken to examine the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with oral doxycycline and topical azelaic acid (AzA) 15% gel in moderate-to-severe papulopustular rosacea and to determine the effect of subsequent maintenance monotherapy with AzA 15% gel alone. In the initial open-label, non-randomized phase of the study, subjects (n=172) received topical AzA 15% gel and oral doxycycline (100 mg), both twice daily, for < or = 12 weeks. In the second, double-blind study phase, subjects who had initially undergone at least four weeks of combination treatment in phase 1 and who achieved > or = 75% inflammatory lesion count reduction (n=136) were randomized to receive either AzA 15% gel or its vehicle twice daily for an additional 24 weeks. Assessments of efficacy were obtained at four-week intervals throughout both phases of the study and included change in inflammatory lesion count, investigator global assessment (IGA) of rosacea severity, and separate assessments of erythema and telangiectasia severity. At the last visit for each phase of the study, the investigator and participant each rated overall improvement, with the participant rating cosmetic acceptability and the investigator rating treatment as "success" or "failure" based on IGA score. During the second phase of the trial, the rate of relapse -- defined as either a 50% deterioration in the lesion count improvement from phase 1, an increase in erythema intolerable to the subject or maintenance therapy failure as judged by the investigator and/or the subject -- was obtained. Safety assessments were conducted for both phases of the study and included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and a rating of cutaneous tolerability by the subject. By week 12 of the open-label phase of the study, 81.4% of subjects had reached a 75% or greater reduction in inflammatory lesion count, and 64% of patients achieved treatment success. During the second study phase (maintenance phase

  9. UV-curable gels as topical nail medicines:In vivo residence, anti-fungal efficacy and influence of gel components on their properties.

    PubMed

    Kerai, L V; Hilton, S; Maugueret, M; Kazi, B B; Faull, J; Bhakta, S; Murdan, S

    2016-11-30

    UV-curable gels, used as nail cosmetics for their in vivo durability, were reported to be promising as topical nail medicines. Our first aim was thus to investigate whether such durability applies to drug-loaded formulations. This was found to be true. However, ethanol inclusion in the pharmaceutical formulation (to enable drug loading) reduced the in vivo residence. The second aim was therefore to determine any other effects of ethanol, and if ethanol could be avoided by the choice of monomers. Thus, three methacrylate monomers, ethyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were selected, and their influence on the formulation properties were determined. Ethanol and the methacrylate monomer influenced some (but not all) of the formulation properties. The most significant was that HEMA could dissolve drug and enable the preparation of ethanol-free, drug-loaded formulations, which would benefit in vivo residence. The absence of ethanol reduced drug loading, release and ungual flux, but had no negative impact on the in vitro anti-fungal efficacy. Thus, judicious selection of gel components enabled the exclusion of ethanol. The long in vivo residence, little residual monomers, sufficient ungual permeation and in vitro anti-fungal activity of the gels indicates their potential as anti-onychomycotic topical medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel microemulsion-based gels for topical delivery of indomethacin: Formulation, physicochemical properties and in vitro drug release studies.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Anna; Osmałek, Tomasz; Snela, Agnieszka; Kunstman, Paweł; Jadach, Barbara; Olejniczak, Marta; Roszak, Grzegorz; Białas, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Microemulsion-based semisolid systems may be considered as an interesting alternative to the traditional dosage forms applied in topical drug delivery. Mechanical properties of topical products are important both in terms of application and dosage form effectiveness. In this study we designed and evaluated novel microemulsion-based gels with indomethacin and analyzed the factors affecting their mechanical characteristics and drug release. The impact of the microemulsion composition on the extent of isotropic region was investigated with the use of pseudoternary phase diagrams. Selected microemulsions were analyzed in terms of electrical conductivity and surface tension in order to determine the microemulsion type. Microemulsions were transformed into polymer-based gels and subjected to rheological and textural studies. Finally, the indomethacin release from the analyzed gels was studied and compared to commercially available product. The extent of isotropic domain in pseudoternary phase diagrams seems to be dependent on the polarity of the oil phase. The surface tension and conductivity monitored as a function of water content in microemulsion systems revealed possible structural transformations from w/o through bicontinuous systems into o/w. The mechanical properties of semisolid microemulsion-based systems depended on the composition of surface active agents and the drug presence. The drug release profiles observed in the case of the investigated gels differed from those recorded for the commercially available product which was most probably caused by the different structure of both systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Topical petrolatum gel alone versus topical silver sulfadiazine with standard gauze dressings for the treatment of superficial partial thickness burns in adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Genuino, Glenn Angelo S; Baluyut-Angeles, Kathrina Victoria; Espiritu, Andre Paolo T; Lapitan, Marie Carmela M; Buckley, Brian S

    2014-11-01

    Non-extensive superficial partial thickness burns constitute a major proportion of burns. Conventional treatment involves regular changing of absorptive dressings including the application of a topical antimicrobial, commonly silver sulfadiazine. A systematic review has found insufficient evidence to support or refute such antimicrobial prophylaxis. Another review compared silver sulfadiazine dressings with other occlusive and non-antimicrobial dressings and found insufficient evidence to guide practice. Other research has suggested that dressings with petrolatum gel are as effective as silver sulfadiazine. Single-center, randomized, controlled parallel group trial comparing conventional silver sulfadiazine dressings with treatment with petrolatum gel alone. Consenting adults 18-45 years old with superficial partial thickness burns≤10% total body surface area seen within 24h of the injury were randomized to daily dressing either with petrolatum gel without top dressings or conventional silver sulfadiazine treatment with gauze dressings. Primary outcomes were blinded assessment of time to complete re-epithelialization, wound infection or allergic contact dermatitis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of ease, time and pain of dressing changes. 26 patients were randomized to petrolatum and 24 to silver sulfadiazine dressings. Follow up data available for 19 in each group. Mean time to re-epithelialization was 6.2 days (SD 2.8) in the petrolatum group and 7.8 days (SD 2.1) in the silver sulfadiazine group (p=0.050). No wound infection or dermatitis was observed in either group. Scores for adherence to wound, ease of dressing removal and time required to change dressings were significantly better in the petrolatum treatment arm (p<0.01). Petrolatum gel without top dressings may be at least as effective as silver sulfadiazine gauze dressings with regard to time to re-epithelialization, and incidence of infection and allergic contact dermatitis. Petrolatum gel

  12. Temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel: an effective topical delivery system for simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Branka; Zvonar, Alenka; Falson, Francoise; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (ME)--nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants--have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins' release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.

  13. A Randomized Male Tolerance Study of Dapivirine Gel Following Multiple Topical Penile Exposures (MTN 012/IPM 010)

    PubMed Central

    Hoesley, Craig; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hendrix, Craig W.; Husnik, Marla; Levy, Lisa; Hall, Wayne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Nel, Annalene M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dapivirine (DPV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a favorable safety profile following vaginal application. A penile tolerance study was conducted prior to further development of DPV as a candidate vaginal microbicide. Twenty-four circumcised and 24 uncircumcised (N=48) healthy HIV-negative male participants aged 18 years or older were randomized 2:1:1 to apply DPV 0.05% gel, matched placebo gel, or universal placebo gel, respectively, to their penis once daily for 7 sequential days. The safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic profile of DPV 0.05% gel were assessed by the presence of Grade 2 or higher genitourinary adverse events (AEs) and systemic AEs, a behavioral questionnaire, and pharmacokinetic plasma blood draw, respectively, at the final clinic visit (FCV). There were no Grade 2 genitourinary AEs in 47 participants completing the FCV. One participant in the DPV arm failed to attend the FCV. There were 13 AEs reported; all were Grade 1 except one Grade 2 corneal laceration unrelated to study product. Participants liked the gel to a moderate extent, yet 72% reported they would be “very likely” to use a gel like the one they used in the study every time they have intercourse. DPV was detectable in plasma in all 23 DPV arm study participants at the FCV. On average, the circumcised participants' DPV concentrations were 54% of those in uncircumcised participants (p=0.07). Topical seven-day penile application of DPV 0.05% gel was locally and systemically safe, was acceptable to male participants, and resulted in systemic exposure to the drug. PMID:24070431

  14. A randomized male tolerance study of dapivirine gel following multiple topical penile exposures (MTN 012/IPM 010).

    PubMed

    Cranston, Ross D; Hoesley, Craig; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hendrix, Craig W; Husnik, Marla; Levy, Lisa; Hall, Wayne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Nel, Annalene M

    2014-02-01

    Dapivirine (DPV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a favorable safety profile following vaginal application. A penile tolerance study was conducted prior to further development of DPV as a candidate vaginal microbicide. Twenty-four circumcised and 24 uncircumcised (N=48) healthy HIV-negative male participants aged 18 years or older were randomized 2:1:1 to apply DPV 0.05% gel, matched placebo gel, or universal placebo gel, respectively, to their penis once daily for 7 sequential days. The safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic profile of DPV 0.05% gel were assessed by the presence of Grade 2 or higher genitourinary adverse events (AEs) and systemic AEs, a behavioral questionnaire, and pharmacokinetic plasma blood draw, respectively, at the final clinic visit (FCV). There were no Grade 2 genitourinary AEs in 47 participants completing the FCV. One participant in the DPV arm failed to attend the FCV. There were 13 AEs reported; all were Grade 1 except one Grade 2 corneal laceration unrelated to study product. Participants liked the gel to a moderate extent, yet 72% reported they would be "very likely" to use a gel like the one they used in the study every time they have intercourse. DPV was detectable in plasma in all 23 DPV arm study participants at the FCV. On average, the circumcised participants' DPV concentrations were 54% of those in uncircumcised participants (p=0.07). Topical seven-day penile application of DPV 0.05% gel was locally and systemically safe, was acceptable to male participants, and resulted in systemic exposure to the drug.

  15. Prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids by the prophylactic use of topical silicone gel sheets following a surgical procedure in an office setting.

    PubMed

    Gold, M H; Foster, T D; Adair, M A; Burlison, K; Lewis, T

    2001-07-01

    Topical silicone gel sheeting has been used for more than 20 years to help reduce the size of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Its clinical efficacy and safety is well established. To determine whether topical silicone gel sheeting can be used to prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids from forming following dermatologic skin surgery. Patients undergoing skin surgery were stratified into two groups: those with no history of abnormal scarring (low-risk group) and those with a history of abnormal scarring (high-risk group). Following the procedure, patients within each group were randomized to receive either routine postoperative care or topical silicone gel sheeting (48 hours after surgery). Patients were followed for 6 months. In the low-risk group, there were no statistical differences between individuals using routine postoperative care or using topical silicone gel sheets. In the high-risk group, there was a statistical difference (39% versus 71%) between patients who did not develop abnormal scars and used topical silicone gel sheeting and patients who developed abnormal scars after routine postoperative treatment. Those individuals having a scar revision procedure also showed a statistical difference if topical silicone gel sheeting was used following surgery. Topical silicone gel sheeting, with a 20-year history of satisfaction in dermatology, now appears to be useful in the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids in patients undergoing scar revision.

  16. Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Yuksel, Fuat; Ulkur, Ersin; Evinc, Rahmi

    2009-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of silicone gel (Scarfade), silicone gel sheet (Epi-Derm), and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin (Contractubex) for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Forty-five postburn scars were included in the study. Patients with scars less than 6 months from injury were assigned at random to three groups each containing 15 scars, and their treatment was continued for 6 months. Scars were treated with Scarfade, Epiderm and Contractubex. Scar assessment was performed at the beginning of the treatment, and at the end of the sixth month when the treatment was completed by using the Vancouver scar scale. The difference between before and after treatment scores for each three groups was statistically significant. The difference between Scarfade group and Epi-Derm group was not significant; however, the differences of the other groups (Scarfade-Contractubex, Epiderm-Contractubex) were significant. Silicone products, either in gel or sheet, are superior to Contractubex in the treatment of the hypertrophic scar. The therapist should select the most appropriate agent according to the patient's need and guidelines of these signs.

  17. Liposomal-benzocaine gel formulation: correlation between in vitro assays and in vivo topical anesthesia in volunteers.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Cereda, Cintia Maria Saia; Gaspari, Adele; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Narvaes, Eliene; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; de Paula, Eneida

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize a liposome-based benzocaine (BZC) formulation designed for topical use on the oral mucosa and to evaluate its in vitro retention and permeation using the Franz-type diffusion cells through pig esophagus mucosa. To predict the effectiveness of new designed formulations during preclinical studies, a correlation between in vitro assays and in vivo efficacy was performed. Liposomal BZC was characterized in terms of membrane/water partition coefficient, encapsulation efficiency, size, polydispersity, zeta potential, and morphology. Liposomal BZC (BL10) was incorporated into gel formulation and its performances were compared to plain BZC gel (B10) and the commercially available BZC gel (B20). BL10 and B10 presented higher flux and retention on pig esophagus mucosa with a shorter lag time, when compared to B20. BZC flux was strongly correlated with in vivo anesthetic efficacy, but not with topical anesthesia duration. The retention studies did not correlate with any of the in vivo efficacy parameters. Thus, in vitro permeation study can be useful to predict anesthetic efficacy during preclinical tests, because a correlation between flux and anesthetic efficacy was observed. Therefore, in vitro assays, followed by in vivo efficacy, are necessary to confirm anesthetic performance.

  18. Trends in gel dosimetry: Preliminary bibliometric overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s 1984 paper onwards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.

    2017-05-01

    John Gore’s seminal 1984 paper on gel dosimetry spawned a vibrant research field ranging from fundamental science through to clinical applications. A preliminary bibliometric study was undertaken of the gel dosimetry family of publications inspired by, and resulting from, Gore’s original 1984 paper to determine active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s paper up to and including 2016. Themes and trends of the gel dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for all relevant papers from 1984 to 2016. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualisation tool to generate cluster maps of gel dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics in gel dosimetry.

  19. Topical ketoprofen TDS patch versus diclofenac gel: efficacy and tolerability in benign sport related soft‐tissue injuries

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Francisco; Cobián, César; Jiménez, José Fernando; García‐Cota, Juan José; Sánchez, Carlos; SETRADE, Antonio Maestro and the working group for the acute pain study of

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the ketoprofen TDS patch with diclofenac gel in the treatment of traumatic acute pain in benign sport‐related soft‐tissue injuries. Design 7–14 treatment days, prospective, randomised, open study. Patients Outpatients aged 18–70 years diagnosed for painful benign sport‐related soft‐tissue injury (sprains, strains and contusions within the prior 48 h), randomised to either ketoprofen patch 100 mg once daily (n = 114) or diclofenac gel 2–4 g three times daily (n = 109). Intervention 7–14 days of topical non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs treatment to assess the pain intensity changes (daily activities and spontaneous at rest) in a daily diary (100‐mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)). Main outcome measurement Pain intensity (VAS). Results The ketoprofen patch was not inferior to diclofenac gel in reducing the baseline pain during daily activities (difference of –1.17 mm in favour of ketoprofen patch, 95% CI (–5.86 to 3.52), reducing to the baseline VAS 79%. Ketoprofen patch presented also a higher cure rate (64%) than diclofenac gel (46%) at day 7 (p = 0.004). Patient opinions about the treatment comfort (pharmaceutical shape, application and dosage) were also statistically higher for the ketoprofen patch (>80% of the patients rated as good or excellent the patch removal and skin adherence). Conclusion Ketoprofen patches are effective and safe pain relievers for the treatment of sports injury pain with advantages compared with diclofenac gel. PMID:17138642

  20. The Role of Topical Brimonidine Tartrate Gel as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Persistent Facial Erythema Associated with Rosacea.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew William; Johnson, Sandra Marchese

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that commonly presents with persistent facial erythema with or without the coincident presence of flushing, telangiectasias, inflammatory papules or pustules, phymatous changes, or ocular involvement. Patients often present with a constellation of various signs and symptoms of the disease, and an individualized treatment plan should be tailored to a patient's unique clinical presentation. Previously available medications for rosacea have all targeted the inflammatory erythematous papules and pustules frequently associated with the disease, leaving a therapeutic gap for the common manifestation of persistent facial erythema. Brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2013 as the first medication available for the topical treatment of persistent facial erythema associated with rosacea. Brimonidine gel is a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist with potent vasoconstrictive effects, which leads to significant reduction of persistent facial erythema in the majority of patients when applied once daily. Based on large-scale clinical trials and post-marketing reports, brimonidine gel has maintained a good safety profile with a minority of patients experiencing adverse effects from its use, most of which are cutaneous in nature, mild-to-moderate in degree, occur early after initiation of treatment, often resolve spontaneously with continued use, and generally resolve after discontinuation of use. Among the reported adverse effects, two distinct manifestations of worsened erythema have been described. Brimonidine gel can be integrated into a treatment regimen along with concomitant therapies for facial papules and pustules with no increased risk of adverse events with combination therapy. Education about optimal application methods, setting reasonable expectations for treatment, and minimizing inflammation are important factors for the successful use of brimonidine

  1. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

  2. Azelaic Acid Topical Formulations: Differentiation of 15% Gel and 15% Foam.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the author reviews topical formulations of azelaic acid used to treat papulopustular rosacea. Emphasis is placed on differences in vehicle technology and potential clinical impact of the possibility for neurosensory cutaneous tolerability reactions.

  3. Azelaic Acid Topical Formulations: Differentiation of 15% Gel and 15% Foam

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews topical formulations of azelaic acid used to treat papulopustular rosacea. Emphasis is placed on differences in vehicle technology and potential clinical impact of the possibility for neurosensory cutaneous tolerability reactions. PMID:28360967

  4. Nanoparticle-Based Topical Ophthalmic Gel Formulation for Sustained Release of Hydrocortisone Butyrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Trinh, Hoang M; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Sheng, Ye; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop formulations of hydrocortisone butyrate (HB)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NP) suspended in thermosensitive gel to improve ocular bioavailability of HB for the treatment of bacterial corneal keratitis. PLGA NP with different surfactants such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), pluronic F-108, and chitosan were prepared using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion evaporation technique. NP were characterized with respect to particle size, entrapment efficiency, polydispersity, drug loading, surface morphology, zeta potential, and crystallinity. In vitro release of HB from NP showed a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst phase followed by a sustained phase. Such burst effect was completely eliminated when nanoparticles were suspended in thermosensitive gels and zero-order release kinetics was observed. In HCEC cell line, chitosan-emulsified NP showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency over PVA- and pluronic-emulsified NP (59.09 ± 6.21%, 55.74 ± 6.26%, and 62.54 ± 3.30%, respectively) after 4 h. However, chitosan-emulsified NP indicated significant cytotoxicity of 200 and 500 μg/mL after 48 h, while PVA- and pluronic-emulsified NP exhibited no significant cytotoxicity. PLGA NP dispersed in thermosensitive gels can be considered as a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of anterior eye diseases.

  5. Designing Preclinical Perceptibility Measures to Evaluate Topical Vaginal Gel Formulations: Relating User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences to Formulation Properties

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G.; Kojic, E. Milu; Kiser, Patrick F.; Friend, David R.; Katz, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product “perceptibility,” the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence. PMID:24180360

  6. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 μM, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 μM. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  7. Designing preclinical perceptibility measures to evaluate topical vaginal gel formulations: relating user sensory perceptions and experiences to formulation properties.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Fava, Joseph L; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G; Kojic, E Milu; Kiser, Patrick F; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product "perceptibility," the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence.

  8. Effects of topical arnica gel on post-laser treatment bruises.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Delilah; Lazarus, Melissa C; Baumann, Leslie

    2002-08-01

    Claims have been made suggesting that topical arnica prevents and speeds the resolution of bruises, yet there are no well-designed placebo-controlled studies to date evaluating topical arnica's effect on bruising. To compare the efficacy of topical arnica in the prevention and resolution of laser-induced bruising. Nineteen patients with facial telangiectases were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study and were divided into pretreatment and posttreatment groups. The pretreatment group applied arnica with vehicle to one side of the face and vehicle alone to the other side of the face twice a day for 2 weeks prior to laser treatment. The posttreatment group followed the same procedure for 2 weeks after laser treatment. On day 0, all patients were treated for facial telangiectases using a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. Bruising was assessed using a visual analog scale on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 by the patient and the physician. In addition, photographs taken at each of the follow-up visits were later assessed by a second physician using the visual analog scale. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of arnica and vehicle (P = 0.496) and the mean scores of arnica and vehicle (P = 0.359) in the pretreatment and posttreatment groups, respectively. No significant difference was found between topical arnica and vehicle in the prevention or resolution of bruising.

  9. Nanoencapsulation of Rose-Hip Oil Prevents Oil Oxidation and Allows Obtainment of Gel and Film Topical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Contri, Renata V; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene C; da Silva, Sheila Janine; Frank, Luiza A; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

    2016-08-01

    The rose-hip oil holds skin regenerating properties with applications in the dermatological and cosmetic area. Its nanoencapsulation might favor the oil stability and its incorporation into hydrophilic formulations, besides increasing the contact with the skin and prolonging its effect. The aim of the present investigation was to develop suitable rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules, to verify the nanocapsule effect on the UV-induced oxidation of the oil and to obtain topical formulations by the incorporation of the nanocapsules into chitosan gel and film. The rose-hip oil (500 or 600 μL), polymer (Eudragit RS100®, 100 or 200 mg), and acetone (50 or 100 mL) contents were separately varied aiming to obtain an adequate size distribution. The results led to a combination of the factors acetone and oil. The developed formulation showed average diameter of 158 ± 6 nm with low polydispersity, pH of 5.8 ± 0.9, zeta potential of +9.8 ± 1.5 mV, rose-hip oil content of 54 ± 1 μL/mL and tendency to reversible creaming. No differences were observed in the nanocapsules properties after storage. The nanoencapsulation of rose-hip oil decreased the UVA and UVC oxidation of the oil. The chitosan gel and film containing rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable properties for cutaneous use. In conclusion, it was possible to successfully obtain rose-hip-oil-loaded nanocapsules and to confirm the nanocapsules effect in protecting the oil from the UV rays. The chitosan gel and film were considered interesting alternatives for incorporating the nanoencapsulated rose-hip oil, combining the advantages of the nanoparticles to the advantages of chitosan.

  10. A multi-centre clinical evaluation of reactive oxygen topical wound gel in 114 wounds.

    PubMed

    Dryden, M; Dickinson, A; Brooks, J; Hudgell, L; Saeed, K; Cutting, K F

    2016-03-01

    This article reports the outcomes of the use of Surgihoney RO (SHRO), topical wound dressing in a multi-centre, international setting. The aims were to explore the clinical effects of SHRO, including a reduction in bacterial load and biofilm and improvement in healing in a variety of challenging non-healing and clinically infected wounds. This was a non-comparative evaluation, where both acute and chronic wounds with established delayed healing were treated with the dressing. Clinicians prospectively recorded wound improvement or deterioration, level of wound exudate, presence of pain, and presence of slough and necrosis. Analysis of this data provided information on clinical performance of the dressing. Semi-quantitative culture to assess bacterial bioburden was performed where possible. We recruited 104 patients, mean age 61 years old, with 114 wounds. The mean duration of wounds before treatment was 3.7 months and the mean duration of treatment was 25.7 days. During treatment 24 wounds (21%) healed and the remaining 90 (79%) wounds improved following application of the dressing. No deterioration in any wound was observed. A reduction in patient pain, level of wound exudate and in devitalised tissue were consistently reported. These positive improvements in wound progress were reflected in the wound cultures that showed a reduction in bacterial load in 39 out of the 40 swabs taken. There were two adverse events recorded: a stinging sensation following application of the dressing was experienced by 2 patients, and 2 elderly patients died of causes unrelated to the dressing or to the chronic wound. These patients' wounds and their response to SHRO have been included in the analysis. SHRO was well tolerated and shows great promise as an effective potent topical antimicrobial in the healing of challenging wounds. Matthew Dryden has become a shareholder in Matoke Holdings, the manufacturer of Surgihoney RO, since the completion of this study. Keith Cutting is a

  11. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD.

  12. Efficacy of nano- and microemulsion-based topical gels in delivery of ibuprofen: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mosayeb; Esmaeili, Fariba; Partoazar, Alireza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Amani, Amir

    2017-03-01

    Nanoemulsion has shown many advantages in drug delivery systems. In this study, for the first time, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of a nanomelusion of almond oil with and without ibuprofen was compared with corresponding microemulsion and commercial topical gel of the drug using formalin and carrageenan tests, respectively. Almond oil (oil phase) was mixed with Tween 80 and Span 80 (surfactants), and ethanol (co-surfactant) and them distilled water (aqueous phase) was then added to the mixture at once. Prepared nanoemulsions were pre-emulsified into a 100 ml beaker using magnet/stirrer (1000 rpm). Then, using a probe ultrasonicator (Hielscher UP400s, Hielscher, Ringwood, NJ) the nanoemulsions were formed. The optimised nanoemulsion formulation containing 2.5% ibuprofen, showed improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects compared with commercial product and corresponding microemulsion product containing 5% ibuprofen (i.e. twice the content of ibuprofen in the nanoemulsion) in vivo. The nanoemulsion preparation showed superior analgesic activities during chronic phase. Also, it decreased the inflammation from the first hour, while the microemulsion and the commercial product started to show their anti-inflammatory effects after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Our finding suggests that the size of the emulsion particles must be considered as an important factor in topical drug delivery systems.

  13. Topical anesthesia for rubber dam clamp placement in sealant placement: comparison of lidocaine/prilocaine gel and benzocaine.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Richard K; Chussid, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the efficacy of Oraqix to benzocaine while placing a rubber dam clamp during sealant placement on children. A sample size of 45 7- to 12-year-old patients who presented for bilateral sealants on permanent first molars participated in this study. A split-mouth design was implemented with Oraqix applied to one side and 20 percent benzocaine gel applied to the other. After placing the topical anesthetic and the rubber dam clamp, patients completed a Feces Pain Scale (FPS) to rate the level of discomfort after clamp placement. Twenty-seven subjects (60%) were female and 18 subjects (40%) were mole; 15 (33%) were younger than 9 years old and 30 (67%) were at least 9 years old. The overall difference in mean FPS ratings was not statistically significant (P = .27). Regarding gender, there was no statistically significant difference in males (P = .65) or females (P = .26). There was also no difference in mean FPS ratings when looking at age groups younger than 9 years old with P=.77 In the 9 years and older age groups, however there was a statistically significant difference, with P = .04. Application of Oraqix did not reduce discomfort when compared to benzocaine in this small sample size. Oraqix was more effective than benzocaine in the age group 9 and older. A larger sample size is needed to determine its efficacy in children younger than 9years old.

  14. Delivery of adapalene using a novel topical gel based on tea tree oil nano-emulsion: Permeation, antibacterial and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Taher, Roqya; Ghaemi, Behnaz; Amani, Amir

    2018-07-30

    The aim of present study was to design and optimize 0.1% adapalene loaded nano-emulsion to improve the drug efficacy and increase its user compliance. Effect of type and concentration of surfactants was studied on size of 0.1% adapalene loaded nano-emulsion. Optimized formulation was then evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index, morphology, viscosity, and pH. Subsequently, 1% carbopol® 934 was incorporated to the optimized formulation for preparation of its gel form. The efficacy and safety of 0.1% adapalene loaded nano-emulsion gel was assessed compared to marketed gel containing 0.1% adapalene. In-vitro studies showed that adapalene permeation through the skin was negligible in both adapalene loaded nano-emulsion gel and adapalene marketed gel. Furthermore, drug distribution studies in skin indicated higher retention of adapalene in the dermis in adapalene loaded nano-emulsion gel compared with adapalene marketed gel. Antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes showed that adapalene loaded nano-emulsion is effective in reducing minimum inhibitory concentration of the formulation in comparison with tea tree oil nano-emulsion, and pure tea tree oil. In vivo skin irritation studies showed absence of irritancy for adapalene loaded nano-emulsion gel. Also, blood and liver absorption of the drug, histological analysis of liver and liver enzyme activity of rats after 90 days' treatment were investigated. No drug was detected in blood/liver which in addition to an absence of any adverse effect on liver and enzymes showed the potential of adapalene loaded nano-emulsion gel as a novel carrier for topical delivery of adapalene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac/menthol gel for ankle sprain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Collaku, Agron; Reed, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate topical 1% diclofenac/3% menthol gel in treating ankle sprain. Design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adolescents and adults with acute ankle sprain (N = 385) applied 4 g of gel containing 1% diclofenac/3% menthol (n = 117), 1% diclofenac (n = 112), 3% menthol (n = 77), or placebo (n = 75) four times daily. The primary outcome was the area under the curve of pain intensity (PI) on movement [0 (no pain) to 10 (extreme pain)] from 24 to 72 hours post-application (AUC1–3 days). Secondary outcomes included pain relief (PR); PI; time to onset of PR, meaningful PR, cooling, and complete recovery; PI difference; sum of PI difference; total PR; reduction in ankle swelling; and the patient’s global assessment of response to treatment. Results There were no statistically significant differences in AUC1–3 between 1% diclofenac/3% menthol and placebo, diclofenac, or menthol gels and no meaningful advantages of 1% diclofenac/3% menthol for any secondary outcome. There was a higher incidence of skin and application-site events with 1% diclofenac/3% menthol than with placebo or 1% diclofenac. Conclusion No significant improvement was observed with topical 1% diclofenac/3% menthol gel compared with placebo, 1% diclofenac, or 3% menthol gel in treating pain from ankle sprain. ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT02100670 PMID:28345425

  16. Poloxamer-Based Thermoreversible Gel for Topical Delivery of Emodin: Influence of P407 and P188 on Solubility of Emodin and Its Application in Cellular Activity Screening.

    PubMed

    Ban, Eunmi; Park, Mijung; Jeong, Seonghee; Kwon, Taekhyun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Jung, Kiwon; Kim, Aeri

    2017-02-07

    Emodin is a component in a Chinese herb, Rheum officinale Baill, traditionally used for diabetes and anticancer. Its poor solubility is one of the major challenges to pharmaceutical scientists. We previously reported on thermoreversible gel formulations based on poloxamer for the topical delivery of emodin. The present study was to understand the effect of poloxamer type on emodin solubility and its application in cellular activity screening. Various gel formulations composed of poloxamer 407 (P407), poloxamer 188 (P188) and PEG400 were prepared and evaluated. Major evaluation parameters were the gelation temperature (Tgel) and solubility of emodin. The emodin solubility increased with increasing poloxamer concentration and the Tgel was modulated by the proper combination of P407. In particular, this study showed that the amount of P407 in thermoreversible poloxamer gel (PG) was the dominant factor in enhancing solubility and P188 was effective at fixing gelation temperature in the desired range. A thermoreversible emodin PG was selected as the proper composition with the liquid state at room temperature and gel state at body temperature. The gel showed the solubility enhancement of emodin at least 100-fold compared to 10% ethanol or water. The thermoreversible formulation was applied for in vitro cellular activity screening in the human dermal fibroblast cell line and DLD-1 colon cancer cell line after dilution with cell culture media. The thermoreversible gel formulation remained as a clear solution in the microplate, which allowed reliable cellular activity screening. In contrast, emodin solution in ethanol or DMSO showed precipitation at the corresponding emodin concentration, complicating data interpretation. In conclusion, the gel formulation is proposed as a useful prototype topical formulation for testing emodin in vivo as well as in vitro.

  17. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% plus oral doxycycline 40 mg versus metronidazole gel 1% plus oral doxycycline 40 mg in mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Bruce, Suzanne; Jarratt, Michael; Menter, Alan; Staedtler, Gerald

    2010-06-01

    Rosacea is a leading reason why people seek the care of a dermatologist, accounting for nearly 7 million office visits annually. Pharmacologic treatments include both topical and oral medications, which are increasingly being used in combination, especially at the outset of therapy. This exploratory study assesses the safety, effectiveness and speed of onset of two common topical agents for the treatment of rosacea--azelaic acid gel (AzA) 15% and metronidazole gel 1%--used in conjunction with anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40 mg once daily). Men and women (n = 207) with mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea were enrolled and randomized to receive either AzA gel 15% twice daily plus doxycycline 40 mg once daily (AzA group) or metronidazole gel 1% once daily plus doxycycline 40 mg once daily (Metro group) for 12 weeks. Both regimens were safe, efficacious and well tolerated. Efficacy parameters revealed a possible trend toward greater and earlier benefit with the AzA-based regimen than with the metronidazole-based regimen. These findings warrant further investigation in a sufficiently powered study.

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Topical Dapsone Gel, 5% for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris in Adult Females With Skin of Color.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Burgess, Cheryl; Callender, Valerie D; Herzog, Jo L; Roberts, Wendy E; Schweiger, Eric S; Stockton, Toni C; Gallagher, Conor J

    2016-02-01

    Topical dapsone gel, 5% is approved for treatment of acne vulgaris but has not been studied specifically in women with skin of color (SOC; Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, or VI). Evaluate safety and efficacy of dapsone gel, 5% applied topically twice daily for 12 weeks in women with SOC. Females with SOC aged 18 years and older with facial acne participated in a multicenter, open-label, single-group, 12-week pilot study of twice-daily monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5%. The investigator-rated 5-point Global Acne Assessment Score (GAAS) was used to assess efficacy. The impact of acne on subjects was assessed using the validated Acne Symptom and Impact Scale (ASIS). The study enrolled and treated 68 women with SOC and facial acne. GAAS decreased significantly from baseline to week 12 (mean, -1.2 [95% CI, -1.4, -1.0]; P<.001), a 39.0% improvement. Overall, 42.9% of subjects were responders based on a GAAS of 0 or 1 at week 12. Subjects also experienced significant reductions in mean total lesions (52% decrease), inflammatory lesions (65%), and comedo counts (41%; all P<.001). Dapsone gel, 5% monotherapy was associated with significant improvement in subject-assessed acne signs (P<.001) and impact on quality of life (QOL; P<.001), based on ASIS. Dapsone gel, 5% used twice daily was well tolerated, with no treatment-related adverse events. The local dermal tolerability scores tended to remain stable or decrease from baseline to week 12. Monotherapy with dapsone gel, 5% administered twice daily was safe and effective for treatment of facial acne in women with SOC. Significant improvement in overall acne severity and both inflammatory lesions and comedones was observed. Further, study subjects reported considerable improvement in both acne signs and impact on QOL.

  19. Short-duration topical treatment of tinea pedis using terbinafine emulsion gel: results of a dose-ranging clinical trial.

    PubMed

    James, Ian G; Loria-Kanza, Yolanda; Jones, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    In the treatment of tinea pedis, current terbinafine formulations are applied once or twice daily for 7 days. A terbinafine emulsion gel formulation has been developed to provide a 5-day treatment course for tinea pedis. To determine the lowest effective concentration of terbinafine (1% or 3%) emulsion gel applied once daily for 5 days for the treatment of tinea pedis. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of 1% and 3% terbinafine gel for 5 days in 84 outpatients with tinea pedis. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with effective treatment (negative microscopy and culture with only mild erythema/desquamation/pruritus [total scoregel were significantly higher than with placebo (86% and 68% vs 11%, respectively; p<0.001). Similarly, mycological cure rates were significantly greater with terbinafine 1% and 3% gel (97% and 89%, respectively) than with placebo (22%; p<0.001). Terbinafine 1% emulsion gel used once daily for 5 days was the lowest effective concentration, and was significantly superior to placebo. Both concentrations were effective and safe, providing convenient, short-duration treatment of tinea pedis.

  20. A cost-effectiveness analysis of calcipotriol plus betamethasone dipropionate aerosol foam versus gel for the topical treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Foley, Peter; Garrett, Sinead; Ryttig, Lasse

    2018-01-24

    Calcipotriol 50 µg/g and betamethasone 0.5 mg/g dipropionate (Cal/BD) aerosol foam formulation provides greater effectiveness and improved patient preference compared with traditional Cal/BD formulations for the topical treatment of plaque psoriasis. To determine the cost-effectiveness of Cal/BD foam compared with Cal/BD gel from the Australian perspective. A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of topical Cal/BD foam and gel for the treatment of people with plaque psoriasis. Treatment effectiveness, safety, and utilities were based on a randomized control trial, resource use was informed by expert opinion, and unit costs were obtained from public sources. Outcomes were reported in terms of 1-year costs, quality-adjusted life years, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. All costs were reported in 2017 Australian Dollars. The model showed that patients using Cal/BD foam had more QALYs and higher costs over 1 year compared with patients using Cal/BD gel, resulting in a cost of $13,609 per QALY gained at 4-weeks. When 4 weeks of Cal/BD foam was compared with 8 weeks of Cal/BD gel treatment, Cal/BD foam was $8 less expensive and resulted in 0.006 more QALYs gained. Sensitivity analyses showed that, compared with Cal/BD ointment, Cal/BD foam was associated with an incremental cost of $15,091 per QALY gained. Cal/BD foam is the most cost-effective Cal/BD formulation for the topical treatment of patients with plaque psoriasis.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technology as a Continuous Manufacturing Process with Kolliphor® P407.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Jaywant; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Amin, Purnima; Tawde, Vaishali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present context was to develop and evaluate a Kolliphor® P407-based transdermal gel formulation of diclofenac sodium by hot melt extrusion (HME) technology; central composite design was used to optimize the formulation process. In this study, we have explored first time ever HME as an industrially feasible and continuous manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of gel formulation using Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 as a gel base. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. The HME parameters such as feeding rate, screw speed, and barrel temperature were crucial for the semisolid product development, and were optimized after preliminary trials. For the processing of the gel formulation by HME, a modified screw design was used to obtain a uniform product. The obtained product was evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement, rheology, surface tension, and texture profile analysis. Moreover, it was analyzed for general appearance, spreadibility, surface morphology, and drug content. The optimized gel formulation showed homogeneity and transparent film when applied on a glass slide under microscope, pH was 7.02 and uniform drug content of 100.04 ± 2.74 (SD = 3). The DSC and XRD analysis of the HME gel formulation showed complete melting of crystalline API into an amorphous form. The Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 formed excellent gel formulation using HME with consistent viscoelastic properties of the product. An improved drug release was found for the HME gel, which showed a 100% drug release than that of a marketed product which showed only 88% of drug release at the end of 12 h. The Flux value of the HME gel was 106 than that of a marketed formulation, which showed only about 60 value, inferring a significant difference (P < 0.05) at the end of 1 h. This study demonstrates a novel application of the hot melt extrusion

  2. Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Hajheydari, Zohreh; Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Soltani, Aida

    2014-04-01

    Topical retinoids are considered first-line therapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris, yet can be associated with cutaneous irritations. Combination therapy with natural preparations could be effective in treatment and decreasing adverse events. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of tretinoin (TR) cream (0.05%) and Aloe vera topical gel (50%) with TR and vehicle. The randomized, double-blind, prospective 8-week trial evaluated inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion scores and tolerability in 60 subjects with mild to moderate acne vulgaris (global acne grading system scale). Several formulations of A. vera leaf gel were prepared and the most stable one was selected for clinical study based on physicochemical evaluations. The combination therapy showed superior efficacy to TR and placebo. TR/Aloe vera gel (AVG) was significantly more effective in reducing non-inflammatory (p = 0.001), inflammatory (p = 0.011) and total (p = 0.003) lesion scores than control group. The highest percentage of adverse cutaneous effect was reported for scaling. At the end of study, erythema in the TR/AVG-treated group was significantly less severe (p = 0.046). The combination TR/AVG was well tolerated and significantly more effective than TR and vehicle for the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  3. Topical Oxybutynin 10% Gel for the Treatment of Primary Focal Hyperhidrosis: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Split Area Study.

    PubMed

    Artzi, Ofir; Loizides, Christophoros; Zur, Eyal; Sprecher, Eli

    2017-10-02

    Limited efficacy, costs, side-effects and complications are issues of concern for most current therapeutic modalities for focal hyperhidrosis. This study evaluated the efficacy of topical oxybutynin 10% gel in treating 61 patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis. The gel was applied to the right or left axilla, palms or soles vs. a placebo compound to the contralateral side for 30 days. A blinded visual grading of the change in starch-iodine tests was performed by 2 non-involved physicians. The Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires were administered before and after treatment. The patients rated their satisfaction with treatment. Fifty-three patients completed the 4-week treatment. Sweat reduction in the drug-treated sweating areas was higher than in the control-treated areas. There was a significant mean improvement in pre- and post-treatment HDSS and DQLI (p = 0.001 for both). Thirty-nine subjects (74%) reported moderate-to-high satisfaction. Twice-daily topical application of oxybutynin 10% gel appears to be an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment for focal primary hyperhidrosis.

  4. Development and Application of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Stability-Indicating Assay for Beyond-Use Date Determination of Compounded Topical Gels Containing Multiple Active Drugs.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Gregory; Sokom, Simara; Coward, Lori; Arnold, John J

    2017-01-01

    Topical gels compounded by pharmacists are important clinical tools for the management of pain. Nevertheless, there is often a dearth of information about the chemical stability of drugs included in these topical formulations, complicating the assignment of beyond-use dating. The purpose of this study was to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array-based stability-indicating assay that could simultaneously resolve six drugs (amitriptyline, baclofen, clonidine, gabapentin, ketoprofen, lidocaine) commonly included in topical gels for pain management and their potential degradation products. Furthermore, this method was applied to the determination of beyond-use dating of combinations of these drugs prepared in commonly utilized bases (Lipobase, Lipoderm, Pluronic organogel). Gabapentin was determined to be the least stable component in all formulations tested. Measured stability ranged between 7 to 49 days depending on the base and other active drugs present in the formulation. In the absence of gabapentin, baclofen was the next least stable component, lasting for 120 days, regardless of the type of formulating base used. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  5. The negligible systemic availability of retinoids with multiple and excessive topical application of isotretinoin 0.05% gel (Isotrex) in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B K; McGann, L A; Kachevsky, V; Franz, T J

    1991-03-01

    The potential systemic availability of retinoids from topically applied isotretinoin was assessed in 12 men with acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin 0.05% gel was applied to patients at a daily dose of 20 gm (equivalent to 10 mg of isotretinoin) over a 1900 cm2 surface area of skin on the face, back, and chest for 30 days. Blood samples were collected throughout the study and up to 48 hours after the last topical application; they were assayed for isotretinoin, tretinoin, and 4-oxo-isotretinoin by specific high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma concentrations of isotretinoin, tretinoin, and 4-oxo-isotretinoin were not measurable (less than 20 ng/ml) at any time. Most adverse experiences were cutaneous; a few systemic adverse experiences were judged to be remotely related to topical drug administration. The lack of measurable plasma concentrations of isotretinoin, tretinoin, or 4-oxo-isotretinoin and systemic adverse experiences indicates negligible systemic availability of retinoids even after multiple application of isotretinoin 0.05% gel at doses approximately 12 times greater than normal daily use.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of -43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm(2) and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm(2), respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of a topical niosomal gel containing a combination of benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin for antiacne activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A skin disease, like acne, is very common and normally happens to everyone at least once in their lifetime. The structure of the stratum corneum is often compared with a brick wall, with corneocytes surrounded by the mortar of the intercellular lipid lamellae. One of the best options for successful drug delivery to the affected area of skin is the use of elastic vesicles (niosomes) which can be transported through the skin through channel-like structures. In this study, a combination of tretinoin (keratolytic agent) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) (a potent antibacterial) was given by using niosomes as promising carriers for the effective treatment of acne by acting on a pathogenic site. In this section, niosomal gel formulation encapsulated drugs have been evaluated for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, for their predetermined characteristics; and finally the stability of the niosome gel was tested at different temperature conditions for understanding of the storage conditions required for maintaining the quality of formulation attributes. The prepared niosome was found to be in the range of 531 nm with a zeta potential of −43 mV; the entrapment efficiencies of tretinoin (TRA) and BPO niosomes were found to be 96.25%±0.56% and 98.75%±1.25%, respectively. The permeated amount of TRA and BPO from the niosomal gel after 24 hours was calculated as 6.25±0.14 μg/cm2 and 5.04±0.014 μg/cm2, respectively. A comparative drug retention study in Wistar rat skin using cream, an alcoholic solution, and a niosomal gel showed 11.54 μg, 2.68 μg, and 15.54 μg amounts of TRA and 68.85 μg, 59.98 μg, and 143.78 μg amounts of BPO were retained in the layers of skin, respectively. In vivo studies of the niosomal gel and antiacne cream of TRA and BPO showed that the niosomal gel was more efficacious than the antiacne cream because niosomal gels with a 4.16-fold lower dose of BPO provided the same therapeutic index at targeted sites in comparison to the antiacne cream. PMID

  8. The efficacy of a topical anesthetic gel in the relief of pain associated with localized alveolar osteitis.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Corey C; Giglio, James A; Reese, Sarah E; Sima, Adam P; Laskin, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical study assessed the efficacy of pain control for postextraction alveolar osteitis comparing the use of eugenol on a gauze strip versus a thermosetting gel containing 2.5% prilocaine and 2.5% lidocaine. Thirty-five patients who presented with postextraction alveolar osteitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or test group. After irrigation of the extraction site with normal saline solution, the control patients were treated with eugenol on a gauze strip placed in the socket and the test patients were treated with the thermosetting gel placed directly into the socket. All patients were given a series of visual analog scales to record their pretreatment pain and post-treatment pain at 5, 10, and 15 minutes and then at 1-hour increments during waking hours for the next 48 hours. They were also given a prescription for an analgesic to use for breakthrough pain during the 48-hour period, if necessary, and instructed to record the dose and timing of any pain medication taken. All patients were seen for follow-up at 48 hours after treatment. The mean pretreatment pain score was 6.72 on a scale ranging from 1 to 10 for the eugenol group and 6.37 for the prilocaine-lidocaine group (SE, 0.46), and the 2 groups were not different (P = .62). In the immediate post-treatment period (0-15 minutes) the pain levels were significantly reduced in both groups (Ps < .001). However, the thermosetting gel produced a significantly greater reduction in pain (mean, 3.23; SE, 0.62) than the eugenol (mean, 4.83; SE, 0.43) (P = .022). Over the next 48 hours, the pain level was nominally less with the thermosetting gel, but this difference was not statistically significant (Ps = .2). Although the efficacy of the 2 treatments was not significantly different, the nominal superiority and ease of using the thermosetting gel warrant further investigation.

  9. Effectiveness of topical silicone gel and pressure garment therapy for burn scar prevention and management in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Jodie; Simons, Megan; Kimble, Roy; Ware, Robert; McPhail, Steven; Tyack, Zephanie

    2017-02-16

    Abnormal scar development following burn injury can cause substantial physical and psychological distress to children and their families. Common burn scar prevention and management techniques include silicone therapy, pressure garment therapy, or a combination of both. Currently, no definitive, high-quality evidence is available for the effectiveness of topical silicone gel or pressure garment therapy for the prevention and management of burn scars in the paediatric population. Thus, this study aims to determine the effectiveness of these treatments in children. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted at a large tertiary metropolitan children's hospital in Australia. Participants will be randomised to one of three groups: Strataderm® topical silicone gel only, pressure garment therapy only, or combined Strataderm® topical silicone gel and pressure garment therapy. Participants will include 135 children (45 per group) up to 16 years of age who are referred for scar management for a new burn. Children up to 18 years of age will also be recruited following surgery for burn scar reconstruction. Primary outcomes are scar itch intensity and scar thickness. Secondary outcomes include scar characteristics (e.g. colour, pigmentation, pliability, pain), the patient's, caregiver's and therapist's overall opinion of the scar, health service costs, adherence, health-related quality of life, treatment satisfaction and adverse effects. Measures will be completed on up to two sites per person at baseline and 1 week post scar management commencement, 3 months and 6 months post burn, or post burn scar reconstruction. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results of this study will determine the effectiveness of three noninvasive scar interventions in children at risk of, and with, scarring post burn or post reconstruction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616001100482 . Registered

  10. The effects of a topical gel containing chitosan, 0,2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and despanthenol on the wound healing process subsequent to impacted lower third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Madrazo-Jiménez, M; Rodríguez-Caballero, Á; Serrera-Figallo, M-Á; Garrido-Serrano, R; Gutiérrez-Corrales, A; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J-L; Torres-Lagares, D

    2016-11-01

    Despite efforts to prevent postoperative discomfort, there are still many immediate side effects associated with the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Cicatrization is a physiological process through which the loss of integrity of oral mucosa is recovered and damaged tissues are repaired. Bexident Post (ISDIN, Spain) is a topical gel that contains chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol. While this gel has many clinical indications, there are no published clinical trials evaluating its use in impacted mandibular third molar surgery. This study aims to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gel containing chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol on wound healing and reduction of postoperative side effects and complications after extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. A split-mouth design study was carried out on a total of 50 bilaterally and symmetrically impacted third molar extractions, which were randomly placed into either a control group (CG=25) or an experimental group (EG=25). Patients were all informed of the purpose of the study and provided written consent. All procedures were carried out by the same dental practitioner, in accordance with standard surgical protocol. A different dental practitioner, unaware of which treatment had been applied, provided follow-up care. The EG applied 10 ml of topical gel composed of chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol to the surgical wound three times a day for 10 days, patients in the CG did not apply any gel. The groups were homogeneous insofar as potentially confounding variables. No significant findings were found regarding postoperative swelling and pain. Neither of the groups displayed poor healing or infectious complications of the wound during the postoperative period. In all the recorded follow-ups (Day 7 p=0.001, and Day 14 p=0.01), the wound's aesthetic appearance was better in the EG. Overall treatment tolerance was satisfactory

  11. The effects of a topical gel containing chitosan, 0,2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and despanthenol on the wound healing process subsequent to impacted lower third molar extraction

    PubMed Central

    Madrazo-Jiménez, Marta; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Serrera-Figallo, María-Ángeles; Garrido-Serrano, Roberto; Gutiérrez-Corrales, Aida; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to prevent postoperative discomfort, there are still many immediate side effects associated with the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Cicatrization is a physiological process through which the loss of integrity of oral mucosa is recovered and damaged tissues are repaired. Bexident Post (ISDIN, Spain) is a topical gel that contains chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol. While this gel has many clinical indications, there are no published clinical trials evaluating its use in impacted mandibular third molar surgery. This study aims to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gel containing chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol on wound healing and reduction of postoperative side effects and complications after extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Material and Methods A split-mouth design study was carried out on a total of 50 bilaterally and symmetrically impacted third molar extractions, which were randomly placed into either a control group (CG=25) or an experimental group (EG=25). Patients were all informed of the purpose of the study and provided written consent. All procedures were carried out by the same dental practitioner, in accordance with standard surgical protocol. A different dental practitioner, unaware of which treatment had been applied, provided follow-up care. The EG applied 10 ml of topical gel composed of chitosan, 0.2% chlorhexidine, allantoin and dexpanthenol to the surgical wound three times a day for 10 days, patients in the CG did not apply any gel. Results The groups were homogeneous insofar as potentially confounding variables. No significant findings were found regarding postoperative swelling and pain. Neither of the groups displayed poor healing or infectious complications of the wound during the postoperative period. In all the recorded follow-ups (Day 7 p=0.001, and Day 14 p=0.01), the wound’s aesthetic appearance was better in the EG

  12. Topical Application of a Bioadhesive Black Raspberry Gel Modulates Gene Expression and Reduces Cyclooxygenase 2 Protein in Human Premalignant Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Susan R.; Zwick, Jared C.; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Larsen, Peter E.; Shumway, Brian S.; Lu, Bo; Fields, Henry W.; Mumper, Russell J.; Stoner, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced expression of proapoptotic and terminal differentiation genes in conjunction with increased levels of the proinflammatory and angiogenesis-inducing enzymes, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), correlate with malignant transformation of oral intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of a 10% (w/w) freeze-dried black raspberry gel on oral IEN histopathology, gene expression profiles, intraepithelial COX-2 and iNOS proteins, and microvascular densities. Our laboratories have shown that freeze-dried black raspberries possess antioxidant properties and also induce keratinocyte apoptosis and terminal differentiation. Oral IEN tissues were hemisected to provide samples for pretreatment diagnoses and establish baseline biochemical and molecular variables. Treatment of the remaining lesional tissue (0.5 g gel applied four times daily for 6 weeks) began 1 week after the initial biopsy. RNA was isolated from snap-frozen IEN lesions for microarray analyses, followed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR validation. Additional epithelial gene-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses facilitated the assessment of target tissue treatment effects. Surface epithelial COX-2 and iNOS protein levels and microvascular densities were determined by image analysis quantified immunohistochemistry. Topical berry gel application uniformly suppressed genes associated with RNA processing, growth factor recycling, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although the majority of participants showed posttreatment decreases in epithelial iNOS and COX-2 proteins, only COX-2 reductions were statistically significant. These data show that berry gel application modulated oral IEN gene expression profiles, ultimately reducing epithelial COX-2 protein. In a patient subset, berry gel application also reduced vascular densities in the superficial connective tissues and induced genes associated with keratinocyte

  13. In vitro activity of an aqueous allicin extract and a novel allicin topical gel formulation against Lancefield group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Ronald R; Odent, Michel; Hajj-Ahmad, Hussein; Maharjan, Sunil; Bennett, Norman J; Josling, Peter D; Ball, Vanessa; Hatton, Paulette; Dall'Antonia, Martino

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown the efficacy of intra-partum antibiotics in preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis. This approach results in a high intra-partum antibiotic use. Worryingly, the same antibiotics used in prophylaxis are also first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis, and antibiotic exposure in the peri-natal period has been shown to be a risk factor for late-onset serious bacterial infections and allergic disease. Antibiotic exposure in the peri-natal period is becoming a major public health issue; alternative strategies are needed. Garlic has been traditionally used to treat vaginal infections. Allicin is the main antibacterial agent isolated from garlic. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro activity of a novel allicin extract in aqueous and gel formulation against 76 clinical isolates of Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS). MICs and MBCs of allicin were determined for 76 GBS isolates by agar dilution and microtitre plate methods. Killing kinetics were determined for a selected 16 of the 76 strains. Agar diffusion tests were compared for allicin liquid and gel (500 mg/L). MICs and MBCs of allicin liquid were 35 to 95 mg/L and 75 to 315 mg/L, respectively. Time/dose kill curves produced a 2-3 log reduction in cfu/mL within 3 h and no detectable growth at 8 and 24 h. A novel 500 mg/L allicin gel produced an average zone size of 23+/-6 mm compared with 21+/-6 mm for allicin in water. Aqueous allicin is bactericidal against GBS isolates and maintains activity in a novel gel formulation.

  14. Liposomal lidocaine gel for topical use at the oral mucosa: characterization, in vitro assays and in vivo anesthetic efficacy in humans.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Baroni, Daniela; Brunetto, Giovana; Sobral, Viviane Roberta Vieira; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Venâncio, Paulo; Zago, Patricia Wiziack; Cereda, Cintia Maria Saia; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2015-03-01

    To characterize liposomal-lidocaine formulations for topical use on oral mucosa and to compare their in vitro permeation and in vivo anesthetic efficacy with commercially available lidocaine formulations. Large unilamellar liposomes (400 nm) containing lidocaine were prepared using phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and α-tocoferol (4:3:0.07, w:w:w) and were characterized in terms of membrane/water partition coefficient, encapsulation efficiency, size, polydispersity, zeta potential, and in vitro release. In vitro permeation across pig palatal mucosa and in vivo topical anesthetic efficacy on the palatal mucosa in healthy volunteers (double-blinded cross-over, placebo controlled study) were performed. The following formulations were tested: liposome-encapsulated 5% lidocaine (Liposome-Lido5); liposome-encapsulated 2.5% lidocaine (Liposome-Lido2.5); 5% lidocaine ointment (Xylocaina®), and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine 2.5% (EMLA®). The Liposome-Lido5 and EMLA showed the best in vitro permeation parameters (flux and permeability coefficient) in comparison with Xylocaina and placebo groups, as well as the best in vivo topical anesthetic efficacy. We successfully developed and characterized a liposome encapsulated 5% lidocaine gel. It could be considered an option to other topical anesthetic agents for oral mucosa.

  15. A novel gel based on an ionic complex from a dendronized polymer and ciprofloxacin: Evaluation of its use for controlled topical drug release.

    PubMed

    García, Mónica C; Cuggino, Julio C; Rosset, Clarisa I; Páez, Paulina L; Strumia, Miriam C; Manzo, Ruben H; Alovero, Fabiana L; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F

    2016-12-01

    The development and characterization of a novel, gel-type material based on a dendronized polymer (DP) loaded with ciprofloxacin (CIP), and the evaluation of its possible use for controlled drug release, are presented in this work. DP showed biocompatible and non-toxic behaviors in cultured cells, both of which are considered optimal properties for the design of a final material for biomedical applications. These results were encouraging for the use of the polymer loaded with CIP (as a drug model), under gel form, in the development of a new controlled-release system to be evaluated for topical administration. First, DP-CIP ionic complexes were obtained by an acid-base reaction using the high density of carboxylic acid groups of the DP and the amine groups of the CIP. The complexes obtained in the solid state were broadly characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, XRP diffraction, DSC-TG analysis and optical microscopy techniques. Gels based on the DP-CIP complexes were easily prepared and presented excellent mechanical behaviors. In addition, optimal properties for application on mucosal membranes and skin were achieved due to their high biocompatibility and acute skin non-irritation. Slow and sustained release of CIP toward simulated physiological fluids was observed in the assays (in vitro), attributed to ion exchange phenomenon and to the drug reservoir effect. An in vitro bacterial growth inhibition assay showed significant CIP activity, corresponding to 38 and 58% of that exhibited by a CIP hydrochloride solution at similar CIP concentrations, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. However, CIP delivery was appropriate, both in terms of magnitude and velocity to allow for a bactericidal effect. In conclusion, the final product showed promising behavior, which could be exploited for the treatment of topical and mucosal opportunistic infections in human or veterinary applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does topical amethocaine gel reduce pain from heel prick blood sampling in premature infants? A randomized double-blind cross-over controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amita; Czerniawski, Barbara; Gray, Shari; Lui, Eric

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heel prick blood sampling is the most common painful invasive procedure performed on neonates. Currently, there are no effective ways to provide pain relief from this painful procedure. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the topical anesthetic amethocaine 4% gel (Ametop, Smith & Nephew Inc, St Laurent) in reducing the pain of heel prick blood sampling in neonates. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial was conducted. Neonates between 33 to 37 weeks’ gestational age in their first seven days of life were eligible. Heel prick blood sampling was performed on each participant twice. Each infant was randomly assigned to receive either amethocaine 4% gel or placebo to the heel for the first prick, and then received the alternative agent for the second prick. Prick pain was assessed using both Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS). Squeeze pain was assessed by NIPS. RESULTS: Ten babies were recruited. There were no significant differences in the average PIPP and NIPS scores between the treatment and placebo groups for both prick and squeeze pains from heel prick blood sampling. For prick pain, linear-regression showed significant correlation between the PIPP and NIPS scores. No adverse reactions were observed after application of either the active or placebo agents. CONCLUSION: Topical amethocaine 4% gel is not shown to reduce prick and squeeze pains significantly from heel prick blood sampling in neonates between 33 to 37 weeks’ gestational age. Further studies are needed to find ways to provide effective pain relief from this common procedure. PMID:20020001

  17. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation in cutaneous wounds after topical application of aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh; Zolbin, Masoumeh Majidi

    2016-12-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant used to treat various skin diseases. The effects of using aloe vera gel on the healing process were investigated by microscopic methods, cell counting, and TGF-β gene expression in the wound bed. Sixty Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were placed under anesthesia in sterile conditions. A square 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm wound was made on the back of the neck. The rats were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. Additionally, the control and experimental groups were separated into 3 subgroups corresponding to 4, 7, and 14 days of study. In the first experimental group, aloe vera was used twice on the wound. The second experimental group received aloe vera overtreatment once on the wound. The positive control group received daily application of 1% phenytoein cream following surgical wound creation. The control group did not receive any treatment. This tissue was examined using histological staining (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome. Wound surface and wound healing were evaluated separately. TGF-β gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results showed that fibroblasts in both experimental groups were significantly increased, thereby acceleration wound healing. Application of aloe vera gel will increase TGF-β gene expression, ultimately accelerating the wound healing process.

  18. Efficacy and safety of topical SR-T100 gel in treating actinic keratosis in Taiwan: A Phase III randomized double-blind vehicle-controlled parallel trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Wong, Tak-Wah; Lee, Chih-Hung; Hong, Chien-Hui; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Lai, Feng-Jie; Lin, Shang-Hung; Chi, Ching-Chi; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Yen, Hsi; Wu, Chin-Han; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Lan, Cheng-Che E

    2018-06-01

    Currently available topical treatments for actinic keratosis (AK) are associated with substantial side-effects. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical SR-T100 gel in treating AK. A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded phase III trial was conducted. Patients with at least two clinically visible AK were enrolled and a punch biopsy was performed on one of the AK to confirm the diagnosis. This study consisted of up to 16-week treatment and 8-week post-treatment periods. Medication was applied daily with occlusive dressing. 123 subjects were recruited and 113 were randomized. 76 subjects were in the SR-T100 and 37 in the vehicle arms. In SR-T100 and vehicle groups, 32.39% and 17.14% of subjects achieved complete clearance, respectively. For 75% partial clearance of lesions, 71.83% and 37.1% of subjects achieved this goal in SR-T100 and vehicle group, respectively. When comparing SR-T100 to vehicle, the odds ratio of complete clearance was 2.14 (p = 0.111), and odds ratio of partial clearance was 4.36 (p < 0.001). Severe local reactions were reported by only one subject using SR-T100. The imitation of the study was that not all the treated AK lesions were confirmed by histopathology. The diagnostic uncertainty may contribute to the high partial clearance rate in the vehicle group since the clinical-diagnosed AK showed higher clearance rate compared to histopathology-confirmed AK. The use of occlusive dressing was another possible explanation for high placebo effects. The results suggested that topical SR-T100 gel may be an effective and safe treatment for field therapy of AK. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A NEW TOPICAL TESTOSTERONE REPLACEMENT GEL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MALE HYPOGONADISM.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Glenn; Belkoff, Laurence; Brock, Gerald; Efros, Mitchell; Gittelman, Marc; Carrara, Dario; Neijber, Anders; Ando, Masakazu; Mitchel, Jules

    2017-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is indicated for male hypogonadism. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone gel 2% (Tgel) over 90 days. This phase 3, open-label, noncomparator study was conducted in adult hypogonadal men (2 consecutive fasting serum testosterone values <300 ng/dL and >86% subjects with symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency). Subjects applied Tgel 23 mg/day (single pump-actuation using a hands-free cap applicator). The dose was uptitrated to 46 mg/day after 2 weeks if the 4-hour serum total testosterone level was <500 ng/dL. The dose could be further up- or downtitrated to 23, 46, and 69 mg on Days 21, 42, and 63. The primary endpoint included the percentage of subjects with average testosterone concentration (C ave (0-24) ) between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL on Day 90. Safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs), laboratory parameters, and vital signs. Of the 159 who enrolled, 139 men completed the study. Approximately three-quarters (76.1%) of subjects met C ave criteria on Day 90. Most AEs were mild to moderate. There were 5 serious AEs, and 1 (myocardial infarction) was judged as possibly related to Tgel. Confirmed excessive increases in prostate-specific antigen or hematocrit levels were rare. Tgel had a favorable local skin tolerability profile. Overall, 76% of subjects achieved C ave between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL with Tgel. Symptoms of testosterone deficiency improved with few safety concerns. AE = adverse event C ave(0-24) = average testosterone concentration CI = confidence interval C max = maximum concentration IIEF = International Index of Erectile Function MAF = Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue PK = pharmacokinetic PSA = prostate-specific antigen SAE = serious adverse event SF-12 = Short Form 12 Health Survey Tgel = testosterone gel 2% T max = time to achieve maximum concentration TRT = testosterone replacement therapy.

  20. Comparative clinical trial of topical anesthetic agents in cataract surgery: lidocaine 2% gel, bupivacaine 0.5% drops, and benoxinate 0.4% drops.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Mahmoud M; Macky, Tamer A; Samir, M Khaled

    2004-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of lidocaine gel, bupivacaine drops, and benoxinate drops as topical anesthetic agents in cataract surgery. Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. This prospective randomized study comprised 90 patients scheduled for routine cataract extraction. Patients were randomized into 3 groups of 30 each based on which anesthetic agent they received: lidocaine 2% gel, bupivacaine 0.5% drops, or benoxinate 0.4% drops. Subjective pain at application of the agent and intraoperatively was quantified by the patients using a verbal pain score (VPS) scale from 0 to 10. The duration of discomfort at application, duration of surgery, rate of supplemental sub-Tenon's anesthesia, and complications were recorded. The mean VPS at application was 2.97, 1.53, and 1.03 in the lidocaine, bupivacaine, and benoxinate groups, respectively; the VPS in the lidocaine group was statistically significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P<.001). The mean duration of pain at application was 25 seconds, 14 seconds, and 6 seconds in the lidocaine, bupivacaine, and benoxinate groups, respectively, and was statistically significantly higher in the lidocaine group (P<.001). The mean VPS during surgery was 1.6, 4.1, and 7.1 in the lidocaine, bupivacaine, and benoxinate groups; the lidocaine group had a statistically significantly lower mean VPS than the other 2 groups (P<.001). The incidence of supplemental sub-Tenon's injection was 3.3%, 10.0%, and 73.3%, respectively, and was statistically significantly lower in the lidocaine and bupivacaine groups than in the benoxinate group (P<.001). The patients' overall satisfaction was statistically significantly higher in the lidocaine and bupivacaine groups than in the benoxinate group (93.3%, 83.3%, and 33.3%, respectively) (P<.001). Three patients in the lidocaine group had corneal haze at the time of surgery, which was not statistically significant (P>.1). Lidocaine gel was a better topical anesthetic agent than

  1. Evaluation of the activity and safety of CS21 barrier genital gel® compared to topical aciclovir and placebo in symptoms of genital herpes recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J-P

    2014-09-01

    Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of genital herpes recurrences but may not always alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of oxygenated glycerol triesters-based CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir and placebo (vehicle) in resolving functional symptoms and in healing of genital herpes recurrences. A prospective randomized controlled, investigator-blinded trial of CS21 barrier genital gel(®) vs. topical aciclovir (reference treatment) and placebo (vehicle) was designed. The primary endpoint was the cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensations). Secondary endpoints included objective skin changes (erythema, papules, vesicles, oedema, erosion/ulceration, crusts), time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment as reported by a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 61 patients were included. CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) was significantly more efficient than topical aciclovir and vehicle for subjective symptoms and pain relief in genital herpes recurrences; additionally, time to heal was significantly shorter with CS 21 than with vehicle, whereas no significantly difference was observed between patients receiving topical aciclovir and vehicle. The treatments under investigation were well tolerated and the adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Overall, these results support the interest of using of CS 21 barrier genital gel(®) in symptomatic genital herpes recurrences. Accordingly, this product offers a valuable alternative in topical management of recurrent genital herpes. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Effects of Carbopol® 934 proportion on nanoemulsion gel for topical and transdermal drug delivery: a skin permeation study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yin; Ouyang, Wu-Qing; Wei, Yun-Peng; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Hao, Chao-Shuang; Wang, Bo-Zhen; Shang, Yan-Hong

    Nanoemulsions (NEs) are used as transdermal drug delivery systems for systematic therapeutic purposes. We hypothesized that the skin permeation profile of an NE could be modulated by incorporating it into a hydrogel containing differing proportions of thickening agent. The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the stability and skin irritability of NE gels (NGs) containing 1%, 2%, and 3% (w/w) Carbopol ® 934 (CP934) (termed NG1, NG2, and NG3, respectively); 2) to compare the skin permeation profiles and drug deposition patterns of the NGs; and 3) to visualize the drug delivery routes of the NGs. Terbinafine and citral were incorporated into the NGs as model drugs. Ex vivo skin permeation tests indicated that the percutaneous flux rates of terbinafine decreased in the order NE (215 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (213 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (123 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (74.3 μg/cm 2 ). The flux rates of citral decreased in the order NE (1,026 μg/cm 2 ) > NG1 (1,021 μg/cm 2 ) > NG2 (541 μg/cm 2 ) > NG3 (353 μg/cm 2 ). The NGs accumulated greater amounts of the drugs in the stratum corneum and less in the epidermis/dermis than did the NE ( P <0.05) over a period of 12 h. Laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that the NGs altered the main drug delivery routes from skin appendages to intercellular paths. Histological images suggested that perturbations to the skin structure, specifically the size of the epidermal intercellular spaces and the separation distance of dermal collagen bundles, could be significantly minimized by increasing the proportion of CP934. These results suggest that adjustments of the CP934 proportions can be used to modulate the skin permeation profiles of NGs for specific therapeutic purposes.

  3. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel.

    PubMed

    Giri, Priya; Ebert, Sabine; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kremer, Mathias; Giri, Shibashish; Machens, Hans-Günther; Bader, Augustinus

    2015-01-01

    Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application) were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which utilizes a series of steps to enhance the image, removes noise from image background, and tracks the vessels edges for vessel segmentation and quantification has been used in this study. Using image analysis methods, we were able to detect the microvascular networks of newly formed blood vessels (less than 500 μm thickness), which participate in the healing process, providing not only nutrition and oxygen to grow tissues but also necessary growth factors to grow tissue cells for complete skin regeneration. The rHuEPO-treated group showed higher expression of stem cell markers (CD 31, CD

  4. Intra-cameral level of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% following topical application for cytomegalovirus anterior segment infection: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Zhou, Lei; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the intra-cameral level of ganciclovir following topical application of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% for cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior segment infection. Non-randomized, prospective, interventional clinical study. Patients with active CMV anterior segment infection seen at Singapore National Eye Centre, confirmed by positive CMV real time PCR (RT-PCR) of the aqueous humor, that had not been treated with any form of ganciclovir in the preceding 1 month were recruited. They were treated with ganciclovir gel, 0.15% 1cc 5 times a day. Following 6 weeks of treatment, CMV load in the aqueous humor was measured using CMV RT-PCR and the ganciclovir drug levels in tears and aqueous humor were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The clinical features of the disease activity and the central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded at the baseline and post-treatment. There were 29 eyes of 29 patients, of which 23 eyes had CMV anterior uveitis and 6 eyes had CMV endotheliitis. At the end of week 6, 26 eyes had undetectable CMV titre in the aqueous humor and no anterior chamber (AC) activity. Two patients had an increased CMV titre and increased AC inflammation. Both of these patients were non-compliant with the treatment. One patient had a reduced CMV titre in the aqueous humor with minimal AC inflammation. The mean ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and the tears were 17.4 ± 30.6 ng/ml and 20,420.9 ± 33,120.8 ng/ml respectively. Mean CCT was 552.2 ± 42.3 microns. There was a weak correlation between the ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.42, p = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the ganiclovir concentration in the tears and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.39, p = 0.11). Ganciclovir levels in the aqueous humor was below the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) for CMV replication, following topical application of the ganciclovir gel, 0.15%. SingHealth Centralized Institutional

  5. Intra-cameral level of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% following topical application for cytomegalovirus anterior segment infection: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the intra-cameral level of ganciclovir following topical application of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% for cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior segment infection. Design Non-randomized, prospective, interventional clinical study. Methods Patients with active CMV anterior segment infection seen at Singapore National Eye Centre, confirmed by positive CMV real time PCR (RT-PCR) of the aqueous humor, that had not been treated with any form of ganciclovir in the preceding 1 month were recruited. They were treated with ganciclovir gel, 0.15% 1cc 5 times a day. Following 6 weeks of treatment, CMV load in the aqueous humor was measured using CMV RT-PCR and the ganciclovir drug levels in tears and aqueous humor were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The clinical features of the disease activity and the central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded at the baseline and post-treatment. Results There were 29 eyes of 29 patients, of which 23 eyes had CMV anterior uveitis and 6 eyes had CMV endotheliitis. At the end of week 6, 26 eyes had undetectable CMV titre in the aqueous humor and no anterior chamber (AC) activity. Two patients had an increased CMV titre and increased AC inflammation. Both of these patients were non-compliant with the treatment. One patient had a reduced CMV titre in the aqueous humor with minimal AC inflammation. The mean ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and the tears were 17.4 ± 30.6 ng/ml and 20,420.9 ± 33,120.8 ng/ml respectively. Mean CCT was 552.2 ± 42.3 microns. There was a weak correlation between the ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.42, p = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the ganiclovir concentration in the tears and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.39, p = 0.11). Conclusion Ganciclovir levels in the aqueous humor was below the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) for CMV replication, following topical application of the ganciclovir gel, 0

  6. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Priya; Ebert, Sabine; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kremer, Mathias; Giri, Shibashish; Machens, Hans-Günther; Bader, Augustinus

    2015-01-01

    Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application) were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which utilizes a series of steps to enhance the image, removes noise from image background, and tracks the vessels edges for vessel segmentation and quantification has been used in this study. Using image analysis methods, we were able to detect the microvascular networks of newly formed blood vessels (less than 500 μm thickness), which participate in the healing process, providing not only nutrition and oxygen to grow tissues but also necessary growth factors to grow tissue cells for complete skin regeneration. The rHuEPO-treated group showed higher expression of stem cell markers (CD 31, CD

  7. [Impact of topical application of autologous platelet-rich gel on medical expenditure and length of stay in hospitals in diabetic patients with refractory cutaneous ulcers].

    PubMed

    Li, Lan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Yan; He, Li-Ping; Yang, Yan-Zhi; Chen, Li-Hong; Chen, Da-Wei; Li, Xiu-Jun; Ran, Xing-Wu

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the potential financial benefit of topical application of autologous platelet-rich gel (APG) in treating diabetic refractory cutaneous ulcers. A single-center prospective randomized controlled trial was undertaken, with 117 patients with proven diabetic refractory cutaneous ulcers participating in the study. The patients who gave informed consents were randomly assigned into standard care group (n = 58) or standard care plus topical application of APG treatment group (n = 59). The outcome of healing and the medical expenditur and length of stay in the patients were compared between the two groups. The APG-treated group had better healing outcomes than the standard-treated group. The APG-treated group had 84.750 (50/59) complete healing and 98.31% improvement, higher than the 68.97% (40/58) and 75.86%, respectively, in the standard-treated group (P = 0.026). The median length for healing in the APG-treated patients was 36 days, shorter than the 45 days in the standard-treated patients (P = 0.012). The total medical expenditure and length of stay in hospitals were not significantly different between APG-treated patients [yen 38223 (23070-57398); 57 (41-94) days] and standard-treated patients [yen 35070 (24436-53649); 58 (31.75-58.50) days) (P = 0.455 and 0.301 respectively). Spendings on items such as medicine, artificial treatment, materials, interventional operation, surgical procedures, laboratory tests and other auxiliary examination, accommodations, meals, nursing care and debridement and dressing change were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). There is an advantage for the topical application of APG on diabetic refractory cutaneous ulcers in terms of the healing outcomes. APG is a cost-effective choice for patients with diabetic refractory cutaneous ulcers.

  8. The effect on acne quality of life of topical azelaic acid 15% gel versus a combined oral contraceptive in adult female acne: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marco; Sanudo, Adriana; Bagatin, Edileia

    2017-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the pilosebaceous unit. Recent studies have shown an increasing number of cases of acne in adult women. These cases are predominantly normoandrogenic and have show some clinical differences compared to adolescent acne. In addition to the physical aspects, acne has a strong psychosocial impact and can lead to the onset of signs and symptoms of depression, such as anger. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on acne-specific quality of life in adult women treated with topical azelaic acid versus a combined oral contraceptive. The study population consisted of 38 adult women with acne and without any features of hyperandrogenism recruited from the clinic of Dermatology Hospital Division of São Paulo, Federal University of São Paulo from January 2012 to September 2014. Patients were randomized into two different groups: one receiving containing 20 ug of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone in a regimen of 24 days of medication, a combined oral contraceptive (COC), and the other group topical 15% azelaic acid (AA) gel, twice daily, both for six months. The quality of life was evaluated at baseline and end of treatment with an acne specific measure (Acne-QoL). Before treatment, our data revealed a significant impact of the presence of acne on quality of life. Both treatments resulted in improvement with significant statistical values in quality of life scores. Comparing the four domains of Acne-QoL, patients treated with an oral contraceptive showed greater improvement in two domains (self-perception and acne symptoms) than those treated with azelaic acid.

  9. Valacyclovir and topical clobetasol gel for the episodic treatment of herpes labialis: a patient-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Hull, C; McKeough, M; Sebastian, K; Kriesel, J; Spruance, S

    2009-03-01

    Treatment of herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been associated with modest benefits. This difficulty results from the rapid resolution of the disease accomplished by the immune system, which narrows the window of therapeutic opportunity. The immune response is also responsible for important clinical manifestations, including oedema and pain. The dual role of immune responses (protection, pathology) is well recognized in other infectious diseases. The addition of corticosteroids to antimicrobial agents has been associated with improvement in some of these diseases. We evaluated the combination of oral valacyclovir plus topical clobetasol compared to placebo for recurrent HSL. Eighty-one subjects were screened, randomized, and dispensed medication (valacyclovir 2 g orally twice daily phiomicronrho 1 day and clobetasol gel 0.05% twice daily for 3 days). Forty-two patients developed a recurrence and initiated treatment. There were more aborted lesions in the valacyclovir-clobetasol arm compared to placebo-placebo (50% vs.15.8%, P = 0.04). Combination therapy reduced the mean maximum lesion size (9.7 vs. 54 mm(2), P = 0.002) and the mean healing time of classical lesions (5.8 vs. 9.3 days, P = 0.002). We created a composite statistic, area-under-the-curve (AUC) of classical lesion size versus time. There was a reduction in the AUC in the combination arm compared with placebo (23 vs. 193 mm(2), P < 0.001). Adverse events were minimal. Secondary and post-treatment recurrences were not increased by combination therapy. This pilot study supports the addition of topical corticosteroids to an oral antiviral agent for the treatment of HSL. Larger studies need to confirm the safety and efficacy of this approach.

  10. Systemic exposure to benzoic acid and hippuric acid following topical application of clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ino, Hiroko; Takahashi, Naoki; Saenz, Alessandra Alio; Wakamatsu, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakahara, Norie; Hasegawa, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel (CLDM/BPO3%) is a topical product for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, plasma and urine concentrations of benzoic acid (BA) and hippuric acid (HA) were analyzed to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPO after application of CLDM/BPO3% twice-daily for 7 days in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Seven-day repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% appears to be safe in this patient population. Concentrations of plasma and urine BA were below the limit of quantification before and after repeated application in most of the 12 adult male patients. Mean difference in Cmax and AUC0-last for plasma HA indicated increased exposures after repeated application, but with wide 90% confidence intervals. Mean Ae0-12 for urine HA was similar before and after repeated application. Repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% is thus unlikely to result in accumulation of BA and HA. The study suggests negligible systemic exposure to BPO metabolites from CLDM/BPO3% after 7-day repeated application in male patients with acne vulgaris. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of a topical gel containing 3% hydrogen peroxide, 1.5% salicylic acid and 4% D-panthenol in the treatment of mild-moderate acne.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Panariello, Luigia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a topical gel (ACNAID TM gel medical device) containing 3% hydrogen peroxide (HPO), 1.5% salicylic acid (SA) and 4% D-panthenol (D-p) in the treatment of mild-moderate acne, comparing it with a previous formulation (ACNAID TM gel Cosmetic) containing 4% HPO, 0.5% SA, 4% D-p. Twenty patients of both sex with mild-moderate acne have been selected. The topical gel was applied twice a day for 60 days. Evaluations included: Global Acne Grading System (GAGS); lesions count; photographic assessment; a questionnaire to assess the tolerability. The results have been compared with those obtained in a previous study conducted with the formulation containing 4% HPO, 0.5% SA, 4% D-p. The GAGS score showed a reduction of 43% from T0 to T1 and of 61% from T0 to T2. Count of lesions: comedones reduction of 62% from T0 to T1 and of 95% from T0 to T2; papules reduction of 49% from T0 to T1 and of 68% from T0 to T2; pustules reduction of 75% from T0 to T1 and of 100% from T0 to T2. Digital images showed a significant reduction of acne lesions. At T2 the tolerability of the topical product was excellent according to 83% of patients and good according to 17% of patients. The topical gel has demonstrated to be effective and safe for treatment of mild to moderate acne. No patients reported side effects. These results are superior to those obtained in the previous study.

  12. An evaluation of the efficacy of a topical gel with Triester Glycerol Oxide (TGO) in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Turkish cohort: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Sertan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Namdar-Pekiner, Filiz; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2017-01-01

    Background Triester glycerol oxide gel (Protefix® Queisser Pharma, Germany) is a new topical agent that has the property of adherence to the oral mucosa by forming a lipid film which protects against mechanical trauma and may help to reduce oral tissue moisture loss and inflammation. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of a topical TGO gel and to also compare it with triamcinolone acetonide pomade in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Material and Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and 180 patients with the complaint of minor aphthous ulcers were enrolled in this study. The sociodemographic data and clinical characteristics of the ulcer were collected by questionnaire. Ulcer size and pain level measurements were performed and the efficacy indices for ulcer pain and size were calculated at day 0,2,4,6 by the same investigator. Results Significant differences were not detected among the demographics and ulcer histories including age, gender, onset of ulcer, mean healing time, family RAS history and ulcer localization between three groups. The pain score in TGO group was found statistically lower at day 2,4, and 6. Efficacy index and improvement rate of TGO group, regarding pain score, was higher than the other two groups at day 2 and 4. The reduction in ulcer size was statistically higher in TGO group than the other two groups at day 4 and 6. Conclusions Topical application of TGO gel could decrease pain intensity, accelerate ulcer healing without any side effects, utilizing an easy appliable and accessible procedure. Therefore TGO gel could be a well-tolerated, safe, topical therapeutic agent in the clinical practice of RAS treatment. Key words:Topical therapy, triester glycerol oxide, triamcinolone acetonide, minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. PMID:28160585

  13. Accelerated re-epithelialization of partial-thickness skin wounds by a topical betulin gel: Results of a randomized phase III clinical trials program.

    PubMed

    Barret, Juan P; Podmelle, Fred; Lipový, Břetislav; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Schumann, Hauke; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Zahn, Tobias R; Metelmann, Hans-Robert

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of timely re-epithelialization is obvious in burn care, since delayed wound closure is enhancing the risk of wound site infection and extensive scarring. Topical treatments that accelerate wound healing are urgently needed to reduce these sequelae. Evidence from preliminary studies suggests that betulin can accelerate the healing of different types of wounds, including second degree burns and split-thickness skin graft wounds. The goal of this combined study program consisting of two randomized phase III clinical trials in parallel is to evaluate whether a topical betulin gel (TBG) is accelerating re-epithelialization of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor site wounds compared to standard of care. Two parallel blindly evaluated, randomised, controlled, multicentre phase III clinical trials were performed in adults undergoing STSG surgery (EudraCT nos. 2012-003390-26 and 2012-000777-23). Donor site wounds were split into two equal halves and randomized 1:1 to standard of care (a non-adhesive moist wound dressing) or standard of care plus TBG consisting of 10% birch bark extract and 90% sunflower oil (Episalvan, Birken AG, Niefern-Oeschelbronn, Germany). The primary efficacy assessment was the intra-individual difference in time to wound closure assessed from digital photographs by three blinded experts. A total of 219 patients were included and treated in the two trials. Wounds closed faster with TBG than without it (15.3 vs. 16.5 days; mean intra-individual difference=-1.1 days [95% CI, -1.5 to -0.7]; p<0.0001). This agreed with unblinded direct clinical assessment (difference=-2.1 days [95% CI, -2.7 to -1.5]; p<0.0001). Adverse events possibly related to treatment were mild or moderate and mostly at the application site. TBG accelerates re-epithelialization of partial thickness wounds compared to the current standard of care, providing a well-tolerated contribution to burn care in practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  14. Topical Effects of Artemisia Absinthium Ointment and Liniment in Comparison with Piroxicam Gel in Patients with Knee Joint Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Zahra; Zeraati, Fatemeh; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Mohammadi, Farshid; Razzaghi, Keyvan; Araghchian, Malihe; Moradkhani, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain alleviation and improvement of functional status are the main objectives in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Artemisia absinthium (AA) was used traditionally in reducing pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of topical formulations of AA and piroxicam gel (PG) among patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In total, 90 outpatients aged 30-70 years with the diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis in at least one knee were enrolled in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients referred to the Rheumatology Clinic at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province during 2012-2013. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups, 30 patients per group, and respectively received AA ointment (AAO) 3%, AA liniment (AAL) 3%, and PG; three times daily (TID) for 4 weeks. The patients were visited at baseline, week 4, and week 6. The effectiveness criteria were pain severity which was assessed with a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for total pain score (WTPS), total physical function score (WTPFS), and total stiffness score (WTSS). Repeated measure ANOVA, paired t test and post hoc were used to compare variables. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results: All groups had similar patient demographics. The administration of PG significantly improved all tested criteria with no recurrence after discontinuing the treatment protocol. AAO alleviated all tested factors except for WTSS. Alleviation was comparable to PG. AAL only reduced pain factors (VAS, WTPS) in week 4 with recurrence in week 6. Conclusion: Administration of Artemisia ointment may have beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201202123109N3 PMID:29184260

  15. Topical Effects of Artemisia Absinthium Ointment and Liniment in Comparison with Piroxicam Gel in Patients with Knee Joint Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Zahra; Zeraati, Fatemeh; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Mohammadi, Farshid; Razzaghi, Keyvan; Araghchian, Malihe; Moradkhani, Shirin

    2017-11-01

    Pain alleviation and improvement of functional status are the main objectives in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Artemisia absinthium (AA) was used traditionally in reducing pain and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of topical formulations of AA and piroxicam gel (PG) among patients with knee osteoarthritis. In total, 90 outpatients aged 30-70 years with the diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis in at least one knee were enrolled in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients referred to the Rheumatology Clinic at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province during 2012-2013. The patients were randomly assigned into three groups, 30 patients per group, and respectively received AA ointment (AAO) 3%, AA liniment (AAL) 3%, and PG; three times daily (TID) for 4 weeks. The patients were visited at baseline, week 4, and week 6. The effectiveness criteria were pain severity which was assessed with a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for total pain score (WTPS), total physical function score (WTPFS), and total stiffness score (WTSS). Repeated measure ANOVA, paired t test and post hoc were used to compare variables. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 13.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). All groups had similar patient demographics. The administration of PG significantly improved all tested criteria with no recurrence after discontinuing the treatment protocol. AAO alleviated all tested factors except for WTSS. Alleviation was comparable to PG. AAL only reduced pain factors (VAS, WTPS) in week 4 with recurrence in week 6. Administration of Artemisia ointment may have beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201202123109N3.

  16. An evaluation of the efficacy of a topical gel with Triester Glycerol Oxide (TGO) in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Turkish cohort: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ofluoglu, D; Ergun, S; Warnakulasuriya, S; Namdar-Pekiner, F; Tanyeri, H

    2017-03-01

    Triester glycerol oxide gel (Protefix® Queisser Pharma, Germany) is a new topical agent that has the property of adherence to the oral mucosa by forming a lipid film which protects against mechanical trauma and may help to reduce oral tissue moisture loss and inflammation. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of a topical TGO gel and to also compare it with triamcinolone acetonide pomade in the treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and 180 patients with the complaint of minor aphthous ulcers were enrolled in this study. The sociodemographic data and clinical characteristics of the ulcer were collected by questionnaire. Ulcer size and pain level measurements were performed and the efficacy indices for ulcer pain and size were calculated at day 0,2,4,6 by the same investigator. Significant differences were not detected among the demographics and ulcer histories including age, gender, onset of ulcer, mean healing time, family RAS history and ulcer localization between three groups. The pain score in TGO group was found statistically lower at day 2,4, and 6. Efficacy index and improvement rate of TGO group, regarding pain score, was higher than the other two groups at day 2 and 4. The reduction in ulcer size was statistically higher in TGO group than the other two groups at day 4 and 6. Topical application of TGO gel could decrease pain intensity, accelerate ulcer healing without any side effects, utilizing an easy appliable and accessible procedure. Therefore TGO gel could be a well-tolerated, safe, topical therapeutic agent in the clinical practice of RAS treatment.

  17. The effect of theobromine 200 mg/l topical gel exposure duration against surface enamel hardness resistance from 1% citric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herisa, H. M.; Noerdin, A.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    Theobromine can be used to prevent the demineralization of enamel and can stimulate the growth of new enamels. This study analyzes the effect of theobromine’s gel duration exposure on enamel hardness resistance from 1% citric acid. Twenty-eight specimens were divided into three experimental groups; were exposed to theobromine gel 200 mg/l for 16, 48, and 96 minutes; and were then immersed in 1% citric acid. The control group was only immersed in 1% citric acid. Results: A Wilcoxon test showed a significant increase and decrease in enamel microhardness after exposure to theobromine gel and citric acid (p < 0.05). A Mann-Whitney test showed a significant increase and decrease in enamel microhardness between different durations of exposure to theobromine gel and immersion in citric acid (p < 0.05). The application of theobromine gel 200mg/L increased enamel microhardness but did not contribute to the enamel’s hardness resistance after immersion in 1% citric acid. The duration of theobromine gel application affected enamel microhardness and acid resistance.

  18. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  19. A novel cosmetic antifungal/anti-inflammatory topical gel for the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label trial utilizing clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography.

    PubMed

    Dall' Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Fusto, Carmelinda M; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dinotta, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Topical cosmetic agents may play a role in the management of facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production. Advanced digital photography, equipped with technology able to provide a detailed evaluation of red skin components corresponding to vascular flare (erythema-directed digital photography), is a useful tool for evaluation of erythema in patients affected by inflammatory dermatoses. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new cosmetic topical gel containing piroctone olamine, lactoferrin, glycero-phospho-inositol, and Aloe vera for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis by clinical and advanced digital photography evaluation. An open-label, prospective, clinical trial was conducted on 25 patients with mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. Subjects were instructed to apply the gel twice daily for 45 days. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring at baseline, at day 15 and 45 the degree of desquamation (by clinical examination) and erythema (by digital photography technology via VISIA-CR™ system equipped with RBX™), using a 5-point severity scale, and pruritus (by subject-completed Visual Analogue Scale; scale from 0 to 100 mm). Finally, at baseline and at the end of the study, IGA (Investigator Global Assessment) was performed using a 5-point severity scale (from 0 = worsening to 4 = excellent response). At the end of treatment, a significant reduction (P<0.001) of all considered parameters was observed. Moreover, an excellent response (>80% improvement) was recorded in 47.9% of patients, with no case of worsening. No signs of local intolerance were documented. The tested cosmetic topical gel was effective in treating mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face. Erythema-directed digital photography may represent a noteworthy tool for the therapeutic monitoring of facial seborrheic dermatitis and an important adjunct aid in the dermatologic clinical practice.

  20. Peripheral Female Genital Arousal as Assessed by Thermography Following Topical Genital Application of Alprostadil vs Placebo Arousal Gel: A Proof-of-Principle Study Without Visual Sexual Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sue W; Gonzalez, Joshua R; Gagnon, Catherine; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-09-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder is a pathophysiologic state characterized clinically by persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement until completion of sexual activity. Prior clinical experience with alprostadil products for men with erectile dysfunction supports its use in women with female sexual arousal disorder. To compare the effect of topical alprostadil with over-the-counter (OTC) lubricant on female genital arousal in the absence of visual sexual stimuli. Healthy premenopausal women without sexual dysfunction were recruited from the community to participate in the study. Of 17 women who consented, 10 were enrolled and completed the trial. The mean age of subjects was 32 years (range = 27-43). Study drug or placebo was applied topically to the genitals. Continuous temperature monitoring was performed. Participants completed questionnaires assessing genital sensation, effect, intensity, and duration. Change in temperature from baseline in vestibule, clitoris and vulva. In all 10 subjects, topical alprostadil induced a statistically significant increase in temperature of the vestibule, clitoris, and vulva compared with the OTC lubricant. The most rapid difference in genital temperature between placebo and alprostadil was seen on the vulva, which demonstrated a significant difference at approximately 9 minutes. There was a significant difference in temperature seen for the vestibule and clitoris at 11 and 19 minutes, respectively. Sixty percent of women reported being aware or conscious of genital sensations with topical alprostadil, but not with OTC lubricant. Discordance was noted in 30% of subjects who reported being aware or conscious of genital sensations with the two treatments and 10% who reported not being aware or conscious of genital sensations with either treatment. Topical alprostadil administered to healthy premenopausal women induced statistically significant, sustained

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a CS20® protective barrier gel containing OGT compared with topical aciclovir and placebo on functional and objective symptoms of labial herpes recurrences: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khemis, A; Duteil, L; Coudert, A C; Tillet, Y; Dereure, O; Ortonne, J P

    2012-10-01

    Topical or systemic antiviral drugs reduce the duration of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) recurrences but may not alleviate functional symptoms. To assess the efficacy and safety of CS20 (Acura 24(®) ) protective barrier gel versus topical aciclovir and placebo in resolving functional symptoms in HSV-1 labial recurrences. A prospective, randomized, single-centre, assessor-blinded study of CS20 versus topical aciclovir or placebo. The primary endpoint was the total score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching, and tingling sensations), evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints encompassed objective skin changes (oedema, crusting and erythema), evaluated by specific clinical scores. In a study of 106 patients, compared with placebo, a significant improvement in total functional symptom score was observed after 1 day of treatment in the CS20 group, but only after 7 days of treatment in the topical aciclovir group. Burning sensations were significantly reduced by CS20 compared with aciclovir (Days 1-2) or placebo (Days 1-7). Compared to placebo, CS20 significantly reduced pain intensity on Days 1-6. CS20 induced significant and early improvements in the clinical scores for oedema and crusting compared with placebo. Time to cure was similar for CS20 and aciclovir. The treatments were well tolerated and adverse events were comparable in the three treatment groups. Limitations  The single-centre and single-blind design of the study and the preselection of patients. CS20 showed superior effectiveness against functional symptoms (pain and burning) associated with HSV-1 labial recurrences and was similar to aciclovir for time to cure. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  2. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial ocular in situ gels containing a disappearing preservative for topical treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Saher, Osama; Ghorab, Dalia M; Mursi, Nadia M

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to formulate and evaluate levofloxacin hemihydrate ocular in situ gels along with freshly prepared disappearing preservative reported to be safer to human eyes. Formulae were prepared using thermosensitive (PF127 and PF68) or ion-activated (Gelrite) polymers. They were evaluated for gelation temperature (GT), capacity, content uniformity, pH, rheological behavior, in vitro drug release with kinetic analysis. Best formulae were exposed to storage effect to select the optimum formula that was subjected to different sterilization methods and in vivo evaluation. The prepared disappearing preservative (sodium perborate monohydrate) proved to be active oxidative preservative and compatible with our formulae. F9 (24% PF127, 15% PF 68, 0.5% levofloxacin hemihydrate, and 0.0025% sodium perborate monohydrate) showed prolonged drug release (12 h), acceptable GT, viscosity, and pH. It remained stable over 3 months at two temperatures and was best sterilized by filtration. It showed longer residence time (12 h) in rabbits' eye fluids compared with the Levoxin® eye drops (4 h). This successful attempt of using thermo-gelling system along with a disappearing type of preservatives would allow the use of these systems to achieve sustained release of antimicrobial drugs with minimum risk of eye damage improving patient compliance and treatment efficacy.

  3. Does Topical Application of Placental Extract Gel on Postoperative Fibrotomy Wound Improve Mouth Opening and Wound Healing in Patients With Oral Submucous Fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Thakur, Gagan; Thomas, Shaji; Bhargava, Darpan; Pandey, Ankit

    2015-07-01

    Placental extract has been used as a therapeutic agent with application in various fields of medicine. Placental extract is well known for its effects on wound healing with anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and angiogenic effects and is also a biogenic modulator. The present study evaluated the effect of placental extract on wound healing, mouth opening, and postoperative patient discomfort in patients with oral submucous fibrosis treated with fibrotomy with buccal fat pad coverage and coronoidectomy. Ten subjects with oral submucous fibrosis who presented with mouth opening less than 20 mm were enrolled in the present prospective randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of placental extract on the fibrotomy wound covered with a pedicled buccal pad fat (5 patients allocated to the study group, group S and 5 to the control group, group C). The following criteria were used to analyze the postoperative effect of placental extract on fibrotomy wounds compared with that of the controls: subjective assessment of the wound, postoperative discomfort, and postoperative mouth opening assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively. The average difference in the preoperative and fourth week postoperative mouth opening for group C was 13.8 ± 2.68 mm and was 21.20 ± 2.77 mm in group S. The median calculated for group C was a 15.0-mm increase in mouth opening and was 20.0 mm in group S. The results obtained with topical application of placental extract on fibrotomy wound healing and postoperative mouth opening were superior to those of the control group in whom placental extract was not used. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxybutynin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment with oxybutynin gel.Oxybutynin gel may catch fire. Stay away from open flames and do not ... This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  5. Clindamycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel, a solution (liquid), a lotion, and a pledget (swab) to apply to the skin. The foam ... usually applied once a day. The solution, lotion, pledgets, and most brands of gel are applied twice ...

  6. Drug-free gel containing ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles (TDT 064) as topical therapy for the treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis: a review of clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Conaghan, Philip G; Bijlsma, Johannes W; Kneer, Werner; Wise, Elspeth; Kvien, Tore K; Rother, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many patients with osteoarthritis (OA) experience side effects with available systemic therapies, some of which can be life threatening. The widespread use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), often without prescription, is concerning given their potential risks. New treatments for OA are therefore required. This review discusses evidence supporting the use of TDT 064, a drug-free, topical gel containing ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles (Sequessome * vesicles), for OA-associated pain. Preclinical and clinical studies investigating TDT 064 in patients with OA-associated knee pain were identified in searches of PubMed and congress abstracts. The ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles (sequessome vesicles) in TDT 064 pass through the skin intact to reach the synovial space within the joint. The mechanism of action is not yet certain, but the phospholipid-based structure of these ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles, and the observation that they localize to the cartilage surface, support biolubrication as a possible mechanism of action of TDT 064. Data from randomized, phase III studies in OA knee pain in which TDT 064 was used as the drug-free vehicle control for IDEA-033 (ketoprofen in ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles) demonstrate a marked and consistent response to TDT 064 in terms of pain, stiffness, and function. In a 12 week study of >1300 patients, the effects of TDT 064 on pain and function were statistically noninferior to those of oral celecoxib, and superior to oral placebo. TDT 064 was well tolerated in all studies, and adverse events were typically mild-to-moderate effects on the skin. Evidence from clinical studies supports the use of TDT 064 as a drug-free topical treatment for patients with OA. Further experience with TDT 064, particularly among patients with comorbidities or NSAID contraindications, will provide more information on its potential use.

  7. A 12-week randomized study of topical therapy with three dosages of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) compared with the ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Kneer, Werner; Rother, Matthias; Mazgareanu, Stefan; Seidel, Egbert J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) in comparison with a ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Methods Patients with knee OA (N = 866) were randomly assigned to receive topical IDEA-033 containing 100, 50, or 25 mg ketoprofen, or TDT 064 twice daily for 12 weeks, in a double-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC®) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale score. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC function subscale score and the patient global assessment of response to therapy. The secondary endpoints included the numeric pain rating for the first 14 days of treatment and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder rates. Results The WOMAC pain scores were reduced by approximately 50% or more in all four groups. The 100 and 50 mg ketoprofen groups, but not the 25 mg group, showed a superior reduction in the WOMAC pain score versus the TDT 064 group (100 mg: −57.4% [P = 0.0383]; 50 mg: −57.1% [P = 0.0204]; and 25 mg: −53.4% [P = 0.3616] versus TDT 064: −49.5%). The superiority of the ketoprofen-containing formulations was not demonstrated for the WOMAC function subscale score, whereas the patient global assessment of 50 mg ketoprofen group, but not the 100 or 25 mg group, was superior to that of the TDT 064 group (P = 0.0283). Responder rates were significantly higher for all the IDEA-033 groups versus the TDT 064 group, but were high in all groups (100 mg: 88.6%; 50 mg: 86.8%; 25 mg: 88.6%; and TDT 064: 77.5%). Dermal reactions were the only relevant drug-related adverse events in all four groups. Conclusion The 50 and 100 mg ketoprofen doses of IDEA-033 were only marginally superior to TDT 064 for reducing pain associated with knee OA. The study indicates a high treatment response to the topical

  8. A 12-week randomized study of topical therapy with three dosages of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) compared with the ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Kneer, Werner; Rother, Matthias; Mazgareanu, Stefan; Seidel, Egbert J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ketoprofen in Transfersome® gel (IDEA-033) in comparison with a ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Patients with knee OA (N = 866) were randomly assigned to receive topical IDEA-033 containing 100, 50, or 25 mg ketoprofen, or TDT 064 twice daily for 12 weeks, in a double-blind trial. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC®) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale score. The coprimary efficacy endpoints were the WOMAC function subscale score and the patient global assessment of response to therapy. The secondary endpoints included the numeric pain rating for the first 14 days of treatment and the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder rates. The WOMAC pain scores were reduced by approximately 50% or more in all four groups. The 100 and 50 mg ketoprofen groups, but not the 25 mg group, showed a superior reduction in the WOMAC pain score versus the TDT 064 group (100 mg: -57.4% [P = 0.0383]; 50 mg: -57.1% [P = 0.0204]; and 25 mg: -53.4% [P = 0.3616] versus TDT 064: -49.5%). The superiority of the ketoprofen-containing formulations was not demonstrated for the WOMAC function subscale score, whereas the patient global assessment of 50 mg ketoprofen group, but not the 100 or 25 mg group, was superior to that of the TDT 064 group (P = 0.0283). Responder rates were significantly higher for all the IDEA-033 groups versus the TDT 064 group, but were high in all groups (100 mg: 88.6%; 50 mg: 86.8%; 25 mg: 88.6%; and TDT 064: 77.5%). Dermal reactions were the only relevant drug-related adverse events in all four groups. The 50 and 100 mg ketoprofen doses of IDEA-033 were only marginally superior to TDT 064 for reducing pain associated with knee OA. The study indicates a high treatment response to the topical ketoprofen-free vehicle TDT 064.

  9. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise.

  10. Mechlorethamine Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the treated areas. Wash your hands well with soap and water after applying or touching mechlorethamine gel. ... disposable nitrile gloves and wash hands well with soap and water after removing the gloves. If a ...

  11. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking to your doctor.Bexarotene gel may catch fire. Do not use this medication near a source ... This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  12. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Waheeb, Saad

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients' and surgeon's satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon's and the patients' satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

  13. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Waheeb, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients’ and surgeon’s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Results: None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon’s and the patients’ satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion: Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon. PMID:21120050

  14. Cumulative irritation potential among metronidazole gel 1%, metronidazole gel 0.75%, and azelaic acid gel 15%.

    PubMed

    Colón, Luz E; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2007-04-01

    Topical therapy for rosacea aims to reduce inflammatory lesions and decrease erythema but can carry side effects such as stinging, pruritus, and burning. Metronidazole and azelaic acid gel 15% are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of rosacea. The current study was conducted to assess the cumulative irritation potential of 2 formulations of metronidazole 0.75% gel and 1% gel--and azelaic acid gel 15% over 21 days (N=36). Results of this study demonstrated a significantly greater poten tial for irritation from azelaic acid compared with metronidazole gel 0.75% (P < .0001), which had significantly greater potential for irritation compared with metronidazole gel 1% (P = .0054). Metronidazole gel 1% had a similar profile to white petrolatum.

  15. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  16. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all ... can reach these areas. Wipe off the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on ...

  17. Aerosol gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Christopher M. (Inventor); Chakrabarti, Amitabha (Inventor); Dhaubhadel, Rajan (Inventor); Gerving, Corey (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved process for the production of ultralow density, high specific surface area gel products is provided which comprises providing, in an enclosed chamber, a mixture made up of small particles of material suspended in gas; the particles are then caused to aggregate in the chamber to form ramified fractal aggregate gels. The particles should have a radius (a) of up to about 50 nm and the aerosol should have a volume fraction (f.sub.v) of at least 10.sup.-4. In preferred practice, the mixture is created by a spark-induced explosion of a precursor material (e.g., a hydrocarbon) and oxygen within the chamber. New compositions of matter are disclosed having densities below 3.0 mg/cc.

  18. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  19. Topical microbicides--what's new?

    PubMed

    Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Baxter, Cheryl; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2013-07-01

    Topical microbicides are an important, promising but complex HIV prevention technology under development. After 11 disappointing effectiveness trial outcomes of 6 candidate products (some tested as multiple doses and formulations) over the past 20 years, there is renewed optimism that a safe and effective microbicide will soon be available if the recent success of coitally linked use of the antiretroviral-based microbicide, 1% tenofovir gel, is confirmed. Studies of new antiviral agents, novel delivery mechanisms, and combination/multipurpose products that address challenges of adherence, enhance the effectiveness of tenofovir gel, and address sexual and reproductive health needs of men and women, including preventing HIV infection, are already underway.

  20. The effectiveness and safety of topical PhotoActif phosphatidylcholine-based anti-cellulite gel and LED (red and near-infrared) light on Grade II-III thigh cellulite: a randomized, double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Gordon H; Oberg, Kerby; Tucker, Barbara; Gaston, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Cellulite of the upper lateral and posterior thighs and lower buttocks represents a common, physiological and unwanted condition whose etiologies and effective management are subjects of continued debate. The purpose of this controlled, double-blinded study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel phosphatidylcholine-based, cosmeceutical anti-cellulite gel combined with a light-emitting diode (LED) array at the wavelengths of red (660 nm) and near-infrared (950 nm), designed to counter the possible mechanisms that purportedly accentuate the presence of thigh cellulite. Nine healthy female volunteers with Grade II-III thigh cellulite were randomly treated twice daily with an active gel on one thigh and a placebo gel on the control thigh for 3 months. Twice weekly, each thigh was exposed for a 15-minute treatment with LED light for a total of 24 treatments. At 0, 6, and 12 weeks of the study the following clinical determinants were obtained: standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, standardized thigh circumference tape measurements, pinch testing, body mass index (kg/m2), body fat analysis (Futrex-5500/XL near-infrared analyzer), and digital high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the dermal-adiposal border. In selected patients, full-thickness biopsies of the placebo and active-treated sites were obtained. At 18 months, repeat standardized digital photography, height and weight measurements, and body mass index measurements were obtained. At the end of 3 months, eight of nine thighs treated with the phosphatidylcholine-based, anti-cellulite gel and LED treatments were downgraded to a lower cellulite grade by clinical examination, digital photography, and pinch test assessment. Digital ultrasound at the dermal-adiposal interface demonstrated not only a statistically significant reduction of immediate hypodermal depth, but also less echo-like intrusions into the dermal layer. Three of six biopsies from thighs treated for 3 months with

  1. A multicentre, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel (IDEA-033) with ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) and oral celecoxib for knee pain associated with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Conaghan, Philip G; Dickson, John; Bolten, Wolfgang; Cevc, Gregor; Rother, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of 12-week treatment with ketoprofen in ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles in patients with OA knee pain and to compare the efficacy with that of ketoprofen-free vehicle and celecoxib. METHODS; A multicentre, double-blind controlled study in which patients with knee OA and moderate pain were randomized to one of the six arms: topical ketoprofen 50 or 100 mg in ultradeformable vesicles (IDEA-033), 2.2 or 4.4 g ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), oral celecoxib 100 mg or matching oral placebo, all bd. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the WOMAC pain subscale at week 12. A total of 1395 patients received treatment. Baseline mean WOMAC pain scores ranged from 4.7 to 4.8 across groups. The mean reduction in WOMAC pain score at week 12 was -1.9 (-40.8%) for ketoprofen 50 mg, -1.9 (-40.9%) for ketoprofen 100 mg, -1.9 (-39.8%) for 2.2 g TDT 064, -1.8 (-37.8%) for 4.4 g TDT 064, -1.9 (-40.4%) for celecoxib and -1.4 (-29.3%) for oral placebo. IDEA-033 was not statistically superior to TDT 064. All topical treatments were statistically superior to oral placebo and non-inferior to celecoxib. The most frequent types of treatment-related adverse events reported were gastrointestinal for oral (15.9% for celecoxib) and dermal for topical applications (12.2% for ketoprofen 100 mg). IDEA-033 was not superior to ketoprofen-free vehicle, but both formulations were superior to oral placebo and non-inferior to celecoxib in reducing OA knee pain. ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00716547.

  2. Tolerability of clindamycin/tretinoin gel vs. tretinoin microsphere gel and adapalene gel.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James; Wortzman, Mitchell; Baldwin, Edward K

    2009-04-01

    Newer agents and formulations seek to improve the tolerability of topical retinoid therapy. Recently, a gel containing crystalline clindamycin 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% (CLIN/RA) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of treating mild-to-moderate acne. This single-center, randomized, evaluator-blind phase 1 study compared the tolerability of CLIN/RA to 0.1% tretinoin gel or 0.1% adapalene gel. Forty-five patients applied CLIN/RA once daily to one side of their face every day for 21 days. Patients were randomized to either tretinoin 0.1% (n = 23) or adapalene 0.1% (n = 22) on the contralateral side. A clinical evaluator assessed degree of erythema and scaling; patients provided subjective evaluations of burning, stinging, and itching. CLIN/RA was significantly better tolerated than was 0.1% tretinoin gel, as evidenced by significantly reduced erythema (P < 0.04), scaling (P < 0.03), itching (P < 0.02), burning (P < 0.03) and stinging (P < 0.04). A trend for greater erythema, scaling, and subjective discomfort for 0.1% adapalene gel compared to CLIN/RA was also evident.

  3. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  4. Finasteride topical delivery systems for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zia Ullah; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Ubaid, Muhammad; Shah, Aamna; Kousar, Rozina; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2018-01-23

    Androgenetic alopecia, generally recognized as male pattern baldness, is a gradually developing medical and physiological change, which is manifested by continuous hair-loss from scalp. Finasteride (4-aza-3-oxosteroid) is a potent anti-baldness compound that selectively and competitively inhibits the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Prolonged oral use of finasteride leads to the emergence of sexual disorders including decrease in libido, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, orgasm disorders and mood disturbances. Since, hair follicles widely home in 5α-reductase, topical formulations of finasteride in comparison to its oral formulations are expected to potentially reduce its systemic adverse effects. The analysis of literature has revealed some delivery systems developed for the enhanced and localized penetration of finasteride into the skin. These finasteride delivery systems include polymersomes, vesicular nanocarriers, vesicular ethosomal carriers, liposomes and niosomes, liquid crystalline nanoparticles, topical solutions and gels. The aim of this review article is to briefly amass all literature on topical delivery of finasteride to elaborate best dosage form, i.e. formulation having maximum permeation rate. This study will serve as a future perspective regarding topical delivery of finasteride. The literature analysis has exhibited that most of the previous investigators have used propylene glycol in their finasteride-loaded topical formulations, while poloxamer P407, monoolein, transcutol P and choline was used in few formulations. Moreover among all drug delivery systems, finasteride liposomal gel system consisting of 2% methyl cellulose and gel system containing poloxamer P407 exhibited the highest flux with a value of 28.4 ± 1.3 µg/cm2h and 23.1 ± 1.4 µg/cm2h, respectively. Several topical drug delivery techniques such as topical microneedles, aerosol foams, nanoemulsions, microsponges, and emulsifier free formulations, fullerenes

  5. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs.

  6. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meazza, Lorenzo; Foster, Jonathan A.; Fucke, Katharina; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Steed, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel (‘co-gel’) is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a ‘tipping point’ in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

  7. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    PubMed

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  8. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sol-Gel Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  10. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysismore » suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity

  11. Current status of topical antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lut; Szpir, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the vaginal delivery of antiretroviral (ARV) agents - such as tenofovir, dapivirine and UC781 - may be a promising way to reduce the high rates of HIV infection among women in developing countries. This review examines these developments. The Microbicide Trials Network 003 study, a large phase IIb trial, was unable to show that daily dosing with 1% tenofovir vaginal gel was effective for HIV prevention. Nevertheless, preclinical and early-phase clinical trials suggest that ARV drugs - formulated in vaginal gels, rings, films, tablets and diaphragms - could be effective for HIV chemoprophylaxis. Investigations of topical chemoprophylaxis methods have seen mixed results in the past 12-18 months. Product adherence may prove to be one of the field's greatest challenges. Phase II and III trials continue to explore different dosing strategies for topical products that contain one or more ARV agents.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Gel System Containing Ibuprofen Solid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Noriaki; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    In the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, ibuprofen (IBU) is widely used; however, it has been limited the clinical use by its systemic side effect, such as gastrointestinal lesions. Therefore, we prepared topical gel ointment used IBU solid nanoparticles (IBU nano -gel formulation). In addition, we demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect by using arthritis model rat (adjuvant-induced arthritis rat, AA rat). The gel formulations were prepared using additives (Carbopol 934, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and bead mill-method. The IBU particle size in the IBU nano -gel formulation was 208 nm. The increase in inflammation of the hind feet of AA rats was attenuated by the treatment with the IBU nano -gel formulation, and preventive effect was higher than that of a gel formulation containing IBUmicroparticles (IBU micro -gel formulation, mean particle size 85.4 μm); the accumulation and permeability through the skin of IBU from the IBU nano -gel formulation were significantly larger in comparison with the IBU micro -gel formulation. Further, no gastrointestinal lesions were observed in AA rats following the repetitive administration of the 5% IBU nano -gel formulation (0.30 g) for 42 days (once a day). These results suggest that the dermal application of IBU-nanoparticles provide effective and efficient therapy that spares patients from unwanted side effects.

  13. Clinical Comparison: Fast-Acting and Traditional Topical Dental Anesthetic

    PubMed Central

    DiMarco, Arthur C.; Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments. Subjects self-reported pain perception after each injection using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS ratings demonstrated no significant difference between the 5-second application of the refrigerant (M = 16.2, SD = 17.7) and the 2-minute application of 20% benzocaine topical gel anesthetic (M = 17.9, SD = 18.2). Fifty-seven percent of the subjects reported greater pain reduction with the refrigerant, 33% reported greater pain reduction with 20% benzocaine, and 10% reported no difference. Results suggest the described method of application of a refrigerant as an oral topical anesthetic has a faster onset and provides similar benefit in pain reduction compared with 20% benzocaine gel. The refrigerant was easy to accomplish and well received by subjects, indicating potential for routine use in dentistry. PMID:27269661

  14. Clinical Comparison: Fast-Acting and Traditional Topical Dental Anesthetic.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Arthur C; Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments. Subjects self-reported pain perception after each injection using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS ratings demonstrated no significant difference between the 5-second application of the refrigerant (M = 16.2, SD = 17.7) and the 2-minute application of 20% benzocaine topical gel anesthetic (M = 17.9, SD = 18.2). Fifty-seven percent of the subjects reported greater pain reduction with the refrigerant, 33% reported greater pain reduction with 20% benzocaine, and 10% reported no difference. Results suggest the described method of application of a refrigerant as an oral topical anesthetic has a faster onset and provides similar benefit in pain reduction compared with 20% benzocaine gel. The refrigerant was easy to accomplish and well received by subjects, indicating potential for routine use in dentistry.

  15. Gel integration for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanqi; Li, Lingjun; Luo, Chunxiong

    2016-05-21

    Molecular diffusive membranes or materials are important for biological applications in microfluidic systems. Hydrogels are typical materials that offer several advantages, such as free diffusion for small molecules, biocompatibility with most cells, temperature sensitivity, relatively low cost, and ease of production. With the development of microfluidic applications, hydrogels can be integrated into microfluidic systems by soft lithography, flow-solid processes or UV cure methods. Due to their special properties, hydrogels are widely used as fluid control modules, biochemical reaction modules or biological application modules in different applications. Although hydrogels have been used in microfluidic systems for more than ten years, many hydrogels' properties and integrated techniques have not been carefully elaborated. Here, we systematically review the physical properties of hydrogels, general methods for gel-microfluidics integration and applications of this field. Advanced topics and the outlook of hydrogel fabrication and applications are also discussed. We hope this review can help researchers choose suitable methods for their applications using hydrogels.

  16. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  17. Ingenol Mebutate Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... cytotoxic agents. It works by killing fast-growing cells such as the abnormal cells associated with actinic keratoses. ... cover a skin area of about 2 inches by 2 inches. Spread the gel evenly over only the ...

  18. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  19. Azelaic acid (15% gel) in the treatment of acne rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Gover, Melissa D

    2007-05-01

    In December of 2002, the FDA approved azelaic acid 15% gel for the topical treatment of inflammatory papules and pustules of mild to moderate rosacea. Azelaic acid is a saturated dicarboxylic acid, which is naturally occurring and has been used in the treatment of rosacea, acne, and melasma. The 15% gel has a high efficacy and is generally well tolerated, with the local irritation (burning, stinging, itching, and scaling) being typically mild and transient. Azelaic acid 15% gel is considered effective and safe as a therapy for inflammatory papulo-pustular rosacea and is suitable for use on all skin types.

  20. Active DNA gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Omar A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Bertrand, Olivier J. N.; Park, Chang Young

    2013-02-01

    Research into the mechanics and fluctuations of living cells has revealed the key role played by the cytoskeleton, a gel of stiff filaments driven out of equilibrium by force-generating motor proteins. Inspired by the extraordinary mechanical functions that the cytoskeleton imparts to the cell, we sought to create an artificial gel with similar characteristics. We identified DNA, and DNA-based motor proteins, as functional counterparts to the constituents of the cytoskeleton. We used DNA selfassembly to create a gel, and characterized its fluctuations and mechanics both before and after activation by the motor. We found that certain aspects of the DNA gel quantitatively match those of cytoskeletal networks, indicating the universal features of motor-driven, non-equilibrium networks.

  1. Gel filtration of sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Alhadeff, J A

    1978-01-01

    The role of sialic acid in the gel-filtration behaviour of sialoglycoproteins was investigated by using the separated isoenzymes of purified human liver alpha-L-fucosidase and several other well-known sialic acid-containing glycoproteins (fetuin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, thyroglobulin and bovine submaxillary mucin). For each glycoprotein studied, gel filtration of its desialylated derivative gave an apparent molecular weights much less than that expected just from removal of sialic acid. For the lower-molecular-weight glycoproteins (fetuin and alpha1-acid glyocprotein), gel filtration of the sialylated molecules led to apparent molecular weights much larger than the known values. The data indicate that gel filtration cannot be used for accurately determining the molecular weights of at least some sialoglycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:356853

  2. [Polymer Gel Dosimeter].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    With rapid advances being made in radiotherapy treatment, three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement techniques of great precision are required more than ever before. It is expected that 3D polymer gel dosimeters will satisfy clinical needs for an effective detector that can measure the complex 3D dose distributions. Polymer gel dosimeters are devices that utilize the radiation-induced polymerization reactions of vinyl monomers in a gel to store information about radiation dose. The 3D absorbed dose distribution can be deduced from the resulting polymer distribution using several imaging modalities, such as MRI, X-ray and optical CTs. In this article, the fundamental characteristics of polymer gel dosimeter are reviewed and some challenging keys are also suggested for the widely spread in clinical use.

  3. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  4. Formulation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of topical microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jessica L.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of safe topical microbicides that effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major goal in curbing the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic. A number of past failures resulting from mucosal toxicity or lack of efficacy have informed the field. Products that caused toxicity to the female genital tract mucosa, and thereby increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition, included nonoxynol 9, cellulose sulfate, and C31 G vaginal gel Savvy®. Topical products that were ineffective in preventing HIV infection include BufferGel®, Carraguard®, and PRO 2000®. Antiretroviral drugs such as tenofovir and dapivirine formulated into microbicide products have shown promise, but there is much to learn about ideal product formulation and acceptability, and drug distribution and disposition (pharmacokinetics). Current formulations for water-soluble molecules include vaginally or rectally applied gels, vaginal rings, films and tablets. Dosing strategies (e.g. coitally dependent or independent) will be based on the pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient and the tolerance for less than perfect adherence. PMID:22306523

  5. Efficacy and safety of once-daily metronidazole 1% gel compared with twice-daily azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Wolf, John E; Kerrouche, Nabil; Arsonnaud, Stephanie

    2006-04-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory dermatologic disorder characterized by the presence of facial erythema, visible blood vessels, papules, and pustules. The National Rosacea Society has established a classification system that identifies 4 distinct rosacea subtypes based on clinical presentation: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular. The goal of topical therapy for rosacea is to reduce inflammatory lesion counts; decrease intensity of erythema; and reduce symptoms such as stinging, burning, and pruritus. Metronidazole and azelaic acid are thought to reduce the inflammation associated with rosacea by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils. Both metronidazole 1% gel and azelaic acid 15% gel recently have been approved for the treatment of rosacea. The current study was conducted to compare the once-daily application of metronidazole 1% gel with twice-daily applications of azelaic acid 15% gel for the treatment of patients with moderate rosacea (N=160). Both treatments showed similar reductions in inflammatory lesion counts (77% for metronidazole 1% gel and 80% for azelaic acid 15% gel) and high success rates in both global severity (53.7% vs 56.4% for metronidazole 1% gel and azelaic acid 15% gel, respectively) and erythema (42.7% vs 42.3% for metronidazole 1% gel and azelaic acid 15% gel, respectively). On average, the efficacy (including reduction in erythema) of the once-daily application of metronidazole 1% gel and twice-daily applications of azelaic acid 15% gel were similar.

  6. Topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Laws, Philip M; Young, Helen S

    2010-08-01

    The majority of patients with psoriasis can be safely and effectively treated with topical therapy alone, either under the supervision of a family physician or dermatologist. For those requiring systemic agents, topical therapies can provide additional benefit. Optimal use of topical therapy requires an awareness of the range and efficacy of all products. The review covers the efficacy and role of topical therapies including emollients, corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, calcineurin inhibitors, dithranol, coal tar, retinoids, keratolyics and combination therapy. The report was prepared following a PubMed and Embase literature search up to April 2010. The paper provides a broad review of the relevant topical therapeutic options available in routine clinical practice for the management of psoriasis and a recommendation for selection of treatment. Topical therapies used appropriately provide a safe and effective option for the management of psoriasis. An awareness of the available products and their efficacy is key to treatment selection and patient satisfaction.

  7. Comparison effect of azithromycin gel 2% with clindamycin gel 1% in patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Faghihi, Gita; Basiri, Akram; Farhadi, Sadaf; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali; Behfar, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease. Local and systemic antimicrobial drugs are used for its treatment. But increasing resistance of Propionibacterium acnes to antibiotics has been reported. In a double-blind clinical trial, 40 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were recruited. one side of the face was treated with Clindamycin Gel 1% and the other side with Azithromycin Topical Gel 2% BID for 8 weeks and then they were assessed. Average age was 21. 8 ± 7 years. 82.5% of them were female. Average number of papules, pustules and comedones was similarly reduced in both groups and, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). The mean indexes of ASI and TLC also significantly decreased during treatment in both groups, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. (P > 0.05, repeated measurs ANOVA). Also, impact of both drugs on papules and pustules was 2-3 times greater than the effect on comedones. Average satisfaction score was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.6, repeated measurs ANOVA). finally, frequency distribution of complications was not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05, Fisher Exact test). Azithromycin gel has medical impact at least similar to Clindamycin Gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris, and it may be consider as suitable drug for resistant acne to conventional topical therapy.

  8. Deoxycholate-hydrogels: novel drug carrier systems for topical use.

    PubMed

    Valenta, C; Nowack, E; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    1999-08-05

    Na-deoxycholate (Na-DOC) forms a viscous thixotropic gel when in contact with excess buffer systems. The resulting gels have been tested as novel drug carrier systems for topical use. The influence of differing amounts of mannitol, glycerol and xylitol on the viscous modulus (G"/Pa) was evaluated by oscillatory measurements. Na-DOC (0.5%) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with 5% mannitol was chosen as an optimised formulation, taking into account viscosity, distribution and appearance. The release rate of the model drug rutin through an artificial membrane was higher than those from hydroxyethylcellulose- (HEC) and sodium polyacrylate (NaC934)-gels; permeation through excised rat skin was also highest for the Na-DOC systems. The results indicate that Na-DOC significantly increases the membrane permeability. The microbial stability was in the same range as HEC- and NaC934-gels, making a preservation necessary. Na-DOC-gels are novel low molecular weight, multifunctional drug carriers, which also act as penetration enhancers. Their thixotropy is an additional advantage for better application to large skin areas, nasal, vaginal and buccal membranes. Therefore, Na-DOC-gels can be considered promising, alternative drug carrier systems for topical pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic use.

  9. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least onemore » polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.« less

  10. Patterns in shrinking gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Eriko Sato; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    1992-08-01

    POLYMER gels can undergo a volume phase transition (either continuous or discontinuous) when an external condition, such as temperature or solvent composition, is altered1-3. During this transition, the volume may change by a factor of several thousand, and various patterns develop in the gel. The patterns arising from swelling and shrinking differ in both their appearance and their physical mechanisms. The mechanism for the formation and evolution of patterns on swelling gels has been established as being due to a single kind of mechanical instability4-7 in contrast, the shrinking patterns seem to be sensitive to both the initial and final states of the transition. Here we classify the various shrinking patterns in the form of a phase diagram, and explain the poly-morphism in terms of macroscopic phase separation.

  11. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  12. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  13. Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... the benzoyl peroxide product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days when ... cream, or gel, first wash the affected skin areas and gently pat dry with a towel. Then apply a small amount of benzoyl Peroxide, rub it in gently. ...

  14. Electroblotting from Polyacrylamide Gels.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Aaron; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Mozdzanowski, Jacek; Speicher, David W

    2015-11-02

    Transferring proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto retentive membranes is now primarily used for immunoblotting. A second application that was quite common up to about a decade ago was electroblotting of proteins for N-terminal and internal sequencing using Edman chemistry. This unit contains procedures for electroblotting proteins from polyacrylamide gels onto a variety of membranes, including polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and nitrocellulose. In addition to the commonly used tank or wet transfer system, protocols are provided for electroblotting using semidry and dry systems. This unit also describes procedures for eluting proteins from membranes using detergents or acidic extraction with organic solvents for specialized applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Topical lignocaine for vaginismus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, S K; Verma, P; Arora, M

    2006-01-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction in which spasm of vaginal musculature precludes penetrative intercourse. In many cases associated pain or fear of pain may contribute to the maintenance of vaginismus. We report a case of primary vaginismus with associated pain that benefited from topical application of lignocaine gel along with systematic desensitization resulting in successful consummation, and suggest that it may be a useful adjunct during finger dilatation in the treatment of vaginismus, specifically in patients who have associated pain or areas of hyperesthesia in the introitus.

  16. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  17. Transdermal delivery of paeonol using cubic gel and microemulsion gel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Maofu; Shen, Qi; Chen, Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations. Methods Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate. Results A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension. Conclusion Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel. PMID:21904450

  18. Measuring Dilution of Microbicide Gels with Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tyler K.; Shah, Tejen; Peters, Jennifer J.; Wax, Adam; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel approach for measuring topical microbicide gel dilution using optical imaging. The approach compares gel thickness measurements from fluorimetry and multiplexed low coherence interferometry in order to calculate dilution of a gel. As a microbicide gel becomes diluted at fixed thickness, its mLCI thickness measurement remains constant, while the fluorimetry signal decreases in intensity. The difference between the two measurements is related to the extent of gel dilution. These two optical modalities are implemented in a single endoscopic instrument that enables simultaneous data collection. A preliminary validation study was performed with in vitro placebo gel measurements taken in a controlled test socket. It was found that change in slope of the regression line between fluorimetry and mLCI based measurements indicates dilution. A dilution calibration curve was then generated by repeating the test socket measurements with serial dilutions of placebo gel with vaginal fluid simulant. This methodology can provide valuable dilution information on candidate microbicide products, which could substantially enhance our understanding of their in vivo functioning. PMID:24340006

  19. Azelaic acid 15% gel: in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E; Wagstaff, Antona J

    2004-01-01

    Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring, straight-chain dicarboxylic acid which is effective in the treatment of rosacea, presumably on account of its anti-inflammatory properties. In randomized, double-blind, multicenter studies involving patients with moderate papulopustular facial rosacea, twice-daily topical application of azelaic acid 15% gel to the face was significantly more effective than twice-daily administration of either its vehicle (two studies) or metronidazole 0.75% gel (one study) in reducing inflammatory lesion counts and erythema severity. However, neither active treatment had a clinically discernable effect on telangiectasia. In all three studies, azelaic acid 15% gel recipients experienced continuous decreases in lesion counts and erythema throughout the 12- to 15-week treatment periods. However, the effects of metronidazole 0.75% gel plateauxed after 8 weeks. In other efficacy assessments in these studies, azelaic acid 15% gel was superior to its vehicle and metronidazole 0.75% gel in both the investigators' global assessment of rosacea and the investigators' end-of-study evaluation of overall improvement, and superior to its vehicle in the patients' end-of-study evaluation of overall improvement. The most frequent treatment-related cutaneous adverse events during administration of azelaic acid 15% gel include burning/stinging/tingling and pruritus (itching); however, these events are predominantly transient in nature and mild-to-moderate in intensity.

  20. Topical Therapies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Torsekar, R.; Gautam, Manjyot M.

    2017-01-01

    Topical therapy as monotherapy is useful in psoriasis patients with mild disease. Topical agents are also used as adjuvant for moderate-to-severe disease who are being concurrently treated with either ultraviolet light or systemic medications. Emollients are useful adjuncts to the treatment of psoriasis. Use of older topical agents such as anthralin and coal tar has declined over the years. However, they are cheaper and can still be used for the treatment of difficult psoriasis refractory to conventional treatment. Salicylic acid can be used in combination with other topical therapies such as topical corticosteroids (TCS) and calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of thick limited plaques to increase the absorption of the latter into the psoriatic plaques. Low- to mid-potent TCS are used in facial/flexural psoriasis and high potent over palmoplantar/thick psoriasis lesions. The addition of noncorticosteroid treatment can also facilitate the avoidance of long-term daily TCS. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus can be used for the treatment of facial and intertriginous psoriasis. Tazarotene is indicated for stable plaque psoriasis usually in combination with other therapies such as TCS. Vitamin D analogs alone in combination with TCS are useful in stable plaques over limbs and palmoplantar psoriasis. Topical therapies for scalp psoriasis include TCS, Vitamin D analogs, salicylic acid, coal tar, and anthralin in various formulations such as solutions, foams, and shampoos. TCS, vitamin D analogs, and tazarotene can be used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:28761838

  1. Topical treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  2. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  3. Topical Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Women: Becoming a Reality

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Natasha A.; Lee, Anna C.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to protect against sexual transmission of HIV include the development of products formulated for topical application, which limit the toxicities associated with systemic oral pre-exposure prophylaxis. Following several clinical trial failures, attention is now focused on antiretroviral (ARV) agents. Highly potent ARV topical formulations provide a female-controlled, targeted, and feasible option for HIV prevention. A recently completed tenofovir gel trial was the first to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. Topical ARVs have the advantage of delivering high concentration of drug at the site of transmission of HIV, with low systemic absorption. Sustained-release formulations, such as intravaginal rings, will likely improve adherence and can be designed to provide controlled and continuous delivery of ARV combinations. Further studies to test alternative dosing strategies and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships in the genital tract will provide valuable information as the field strives to improve upon the promising tenofovir gel trial results. PMID:21424725

  4. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  5. Caffeine-catalyzed gels.

    PubMed

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Lee, Young-Ah Lucy; Glettig, Dean L; Walton, Elizabeth S E; de la Serna, Eva L; Montgomery, Veronica A; Grant, Tyler M; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni

    2018-07-01

    Covalently cross-linked gels are utilized in a broad range of biomedical applications though their synthesis often compromises easy implementation. Cross-linking reactions commonly utilize catalysts or conditions that can damage biologics and sensitive compounds, producing materials that require extensive post processing to achieve acceptable biocompatibility. As an alternative, we report a batch synthesis platform to produce covalently cross-linked materials appropriate for direct biomedical application enabled by green chemistry and commonly available food grade ingredients. Using caffeine, a mild base, to catalyze anhydrous carboxylate ring-opening of diglycidyl-ether functionalized monomers with citric acid as a tri-functional crosslinking agent we introduce a novel poly(ester-ether) gel synthesis platform. We demonstrate that biocompatible Caffeine Catalyzed Gels (CCGs) exhibit dynamic physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, which can be tailored in shape, surface texture, solvent response, cargo release, shear and tensile strength, among other potential attributes. The demonstrated versatility, low cost and facile synthesis of these CCGs renders them appropriate for a broad range of customized engineering applications including drug delivery constructs, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Chiromagnetic nanoparticles and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jihyeon; Santos, Uallisson S.; Chekini, Mahshid; Cha, Minjeong; de Moura, André F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Chiral inorganic nanostructures have high circular dichroism, but real-time control of their optical activity has so far been achieved only by irreversible chemical changes. Field modulation is a far more desirable path to chiroptical devices. We hypothesized that magnetic field modulation can be attained for chiral nanostructures with large contributions of the magnetic transition dipole moments to polarization rotation. We found that dispersions and gels of paramagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with chiral distortions of the crystal lattices exhibited chiroptical activity in the visible range that was 10 times as strong as that of nonparamagnetic nanoparticles of comparable size. Transparency of the nanoparticle gels to circularly polarized light beams in the ultraviolet range was reversibly modulated by magnetic fields. These phenomena were also observed for other nanoscale metal oxides with lattice distortions from imprinted amino acids and other chiral ligands. The large family of chiral ceramic nanostructures and gels can be pivotal for new technologies and knowledge at the nexus of chirality and magnetism.

  7. Dapsone for topical use in extemporaneous preparations.

    PubMed

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Michael, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The sulfone dapsone has an established role in systemic therapy. Its pharmacological and toxicological properties are well known. Topically, dapsone is used in a gel formulation for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In addition, there have been individual case reports on the efficacy of topical dapsone preparations in the treatment of various neutrophilic dermatoses. To date, no finished medicinal product for topical use has been available in Germany. Against this background, we set out to develop extemporaneous preparations containing dapsone (5 %) that meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia as well as the manufacturing requirements of the German Ordinance on the Operation of Pharmacies (ApBetrO). These formulations included the incorporation of dapsone in a hydrophobic cream base ("hydrophobe Basiscreme DAC") as well as in methylprednisolone aceponate 0.1 % ointment (alternatively, in the latter's cream base without active ingredient). Tests aimed at investigating the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of these formulations showed them to meet the aforementioned quality requirements. The extemporaneous formulations presented herein broaden the therapeutic options for topical treatment, in particular for patients with chronic inflammatory dermatoses associated with a neutrophilic pathogenesis. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  9. Comparison of topical anesthetics (EMLA/Oraqix vs. benzocaine) on pain experienced during palatal needle injection.

    PubMed

    Al-Melh, Manal Abu; Andersson, Lars

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the topical anesthetic effect of 20% benzocaine gel with 2.5% lidocaine/2.5% prilocaine (L/P) cream and gel on the pain experienced during palatal anesthetic infiltration. Two groups were studied, each containing 20 subjects. Two types of L/P mixtures were tested, an anesthetic cream (EMLA) and a thermosetting gel (Oraqix), and benzocaine was used as control. The topical agents were applied on the palatal mucosa at the canine region. A needle prick was given on each side every 2 minutes during a period of 10 minutes. The subjects recorded their findings using verbal and VAS scales. Pain scores were significantly less (P < .05) with EMLA and Oraqix than with benzocaine. Topical application of EMLA and Oraqix before palatal anesthetic infiltration is associated with less pain than with benzocaine gel.

  10. The effect of clove and benzocaine versus placebo as topical anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Alqareer, Athbi; Alyahya, Asma; Andersson, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the natural herb clove can replace benzocaine as a topical anesthetic. Topical agents were applied to the maxillary canine buccal mucosa of 73 adult volunteers. Four substances were tested in the study: (1) homemade clove gel, (2) benzocaine 20% gel, (3) placebo that resembles clove and (4) a placebo that resembled benzocaine. After 5 min of material application in a randomized, subject-blinded manner, each participant received two needle sticks. Pain response was registered using a 100 mm visual analogue pain scale. Both clove and benzocaine gels had significantly lower mean pain scores than placebos (p=0.005). No significant difference was observed between clove and benzocaine regarding pain scores. Clove gel might possess a potential to replace benzocaine as a topical agent before needle insertion.

  11. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  12. Topical botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  13. Dapsone 7.5% Gel: A Review in Acne Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Al-Salama, Zaina T; Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Dapsone 7.5% gel (Aczone ® ) is indicated for the once-daily topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years. Dapsone is a sulfone antibacterial with anti-inflammatory actions, which are thought to be largely responsible for its efficacy in treating acne vulgaris. In two phase III trials of 12 weeks' duration in patients aged ≥12 years with moderate acne vulgaris, once-daily dapsone 7.5% gel reduced acne severity (as per the Global Acne Assessment Score) and lesion counts versus vehicle. The benefits of dapsone 7.5% gel over vehicle were seen as early as week 2 for inflammatory lesion counts, and from week 4 or 8 for other outcomes. Dapsone 7.5% gel was well tolerated, with a low incidence of treatment-related adverse events, with the majority of adverse events being administration-site related and mild or moderate in severity. Thus, dapsone 7.5% gel is an effective and well tolerated option for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris in patients aged ≥12 years, with the convenience of once-daily application.

  14. Coupled gel spreading and diffusive transport models describing microbicidal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Claire; MacMillan, Kelsey; Ham, Anthony S.; Szeri, Andrew J.; Katz, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Gels are a drug delivery platform being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application regimen compromised results in two other trials. The microbicide field is responding to this issue by simultaneously analyzing behavioral determinants of adherence and pharmacological determinants of drug delivery. Central to both user adherence and mucosal drug delivery are gel properties (e.g. rheology) and applied volume. The specific problem to be solved here is to develop a model for how gel rheology and volume, interacting with loaded drug concentration, govern the transport of the microbicide drug tenofovir into the vaginal mucosa to its stromal layer. The analysis here builds upon our current understanding of vaginal gel deployment and drug delivery, incorporating key features of the gel's environment, fluid production and subsequent gel dilution, and vaginal wall elasticity. We consider the microbicide drug tenofovir as it is the most completely studied drug, in both in vitroand in vivostudies, for use in vaginal gel application. Our goal is to contribute to improved pharmacological understanding of gel functionality, providing a computational tool that can be used in future vaginal microbicide gel design.

  15. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  16. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  17. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  18. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  19. High transparent shape memory gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Arai, Masanori; Kabir, M. H.; Makino, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-03-01

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry. In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals, and the functional groups of thermoreversible Diels-Alder reaction were introduced into soft gels as crosslinkable pendent chains. The functionalization and strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals and thermoreversible pendent chains. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  20. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  1. Nanoemulsion-based gel formulation of diclofenac diethylamine: design, optimization, rheological behavior and in vitro diffusion studies.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Rania; Basil, Marwa; AlBaraghthi, Tamadur; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Tarawneh, Ola

    2016-12-01

    Chronic oral administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA), is often associated with gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeding. As an alternative to oral administration, a nanoemulsion-based gel (NE gel) formulation of DDEA was developed for topical administration. An optimized formulation for the o/w nanoemulsion of oil, surfactant and cosurfactant was selected based on nanoemulsion mean droplet size, clarity, stability, and flowability, and incorporated into the gelling agent Carbopol® 971P. Rheological studies of the DDEA NE gel were conducted and compared to those of conventional DDEA gel and emulgel. The three gels exhibited an elastic behavior, where G' dominated G″ at all frequencies, indicating the formation of strong gels. NE gel exhibited higher G' values than conventional gel and emulgel, which indicated the formation of a stronger gel network. Strat-M® membrane, a synthetic membrane with diffusion characteristics that are well correlated to human skin, was used for the in vitro diffusion studies. The release of DDEA from conventional gel, emulgel and NE gel showed a controlled release pattern over 12 h, which was consistent with the rheological properties of the gels. DDEA release kinetics from the three gels followed super case II transport as fitted by Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  2. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  3. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, Douglas B.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Segalman, Daniel J.; Witkowski, Walter R.

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  4. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  5. Homogeneity of gels and gel-derived glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance and implications of gel preparation procedures in controlling the homogeneity of multicomponent oxide gels are discussed. The role of physicochemical factors such as the structure and chemical reactivities of alkoxides, the formation of double-metal alkoxides, and the nature of solvent(s) are critically analyzed in the context of homogeneity of gels during gelation. Three procedures for preparing gels in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system are examined in the context of cation distribution. Light scattering results for glasses in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system prepared by both the gel technique and the conventional technique are examined.

  6. Group Discussion Topics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Education Agency 7, Cedar Falls, IA.

    A collection of group disussion topics, developed and field-tested by a group of Iowa teachers, is presented in this guide. Twenty-eight topics for K-6 students, 24 topics for K-12 students, and 7 topics for students in grades 7-12 are included. Warm-up activities are given for introducing some of the topics, and lists of questions to provoke…

  7. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  8. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  9. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  10. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  11. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from

  12. USSOCOM Research Topics 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Law and legal institutions G31. U.S. SOF training of foreign military/security forces “to enhance their capacity” in counterterrorism, COIN, and...engagement advice to SOF. G31. U.S. SOF training of foreign military/security forces “to enhance their capacity” in counterterrorism, COIN, and FID is a...AND SUBTITLE USSOCOM Research Topics 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  13. Acquisition Research Topics Catalog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-AG98 929 AIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTER WRIGHT--ETC F/S 5/1 1981ACQUISITION RESEARCH TOPICS CATALOG.(U) I UNCLASSIFIED NL I EEL...kELECTE MAY 14 1981 uoAIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTERI Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433- ’ ’jCH MA G’ A rs l "-DIT.’u7 I ST AMEN’T...A /, App --vA fc, piibli release; I. . . ’li iLl :i ’.n: ix~lited *1,.: THE AIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTER WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE

  14. Living bacteria in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

    2002-09-01

    The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

  15. Topical Benzocaine and Methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Hieger, Michelle A; Afeld, Jamiee L; Cumpston, Kirk L; Wills, Brandon K

    Methemoglobinemia can cause life-threatening hypoxia associated with cyanosis and dyspnea not responsive to oxygen. We present a case of recurrent methemoglobinemia because of occult use of topical benzocaine to the vulva. A 47-year-old female with medical history of vulvar cancer and HIV undergoing chemoradiation was sent by the oncology clinic to the emergency department for worsening dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia to 78% on room air, and gradual onset of cyanosis over the past week. A methemoglobin (MetHb) level was 49%. She received methylene blue, and repeat MetHb levels initially decreased but later increased to 56% despite continued treatment. Additional interviews with the patient revealed she was applying vagicaine (20% benzocaine), an over the counter preparation to the vulvar area for analgesia, and she continued application while hospitalized. She received a total of 6 mg/kg methylene blue and underwent vaginal lavage with 60 mL of sterile saline and cleansed with soapy water. Cyanosis, hypoxia, and dyspnea resolved, and the MetHb level decreased to 5.4% on the day of discharge. Benzocaine is a frequent cause of iatrogenic methemoglobinemia. In this case, additional medication inquiries were helpful in making the diagnosis. Many patients do not consider over-the-counter medications to be potentially harmful. Methemoglobinemia from occult topical benzocaine administration to the vulva is an uncommon exposure route. Occult medication use can be a source of methemoglobinemia.

  16. Comparison of the transdermal absorption of nimesulide from three commercially available gel formulations.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Pankaj; Kanikkannan, Narayanasamy; Singh, Amarjit; Sing, Mandip

    2002-03-01

    Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) applied topically for a variety of conditions characterized by pain and inflammation. One of the aims of this study was to compare the permeation profile of nimesulide from the commercially available transdermal gel formulations across dermatomed porcine and human skin. The in vitro transdermal absorption of nimesulide formulations across porcine skin and human skin was studiedfor 24 hr using a continuous flow-through diffusion cell. The three commercial gels used in this study were Nimulid, Nise Gel, and Orthobid. All gels contained 1% (w/w) nimesulide. An infinite dose of nimesulide gel (about 300mg) was applied on the skin over 0.636 cm2 surface area. The rank order for the drug permeation from these formulations using porcine skin was: Nimulid > Orthobid > Nise Gel. The rank order of the permeation across human skin was: Nimulid> Nise Gel> Orthobid. The permeation profiles followed zero-order kinetics without any significant lag time. The steady-state flux of nimesulide from Nimulid was significantly higher than that of Nise Gel and Orthobid in both porcine and human skin (p <.05). However, there were no significant differences in the delivery of nimesulide (24 hr) from Nise Gel and Orthobid across both human and porcine skins. The results suggest that the Nimulid gel may have a greater bioavailability of nimesulide compared to the other gels. In addition, permeation profiles of the various gels across porcine skin did show a positive profile behavior to human skin. However, the in vitro drug release of nimesulide gels across a synthetic membrane did not correlate with skin permeation profiles.

  17. Topical Delivery of Erythromycin Through Cubosomes for Acne.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana; Jain, Poorva; Jain, Sourabh; Jain, Richa; Bhargava, Saurabh; Jain, Aakanchha

    2018-01-01

    Topical delivery is an attractive route for local and systemic treatment. The novel topical application has many advantages like averting the GI-irritation, preventing the metabolism of drugs in the liver and increasing the bioavailability of the drug over the conventional dosage forms. The aim of present work was to prepare and characterized erythromycin encapsulated cubosomes using different concentrations of glyceryl monooleate and poloxamer 407 by the emulsification method. The prepared dispersion of cubosomes was characterized for surface morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Further, optimized formulation was converted to cubosomal gel by incorporating carbopol 934 at different concentrations. The prepared gel was characterized for homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadibility, drug content and in vitro drug release study. The result of optimized cubosomes showed average particle size of 264.5±2.84nm and entrapment efficiency about 95.29±1.32 % and the pH of optimized cubosomal was found to be 6.5, viscosity 2475-8901(cp), drug content 95.29% and the spreadability was found to be 11.74 gm.cm/sec. The in vitro drug release kinetics of optimized formulation was found to follow Korsmeyer peppas model having highest R2 value 0.835 and in vitro drug release of optimized erythromycin loaded cubosomal gel and plain drug gel in 24 hr was found to be 89.91±0.73 and 88.64±2.16, while in 36 hr plain drug gel and cubosomal gel showed drug release about 87.64±0.97 and 91.55±1.09, and sustained release was obtained after 24 hr in case of cubosomal gel. Thus, as a whole it can be concluded that erythromycin loaded cubosomes are effective in topically delivering drug in sustained and non-invasive manner for treatment and prevention of acne. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  19. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  20. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, glycolic acid, and salicylic acid. Prescription acne medications include tretinoin, adapalene, dapsone, and ... ACOG) recommends topical benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, topical salicylic acid and glycolic acid for treatment of acne in ...

  1. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  3. Polyoxometalate-based Supramolecular Gel

    PubMed Central

    He, Peilei; Xu, Biao; Liu, Huiling; He, Su; Saleem, Faisal; Wang, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Self-assemblyings of surfactant-encapsulated Wells-Dawson polyoxometalates (SEPs) nanobuilding blocks in butanone and esters yielded supramolecular gels showing thermo and photo responsive properties. The gels can be further polymerized if unsaturated esters were used and subsequently electrospinned into nanowires and non-woven mats. The as-prepared non-woven mats have a Young's modulus as high as 542.55 MPa. It is believed that this supramolecular gel is a good platform for polyoxometalates processing. PMID:23666013

  4. Coating flow of an anti-HIV microbicide gel: boundary dilution and yield stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeri, Andrew J.; Tasoglu, Savas; Park, Su Chan; Katz, David F.

    2010-11-01

    A recent study has confirmed, for the first time, that a vaginal gel formulation of the antiretroviral drug Tenofovir, when topically applied, significantly inhibits sexual HIV transmission to women [1]. However, the gel for this drug, and anti-HIV microbicide gels in general, have not been designed using an understanding of how gel spreading govern successful drug delivery. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory can be applied to model spreading of microbicide gels [2]. Here, we extend our initial analysis: we incorporate a yield stress, and we model the effects of gel dilution due to contact with vaginal fluid produced at the gel-tissue interface. Our model developed in [2] is supplemented with a convective-diffusive transport equation to characterize dilution, and solved using a multi-step scheme in a moving domain. The association between local dilution of gel and rheological properties is obtained experimentally. To model the common yield stress property of gels, we proceed by scaling analysis first. This establishes the conditions for validity of lubrication theory of a shear thinning yield stress fluid. This involves further development of the model in [2], incorporating a biviscosity model.[4pt] [1] Karim, et al., Science, 2010.[0pt] [2] Szeri, et al., Phy. of Fluids, 2008.

  5. Azelaic acid gel 15% in the management of papulopustular rosacea: a status report on available efficacy data and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Bhatia, Neal

    2011-08-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Its efficacy and safety as monotherapy have been demonstrated. Release of active drug from the gel formulation is superior to the cream. The combination of AzA gel 15% with oral doxycycline appears to expedite and augment response, especially in cases of PPR of greater severity, and AzA gel 15% maintains control of PPR over 6 months as compared to vehicle. Adjunctive skin care is recommended to augment the therapeutic outcome of PPR and reduce the potential for irritation that can occur with topical therapy.

  6. Dynamics of a DNA Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket; Dogariu, Aristide

    We study in silico the properties of a gel consisting of DNA strands (modeled as semi-flexible chains) and linkers of varying flexibility, length, and topology. These linkers are envisioned and modeled as active components with additional attributes so as to mimic properties of a synthetic DNA gel containing motor proteins. We use Brownian dynamics to directly obtain frequency dependent complex shear moduli of the gel. We further carry out force spectroscopy on these computer generated gels and study the relaxation properties as a function of the important parameters of the model, e.g., densities and relative ratios of the DNAs and the linkers, the average life time of a link, etc. Our studies are relevant for designing synthetic bio-materials for both materials and medical applications.

  7. Adhesive Properties of Polyacrylate Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Cynthia; Shull, Kenneth

    1998-03-01

    Soft, low-modulus gels provide an interesting opportunity to examine small adhesive interactions between two bodies in contact. As shown through dynamic rheological studies, our materials undergo a rapid gelation as they are cooled from a viscous liquid at elevated temperatures to a soft, elastic solid at room temperature. At low temperatures, the gels exhibit a linearly elastic response and display moduli close to 100Pa, thereby forming materials with great potential for quantifying weak adhesive interactions with a variety of bodies ranging from polymer surfaces to biological entities. Our current studies focus on investigating interfacial effects by performing axisymmetric adhesion tests with a model polyacrylate gel formed by diluting the copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) to a 5-15 percent solution in 2-ethyl hexanol, a selective solvent for the midblock. We have explored two different experimental geometries including a hemispherical rigid indenter of glass pressed into a gel layer of varying thicknesses, and a soft, gel cap in contact with a rigid polymer surface. By simultaneously measuring the applied load, displacement between the two bodies, and contact area during loading cycles, we are able to employ a linearly elastic fracture mechanics analysis to obtain estimates of the gel's modulus over a range of polymer concentrations, and G, the energy release rate.

  8. Hot topics in noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Michael R.

    2003-10-01

    Our world continues to be a noisy place and the challenge to ``increase and diffuse knowledge of noise propagation, passive and active noise control, and the effects of noise'' remains. In the last several years, noise in the classroom has emerged as one of the hotter topics: Considerable progress has been made in the underpinning research, the formulation of recommendations, and the process of educating society on the social and personal impact of inadequate acoustical conditions in classrooms. The establishment of the ANSI S12.60-2002 standard for classroom acoustics was a milestone event. Noise in cities and the understanding of our soundscapes are subjects of ongoing significance. The development of standards and regulations is a continuing process, with urban community noise regulations, aviation noise, and the preservation of natural quiet in national parks being of current concern. New methods to reduce noise are under development and include passive and active methods of noise control, techniques for modeling the performance of noise barriers, and approaches for designing product sound quality.

  9. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  10. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Rhia, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  11. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOEpatents

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  12. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies

  13. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  14. Azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald; Layton, Alison

    2008-10-01

    Rosacea represents a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of uncertain pathophysiology. There are several associated risk factors and the need for long-term treatment is well recognized. This diverse disease is frequently difficult to manage and has a significant impact on quality of life. There are several topical and oral treatments available, of which azelaic acid 15% gel (Finacea) is the first new treatment for rosacea in more than a decade. Azelaic acid per se has multiple modes of action in rosacea, but an anti-inflammatory effect achieved by reducing reactive oxygen species appears to be the main pharmacological action. Clinical studies have shown that azelaic acid 15% gel is an effective and safe first-line topical therapeutic option in patients with mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea. Significant continuous improvement in the number of inflammatory lesions and in erythema has been shown over a period of 15 weeks. Adverse effects associated with azelaic acid 15% gel are mostly mild or transient and do not usually necessitate discontinuation of therapy.

  15. In-vitro activity of sodium-hypochlorite gel on bacteria associated with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Karolina; Nietzsche, Sandor; Ender, Claudia; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of a sodium hypochlorite formulation including its components against bacteria associated with periodontal disease. Sodium hypochlorite formulation (NaOCl gel), its components sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and the activating vehicle were compared with 0.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) solution. The antimicrobial activity was proven by determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentrations, and killing assays. Furthermore, the influence on formation as well as on a 4-day-old 6-species biofilm was tested. Except for one strain (Parvimonas micra ATCC 33270 in case of NaOCl gel), the MICs both of the CHX solution and NaOCl gel did not exceed 10 % of the formulations' concentration. In general, MICs of the NaOCl gel were equal as of the CHX solution against Gram-negatives but higher against Gram-positive bacteria. CHX but not NaOCl gel clearly inhibited biofilm formation; however, the activity of NaOCl gel was more remarkable on a 4-day-old biofilm. NaOCl killed bacteria in the biofilm and interfered with the matrix. The NaOCl gel acts antimicrobial in particular against Gram-negative species associated with periodontitis. Moreover, its component NaOCl hypochlorite is able to alter biofilm matrices. The NaOCl gel may represent a potential alternative for adjunctive topical antimicrobial treatment in periodontitis.

  16. [Non adherence and topical steroids].

    PubMed

    Aubert, H; Barbarot, S

    2012-01-01

    Compliance raises very specific questions in dermatology related to the frequent use of local treatments: creams or ointments, including topical corticosteroids. The adherence in dermatology is a complex issue. It is difficult to quantify objectively because of the patient subjectivity, the constant adaptation to changes in the course of the disease, and due to the lack of adapted device. Moreover poor compliance may be related to topical corticosteroid phobia, defined as a fear vis-à-vis the topical corticosteroids, rational or not. The topical corticosteroid phobia is very common in the management of chronic inflammatory skin diseases especially in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Versatility of azelaic acid 15% gel in treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) 15% gel is approved for the treatment of rosacea in the US, but also has approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris in many European countries where it has demonstrated success. Two randomized, multicenter, controlled clinical trials compared the effects of AzA 15% gel with those of topical benzoyl peroxide 5% or topical clindamycin 1%, all using a twice-daily dosing regimen. The primary endpoint in the intent-to-treat analysis was a reduction in inflammatory papules and pustules. AzA 15% gel resulted in a 70% to 71% median reduction of facial papules and pustules compared with a 77% reduction with benzoyl peroxide 5% gel and a 63% reduction with clindamycin. AzA 15% gel was well-tolerated. In addition, a 1-year European observational study conducted by dermatologists in private practice evaluated the safety and efficacy of AzA 15% gel used as monotherapy or in combination with other agents in more than 1200 patients with acne. Most physicians (81.9%) described an improvement in patients' symptoms after an average of 34.6 days, and 93.9% of physicians reported patient improvement after an average of 73.1 days. Both physicians and patients assessed AzA 15% gel to be effective with 74% of patients being "very satisfied" at the end of therapy. AzA 15% gel was considered "well-tolerated" or "very well-tolerated" by 95.7% of patients. The majority of patients were more satisfied with AzA than with previous therapies. AzA 15% gel represents a new therapeutic option for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  18. Fundamentals of Polymer Gel Dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, Kim B.

    2006-12-01

    The recent literature on polymer gel dosimetry contains application papers and basic experimental studies involving polymethacrylic-acid-based and polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeters. The basic studies assess the relative merits of these two most commonly used dosimeters, and explore the effects of tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC) antioxidant on dosimeter performance. Polymer gel dosimeters that contain THPC or other oxygen scavengers are called normoxic dosimeters, because they can be prepared under normal atmospheric conditions, rather than in a glove box that excludes oxygen. In this review, an effort is made to explain some of the underlying chemical phenomena that affect dosimeter performance using THPC, and that lead to differences in behaviour between dosimeters made using the two types of monomer systems. Progress on the development of new more effective and less toxic dosimeters is also reported.

  19. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  20. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  1. Topical bioavailability of diclofenac from locally-acting, dermatological formulations.

    PubMed

    Cordery, S F; Pensado, A; Chiu, W S; Shehab, M Z; Bunge, A L; Delgado-Charro, M B; Guy, R H

    2017-08-30

    Assessment of the bioavailability of topically applied drugs designed to act within or beneath the skin is a challenging objective. A number of different, but potentially complementary, techniques are under evaluation. The objective of this work was to evaluate in vitro skin penetration and stratum corneum tape-stripping in vivo as tools with which to measure topical diclofenac bioavailability from three approved and commercialized products (two gels and one solution). Drug uptake into, and its subsequent clearance from, the stratum corneum of human volunteers was used to estimate the input rate of diclofenac into the viable skin layers. This flux was compared to that measured across excised porcine skin in conventional diffusion cells. Both techniques clearly demonstrated (a) the superiority in terms of drug delivery from the solution, and (b) that the two gels performed similarly. There was qualitative and, importantly, quantitative agreement between the in vitro and in vivo measurements of drug flux into and beyond the viable skin. Evidence is therefore presented to support an in vivo - in vitro correlation between methods to assess topical drug bioavailability. The potential value of the stratum corneum tape-stripping technique to quantify drug delivery into (epi)dermal and subcutaneous tissue beneath the barrier is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Azelaic acid 15% gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Combined results of two double-blind clinical comparative studies].

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Graupe, Klaus; Zaumseil, Rolf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Topical measures are still the mainstay in the therapy of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. Azelaic acid 20% in a cream formulation has been established as an efficacious and safe topical drug for 15 years. A new non-alcoholic hydrogel formulation containing 15% azelaic acid was clinically tested against two standard drugs--5% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and 1% clindamycin. In two independent, randomized, blinded comparative trials 15% azelaic acid gel was clinically tested against 5% benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel in 351 patients and against 1% clindamycin gel in 229 patients. The drugs were applied b.i.d. for 4 months. Azelaic acid 15% gel proved to be as effective as BPO and clindamycin with median % reduction of the inflamed lesion (papules and pustules) of 70%, and 71% respectively. The azelaic acid gel was well-tolerated, the side effects (local burning and irritation) were distinctly less than with BPO but more pronounced than with clindamycin. Despite these side effects, the treatment was well-accepted by the majority of patients. Azelaic acid gel is an effective topical monotherapy for mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris; its new gel form is an enrichment of acne therapy.

  3. Resources for Topics in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in architecture or on the work of a particular architect presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and series list (PASL). Two topics are researched as examples: the contemporary architect Richard Meier, and…

  4. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  5. [Violence Prevention: A Topical Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourland, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses the issue of violence prevention in American schools and is based on presentations and discussions at the Workgroup To Improve the Quality of Technical Assistance around the Topic of Violence Prevention held in Washington, D.C. on June 12-14, 1995. The newsletter reports on the following presentation topics:…

  6. A combined analysis of 2 randomized clinical studies of tretinoin gel 0.05% for the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Webster, Guy; Cargill, D Innes; Quiring, John; Vogelson, Cullen T; Slade, Herbert B

    2009-03-01

    Acne vulgaris is a widely prevalent skin disorder primarily treated with retinoids, which have been shown to cause skin irritation. This report describes the combined analysis of 2 similar phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an aqueous gel formulation of tretinoin relative to its vehicle (both studies) and a marketed microsphere formulation of tretinoin (one study) for once-daily topical treatment of acne. Randomized participants 10 years and older with mild to moderate acne (N=1537) received tretinoin gel 0.05% (n=674), tretinoin gel microsphere 0.1% (n=376), or vehicle (n=487) once daily for 12 weeks. Tretinoin gel was more effective than vehicle in reducing inflammatory (P<.001) and noninflammatory (P<.001) lesion counts over 12 weeks. Treatment success rate (global severity score, 0 or 1) was significantly greater in the tretinoin gel 0.05% group compared with the vehicle group (P<.001). The efficacy rate of tretinoin gel 0.05% was approximately 12% less than tretinoin gel microsphere 0.1%. Adverse events (AEs) were generally mild to moderate and rarely resulted in participant discontinuation. Incidence of skin-related AEs in the tretinoin gel 0.05% group (31%) was significantly lower compared with the tretinoin gel microsphere 0.1% group (52%)(P<.001). Thus, tretinoin gel 0.05% applied once daily is a well-tolerated and effective therapy for acne vulgaris and is associated with a low incidence of skin-related AEs.

  7. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using animal model with diabetic foot ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Daburkar, Mohan; Lohar, Vikram; Rathore, Arvind Singh; Bhutada, Pravin; Tangadpaliwar, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the preventive effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using diabetic foot ulcer (DFUs) protocol in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into untreated control (Group I), untreated DFUs (Group II), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract (Group III), DFUs treated with topical A. vera gel (Group IV), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract and topical A. vera gel (Group V). The rats in the treatment groups were daily administered the A. vera gel and ethanolic extract for 9 days. Fasting blood glucose levels and percentage of wound ulcer contraction were measured on day 3, 6, and 9. Statistical Analysis used: The results are expressed as a mean ± Standard Error Mean (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) after Newman–Keuls test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in all cases. Results: Oral administration of A. vera gel ethanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. Topical application of A. vera gel at a dose 30 mg/kg body weight per day to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in no change in blood glucose and plasma insulin. Oral administration as well as topical application of A. vera gel ethanolic extract and gel significantly reduced the blood glucose, improved the plasma insulin, and significantly increased DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to improve the wound ulcer healing as well as the breaking strength on day 9. Conclusions: Present findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of A. vera gel ethanolic extract, and showed that the gel attenuated the diabetic foot wound in rats. PMID:25035641

  8. Topically applied hypericin exhibits skin penetrability on nude mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo-Heng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Min; Yang, Tao; Lu, Lai-Chun; Xu, Xiao-Yu

    2018-06-13

    Hypericin, a powerful natural photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), is suitable for treating skin diseases involving excess capillary proliferation. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the skin penetrability of topically applied hypericin, expecting a reduced risk of prolonged skin photosensitivity, which often occurs after systemic administration. Firstly, the Franz diffusion cell assays were performed to evaluate the penetration effects of different enhancers, including menthol, propylene glycol, camphanone, azone, and carbamide. In view of above evaluation results, we selected menthol as the enhancer in the subsequent in vivo studies. The setting groups were as follows: the blank control group, the light-exposure control group, the gel-base control group, the hypericin gel group, and a hypericin gel-containing menthol group. Except for the blank control, all other animals were irradiated by a LED light. Then, fluorescence microscopy was performed to examine the distribution of hypericin in the skin of nude mouse. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were also carried out to detect pathological changes in the skin after topical hypericin-PDT treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression change of PECAM-1. As shown in the results, menthol facilitated hypericin penetrate the skin of nude mice most. The results of in vivo assays revealed that hypericin penetrated nude mouse skin, spread to the dermis, and resulted in obvious photosensitivity reaction on the dermal capillaries. Moreover, skin injured by the photosensitive reaction induced by hypericin-PDT treatment was replaced by normal skin within 7 days. We concluded that topical applied hypericin could penetrate nude mouse skin well and has a great potential in PDT treatment of skin diseases.

  9. Ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% for the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis: background, effectiveness, tolerability, safety, and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Timothy Y; Hong, Bennett Y

    2014-01-01

    Eye disease due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of ocular morbidity and the number one infectious cause of unilateral corneal blindness in the developed parts of the globe. Recurrent keratitis can result in progressive corneal scarring, thinning, and vascularization. Antiviral agents employed against HSV have primarily been nucleoside analogs. Early generation drugs included idoxuridine, iododesoxycytidine, vidarabine, and trifluridine. While effective, they tended to have low bioavailability and measurable local cellular toxicity due to their nonselective mode of action. Acyclovir 0.3% ointment is a more selective agent, and had become a first-line topical drug for acute HSV keratitis in Europe and other places outside of the US. Ganciclovir 0.15% gel is the most recently approved topical treatment for herpes keratitis. Compared to acyclovir 0.3% ointment, ganciclovir 0.15% gel has been shown to be better tolerated and no less effective in several Phase II and III trials. Additionally, topical ganciclovir does not cause adverse systemic side effects and is therapeutic at lower concentrations. Based on safety, efficacy, and tolerability, ganciclovir 0.15% gel should now be considered a front-line topical drug in the treatment of dendritic herpes simplex epithelial keratitis. Topics of future investigation regarding other potential uses for ganciclovir gel may include the prophylaxis of recurrent HSV epithelial keratitis, treatment of other forms of ocular disease caused by herpesviruses and adenovirus, and ganciclovir gel as an adjunct to antitumor therapy. PMID:25187721

  10. Novel microemulsion-based gel formulation of tazarotene for therapy of acne.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mrunali Rashmin; Patel, Rashmin Bharatbhai; Parikh, Jolly R; Patel, Bharat G

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel microemulsion based gel formulation containing tazarotene for targeted topical therapy of acne. Psudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to obtain the concentration range of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant for microemulsion formation. The optimized microemulsion formulation containing 0.05% tazarotene was formulated by spontaneous microemulsification method consisting of 10% Labrafac CC, mixed emulsifiers 15% Labrasol-Cremophor-RH 40 (1:1), 15% Capmul MCM, and 60% distilled water (w/w) as an external phase. All plain and tazarotene-loaded microemulsions were clear and showed physicochemical parameters for desired topical delivery and stability. The permeation profiles of tazarotene through rat skin from optimized microemulsion formulation followed the Higuchi model for controlled permeation. Microemulsion-based gel was prepared by incorporating Carbopol®971P NF in optimized microemulsion formulation having suitable skin permeation rate and skin uptake. Microemulsion-based gel showed desired physicochemical parameters and demonstrated advantage over marketed formulation in improving the skin tolerability of tazarotene indicating its potential in improving its topical delivery. The developed microemulsion-based gel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of tazarotene in the treatment of acne.

  11. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  12. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  13. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  14. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Description: Silicone gel-filled breast implants have a silicone outer ...

  15. Calculating Percent Gel For Process Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Charles Neal; Scott, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction state of thermosetting resin tracked to assure desired properties. Rate of gel determined as function of temperature by measuring time to gel of part of graphite fabric impregnated with Hexcel R120 (or equivalent) phenolic resin.

  16. Highly efficient treatment of aerobic vaginitis with simple acidic buffered gels: The importance of pH and buffers on the microenvironment of vaginas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Qiu, Haiying; Jin, Yiguang

    2017-06-15

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) leads to uterus deep infection or preterm birth. Antibacterial agents are not optimal therapeutics of AV. Here, we report a series of temperature-sensitive in situ forming acidic buffered gels for topical treatment of AV, involving lactate, acetate, and citrate gels at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. AV rat models were prepared following vaginal infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro/in vivo studies of the buffered gels were performed compared with ofloxacin gels and blank gels. All the buffered gels showed the lower in vitro antibacterial activities than ofloxacin gels but the better in vivo anti-S. aureus effects and similar anti-E. coli effects. The buffered gels improved Lactobacillus growth in the vaginas. Both the healthy rat vaginal pH and the pH of rat vaginas treated with the buffered gels were about 6.5 though the AV rat models or ones treated with ofloxacin gels still remained at the high pH more than 7.0. After treatments with the buffered gels, the vaginal smears changed to a clean state nearly without aerobic bacteria, the vaginal tissues were refreshed, and the immunoreactions were downregulated. The acidic buffered gels bring rapid decrease of local vaginal pH, high antibacterial activities, improvement of probiotics, and alleviation of inflammation. They are simple, highly efficient, and safe anti-AV formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and safety of clindamycin-tretinoin gel versus clindamycin or tretinoin alone in acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jarratt, Michael T; Brundage, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Topical combination therapy containing a retinoid and an antimicrobial is an effective treatment for acne vulgaris. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing clindamycin phosphate 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025% solubilized in an aqueous-based gel (CT gel). 1,649 participants were randomized 2:2:2:1 to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with CT gel, clindamycin, tretinoin, or vehicle gel administered once daily. Significantly more participants achieved 2-grade or greater improvement on the Investigator's Static Global Assessment score with CT gel versus clindamycin, tretinoin, or vehicle gel. CT gel produced a significantly greater reduction in absolute number of total lesions versus all other treatment groups, in total and noninflammatory lesions versus clindamycin, and in total and inflammatory lesions versus tretinoin. Local tolerability was similar to that of tretinoin alone; signs and symptoms of irritation were most notable at week 2. There were no more adverse events with CT gel than with tretinoin gel. CT gel is more effective than clindamycin or tretinoin monotherapy, with a safety and tolerability profile similar to that of tretinoin.

  18. Selected topics in pediatric gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Magne, Michael L

    2006-05-01

    This article discusses some of the more common gastrointestinal problems encountered in pediatric patients. Topics include infectious and endoparasitic disorders, congenital esophageal and hepatic disorders, and acute or chronic intestinal diseases. Diagnostic criteria as well as treatment guidelines are presented.

  19. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. Topics include bed bug biology and behavior, detection and monitoring, non-chemical techniques such as heat treatment, and pesticides.

  20. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  1. Bleach Gel: A Simple Agarose Gel for Analyzing RNA Quality

    PubMed Central

    Aranda, Patrick S.; LaJoie, Dollie M.; Jorcyk, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    RNA-based applications requiring high quality, non-degraded RNA are a foundational element of many research studies. As such, it is paramount that the integrity of experimental RNA is validated prior to cDNA synthesis or other downstream applications. In the absence of expensive equipment such as microfluidic electrophoretic devices, and as an alternative to the costly and time-consuming standard formaldehyde gel, RNA quality can be quickly analyzed by adding small amounts of commercial bleach to TAE buffer-based agarose gels prior to electrophoresis. In the presence of low concentrations of bleach, the secondary structure of RNA is denatured and potential contaminating RNases are destroyed. Because of this, the ‘bleach gel’ is a functional approach that addresses the need for an inexpensive and safe way to evaluate RNA integrity and will improve the ability of researchers to rapidly analyze RNA quality. PMID:22222980

  2. The topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Vissers, W H P M

    2003-01-01

    According to the patients, improvement of efficacy, long-term safety and improvement of compliance are needed. The topical treatment has been innovated during the last decade. Most important are the introduction of two new classes of treatments: topical vitamin D(3) analogues and the retinoid tazarotene. To what extent, however, have we achieved developments which are in line with the needs as expressed by the patients? Improved efficacy has been realized by successful combinations of topical treatments. In particular, the combinations of dithranol, vitamin D(3) and tazarotene with a topical corticosteroid proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side-effects. The efficacy of vitamin D(3) analogues and tazarotene is such that the efficacy of a potent corticosteroid (betamethasone-17-valerate) is approached; calcipotriol even showed an efficacy which is at least as good as this corticosteroid. The long-term safety of new compounds has been evaluated for at least 12 months in large studies. Remarkably for corticosteroids such information is available for only 12 weeks. However, intermittent applications of a topical corticosteroid in combination with another topical treatment provide an effective and safe long-term control of psoriasis. Compliance is a conditio sine qua non for an effective topical treatment. Important progress has been made to increase compliance. Short-contact dithranol has been popularized as an ambulatory treatment which is a highly effective approach as a care instruction programme. Formulations which are better from a cosmetical point of view have been developed for various topical treatments. Reduction of the frequency of applications proved to be possible for most treatments. Once daily applications for corticosteroids, vitamin D(3) analogues and retinoids have been developed, and intermittent applications, a few times per week, are possible for corticosteroids, which proved to be very effective with a reduced profile of side

  3. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  4. Characteristics of platelet gels combined with silk

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Isabella; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Moreau, Jodie; Calabrese, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Platelet gel, a fibrin network containing activated platelets, is widely used in regenerative medicine due the capacity of platelet-derived growth factors to accelerate and direct healing processes. However, limitations to this approach include poor mechanical properties, relatively rapid degradation, and the lack of control of release of growth factors at the site of injection. These issues compromise the ability of platelet gels for sustained function in regenerative medicine. In the present study, a combination of platelet gels with silk fibroin gel was studied to address the above limitations. Mixing sonicated silk gels with platelet gels extended the release of growth factors without inhibiting gel forming ability. The released growth factors were biologically active and their delivery was modified further by manipulation of the charge of the silk protein. Moreover, the silk gel augmented both the rheological properties and compressive stiffness of the platelet gel, tuned by the silk concentration and/or silk/platelet gel ratio. Silk-platelet gel injections in nude rats supported enhanced cell infiltration and blood vessel formation representing a step towards new platelet gel formulations with enhanced therapeutic impact. PMID:24480538

  5. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  6. Comparison of the cumulative irritation potential of adapalene gel and cream with that of erythromycin/tretinoin solution and gel and erythromycin/isotretinoin gel.

    PubMed

    Queille-Roussel, C; Poncet, M; Mesaros, S; Clucas, A; Baker, M; Soloff, A M

    2001-02-01

    Adapalene is a naphthoic acid derivative with retinoid activity that is effective in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. This study assessed the cumulative irritation potential of adapalene gel (0.1%) and adapalene cream (0.1%) compared with that of erythromycin (4%)/tretinoin (0.025%) solution, erythromycin (4%)/tretinoin (0.025%) gel, erythromycin (2%)/isotretinoin (0.05%) gel, and white petrolatum (negative control). This was a single-center, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, intraindividual comparison study in healthy subjects with normal skin. The cumulative irritation assay (patch test) was used to assess the potential for irritation (including erythema) of the treatments. Each subject received all study treatments, randomly applied under occlusion (patch), to sites on either side of the midline on the mid-thoracic area of the back. All patches were applied to the same sites throughout the study, unless the degree of reaction to the treatment or adhesive necessitated removal. For 3 weeks, each test material was applied daily, Monday through Friday, for approximately 24 hours; the Friday patches were left in place over the weekend for approximately 72 hours. All 36 subjects (26 men, 10 women; age, 18-49 years [mean, 30 years]) completed the study. In the course of the study, all subjects had > or =1 application discontinued prematurely on > or =1 site due to intolerance. There were no discontinuations with white petrolatum. All erythromycin/tretinoin gel patches were discontinued at day 10; 35 of 36 erythromycin/isotretinoin gel patches were discontinued at day 9; and 35 of 36 erythromycin/tretinoin solution patches were discontinued at day 11 or day 17. The adapalene products, although slightly more irritating (mean cumulative irritation index, 0.25-1) than white petrolatum, were significantly less irritating than the erythromycin/tretinoin and erythromycin/isotretinoin products (P < 0.01). Adapalene gel and cream were well tolerated

  7. The gel electrophoresis markup language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2010-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.

  8. The Effect of Preventive Agents (Mouthwashes/Gels) on the Color Stability of Dental Resin-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samadani, Khalid H.

    2017-01-01

    The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of using various mouthwashes on the color stability of various dental restorative composite materials. For this purpose, four mouthwashes/gels (Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), Pro-Relief mouthwash (sodium fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (sodium fluoride)), and distilled water as a control, were selected. These were divided into five groups: Group 1: Flocare gel; Group 2: Pascal gel; Group 3: Pro-Relief mouthwash; Group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash; and Group 5: distilled water (control). Prepared restorative materials samples were immersed in the groups of mouthwashes/gels and the distilled water (control) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The discoloration that all materials exhibited with all immersion groups was significantly different at each of the three time periods for all groups (p < 0.05). Results from immersion in Flocare gel, Pascal gel, Pro-Relief mouthwash, and Plax Soin mouthwash were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The color change chroma was not significant for Pro-Relief and Plax Soin mouthwash (p > 0.05). Mouthwashes/gels affect color shifting for all composite resin materials, and changes are exaggerated over time. However, discoloration effects are not perceptible to the human eye. PMID:29563424

  9. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-gel matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO.sub.3H, --NH.sub.2, and --PO.sub.3H.sub.2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex and a sol-gel precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complexes.

  10. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Problems involving divisibility, the ten coin triangle, five times a week with 4 D, a nomogram for the lens formula, the box and ladder problem, chains of circles, tessellating hexagons, topological woggles, and numbers of triangles are discussed. (CT)

  11. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This column includes the description of a game involving addition and subtraction of integers represented by colored bricks, a general formula for an enlargement in the Cartesian plane, an analysis of the possibilities for certain games of board Solitaire, and a BASIC program for a recreational mathematics problem. (DT)

  12. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits. PMID:26322304

  13. Effectiveness of silica based sol-gel microencapsulation method for odorants and flavors leading to sustainable environment.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Aysha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sarfraz, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.

  14. Prevention. Part 7: professionally applied topical fluorides for caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R; Locker, D; Noble, J; Kay, E J

    2003-09-27

    This paper reviews the use of professionally applied topical fluorides (PATF) in caries prevention. PATFs are indicated for children and adults with one or more decayed smooth surfaces and/or those who are at high caries risk. Frequency of administration depends on the patient's caries risk, and is usually every 6 months. The effectiveness of fluoride varnish and gel applications has been well established in caries prevention trials involving permanent teeth. Although both types are effective, varnish may be preferred because it is easier to apply, reduces the risk of fluoride over-ingestion, and has greater patient acceptance. Fluoride foams are similar products to gels, but have not been tested clinically. The use of in-office two-part rinses is not recommended because they have not been proven effective. A cleaning, or prophylaxis, is not necessary before the application of topical fluoride for caries prevention. In conclusion, when used appropriately, PATFs are a safe, effective means of reducing caries risk among high-risk populations.

  15. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) versus solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for topical delivery of meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rawia M; Abd-Elbary, A; Kassem, Mahfoz A; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Basha, Mona

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) as well as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and evaluate their potential in the topical delivery of meloxicam (MLX). The effect of various compositional variations on their physicochemical properties was investigated. Furthermore, MLX-loaded lipid nanoparticles-based hydrogels were formulated and the gels were evaluated as vehicles for topical application. The results showed that NLC and SLN dispersions had spherical shapes with an average size between 215 and 430 nm. High entrapment efficiency was obtained ranging from 61.94 to 90.38% with negatively charged zeta potential in the range of -19.1 to -25.7 mV. The release profiles of all formulations exhibited sustained release characteristics over 48 h and the release rates increased as the amount of liquid lipid in lipid core increased. Finally, Precirol NLC with 50% Miglyol® 812 and its corresponding SLN were incorporated in hydrogels. The gels showed adequate pH, non-Newtonian flow with shear-thinning behavior and controlled release profiles. The biological evaluation revealed that MLX-loaded NLC gel showed more pronounced effect compared to MLX-loaded SLN gel. It can be concluded that lipid nanoparticles represent promising particulate carriers for topical application.

  16. Deep Unfolding for Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Lee, Chao-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.

  17. MIGS: therapeutic success of combined Xen Gel Stent implantation with cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Hohberger, Bettina; Welge-Lüßen, Ulrich-Christoph; Lämmer, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Glaucoma, a common disease in the elderly population, is frequently coexistent with cataract. While the combination of filtration surgery and cataract surgery is a challenging topic with limited success, minimal invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), such as Xen Gel Stents, seems to provide promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate the complete and qualified therapeutic success of Xen Gel Stent implantation with (XenPhaco) and without cataract surgery. One hundred and eleven open-angle glaucoma eyes underwent implantation of Xen45 Gel Stent (AqueSys, Inc.) with or without cataract operation. Complete therapeutic success was defined as target intraocular pressure (IOP) < 18 mmHg at any time point within 6 months of follow-up without local antiglaucomatous therapy or further surgical interventions. Qualified success was defined as target IOP <18 mmHg with additional 1-2 local antiglaucomatous eye drops. Failure included all cases with the necessity of at least three local antiglaucomatous eye drops or additional glaucoma surgery. Combined implantation of Xen Gel Stent with cataract surgery was performed in 30 eyes and stand-alone Xen Gel Stent implantation was performed in 81 eyes. A complete therapeutic success was achieved in 46.9% of single Xen Gel Stent implantation, whereas 53.3% was reached with combined XenPhaco. Qualified success was seen in 2.5% in the eyes of the single Xen Gel Stent implantation group and in 3.3% of the combined surgery group. Therapeutic failure rate was 49.4% in the stand-alone group vs 46.7% in the combined group. Data were not significantly different for group and subgroup analyses. Complete and qualified therapeutic success is similar for the combination of Xen Gel Stent implantation with and without cataract surgery in open-angle glaucoma patients. MIGS using Xen Gel Stent can be recommended in situations if glaucoma surgery is indicated besides coexisting cataract.

  18. Dermasence refining gel modulates pathogenetic factors of rosacea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borelli, C; Becker, B; Thude, S; Fehrenbacher, B; Isermann, D

    2017-12-01

    Over the counter cosmetics sold for local treatment of slight to moderate rosacea often state the claim of actively modulating rosacea pathogenesis. Factors involved in the pathogenesis of this common yet complex skin disorder include kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5), LL-37, as well as protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The objective was to prove the modulating effect of the cosmetic skin care agent Dermasence Refining Gel (DRG) on factors involved in rosacea pathogenesis. We analyzed the effect of DRG on the expression of KLK5, LL-37, PAR2, and VEGF in an in vitro skin model of human reconstituted epidermis. The expression of CAMP (LL-37 gene, fold change -4.19 [±0.11]), VEGFA (fold change -2.55 [±0.12]) and PAR2 (-1.33 [±0.12]) was reduced, KLK5 expression increased (fold change 2.06 (±0.08)) after 18 h of treatment with DRG in comparison to treatment with the matrix gel only. The reduction in CAMP expression was significant (P<.01). The protein expression of all four inflammatory markers was markedly reduced after 18 hours of DRG treatment in comparison to baseline (0 hour), by measure of fluorescence intensity. We show evidence explaining the anti-inflammatory effect of Dermasence Refining Gel in rosacea pathogenesis in vitro. The adjunctive use of DRG in mild to moderate rosacea as a topical cosmetic seems medically reasonable. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Topical Antimycotics for Oral Candidiasis in Warfarin Users.

    PubMed

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Pottegård, Anton; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Burghle, Alaa; Mouaanaki, Fatima; Hallas, Jesper; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Damkier, Per

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for oral candidiasis in warfarin users may be complicated by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between warfarin and topically applied antimycotics. However, current knowledge of these putative DDIs is merely based on case series. We therefore performed a cohort cross-over study with the objective to evaluate the potential DDIs between warfarin and miconazole oral gel or nystatin oral solution. The cohort consisted of individuals using warfarin in the period of 1998-2012 (n ≈ 7400). We collected data on cohort members' measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR) from a clinical database, and obtained information on their use of topically applied miconazole and nystatin from a regional prescription register. Potential DDIs were assessed by comparing INR values before and after initiation of an antimycotic drug. Among 17 warfarin users exposed to miconazole oral gel, the mean INR increased from 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) to 3.8 (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) after exposure, corresponding to a mean INR increase of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.3-2.4). Among 30 warfarin users exposed to nystatin oral solution, the mean INR was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.3-3.1) before and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9) after exposure. In conclusion, we found evidence supporting a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between warfarin and miconazole oral gel. In contrast, we did not find any indication of an interaction between warfarin and nystatin oral solution. Nystatin rather than miconazole should be preferred when treating warfarin users for oral candidiasis. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. [Topical therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G; Beglinger, C; Mottet, C; Seibold, F; Gross, V

    2011-11-16

    The availability of new topical preparations for the treatment of left sided ulcerative colitis ulcerosa offers a therapy optimization for many patients. Rectal application of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is associated with fewer side effects and has a higher therapeutic efficacy in mild to moderate-active left-sided colitis as compared to a systemic therapy. Often it is argued that the patients' compliance is insufficient with a rectal therapy. However, with sufficient information on the proven advantages this is usually not the case. The rectal application of drugs in distal ulcerative colitis is suitable also for the maintenance of remission. Therefore the new therapy guidelines recommend topical therapy more than in former times. Subsequently, these manuscripts focussed specifically on the topical therapy of distal colitis, to elucidate that clear treatment advantages are present in daily practice.

  1. Effects of Minoxidil Gel on Burn Wound Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khazaeli, Payam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Rohani, Shohreh; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil has been reported to inhibit in-vitro fibroblast proliferation and lysyl hydroxylase activity, a key enzyme in collagen biosynthesis. These in-vitro effects proposed minoxidil to be a potential antifibrotic agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of minoxidil gel on wound healing procedure in a second-degree burn model in rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and a second-degree burn was induced on the back of Wistar rats using a heated 2 cm diameter metal plate. Experimental groups received 2% or 5% topical minoxidil gel, dexpanthenol or sliver sulfadiazine. Histological parameters including collagen content, angiogenesis, number of preserved follicles and necrosis along with tensile strength of burn wound area were assessed on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-injury.Microscopic evaluation of specimens collected from sample animals were consistent and showed a second-degree burn. Main histological findings regarding minoxidil topical usage showed that collagen content and tensile strength of burned area did not differ between groups. However, minoxidil increased the number and diameter of blood vessels significantly compared with other groups.Although minoxidil improved the process of wound-healing, our results did not support the proposed idea of its usage as an antifibrotic agent. However, to reject its possible effects as an antifibrotic agent, more objective animal models should be developed and studied. PMID:24734077

  2. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pluronic lecithin organogel as a topical drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Mohit; Belgamwar, Veena; Gattani, Surendra; Surana, Sanjay; Tekade, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the pluronic lecithin organogel containing flurbiprofen for topical application. Different formulations of pluronic lecithin organogels were prepared by using pluronic F127, lecithin, flurbiprofen, isopropyl palmitate, water, sorbic acid, and potassium sorbate. To study the in vitro potential of these formulations, permeation studies were performed with Keshary-Chien diffusion cells. The results of the in vitro permeation studies found that release of flurbiprofen from dialysis membrane-70 was more than excised dorsal rat skin. Gelation temperature study was carried out to determine the temperature where sol-gel transformation takes place. The viscosities of different formulations were determined by using Brookfield Viscometer at 25°C, the viscosity of formulations increases as the lecithin concentration increases. Also the formulations were tested for appearance and feel psychorheologically, pH, and drug content. Interactions between the components of the gel have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized formulation subjected to differential scanning calorimetry shows no drug-polymer interaction. To investigate the in vivo performance of the formulations, a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and skin irritation study was used. The stability studies and freeze-thaw thermal cyclic test were carried out, showing no phase separation of gel, and representing gel stability. Statistical analysis of the data of animal study (anti-inflammatory activity) was done by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. The formulation shows a statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity and is non-irritant to skin.

  4. Topical delivery of aceclofenac from lecithin organogels: preformulation study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, I M; Jadhav, K R; Gide, P S; Kadam, V J; Pisal, S S

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the suitability of lecithin organogels containing aceclofenac for topical application. The present article focuses on the preformulation part of the whole research work. Thin layer chromatography was carried out to determine lecithin's purity. The excipients for formulating lecithin organogel were screened. Lecithin organogels are thermo reversible in nature and hence gelation temperature study was carried out to determine the temperature where Sol-Gel and Gel-Sol transformation takes place. Partition coefficient of the drug was estimated. Drug solubility in plain oil and organogel containing reverse micelles was estimated. Effect of water added on the properties of lecithin organogels such as X-ray diffraction pattern, conductivity and viscosity were determined. Microscopy of the gel sample has been carried out at different magnifications. The pseudo ternary phase diagram has been constructed to determine the organogel existence region. The permeation study of aceclofenac from different concentrations of lecithin organogels [200 mM, 300 mM and 400 mM] has been determined using cellulose acetate membrane (0.45 micro) and excised rat skin. Lecithin organogel in ethyl oleate has desired stability and consistency. A single spot on the TLC plate confirms the purity of soy lecithin to be used in organogel formation. Aceclofenac solubility was found to be more in lecithin/oil reverse micellar system as compared to its solubility in oil. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the incorporation of water in micellar gel network. The physical properties of organogels are affected by water incorporated and concentration of gelator. The permeation of aceclofenac through artificial membrane and excised rat skin demonstrated the same trend and were in the following order 200 mM>300 mM>400 mM. The results showed that organogel exhibits useful pharmaceutical properties.

  5. Postexposure protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV infection by topical integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Parikh, Urvi M; West, Rolieria; Taylor, Andrew; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Smith, James; Novembre, Francis; Hazuda, Daria; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid

    2014-03-12

    Coitally delivered microbicide gels containing antiretroviral drugs are important for HIV prevention. However, to date, microbicides have contained entry or reverse transcriptase inhibitors that block early steps in virus infection and thus need to be given as a preexposure dose that interferes with sexual practices and may limit compliance. Integrase inhibitors block late steps after virus infection and therefore are more suitable for post-coital dosing. We first determined the kinetics of strand transfer in vitro and confirmed that integration begins about 6 hours after infection. We then used a repeat-challenge macaque model to assess efficacy of vaginal gels containing integrase strand transfer inhibitors when applied before or after simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. We showed that gel containing the strand transfer inhibitor L-870812 protected two of three macaques when applied 30 min before SHIV challenge. We next evaluated the efficacy of 1% raltegravir gel and demonstrated its ability to protect macaques when applied 3 hours after SHIV exposure (five of six protected; P < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Breakthrough infections showed no evidence of drug resistance in plasma or vaginal secretions despite continued gel dosing after infection. We documented rapid vaginal absorption reflecting a short pharmacological lag time and noted that vaginal, but not plasma, virus load was substantially reduced in the breakthrough infection after raltegravir gel treatment. We provide a proof of concept that topically applied integrase inhibitors protect against vaginal SHIV infection when administered shortly before or 3 hours after virus exposure.

  6. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  7. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  8. TOPICAL TENOFOVIR, A MICROBICIDE EFFECTIVE AGAINST HIV, INHIBITS HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS-2 REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Graciela; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Balestra, Emanuela; van den Oord, Joost; Cihlar, Tomas; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Snoeck, Robert; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir, was recently formulated into a vaginal gel for use as a microbicide. In human trials, a 1% tenofovir gel inhibited HIV sexual transmission by 39% and surprisingly herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We demonstrate that the concentration achieved intravaginally with a 1% tenofovir topical gel has direct anti-herpetic activity. Tenofovir inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates in human embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and organotypic epithelial 3D-rafts, decreases HSV replication in human lymphoid and cervical tissues ex vivo, and delays HSV-induced lesions and death of topically treated HSV-infected mice. The active tenofovir metabolite inhibits HSV DNA-polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. Tenofovir must be topically administered to achieve concentrations, which are higher than systemic levels after oral treatment, that exert these dual antiviral effects. These findings indicate that a single topical treatment, like tenofovir, can inhibit the transmission of HIV and its co-pathogens. PMID:22018238

  9. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Topical Formulations of Pterocarpus Santalinus Powder in Rat Model of Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit O; Jain, Sourav; Dawane, Jayshree Shriram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. Aim This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Materials and Methods Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I – Control, Group II –Gel base, Group III –P. santalinus paste, Group IV –P. santalinus gel, Group V– Diclofenac gel). Chronic inflammation was induced on day 0 by injecting 0.1 ml Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) in sub-plantar tissue of left hind paw of the rats. Topical treatment was started from day 12 till day 28. Body weight and paw volume (Plethysmometer) were assessed on day 0, 12 and 28. Pain assessment was done using Randall and Selitto paw withdrawal method. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Unpaired students t-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used for comparison among groups. Results Only topical P.santalinus gel significantly reduced the body weight (p=0.02) due to reduction in inflammatory oedema of the left limb. P. santalinus gel also showed significant reduction (p=0.03) in paw volume of rats compared to the other groups. There was significant reduction in pain threshold (gm/sec) due to chronic inflammation, with all the study drugs (p<0.05) but with P. santalinus gel, this reduction was less (p<0.001). Conclusion Gel showed significant anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic activity on topical application in rat model of chronic inflammation. PMID:28892928

  10. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Topical Formulations of Pterocarpus Santalinus Powder in Rat Model of Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dhande, Priti Pravin; Gupta, Amit O; Jain, Sourav; Dawane, Jayshree Shriram

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of arthritis is quite high and there is a need for the search of natural products to halt the progression of disease or provide symptomatic relief without significant adverse effects. This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of topical Pterocarpus santalinus in an animal model of chronic inflammation. Albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of six rats each (Group I - Control, Group II -Gel base, Group III - P. santalinus paste, Group IV - P. santalinus gel, Group V- Diclofenac gel). Chronic inflammation was induced on day 0 by injecting 0.1 ml Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in sub-plantar tissue of left hind paw of the rats. Topical treatment was started from day 12 till day 28. Body weight and paw volume (Plethysmometer) were assessed on day 0, 12 and 28. Pain assessment was done using Randall and Selitto paw withdrawal method. Data was analysed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Unpaired students t-test and ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used for comparison among groups. Only topical P.santalinus gel significantly reduced the body weight (p=0.02) due to reduction in inflammatory oedema of the left limb. P. santalinus gel also showed significant reduction (p=0.03) in paw volume of rats compared to the other groups. There was significant reduction in pain threshold (gm/sec) due to chronic inflammation, with all the study drugs (p<0.05) but with P. santalinus gel, this reduction was less (p<0.001). Gel showed significant anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic activity on topical application in rat model of chronic inflammation.

  11. Topical Knowledge and ESL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Ling; Shi, Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of topical knowledge on ESL (English as a Second Language) writing performance in the English Language Proficiency Index (LPI), a standardized English proficiency test used by many post-secondary institutions in western Canada. The participants were 50 students with different levels of English proficiency…

  12. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET…

  13. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  14. Resources for Topics in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Dale B.

    This guide is intended to help the user become familiar with a selected group of reference tools and resources which are useful in nursing education and practice. It is important for students to use the correct medical or scientific terminology, understand the scope of a topic, and then utilize the tools necessary to research subjects of interest.…

  15. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  16. Hot Topics in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2018-01-01

    There are vital topics in science teaching and learning which are mentioned frequently in the literature. Specialists advocate their importance in the curriculum as well as science teachers stress their saliency. Inservice education might well assist new and veteran teachers in knowledge and skills. The very best science lessons and units of…

  17. Antipsoriatic and Anti-inflammatory Studies of Berberis aristata Extract Loaded Nanovesicular Gels

    PubMed Central

    Nimisha; Rizvi, Dilshad Ali; Fatima, Zeeshan; Neema; Kaur, Chanchal Deep

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Novel nanovesicular gel of Berberis aristata extract was developed and evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: Transferosomes were prepared using soya phosphatidylcholine and edge activators (Tween 80, Span 80, and sodium deoxycholate) by a modified lipid film hydration technique using rotary evaporator and evaluated for various parameters. The quantification and standardization of extract have been carried out using its alkaloid content as berberine as biomarker. Topical application of imiquimod (IMQ) (immune modifier) on the shaved back of mice developed psoriasis-like inflammation followed by histopathological study of inflamed skin. Results: The size of transferosomes was in the range of 265–345 nm whereas polydispersity index ranges from 0.10 to 0.63, and for zeta potential, it was from −19.3 to −43.3 mV. Transferosomes were further added to Carbopol 934P for gel formation and subsequently evaluated for their physicochemical properties. Their efficacy against inflammation, IMQ-induced psoriasis, and skin sensitivity was compared with conventional formulation (commercial formulation-Angle Gloss, Phytolab Pvt. Ltd.). Percent inhibition of edema by transferosomal gel (55.76%) was more as compared to conventional gel of extract (33.5%) found out by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Primary irritation index was found to be <0.4 inferring its safe use for topical formulation. Conclusion: Histopathological report showed that, in psoriasis-induced animal treated with topical application of extract loaded transferosomal gel showed a marked reduction in thickness of epidermis, length of rete ridges as compared to conventional gel formulation. It can be inferred that B. aristata extract loaded transferosomal gel can function as potential anti-inflammatory and antipsoriatic formulation. SUMMARY The objective of the present research work was to prepare Berberis aristata extracts (roots, ethanolic 70%v

  18. Topical anesthesia for penetrating trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Gangolf; Jonas, Jost B

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and clinical practicability of topical anesthesia in comparison with retrobulbar anesthesia for penetrating trabeculectomy. The prospective single-surgeon clinical interventional trial included 20 consecutive patients, who were randomly distributed into a topical anesthesia group ( n=10) and a retrobulbar anesthesia group ( n=10). In the topical anesthesia group, patients received preoperatively oxybuprocaine 0.4% eye drops and cocaine hydrochloride eye drops 10%. The patients of the retrobulbar group received 5 ml mepivacaine 2% injected into the retrobulbar space. To assess intraoperative pain, each patient was asked immediately after surgery to quantitate his/her pain using a 10-point pain rating scale. The topical anesthesia group and the retrobulbar anesthesia study group did not vary significantly in duration of surgery (21.5+/-3.37 min vs 20.2+/-4.46 min, P=0.31), preoperative intraocular pressure (32.2+/-14.62 mmHg vs 30.6+/-12.33 mmHg, P=0.22), postoperative intraocular pressure (8.0+/-4.47 mmHg vs 9.12+/-3.13 mmHg, P=0.64), subjective pain score by the patient (2.25+/-1.23 relative units vs 2.33+/-1.08 relative units ( P= 0.71), and practicability score by the surgeon (2.24+/-1.76 vs 2.56+/-1.58, P=0.82). In view of its clinical feasibility and its minimally invasive character, topical anesthesia may be an option for penetrating trabeculectomy.

  19. Thermoreversible gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate as a potential contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Haineault, Caroline; Gourde, Pierrette; Perron, Sylvie; Désormeaux, André; Piret, Jocelyne; Omar, Rabeea F; Tremblay, Roland R; Bergeron, Michel G

    2003-08-01

    The contraceptive properties of a gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate were investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that sodium lauryl sulfate inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of sheep testicular hyaluronidase. Sodium lauryl sulfate also completely inhibited human sperm motility as evaluated by the 30-sec Sander-Cramer test. The acid-buffering capacity of gel formulations containing sodium lauryl sulfate increased with the molarity of the citrate buffers used for their preparations. Furthermore, experiments in which semen was mixed with undiluted gel formulations in different proportions confirmed their physiologically relevant buffering capacity. Intravaginal application of the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate to rabbits before their artificial insemination with freshly ejaculated semen completely prevented egg fertilization. The gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate was fully compatible with nonlubricated latex condoms. Taken together, these results suggest that the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate could represent a potential candidate for use as a topical vaginal spermicidal formulation to provide fertility control in women.

  20. Preparation, characterization and efficacy of lysostaphin-chitosan gel against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Sai; Nimal, T R; Baranwal, Gaurav; Suresh, Maneesha K; C P, Anju; Anil Kumar, V; Gopi Mohan, C; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2018-04-15

    Lysostaphin (LST) is a bacteriocin that cleaves within the pentaglycine cross bridge of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan. Previous studies have reported the high efficiency of LST even against multi drug resistant S. aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have developed a new chitosan based hydrogel formulation of LST to exploit its anti-staphylococcal activity. The atomic interactions of LST with chitosan were studied by molecular docking studies. The rheology and the antibacterial properties of the developed LSTC gel were evaluated. The developed LST containing chitosan hydrogel (LSTC gel) was flexible, flows smoothly and remains stable at physiological temperature. The in vitro studies by agar well diffusion and ex vivo studies in porcine skin model exhibited a reduction in S. aureus survival by ∼3 Log 10 CFU/mL in the presence of LSTC gel. The cytocompatibility of the gel was tested in vitro using macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line and in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster. A gradual disruption of S. aureus biofilms with the increase of LST concentrations in the LSTC gel was observed which was confirmed by SEM analysis. We conclude that LSTC gel could be highly effectual and advantageous over antibiotics in treating staphylococcal-topical and biofilm infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  2. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  3. GEM printer: 3D gel printer for free shaping of functional gel engineering materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Muroi, Hisato; Yamamoto, Kouki; Serizawa, Ryo; Gong, Jin

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. The gels have both low surface friction and well permeability due to a large amount of water absorbed in the gels, which are superiority of the gels compering to the polyester fibers. It is, however, difficult for gels to be forked structure or cavity structure by using cutting or mold. Consequently, it is necessary to develop the additive manufacturing device to synthesize and mode freely gels at the same time. Here we try to develop an optical 3D gel printer that enables gels to be shaped precisely and freely. For the free forming of high-strength gels, the 1st gels are ground to particles and mixed with 2nd pregel solution, and the mixed solution is gelled by the irradiation of UV laser beam through an optical fiber. The use of the optical fiber makes one-point UV irradiation possible. Since the optical fiber is controlled by 3D-CAD, the precise and free molding in XYZ directions is easily realized. We successfully synthesized tough gels using the gel printer.

  4. Dosimetry Evolution in Teletherapy: Polimer Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, J. H.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Polymer gels evolution and chemical composition used in dosimetry. Type Composition First gels Folin’s Phenol or Gallic Acid Polymer Gel Agarose and N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide BANANA Bis, acrylamide, nitrous oxide and agarose BANG-1TM Bis, acrylamide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-2TM Bis, acrylic acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-3TM Bis, methacrylate acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin MAGIC Methacrylate acid, ascorbic acid, gelatin and copper sulphate

  5. Silicone gel breast implants: science and testing.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Brian M; Jeffers, Lynn L C; Ratliff, Gregory E; Carlisle, Dan A

    2014-07-01

    Since the first generation of breast implants, major design innovations, including consistency of the gel, palpability and thickness of the shell, and barrier materials in the shell, have been introduced. Surgeons have not had metrics to assess and compare available implants. Research at independent laboratories included 4 tests: gel elasticity (the gel's ability to retain its shape), gel compression fracture (the resistance to permanent gel deformation), gel-shell peel (the integration of the gel with shell as a cohesive unit), and morphological analysis. Sientra's round High-Strength Cohesive (HSC) experienced the least gel elasticity (5.805 mm), whereas Allergan's round implants experienced the most (7.465 mm). Among shaped implants, Allergan 410 experienced the least gel elasticity (3.242 mm), whereas the Sientra HSC+ implant experienced the most (4.270 mm). Sientra's round (36.32 lbf) and shaped (44.16 lbf) implants demonstrated the highest resistance to gel fracture, with Allergan's implants demonstrating the least among round (23.06 lbf) implants and Mentor Contour Profile Gel (CPG) among shaped (30.45 lbf) implants. For the gel-shell peel test, Sientra's implant required over 26% greater force than Allergan's implant and over 35% greater force than Mentor's implant. Sientra's shaped implants required more than double the peel force than Allergan 410 (119% greater) and Mentor CPG (130% greater). Morphological results showed Sientra's implants preserved structural integrity (-1.10% change). The initial findings show that these implant characteristics are individual factors to be considered separately and are not necessarily correlative. Further study of implants using these and other testing techniques will help clinicians choose between implants.

  6. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  7. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  8. Tissue simulating gel for medical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  9. Tissue simulating gel for medical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene gylcol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances were injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  10. Sol-gel optics for biomeasurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechna-Marczynska, Monika I.; Podbielska, Halina; Ulatowska-Jarza, Agnieszka; Holowacz, Iwona; Andrzejewski, Damian

    2001-10-01

    Sol-gel technique is a method for producing of glass-like materials without involving a melting process. Organic compounds such as alcoholates of silicon, sodium or calcium can be used. The irregular non-crystalline network forms a gel structure where the metallic atoms are bonded to oxygen atoms. Low-temperature treatment turns this gel into an inorganic glass-like structure. There are numbers of applications of these materials that can be produced in various forms and shapes. Here, silica based sol-gel bulks and thin films optodes for biomedical applications will be presented.

  11. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  12. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczyńska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Biniaś, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  13. Arginine functionalized bacterial cellulose nanofibers containing gel as an effective wound dressing; in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feizabadi, Farideh; Minaiyan, Mohsan; Taheri, Azade

    2018-02-19

    Nanofibers such as bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BC-NFs) have gained increasing attention for use in wound dressings. Topical application of arginine can stimulate wound healing significantly. In order to promote the wound healing process, arginine functionalized BC-NFs containing gel (Arg-BC-NFs gel) was prepared by the electrostatic attachment of arginine on the surface of BC-NFs. The effect of pH was evaluated on the amount of the attached arginine on the BC-NFs surface. The attachment of arginine on BC-NFs surface was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The morphology of Arg-BC-NFs was evaluated using FESEM. The viscosity and spreadability of Arg-BC-NFs and the release of arginine from Arg-BC-NFs were evaluated. The effectiveness of Arg-BC-NFs gel was assessed in a full thickness wound model in rats. Re-epithelization, collagen deposition and neovascularization were investigated in the wound tissues using histological and immunohistochemical analysis. FTIR spectra and the zeta potential of BC-NFs confirmed the surface modification of BC-NFs by arginine. FESEM images showed the nanofibrous structure of Arg-BC-NFs. The release of arginine from Arg-BC-NFs gel was in a sustained release manner for 24 h. The appropriate viscosity and spreadability of Arg-BC-NFs gel confirmed its easy topical application. In vivo studies revealed that Arg-BC-NFs gel promoted wound closure at a faster rate than BC-NFs gel and arginine solution. Moreover, faster and more organized re-epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition were achieved in Arg-BC-NFs gel treated group in comparison to other groups. Arg-BC-NFs gel can be introduced as an effective wound dressing for acute wounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  15. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects. PMID:23856680

  16. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    PubMed

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  17. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  18. Major research topics in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hussaini, M.Y.; Kumar, A.; Voigt, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) hosted a workshop on October 2--4, 1989 to discuss some combustion problems of technological interest to LaRC and to foster interaction with the academic community in these research areas. The topics chosen for this purpose were flame structure, flame holding/extinction, chemical kinetics, turbulence-kinetics interaction, transition to detonation, and reacting free shear layers. This document contains the papers and edited versions of general discussions on these topics. The lead paper set the stage for the meeting by discussing the status and issues of supersonic combustionmore » relevant to the scramjet engine. Experts were then called upon to review the current knowledge in the aforementioned areas, to focus on how this knowledge can be extended and applied to high-speed combustion, and to suggest future directions of research in these areas.« less

  19. Microbicides: Topical Prevention against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Robin J.; Rosenberg, Zeda

    2012-01-01

    Microbicides represent a potential intervention strategy for preventing HIV transmission. Vaginal microbicides would meet the need for a discreet method that women could use to protect themselves against HIV. Although early-generation microbicides failed to demonstrate efficacy, newer candidates are based on more potent antiretroviral (ARV) products. Positive data from the CAPRISA 004 trial of tenofovir gel support use in women and represent a turning point for the field. This article reviews current progress in development of ARV-based microbicides. We discuss the consensus on selection criteria, the potential for drug resistance, rationale for drug combinations, and the use of pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) assessment in product development. The urgent need for continued progress in development of formulations for sustained delivery is emphasized. Finally, as the boundaries between different prevention technologies become increasingly blurred, consideration is given to the potential synergy of diverse approaches across the prevention landscape. PMID:22355798

  20. TOPTRAC: Topical Trajectory Pattern Mining

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Younghoon; Han, Jiawei; Yuan, Cangzhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing use of GPS-enabled mobile phones, geo-tagging, which refers to adding GPS information to media such as micro-blogging messages or photos, has seen a surge in popularity recently. This enables us to not only browse information based on locations, but also discover patterns in the location-based behaviors of users. Many techniques have been developed to find the patterns of people's movements using GPS data, but latent topics in text messages posted with local contexts have not been utilized effectively. In this paper, we present a latent topic-based clustering algorithm to discover patterns in the trajectories of geo-tagged text messages. We propose a novel probabilistic model to capture the semantic regions where people post messages with a coherent topic as well as the patterns of movement between the semantic regions. Based on the model, we develop an efficient inference algorithm to calculate model parameters. By exploiting the estimated model, we next devise a clustering algorithm to find the significant movement patterns that appear frequently in data. Our experiments on real-life data sets show that the proposed algorithm finds diverse and interesting trajectory patterns and identifies the semantic regions in a finer granularity than the traditional geographical clustering methods. PMID:26709365

  1. Randomized control trial of topical clonidine for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia M.; Kipnes, Mark S.; Stouch, Bruce C.; Brady, Kerrie L.; Kelly, Margaret; Schmidt, William K.; Petersen, Karin L.; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Campbell, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A length-dependent neuropathy with pain in the feet is a common complication of diabetes (painful diabetic neuropathy, PDN). It was hypothesized that pain may arise from sensitized-hyperactive cutaneous nociceptors, and that this abnormal signaling may be reduced by topical administration of the α2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine, to the painful area. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center trial. Nociceptor function was measured by determining the painfulness of 0.1% topical capsaicin applied to the pre-tibial area of each subject for 30 minutes during screening. Subjects were then randomized to receive 0.1% topical clonidine gel (n=89) or placebo gel (n=90) applied t.i.d. to their feet for 12 weeks. The difference in foot pain at week 12 in relation to baseline, rated on a 0-10 numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), was compared between groups. Baseline NPRS was imputed for missing data for subjects who terminated the study early. The subjects treated with clonidine showed a trend toward decreased foot pain compared to the placebo-treated group (the primary endpoint; p=0.07). In subjects who felt any level of pain to capsaicin, clonidine was superior to placebo (p<0.05). In subjects with a capsaicin pain rating ≥2 (0-10, NPRS), the mean decrease in foot pain was 2.6 for active compared to 1.4 for placebo (p=0.01). Topical clonidine gel significantly reduces the level of foot pain in PDN subjects with functional (and possibly sensitized) nociceptors in the affected skin as revealed by testing with topical capsaicin. Screening for cutaneous nociceptor function may help distinguish candidates for topical therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:22683276

  2. Ophthalmic gels: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Al-Kinani, Ali A; Zidan, Ghada; Elsaid, Naba; Seyfoddin, Ali; Alani, Adam W G; Alany, Raid G

    2018-02-15

    Aqueous gels formulated using hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels) along with those based on stimuli responsive polymers (in situ gelling or gel forming systems) continue to attract increasing interest for various eye health-related applications. They allow the incorporation of a variety of ophthalmic pharmaceuticals to achieve therapeutic levels of drugs and bioactives at target ocular sites. The integration of sophisticated drug delivery technologies such as nanotechnology-based ones with intelligent and environment responsive systems can extend current treatment duration to provide more clinically relevant time courses (weeks and months instead of hours and days) which will inevitably reduce dose frequency, increase patient compliance and improve clinical outcomes. Novel applications and design of contact lenses and intracanalicular delivery devices along with the move towards integrating gels into various drug delivery devices like intraocular pumps, injections and implants has the potential to reduce comorbidities caused by glaucoma, corneal keratopathy, cataract, diabetic retinopathies and age-related macular degeneration. This review describes ophthalmic gelling systems with emphasis on mechanism of gel formation and application in ophthalmology. It provides a critical appraisal of the techniques and methods used in the characterization of ophthalmic preformed gels and in situ gelling systems along with a thorough insight into the safety and biocompatibility of these systems. Newly developed ophthalmic gels, hydrogels, preformed gels and in situ gelling systems including the latest in the area of stimuli responsive gels, molecularly imprinted gels, nanogels, 3D printed hydrogels; 3D printed devices comprising ophthalmic gels are covered. Finally, new applications of gels in the production of artificial corneas, corneal wound healing and hydrogel contact lenses are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical use of sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) to treat atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Sodium cromoglicate (cromolyn sodium) is a very well-known medicine that has been used for many years for various allergic conditions. The topical use of this medicine is less known, and there are no commercial medicines of cream, gel, or lotion in most of the world. This article summarizes the clinical data accumulated from seventeen trials that checked the topical efficacy and safety of sodium cromoglicate and analyzes the clinical implementations of this medicine in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis and other skin allergies. In addition, this article analyzes the various formulations that have been used in the clinical trials in an attempt to find the optimal formulation. The topical use of sodium cromoglicate seemed to have a promising potential, and implementing the data of this article can allow the compounding pharmacist a very interesting professional activity in very common and widespread allergic pathologies.

  4. Absence of Degradation of Tretinoin When Benzoyl Peroxide is Combined with an Optimized Formulation of Tretinoin Gel (0.05%)

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Moore, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians have been reluctant to prescribe benzoyl peroxide concurrently with topical tretinoin due to a belief that the benzoyl peroxide may cause oxidation and degradation of the tretinoin molecule, thereby reducing its effectiveness. However, benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of tretinoin may not necessarily apply to all topical tretinoin formulations. Objective: To evaluate the potential for benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of an optimized aqueous gel formulation of tretinoin (0.05%). Methods: Tretinoin gel (0.05%) and benzoyl peroxide gel (6.26% premix concentration to produce 5% benzoyl peroxide in a fixed combination clindamycin product) were mixed together (1:1) at 32ºC and samples assayed after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 hours. Each sample was analyzed for tretinoin (expressed as % tretinoin remaining) and its degradation product content. Results: No loss of tretinoin was observed over the seven-hour time period. When tretinoin gel (0.05%) was combined with benzoyl peroxide, 100 percent of the initial tretinoin concentration remained after seven hours. There was no increase in the degradation products of tretinoin. Conclusions: There was no benzoyl peroxide-induced degradation of tretinoin when the optimized formulation of tretinoin gel (0.05%) was admixed with benzoyl peroxide gel (6.26%). Although the direct clinical significance of these results is unknown, clinicians may feel comfortable using this particular combination concurrently without concerns about tretinoin oxidation and degradation. PMID:20967192

  5. Moisturizing potentials of ascorbyl palmitate and calcium ascorbate in various topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, U; Yener, G; Uner, M; Incegül, T

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use two of Vitamin C derivatives, lipophilic ascorbyl palmitate and hydrophilic calcium ascorbate to determine their skin-hydrating effects for the first time. For this purpose, anhydrous cream, gel and w/o emulsion were prepared and applied to the volunteers' inner forearms. A commercial topical preparation containing a known moisturizer, Vitamin E, was also chosen and used for comparison. Moisture contents of the skin were measured by using corneometer.

  6. A meta-analysis of platelet gel for prevention of sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirmani, Bilal H.; Jones, Siôn G.; Datta, Subir; McLaughlin, Edward K.; Hoschtitzky, Andreas J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sternal wound infection and bleeding are devastating complications following cardiac surgery, which may be reduced by topical application of autologous platelet gel. Systematic review identified seven comparative studies involving 4,692 patients. Meta-analysis showed significant reductions in all sternal wound infections (odds ratio 3.48 [1.08–11.23], p=0.04) and mediastinitis (odds ratio 2.69 [1.20–6.06], p=0.02) but not bleeding. No adverse events relating to the use of topical platelet-rich plasma were reported. The use of autologous platelet gel in cardiac surgery appears to provide significant reductions in serious sternal wound infections, and its use is unlikely to be associated with significant risk. PMID:27177403

  7. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...) Identification. A support gel for clinical use is a device that consists of an agar or agarose preparation that...

  8. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...) Identification. A support gel for clinical use is a device that consists of an agar or agarose preparation that...

  9. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  10. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a...

  13. Using Greener Gels to Explore Rheology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Brendan; Matharu, Avtar S.; Hurst, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to investigate the rheological properties of a green calcium-cross-linked alginate gel as an alternative to the traditional borax-cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) gel. As borax is suspected of damaging fertility and the unborn child, a safe, green alternative is necessary. The rheological properties of a…

  14. Flow of colloidal suspensions and gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Roseanna

    Our recent studies of yield of colloidal gels under shear show that yield in such gels occurs in distinct stages. Under fixed stress, yield follows a finite delay period of slow solid-like creep. Post yield, the gel fluidizes and may undergo long-time viscous flow or, in some cases, may re-solidify. Under imposed strain rate, the transition from equilibrium to long-time flow is characterized by one or more stress overshoots, signifying a yield process here as well. These rheological changes are accompanied by evolution in morphology and dynamics of the gel network. Similar regimes have been observed in gels subjected to gravitational forcing; the gel initially supports its own weight, or perhaps undergoes slow, weak compaction. This may be followed by a sudden transition to rapid compaction or sedimentation. Various models have been put forth to explain these behaviors based on structural evolution, but this detail is difficult to observe in experiment. Here we examine the detailed microstructural evolution and rheology of reversible colloidal gels as they deform under gravity, identifying the critical buoyant force at which yield occurs, the role played by ongoing gel coarsening, and similarities and differences compared to yield under shear. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF XSEDE Computational Resource, the NSF Early CAREER Program, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program.

  15. Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Baker, D M

    2016-12-01

    Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured by comparing a prospectively administered questionnaire, completed both pre-treatment and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Forty healthy volunteers without axillary hyperhidrosis completed the same questionnaire. The three treatment groups showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in their hyperhidrosis scores following treatment. The degree of improvement was less for the 1% glycopyrrolate group when compared with the Botulinum toxin type A group (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in treatment outcomes between the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups. No treatment group experienced reduced hyperhidrosis to a level similar to those without hyperhidrosis. Patients in both, the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups reported a significant improvement in axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms. These included reduction in psychologically precipitating factors (e.g. public speaking) and axillary hyperhidrosis-specific physical effects (e.g. limitation of clothing choice). Topical glycopyrrolate spray could provide a further treatment modality to manage axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polymer architecture of magnetic gels: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeber, Rudolf; Hermes, Melissa; Schmidt, Annette M.; Holm, Christian

    2018-02-01

    In this review article, we provide an introduction to ferrogels, i.e. polymeric gels with embedded magnetic particles. Due to the interplay between magnetic and elastic properties of these materials, they are promising candidates for engineering and biomedical applications such as actuation and controlled drug release. Particular emphasis will be put on the polymer architecture of magnetic gels since it controls the degrees of freedom of the magnetic particles in the gel, and it is important for the particle-polymer coupling determining the mechanisms available for the gel deformation in magnetic fields. We report on the different polymer architectures that have been realized so far, and provide an overview of synthesis strategies and experimental techniques for the characterization of these materials. We further focus on theoretical and simulational studies carried out on magnetic gels, and highlight their contributions towards understanding the influence of the gels’ polymer architecture.

  18. Tunable Gas Sensing Gels by Cooperative Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abid; Semeano, Ana T. S.; Palma, Susana I. C. J.; Pina, Ana S.; Almeida, José; Medrado, Bárbara F.; Pádua, Ana C. C. S.; Carvalho, Ana L.; Dionísio, Madalena; Li, Rosamaria W. C.; Gamboa, Hugo; Ulijn, Rein V.; Gruber, Jonas; Roque, Ana C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The cooperative assembly of biopolymers and small molecules can yield functional materials with precisely tunable properties. Here, the fabrication, characterization, and use of multicomponent hybrid gels as selective gas sensors are reported. The gels are composed of liquid crystal droplets self-assembled in the presence of ionic liquids, which further coassemble with biopolymers to form stable matrices. Each individual component can be varied and acts cooperatively to tune gels’ structure and function. The unique molecular environment in hybrid gels is explored for supramolecular recognition of volatile compounds. Gels with distinct compositions are used as optical and electrical gas sensors, yielding a combinatorial response conceptually mimicking olfactory biological systems, and tested to distinguish volatile organic compounds and to quantify ethanol in automotive fuel. The gel response is rapid, reversible, and reproducible. These robust, versatile, modular, pliant electro-optical soft materials possess new possibilities in sensing triggered by chemical and physical stimuli. PMID:28747856

  19. Catalytic control over supramolecular gel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhoven, Job; Poolman, Jos M.; Maity, Chandan; Li, Feng; van der Mee, Lars; Minkenberg, Christophe B.; Mendes, Eduardo; van Esch, Jan H.; Eelkema, Rienk

    2013-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight gels show great potential for application in fields ranging from the petrochemical industry to healthcare and tissue engineering. These supramolecular gels are often metastable materials, which implies that their properties are, at least partially, kinetically controlled. Here we show how the mechanical properties and structure of these materials can be controlled directly by catalytic action. We show how in situ catalysis of the formation of gelator molecules can be used to accelerate the formation of supramolecular hydrogels, which drastically enhances their resulting mechanical properties. Using acid or nucleophilic aniline catalysis, it is possible to make supramolecular hydrogels with tunable gel-strength in a matter of minutes, under ambient conditions, starting from simple soluble building blocks. By changing the rate of formation of the gelator molecules using a catalyst, the overall rate of gelation and the resulting gel morphology are affected, which provides access to metastable gel states with improved mechanical strength and appearance despite an identical gelator composition.

  20. Meso-Decorated Switching-Knot Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Sawamura, Kensuke; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. H.; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    Gels are a new material having three-dimensional network structures of macromolecules. They possess excellent properties as swellability, high permeability and biocompatibility, and have been applied in various fields of daily life, food, medicine, architecture, and chemistry .In this study, we tried to prepare new multi-functional and high-strength gels by using Meso-Decoration (Meso-Deco), one new method of structure design at intermediate mesoscale. High-performance rigid-rod aromatic polymorphic crystals. The strengthening of gels can be realized by meso-decorating the gels' structure using high-performance polymorphic crystals. New gels with good mechanical properties, novel optical properties and thermal properties are expected to be developed.

  1. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  2. Nanoemulsion-based gel formulations of COX-2 inhibitors for enhanced efficacy in inflammatory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, R. R.; Awari, N. G.

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the potential of a nanoemulsion (thermodynamically stable transparent dispersions of oil and water having a droplet size <200 nm) formulation for the topical delivery of COX-2 inhibitors using etoricoxib as a model drug. Various oil-in-water nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The nanoemulsion area was identified by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The prepared nanoemulsions were subjected to thermodynamic stability testing. Those that passed these tests were characterized for viscosity, droplet size and differential scanning calorimetry. Topical permeation of etoricoxib through porcine abdominal skin was estimated using the Franz diffusion cell. The ex vivo skin permeation profile of optimized formulations was compared with that of etoricoxib conventional gel. A significant increase in permeability was observed in optimized nanoemulsion formulations consisting of 2 % w/w of etoricoxib, 20 % w/w of Triacetin, 38 % w/w of a surfactant mixture (Cremophor RH 40:Transcutol P), and 42 % w/w of water. The anti-inflammatory effects of this formulation on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats showed a significant increase in the percent inhibition value (84.61 % with the nanoemulsion gel and 92.30 % with the nanoemulsion) as compared with the conventional gel (69.23 %) after 6 h when compared with etoricoxib conventional gel. These results suggest that nanoemulsions can serve as potential vehicles for improved transdermal delivery of anti-inflammatory agents such as etoricoxib.

  3. Ingenol mebutate gel treatment for actinic cheilitis: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Barrado Solís, Nerea; Molés Poveda, Paula; Lloret Ruiz, César; Pont Sanjuan, Virginia; Velasco Pastor, Manel; Quecedo Estébanez, Esther; Miquel Miquel, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis (AC) are premalignant lesions that have an increased risk of malignant transformation. Their treatment, therefore, is essential to prevent carcinogenesis. However, optimal therapy is not well established and different modalities yield variable results. Ingenol mebutate gel has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for topical treatment of actinic keratosis, with high clearance rates. On the basis of these findings, we report our experience with this drug for the treatment of AC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Radiological properties of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Venning, A.J.; Nitschke, K.N.; Keall, P.J.

    2005-04-01

    The radiological properties of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters MAGIC, MAGAS, and MAGAT [methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper; methacrylic acid gelatine gel with ascorbic acid; and methacrylic acid gelatine and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, respectively] have been investigated. The radiological water equivalence was determined by comparing the polymer gel macroscopic photon and electron interaction cross sections over the energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV and by Monte Carlo modeling of depth doses. Normoxic polymer gel dosimeters have a high gelatine and monomer concentration and therefore mass density (kg m{sup -3}) up to 3.8% highermore » than water. This results in differences between the cross-section ratios of the normoxic polymer gels and water of up to 3% for the attenuation, energy absorption, and collision stopping power coefficient ratios through the Compton dominant energy range. The mass cross-section ratios were within 2% of water except for the mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients ratios, which showed differences with water of up to 6% for energies less than 100 keV. Monte Carlo modeling was undertaken for the polymer gel dosimeters to model the electron and photon transport resulting from a 6 MV photon beam. The absolute percentage differences between gel and water were within 1% and the relative percentage differences were within 3.5%. The results show that the MAGAT gel formulation is the most radiological water equivalent of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeters investigated due to its lower mass density measurement compared with MAGAS and MAGIC gels.« less

  5. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  6. Application of melanin-free ink as a new antioxidative gel enhancer in sardine surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Vate, Naveen Kumar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Agustini, Tri Winarni

    2015-08-30

    The squid ink that is discarded as waste during processing can be effectively utilised as a gel enhancer in surimi gels, especially those prepared from dark-fleshed fish which have poor gel properties. It also acts as an antioxidant, inhibiting lipid oxidation. This investigation aimed to study the effect of melanin-free ink (MFI) from splendid squid (Loligo formosana) on properties and oxidative stability of surimi gel from sardine (Sardinella albella). MFI (0-0.1 g kg(-1) surimi) increased the breaking force and deformation of sardine surimi gel in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The addition of MFI had no effect on whiteness of surimi gels (P > 0.05). The expressible moisture content of gels decreased as the levels of MFI increased (P < 0.05). Based on a microstructure study, gel added with MFI at a level of 0.08 g kg(-1) surimi was denser and finer than that of the control (without MFI). Surimi gels with MFI had lower peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nonanal and 2-decenal. MFI could improve the properties of sardine surimi gel. Additionally, it was able to prevent lipid oxidation in surimi gels during refrigerated storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution

    PubMed Central

    Stellwagen, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylamide gel matrices, DNA interactions with the two gel matrices, and the effect of curvature on the free solution mobility of DNA are also described. The combined results suggest that the anomalously slow mobilities observed for curved DNA molecules in polyacrylamide gels are due primarily to preferential interactions of curved DNAs with the polyacrylamide gel matrix; the restrictive pore size of the matrix is of lesser importance. In free solution, DNA mobilities increase with increasing molecular mass until leveling off at a plateau value of (3.17 ± 0.01) × 10-4 cm2/Vs in 40 mM Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer at 20°C. Curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in free solution as well as in polyacrylamide gels, explaining why the Ferguson plots of curved and normal DNAs containing the same number of base pairs extrapolate to different mobilities at zero gel concentration. PMID:19517510

  8. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  9. Comparative Effects of Retinoic Acid or Glycolic Acid Vehiculated in Different Topical Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Maia Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo; Gonçalves, Gisele Mara Silva; Pereira, Lúcia Helena Terenciane Rodrigues; Semprini, Marisa; Lopes, Ruberval Armando

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids and hydroxy acids have been widely used due to their effects in the regulation of growth and in the differentiation of epithelial cells. However, besides their similar indication, they have different mechanisms of action and thus they may have different effects on the skin; in addition, since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, the ingredients of the formulation could alter their effects. Thus the objective of this study was to compare the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and glycolic acid (GA) treatment on the hairless mouse epidermis thickness and horny layer renewal when added in gel, gel cream, or cream formulations. For this, gel, gel cream, and cream formulations (with or without 6% GA or 0.05% RA) were applied in the dorsum of hairless mice, once a day for seven days. After that, the skin was analyzed by histopathologic, morphometric, and stereologic techniques. It was observed that the effects of RA occurred independently from the vehicle, while GA had better results when added in the gel cream and cream. Retinoic acid was more effective when compared to glycolic acid, mainly in the cell renewal and the exfoliation process because it decreased the horny layer thickness. PMID:25632398

  10. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution. PMID:28926993

  11. The Role of Naftifine HCl 2% Gel and Cream in Treating Moccasin Tinea Pedis.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Tracey C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, new topical antifungals have emerged for the treatment and management of tinea pedis, but all have been investigated and approved for the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Moccasin tinea pedis has not been recognized by governing bodies as a definable and treatable disease entity separate from interdigital tinea pedis at this time. Thus, creating randomized, controlled clinical trials to investigate moccasin tinea pedis is a challenge without an agreed upon definition of the disease state, treatment regimen, and treatment course. Considering systemic therapy issues and the lack of data from large trials demonstrating safety and efficacy in the topical management of this clinical presentation, an unmet need has been created for a topical antifungal agent that can treat moccasin tinea pedis. Naftifine 2% gel, an allylamine, was studied in a clinical trial that enrolled patients who had interdigital or both interdigital and moccasin-type tinea pedis. In the moccasin group, the primary efficacy endpoint of complete cure at week 2 (end of treatment) was 1.7% (gel) vs 0.9% (vehicle) and week 6 (four weeks post-treatment) was 19.2% (gel) vs 0.9% (vehicle). Naftifine 2% cream in combination with urea 39% also showed improvement in hyperkeratotic moccasin tinea pedis.

  12. In vivo optical imaging of human vaginal gel thickness distributions with a probe-based, dual-modality instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Tyler K.; DeSoto, Michael G.; Peters, Jennifer J.; Henderson, Marcus H.; Thiele, Bonnie; Bishop, Tammy Sinclair; Murtha, Amy P.; Katz, David F.; Wax, Adam

    2012-11-01

    We used a probe-based dual-modality optical imaging instrument to measure in vivo coating thickness distributions of a gel distributed along the vaginal lumen, in a clinical study. The gel was a surrogate for one delivering an anti-HIV topical microbicide. Imaging data from Fourier-domain multiplexed low-coherence interferometry (mLCI) and fluorimetric measurements were compared to assess the feasibility and accuracy of mLCI in measuring in vivo gel coating thickness distributions. In each study session, 3.5 mL of Replens gel was inserted to the vaginal fornix while the participant was supine. The participant either: 1. remained supine (10 or 60 min) or 2. sat up (1 min), stood up (1 min), sat down (1 min) and returned to the supine position; net elapsed time was 10 or 60 min after which the gel distribution was imaged. Local coating thickness distributions were qualitatively and quantitatively similar. Here mLCI did not accurately measure thicker gel coatings (>0.8 mm), a limitation not seen with fluorimetry. However, mLCI is capable of measuring in vivo microbicide gel distributions with resolution on the order of 10 μm, without the need for exogenous contrast agents, and can accurately capture relevant summary coating measures in good agreement with fluorimetry.

  13. Advances in development, scale-up and manufacturing of microbicide gels, films, and tablets.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sanjay; Goldman, David; Krumme, Markus; Rohan, Lisa C; Smoot, Stuart; Friend, David R

    2010-12-01

    Vaginal HIV microbicides are topical, self administered products designed to prevent or significantly reduce transmission of HIV infection in women. The earliest microbicide candidates developed have been formulated as coitally dependent (used around the time of sex) gels and creams. All microbicide candidates tested in Phase III clinical trials, so far, have been gel products with non-specific mechanisms of action. However, recently, research is focusing on compounds containing highly potent and specific anti-retrovirals. These specific anti-retrovirals are being formulated as primary dosage forms such as vaginal gels or in alternative dosage forms such as fast dissolve films and tablets. Recent innovations also include development of combination products of highly active antiviral drugs such as reverse transcriptase inhibitors and entry inhibitors, which would theoretically be more effective and would reduce the possibility of drug resistance. In this article, an overview of recent advances in the microbicide gel, film, and tablet formulations and issues pertaining to scale-up, formulation, and evaluation challenges and regulatory guidelines have been presented. This article forms part of a special supplement covering presentations on gels, tablets, and films from the symposium on "Recent Trends in Microbicide Formulations" held on 25 and 26 January 2010, Arlington, VA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biofilm community diversity after exposure to 0·4% stannous fluoride gels.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C; Rasmussen, K; Selberg, T; Stevens, J; Jones, R S

    2014-12-01

    To test the effect of 0·4% stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) glycerine-based gels on specific portions of the bacterial community in both a clinical observational study and in vitro multispecies plaque-derived (MSPD) biofilm model. Potential changes to specific portions of the bacterial community were determined through the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Both the observational clinical study and the biofilm model showed that short-term use of 0·4% SnF2 gel has little effect on the bacterial community depicted by hierarchical cluster analysis. The amount of plaque accumulation on a subject's teeth, which was measured by plaque index scores, failed to show statistical significant changes over the two baselines or after treatment (P = 0·9928). The in vitro results were similar when examining the effect of 0·4% SnF2 gels on biofilm adherence through a crystal violet assay (P = 0·1157). The bacteria within the dental biofilms showed resilience in maintaining the overall community diversity after exposure to 0·4% SnF2 topical gels. The study supports that the immediate benefits of using 0·4% SnF2 gels in children may be strictly from fluoride ions inhibiting tooth demineralization rather than delivering substantial antimicrobial effects. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Topical nanoparticulate formulation of drugs for ocular keratitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoyan

    The primary objective of this project is to develop drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles suspended in a biocompatible gel for topical delivery of therapeutic agents commonly employed in the treatment of ocular viral/bacterial keratitis. PART 1: Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) of dipeptide monoester prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) including L-Val-L-Val-GCV (LLGCV), L-Val-D-Val-GCV (LDGCV), D-Val-L-Val-GCV (DLGCV) were formulated and dispersed in thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA polymer gel for the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induced viral corneal keratitis. NP containing prodrugs of GCV were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique using various PLGA polymers with different drug/polymer ratios. Cytotoxicity studies suggested that all NP formulations are non-toxic. In vitro release of prodrugs from NP showed a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst phase followed by a sustained phase. Such burst effect was completely eliminated when NP were suspended in thermosensitive gels with near zero-order release kinetics. Prodrugs-loaded PLGA NP dispersed in thermosensitive gels can thus serve as a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of anterior eye diseases. Maximum uptake (around 60%) was noted at 3 h for NP. Cellular uptake and intracellular accumulation of prodrugs are significantly different among three stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs. The microscopic images show that NP are avidly internalized by HCEC cells and distributed throughout the cytoplasm instead of being localized on the cell surface. Following cellular uptake, prodrugs released from NP gradually bioreversed into parent drug GCV. LLGCV showed the highest degradation rate, followed by LDGCV and DLGCV. LLGCV, LDGCV and DLGCV released from NP exhibited superior uptake and bioreversion in corneal cells. PART 2: PLGA NP of hydrocortisone butyrate (HB) suspended in thermosensitive PLGA-PEG-PLGA gel were developed for the treatment of

  16. Clindamycin phosphate-tretinoin combination gel revisited: status report on a specific formulation used for acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2017-03-01

    Topical agents, including retinoids and antibiotics, are commonly used to treat acne vulgaris (AV) and remain as components of acne treatment guidelines. Approved topical combination formulations offer the advantages of established efficacy, decreased frequency of application, and improved convenience for patients. This article discusses both clindamycin phosphate (CP) and tretinoin (Tret) as components of a topical aqueous-based combination gel that has been shown to be effective, safe, and well tolerated for treatment of facial AV. Clinically relevant considerations with use of this treatment are also discussed, including therapeutic advantages and potential limitations.

  17. Development and evaluation of nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogel for topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Rajinikanth, Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam; Chellian, Jestin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based hydrogel and study its potential for the topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Precirol® ATO 5 (glyceryl palmitostearate) and Labrasol® were selected as the solid and liquid lipid phases, respectively. Poloxamer 188 and Solutol® HS15 (polyoxyl-15-hydroxystearate) were selected as surfactants. The developed lipid formulations were dispersed in 1% Carbopol® 934 (poly[acrylic acid]) gel medium in order to maintain the topical application consistency. The average size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index for the 5-FU-NLC were found to be 208.32±8.21 nm, −21.82±0.40 mV, and 0.352±0.060, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that 5-FU-NLC was <200 nm in size, with a spherical shape. In vitro drug permeation studies showed a release pattern with initial burst followed by sustained release, and the rate of 5-FU permeation was significantly improved for 5-FU-NLC gel (10.27±1.82 μg/cm2/h) as compared with plain 5-FU gel (2.85±1.12 μg/cm2/h). Further, skin retention studies showed a significant retention of 5-FU from the NLC gel (91.256±4.56 μg/cm2) as compared with that from the 5-FU plain gel (12.23±3.86 μg/cm2) in the rat skin. Skin irritation was also significantly reduced with 5-FU-NLC gel as compared with 5-FU plain gel. These results show that the prepared 5-FU-loaded NLC has high potential to improve the penetration of 5-FU through the stratum corneum, with enormous retention and with minimal skin irritation, which is the prerequisite for topically applied formulations. PMID:27785014

  18. Evaluation of mechanical and rheological properties of metronidazole gel as local delivery system.

    PubMed

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Montazam, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    Rosacea is a chronic multifactorial vascular skin disorder that affects about 10 percent of the general population. Metronidazole is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of moderate-to severe rosacea. Metronidazole is a suitable drug in cases of resistance to tetracycline or erythromycin, but it has also been shown that oral metronidazole may increase the side effects (e.g., peripheral neuropathy). Oral metronidazole should not be used for more than three months, and hence topical metronidazole gel is the best therapeutic choice in rosacea (especially during pregnancy). This study examined the mechanical (adhesiveness, cohesiveness, extrudability, spreadability, homogeneity) and rheological (viscosity), skin irritant and drug release properties of different metronidazole gel formulations that contain anionic emulsifying wax, glycerin and lactic acid in different proportions. The release studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells and Silastic membrane as a barrier. The results indicated that gel compressibility, hardness, and adhesiveness, are the factors that influence the ease of gel removal from the container, ease of gel application onto the mucosal membrane, and gel bioadhesion. The findings showed that there exists a strong negative correlation between the spreadability of a formulation and its cohesiveness, the spreadability of a formulation is inversely proportional to its cohesiveness. However, sorbitol solution (70%) concentration was not significantly correlated with drug release. In addition, drug release was significantly reduced as the concentration of anionic emulsifying wax increased and the concentration of lactic acid decreased. The maximum metronidazole release was achieved at a pH of 4-6. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various kinetic models and high correlation was obtained in the Higuchi and first order models. The results showed that all the gel formulations showed good extrudability, viscosity

  19. Thermosetting gels with modulated gelation temperature for ophthalmic use: the rheological and gamma scintigraphic studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gang; Xu, Hui; Ding, Ping Tian; Li, San Ming; Zheng, Jun Min

    2002-09-18

    For ophthalmic drug delivery, Pluronic F127 solutions have a phase transition temperature too low for them to be instilled into the eye at room temperature. Refrigerator storage is usually required to make administration easier, whereas the potential irritation of cold to the sensitive ocular tissues may result in poor topical bioavailability. The purpose of this study is to develop a thermosetting gel with a suitable phase transition temperature by combining Pluronic analogs and to examine the influence of incorporating mucoadhesive polysaccharide, sodium hyaluronate (HA-Na), on the ocular retention of the gel. Dynamic rheological method and single photon emission computing tomography (SPECT) technique were used to ex/in vivo evaluate the thermosetting gels, respectively. An optimized formulation containing 21% F127 and 10% F68 increased the phase transition temperature by 9 degrees C as evaluated by elasticity modulus compared to that of individual 21% F127 solution. Rheological behaviors of the Pluronic solutions showed that the combined Pluronic formulation was free flowing liquid below 25 degrees C and converted to a firm gel under the physiological condition. Furthermore, this formulation possessed the highest viscosity both before and after tear dilution at 35 degrees C. Gamma scintigraphic data demonstrated that the clearance of the thermosetting gel labeled with 99mTc-DTPA was significantly delayed with respect to the phosphate buffered solution, and at least a threefold increase of the corneal residence time was achieved. However, no further improvement in the ocular retention was observed when adding HA-Na into the thermosetting gel due to the substantially decreased gel strength. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Skin hydration and cooling effect produced by the Voltaren® vehicle gel.

    PubMed

    Hug, Agnes M; Schmidts, Thomas; Kuhlmann, Jens; Segger, Dörte; Fotopoulos, Grigorios; Heinzerling, Johanna

    2012-05-01

    Voltaren vehicle gel is the carrier substance of the topical Voltaren products. This vehicle gel is especially formulated to be easily applied on the skin, while providing some sensory benefits. The present study aims to substantiate the widely perceived hydrating and cooling effect of Voltaren vehicle gel. Volar forearm skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured and user satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaires, after application in 31 healthy, female volunteers. The cooling effect was investigated for 40 min with thermal imaging on 12 forearm sites of six healthy subjects. Voltaren vehicle gel application increased skin hydration by 13.1% (P = 0.0002) when compared with the untreated site, 8 h after the final treatment after 2 weeks. TEWL decreased on both treated (0.37 g/m(2) /h) and untreated (0.74 g/m(2) /h) forearm sites after 2 weeks (8 h after last treatment), demonstrating a relative increase of 6.5% in water loss. Voltaren vehicle gel application resulted in a rapid reduction of skin surface temperature by 5.1°C after only 3 min with an average maximum reduction of 5.8°C after 10 min. The cooling effect was experienced by 94% subjects, while 74% felt that their skin became softer. No adverse events, including skin irritation, were reported during the study and by the 37 participants. This study showed a statistically significant increase in skin hydration as well as a rapid cooling effect lasting approximately 30 min, after application of Voltaren vehicle gel. The small relative increase in water loss may be attributed to an additional skin surface water loss secondary to the increased water content brought into the skin by the Voltaren vehicle gel. The use did not induce any skin irritation and was found acceptable to use by the majority of participants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  2. Sol-gel manufactured energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2003-12-23

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  3. Canine periodontal disease control using a clindamycin hydrochloride gel.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Thomas P; Mondal, Pravakar; Pal, Dhananjay; MacGee, Scott; Stromberg, Arnold J; Alur, Hemant

    2011-01-01

    Stabilizing or reducing periodontal pocket depth can have a positive influence on the retention of teeth in dogs. A topical 2% clindamycin hydrochloride gel (CHgel) was evaluated for the treatment of periodontal disease in dogs. The CHgel formulation provides for the sustained erosion of the matrix, but also flows into the periodontal pocket as a viscous liquid, and then rapidly forms a gel that has mucoadhesive properties and also may function as a physical barrier to the introduction of bacteria. A professional teeth cleaning procedure including scaling and root planing was done in dogs with one group receiving CHgel following treatment. Periodontal health was determined before and after the procedure including measurement of periodontal pocket depth, gingival index, gingival bleeding sites, and number of suppurating sites. There was a statistically significant decrease in periodontal pocket depth (19%), gingival index (16%), and the number of bleeding sites (64%) at 90-days in dogs receiving CHgel. Additionally, the number of suppurating sites was lower (93%) at 90-days for the group receiving CHgel. The addition of CHgel effectively controlled the bacterial burden (e.g, Fusobacterium nucleatum) at both day 14 and 90. Gingival cells in culture were shown to rapidly incorporate clindamycin and attain saturation in approximately 20-minutes. In summary, a professional teeth cleaning procedure including root planning and the addition of CHgel improves the gingival index and reduces periodontal pocket depth.

  4. Design and Evaluation of Microemulsion Gel System of Nadifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Ujwala; Pokharkar, Sharda; Modani, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Topical microemulsion systems for the antiacne agent, nadifloxacin were designed and developed to overcome the problems associated with the cutaneous delivery due to poor water solubility. The solubility of nadifloxacin in oils, surfactants and cosurfactants was evaluated to screen the components of the microemulsion. Various surfactants and cosurfactants were screened for their ability to emulsify the selected oily phase. The pseudoternary diagrams were constructed to identify the area of microemulsion existence. The influence of km (surfactant/cosurfactant) ratio on the microemulsion existence region was determined and optimum systems were designed. The systems were assessed for drug-loading efficiency and characterised for optical birefringence, pH and refractive index, robustness to dilution, globule size, drug content and thermodynamic stability. Optimised microemulsion systems were formulated into gel form and evaluated for viscosity, spreadability, drug content, ex vivo skin permeation and antibacterial activity. The maximum solubility of nadifloxacin in the microemulsion system was found to be 0.25%. The nadifloxacin microemulsions had a small and uniform globule size (67.3-121.23 nm). The stability results revealed that all formulations showed a stable globule size and the polydispersity index under stress conditions. Incorporation of nadifloxacin in microemulsion gel increased the ex vivo skin permeation and antibacterial activity when compared to marketed cream. PMID:23439454

  5. Ocular biocompatibility of polyquaternium 10 gel: functional and morphological results.

    PubMed

    Alasino, Roxana Valeria; Garcia, Luciana Guadalupe; Gramajo, Ana Laura; Pusterla, Juan Pablo; Beltramo, Dante Miguel; Luna, José Domingo

    2015-02-01

    This paper deals with the characterization study of topical and intraocular biocompatibility and toxicity of cationic hydroxyethylcellulose Polyquaternium 10 (PQ10). It also evaluates the rheological properties of gels. The cytotoxicity assays were done in two cell lines: HEp-2 and VERO (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma cell and African green monkey kidney cells respectively). For the in vivo study, New Zealand albino rabbits were used. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of PQ10 shows no statistically significant differences in relation to the control of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) in any of the cell lines used in this study. Similarly, the signs of inflammation observed after treatment showed no significant difference between the groups of animals treated with the polymer compared to the control group. Normal histological characteristics were seen in both groups with no histological inflammatory reaction. After 1 month of the intracameral application of 2% PQ10 (treatment group) or 0.3% HPMC (control group), electroretinograms showed similar levels of a- and b-waves latencies and amplitude. In summary, PQ10 gel was well tolerated in these experiments, with proper monitoring, it could stand as a new alternative in the development of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices.

  6. Polymer gel dosimeter with AQUAJOINT® as hydrogel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeyama, Takuya; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa

    2018-05-01

    We report a polymer gel dosimeter based on a new gel matrix (AQUAJOINT®) that is a thermo-irreversible hydrogel formed by mixing two types of water-based liquids at room temperature. Normoxic N-vinylpyrrolidone-based polymer gels were prepared with AQUAJOINT® instead of gelatin. This AQUAJOINT®-based gel dosimeter exhibits a 2.5-fold increase in sensitivity over a gelatin-based gel dosimeter and a linear dose-response in the dose range of 0-8 Gy. This gel has heat resistance in a jar and controlled gel properties such as viscoelastic and mechanical characters, which may be useful for deformable polymer gel dosimetry.

  7. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  8. Toxicities of topical ophthalmic anesthetics.

    PubMed

    McGee, Hall T; Fraunfelder, F W

    2007-11-01

    Topical ocular anesthesia has been part of ophthalmology for more than a century. The most commonly used drugs today are proparacaine, tetracaine, benoxinate (oxybuprocaine) cocaine and lidocaine. Although generally well tolerated, all these can be toxic, particularly when abused. The most common toxicities are to the ocular surface, but abuse can cause deep corneal infiltrates, ulceration and even perforation. Fortunately, systemic side effects are rare. Cocaine is unique for its higher incidence of systemic side effects and high abuse potential, both of which impede its clinical use. When used appropriately, all these drugs are remarkably safe. They are generally not prescribed for home use, as prolonged abuse of these drugs can be expected to result in serious complications.

  9. Muddy marine sediments are gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorgan, K. M.; Clemo, W. C.; Barry, M. A.; Johnson, B.

    2016-02-01

    Marine sediments cover 70% of the earth's surface, are important sites of carbon burial and nutrient regeneration, and provide habitat for diverse and abundant infaunal communities. The majority of these sediments are muds, in which bioturbation affects sediment structure and geochemical gradients. How infaunal activites result in particle mixing depends on the mechanical properties of muddy sediments. At the scale of burrowing animals, muds are elastic solids. Animals move through these elastic muds by extending crack-shaped burrows by fracture. The underlying mechanism driving this elasticity, however, has not been explicitly illustrated. Here, we test the hypothesis that the elastic behavior of muddy sediments is disrupted by removal of organic material by measuring fracture toughness and stiffness of manipulated and control sediments. Our results indicate that the mechanical responses of sediments to forces are governed by the muco-polymeric matrix of organic material. Similar effects of organic material oxidation were not observed in sands, indicating a clear mechanical distinction between fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Muddy sediments are gels, not fluids or granular materials, and models of how sediments respond to forces imposed by, e.g., organisms, gases, and ambient water should explicitly consider the role of organic material.

  10. On the Topical Structure of Medical Charts

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Armar A.; Evans, David A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 55 H&P sections of hospital charts, we tested the hypothesis that topic-sub-topic sequencing is sufficiently regular to provide ‘missing’ information in the construction of explicit propositions from elliptical text. ‘Propositions’ were taken to be frames with the slots topic, sub-topic, method, site, attribute, value, and qualifier. Topic was identifiable in 96% of all cases; attribute-value pairs were uniquely recoverable from topics in 69% of all cases; site was co-determined by topic, method, and attribute. Our results suggest that uncertainties in the automated processing of H&P statements can be overcome by appealing to knowledge about the topical structure of medical charts.

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagitis (EoE) (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) Also in Spanish Latest News Eosinophilic Esophagitis May ... Pediatric and Adolescent Patients (American College of Gastroenterology) Topic Image Related Health Topics Eosinophilic Disorders Esophagus Disorders ...

  12. Evaluation of radiochromic gel dosimetry and polymer gel dosimetry in a clinical dose verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-09-01

    A quantitative comparison of two full three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry techniques was assessed in a clinical setting: radiochromic gel dosimetry with an in-house developed optical laser CT scanner and polymer gel dosimetry with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To benchmark both gel dosimeters, they were exposed to a 6 MV photon beam and the depth dose was compared against a diamond detector measurement that served as golden standard. Both gel dosimeters were found accurate within 4% accuracy. In the 3D dose matrix of the radiochromic gel, hotspot dose deviations up to 8% were observed which are attributed to the fabrication procedure. The polymer gel readout was shown to be sensitive to B0 field and B1 field non-uniformities as well as temperature variations during scanning. The performance of the two gel dosimeters was also evaluated for a brain tumour IMRT treatment. Both gel measured dose distributions were compared against treatment planning system predicted dose maps which were validated independently with ion chamber measurements and portal dosimetry. In the radiochromic gel measurement, two sources of deviations could be identified. Firstly, the dose in a cluster of voxels near the edge of the phantom deviated from the planned dose. Secondly, the presence of dose hotspots in the order of 10% related to inhomogeneities in the gel limit the clinical acceptance of this dosimetry technique. Based on the results of the micelle gel dosimeter prototype presented here, chemical optimization will be subject of future work. Polymer gel dosimetry is capable of measuring the absolute dose in the whole 3D volume within 5% accuracy. A temperature stabilization technique is incorporated to increase the accuracy during short measurements, however keeping the temperature stable during long measurement times in both calibration phantoms and the volumetric phantom is more challenging. The sensitivity of MRI readout to minimal temperature fluctuations is demonstrated which

  13. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery.

    PubMed

    Usui, Naotaka

    2016-05-15

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60-70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life.

  14. Critical behavior of modulus of gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Masayuki; Niki, Ryoya; Hikichi, Kunio

    1985-09-01

    The critical behavior of the shear modulus of casein gel is studied. The shear modulus of casein gel scales with the conductivity exponent in the immediate vicinity of the sol-gel transition point. The asymptotic behavior of the modulus in the region far above the transition point is governed by a different exponent which is much larger than the conductivity exponent. These results are explainable by the crossover behavior of the percolation process. This study shows that the gelation of the casein micelle solution is a realization of the percolation process.

  15. Phototoxic effects of topical azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide and adapalene were not detected when applied immediately before UVB to normal skin.

    PubMed

    Cetiner, Salih; Ilknur, Turna; Ozkan, Sebnem

    2004-01-01

    The enhancing effects on UVB erythema of topical agents applied on sun exposed areas are important due to their increased sunburn risk. Since the lesions in acne vulgaris are seen primarily on the face, the effects of topical agents used in acne treatment on the erythemogenicity of UVB is important. The aim of the present study was to examine whether azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel, adapalene gel have the enhancing effects on UVB erythema which are widely used in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was determined with phototest in 30 volunteers and the test was repeated with thin (0.1 cc/25 cm(2)) and thick (0.3 cc/25 cm(2)) azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel, adapalene gel. The effects of each agent on MED was determined after 24 hours. MEDs of UVB were unaffected by azelaic acid cream, benzoyl peroxide gel and adapalene gel when applied immediately before irradiation. According to our results azelaic acid, benzoyl peroxide and adapalene do not seem to have enhancing effects on UVB erythema and thus increased sunburn risk.

  16. Anticipatory guidance topics: are more better?

    PubMed

    Barkin, Shari L; Scheindlin, Benjamin; Brown, Caroline; Ip, Edward; Finch, Stacia; Wasserman, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Anticipatory guidance is a cornerstone of primary care pediatrics. Despite the fact that retention of information is essential for later action, data are lacking on what parents recall immediately after the visit and 1 month later and how the total number of topics discussed affects this outcome. Parents and practitioners completed postvisit surveys of anticipatory guidance topics discussed during health-maintenance visits for children ages 2-11. Postvisit and 1 month later, parental recall was compared with provider report of topics discussed. We examined the relationship between parental recall and the total number of topics discussed. Families with children ages 2-11 years from across the United States participated in this study (N = 861). Providers reported discussing the topics of nutrition, car restraints, dental care, and reading aloud most often (72%- 93%). Concordance between parent and provider was high for all topics (72%-90%). Immediately postvisit, parents reported 6.33 (SD 2.9) as the mean number of topics discussed while providers reported 6.9 (SD 2.7) as the mean number of topics discussed. However, parental recall decreased significantly with more topics (> or =9) discussed. The same trend existed 1 month later. Providers and parents have good agreement about topics discussed or not discussed during a well-child visit; however, parental recall dwindles with increasing numbers of topics discussed. Rethinking well-child care to limit the total number of topics discussed is warranted.

  17. Good and Bad Topics for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper reports the opinions about moral topics expressed by 140 elementary and secondary student teachers, 49 in Indiana and 91 in California. Teachers' judgments of the suitability of topics were collected via a questionnaire containing 20 topics in two versions. The presentation consists of: (1) a description of the opinionnaire teachers…

  18. Topical Hyaluronic acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis after Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa; Munsell, Mark F.; Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Yu, T. Kuan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of ≥ grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation (RT) compared with best supportive care. Materials and Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast RT to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel, on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast, and the control gel to the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of ≥grade 2 dermatitis. Results The study closed early based on a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed significantly higher rate of ≥grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel (61.5% [40/65] vs. 47.7% [31/65], P = 0.027). Only one patient developed grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than petrolatum gel at the end of RT (42% vs. 14%, P = 0.003). Conclusion We found no benefit from use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of grade ≥2 dermatitis after adjuvant RT for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop. PMID:22172912

  19. A Topical Hydrogel with Deferiprone and Gallium-Protoporphyrin Targets Bacterial Iron Metabolism and Has Antibiofilm Activity.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katharina; Thomas, Nicky; Claeys, Jolien; McGuane, Jonathan; Prestidge, Clive A; Coenye, Tom; Wormald, Peter-John; Vreugde, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Many infectious diseases are associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria residing in biofilms that require high antibiotic concentrations. While oral drug delivery is frequently ineffective, topical treatments have the potential to deliver higher drug concentrations to the infection site while reducing systemic side effects. This study determined the antibiofilm activity of a surgical wound gel loaded with the iron chelator deferiprone (Def) and the heme analogue gallium-protoporphyrin (GaPP), alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin. Activity against MDR Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Acinetobacter johnsonii biofilms was assessed in the colony biofilm and artificial wound model by enumeration of CFU and correlative light/electron microscopy. While Staphylococcus biofilms were equally susceptible to GaPP and Def-GaPP gels (log 10 reduction of 3.8 and 3.7, respectively), the Def-GaPP combination was crucial for significant activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms (log 10 reduction of 1.3 for GaPP and 3.3 for Def-GaPP). When Def-GaPP gel was combined with ciprofloxacin, the efficacy exceeded the activity of the individual compounds. Def-GaPP delivered in a surgical wound gel showed significant antibiofilm activity against different MDR strains and could enhance the gel's wound-healing properties. Moreover, Def-GaPP indicated a potentiation of ciprofloxacin. This antibiofilm strategy has potential for clinical utilization as a therapy for topical biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. A Topical Hydrogel with Deferiprone and Gallium-Protoporphyrin Targets Bacterial Iron Metabolism and Has Antibiofilm Activity

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Jolien; McGuane, Jonathan; Prestidge, Clive A.; Wormald, Peter-John

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many infectious diseases are associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria residing in biofilms that require high antibiotic concentrations. While oral drug delivery is frequently ineffective, topical treatments have the potential to deliver higher drug concentrations to the infection site while reducing systemic side effects. This study determined the antibiofilm activity of a surgical wound gel loaded with the iron chelator deferiprone (Def) and the heme analogue gallium-protoporphyrin (GaPP), alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin. Activity against MDR Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter johnsonii biofilms was assessed in the colony biofilm and artificial wound model by enumeration of CFU and correlative light/electron microscopy. While Staphylococcus biofilms were equally susceptible to GaPP and Def-GaPP gels (log10 reduction of 3.8 and 3.7, respectively), the Def-GaPP combination was crucial for significant activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms (log10 reduction of 1.3 for GaPP and 3.3 for Def-GaPP). When Def-GaPP gel was combined with ciprofloxacin, the efficacy exceeded the activity of the individual compounds. Def-GaPP delivered in a surgical wound gel showed significant antibiofilm activity against different MDR strains and could enhance the gel's wound-healing properties. Moreover, Def-GaPP indicated a potentiation of ciprofloxacin. This antibiofilm strategy has potential for clinical utilization as a therapy for topical biofilm-related infections. PMID:28396543

  1. Fabrication of topical metered dose film forming sprays for pain management.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sneha; Bajaj, Amrita; Londhe, Vaishali; Babul, Najib; Kao, Danny

    2017-03-30

    Topical film-forming metered dose spray formulations were designed for management of pain. Ropivacaine, a local anesthetic is explored for its topical efficacy in alleviating pain. Metered dose spray containers, organic solvents, film forming polymers and permeation enhancers were utilized to fabricate the Metered Dose topical spray. Factors like viscosity, spray pattern, spray angle, volume of actuation, droplet size distribution of the metered dose spray formulation and drying time, flexibility and wash-ability of the film formed after spraying were assessed. Permeation of the drug into the porcine skin was observed based on ex-vivo diffusion studies and confocal microscopy. The results indicated a high level of drug concentration in the skin layers. Anti-nociceptive efficacy of the formulations was assessed on Wistar rats by hot plate and tail flick tests, based on the response to pain perception. The results were comparable to the conventional lidocaine gel. Topical film forming sprays have the ability to provide an accurate, long lasting and patient compliant delivery of drugs on the skin as compared to conventional gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical Ketoprofen Versus Placebo in Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Elicabuk, Hayri

    2016-09-01

    Topical agents have been shown to be effective in soft tissue injuries and commonly used in outpatient clinics. However, the data regarding topical agents in the emergency department is insufficient, and they are not used often in the emergency department setting. The present study aimed to compare the effect of 2.5% topical ketoprofen (gel form) to placebo in patients presenting with ankle sprain to the emergency department. Patients presenting with ankle sprain composed the study population. Study patients were randomized into 2 study arms: 2.5% ketoprofen gel and placebo administered over a 5-cm area locally. Pain alleviation was measured by visual analog scale at 15 and 30 minutes. A total of 100 patients were included in the final analysis. The median pain reduction in ketoprofen and placebo groups at 15 minutes was 27 (19.8-33.4) and 9 (7.6-17), respectively. The median pain reduction at 30 minutes for both groups was 42 (36-50.8) and 20 (17.6-24.4), respectively. Pain improvement either at 15 minutes (median difference: 16 [9-22]) or 30 minutes (median difference: 21 [15-27]) was better in the ketoprofen group than placebo. There were no adverse effects in either group. Ketoprofen gel was superior to placebo at 30 minutes in alleviating pain secondary to ankle sprain in the ED with a high safety profile. Further studies are needed concerning the effect of ketoprofen gel for long-term effects. Level I, high quality prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  4. K-Basin gel formation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-07-23

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a).more » This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.« less

  5. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  6. Stable Liquid Jets Bouncing off Soft Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Dan; Yao, Xi; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    A liquid jet can stably bounce off a sufficiently soft gel by following the contour of the dimple created upon impact. This new phenomenon is insensitive to the wetting properties of the gels and was observed for different liquids over a wide range of surface tensions, γ =24 -72 mN /m . In contrast, other jet rebound phenomena are typically sensitive to γ : only a high γ jet rebounds off a hard solid (e.g. superhydrophobic surface) and only a low γ jet bounces off a liquid bath. This is because an air layer must be stabilized between the two interfaces. For a soft gel, no air layer is necessary and the jet rebound remains stable even when there is direct liquid-gel contact.

  7. Buckling of paramagnetic chains in soft gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shilin; Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Weeber, Rudolf; Holm, Christian; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Menzel, Andreas M.; Auernhammer, Günter K.

    We study the magneto-elastic coupling behavior of paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels exposed to external magnetic fields. To this end, a laser scanning confocal microscope is used to observe the morphology of the paramagnetic chains together with the deformation field of the surrounding gel network. The paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels show rich morphological shape changes under oblique magnetic fields, in particular a pronounced buckling deformation. The details of the resulting morphological shapes depend on the length of the chain, the strength of the external magnetic field, and the modulus of the gel. Based on the observation that the magnetic chains are strongly coupled to the surrounding polymer network, a simplified model is developed to describe their buckling behavior. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation model featuring an increased matrix stiffness on the surfaces of the particles leads to morphologies in agreement with the experimentally observed buckling effects.

  8. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  9. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  10. Structure of gels layers with cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokusaev, B. G.; Karlov, S. P.; Vyazmin, A. V.; Nekrasov, D. A.; Zakharov, N. S.; Khramtsov, D. P.; Skladnev, D. A.; Tyupa, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of two-layer agarose gels containing yeast cells is investigated experimentally by spectrometry, to shed a light on the theoretical foundations for the development of bioreactors by the method of 3D bioprinting. Due to division, cells overcome the layer of the dispersion phase separating successively applied layers of the agarose gel. However a gel layer of 100 μm thick with a high concentration of silver nanoparticles completely excludes the infiltration of yeast cells through it. A special sort of agarose is suggested where the concentration of silver nanoparticles formed by cells from salt of silver can serve as an indicator of the state of the yeast cells in the volume of the gel.

  11. Maize arabinoxylan gels as protein delivery matrices.

    PubMed

    Berlanga-Reyes, Claudia M; Carvajal-Millán, Elizabeth; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Rascón-Chu, Agustin; Marquez-Escalante, Jorge A; Martínez-López, Ana Luisa

    2009-04-08

    The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v) in the presence of insulin or beta-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v) was investigated. Insulin and beta-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa) or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 microg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively). The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 x 10(-7) and 0.79 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s for insulin (5 kDa) and beta-lactoglobulin (18 kDa), respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of Ketoconazole niosomal gel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Para, MS; Nagendrakumar, D; Kanani, KM; Keerthy, D

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Niosomes play an increasingly important role in drug delivery as they can reduce toxicity and modify pharmacokinetic and bio-availability. Topically applied niosomes can increase the residence time of drugs in the stratum corneum and epidermis, while reducing the systemic absorption of the drug. It can act as drug containing reservoirs and the modification of the vesicular compositions or surface properties can adjust the drug release rate and the affinity for the target site. Ketoconazole is a broad spectrum Imidazole derivative useful in the treatment of superficial and systemic fungal infections. Materials and Methods: In order to improve the low skin penetration and to minimize the side effects associated with topical conventional drug administration, Ketoconazole niosomes were prepared by a thin film hydration method using different ratios of non-ionic surfactants (Span 40, 60 and Tween 60) along with cholesterol (CHO). The formulations were evaluated for size, shape, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Results: Niosomes appeared spherical in shape and size range was found to be 4.86 ± 1.24-7.38 ± 3.64 μm. The entrapment efficiency was found in the range of 55.14 ± 2.29-78.63 ± 0.91% and in vitro drug release in the range of 46.63 ± 0.95-72.37 ± 0.59% in 24 h. Ketoconazole niosomes formulated with Span 60 and CHO in the ratio of 1:0.2 were found to be promising and were incorporated into 1% Carbopol gel. The formulated gel was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and antifungal activity. The in vitro drug release study was carried out using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 and was found to be 36.18 ± 1.50% in 12 h. Conclusion: Gel formulation containing niosomes loaded with Ketoconazole showed prolonged action than formulations containing Ketoconazole in non-niosomal form and it can be developed successfully to improve the antifungal activity. PMID:23580936

  13. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  14. Development of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres for topical skin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoyle, Brian E.; Sheihet, Larisa; Zhang, Zheng; Laohoo, Marissa; Kohn, Joachim; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    A potential topical psoriasis therapy has been developed consisting of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres) with encapsulated anti-proliferative paclitaxel. TyroSpheres provide enhancement of paclitaxel solubility (almost 4,000 times greater than PBS) by effective encapsulation and enable sustained, dose-controlled release over 72 hours under conditions mimicking skin permeation. TyroSpheres offer potential in the treatment of psoriasis, a disease resulting from over-proliferation of keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, by (a) enabling delivery of paclitaxel into the epidermis at concentrations >100 ng/cm2 of skin surface area and (b) enhancing the cytotoxicity of loaded paclitaxel to human keratinocytes (IC50 of paclitaxel-TyroSpheres was approximately 45% lower than that of free paclitaxel). TyroSpheres were incorporated into a gel-like viscous formulation to improve their flow characteristics with no impact on homogeneity, release or skin distribution of the payload. The findings reported here confirm that the TyroSpheres provide a platform for paclitaxel topical administration allowing skin drug localization and minimal systemic escape. PMID:22732474

  15. Complementary Therapies for Idiopathic Hirsutism: Topical Licorice as Promising Option

    PubMed Central

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Saffar, Bahar; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Aslani, Abolfazl; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A) and placebo (group B). Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients' skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (p < 0.001), and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only. PMID:26273313

  16. A theory for fracture of polymeric gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yunwei; Anand, Lallit

    2018-06-01

    A polymeric gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen with a solvent. If the concentration of the solvent or the deformation is increased to substantial levels, especially in the presence of flaws, then the gel may rupture. Although various theoretical aspects of coupling of fluid permeation with large deformation of polymeric gels are reasonably well-understood and modeled in the literature, the understanding and modeling of the effects of fluid diffusion on the damage and fracture of polymeric gels is still in its infancy. In this paper we formulate a thermodynamically-consistent theory for fracture of polymeric gels - a theory which accounts for the coupled effects of fluid diffusion, large deformations, damage, and also the gradient effects of damage. The particular constitutive equations for fracture of a gel proposed in our paper, contain two essential new ingredients: (i) Our constitutive equation for the change in free energy of a polymer network accounts for not only changes in the entropy, but also changes in the internal energy due the stretching of the Kuhn segments of the polymer chains in the network. (ii) The damage and failure of the polymer network is taken to occur by chain-scission, a process which is driven by the changes in the internal energy of the stretched polymer chains in the network, and not directly by changes in the configurational entropy of the polymer chains. The theory developed in this paper is numerically implemented in an open-source finite element code MOOSE, by writing our own application. Using this simulation capability we report on our study of the fracture of a polymeric gel, and some interesting phenomena which show the importance of the diffusion of the fluid on fracture response of the gel are highlighted.

  17. Tissue-Simulating Gel For Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhardening, translucent gel more nearly simulates soft human or animal tissue. Modified to be softer or harder by altering proportions of ingredients. Fillers added to change electrical, mechanical, heat-conducting, or sound-conducting/scattering properties. Molded to any desired shape and has sufficient mechanical strength to maintain shape without supporting shell. Because of its thermal stability, gel especially useful for investigation of hyperthermia as treatment for cancer.

  18. Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation

    DOEpatents

    Nosticzius, Zoltan; Horsthemke, Werner; McCormick, William D.; Swinney, Harry L.; Tam, Wing Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.

  19. The Sol-Gel-Xerogel Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    basic pH. Bioactive sol-gel glasses obtained by a surface adsorption of trypsin to a readymade xerogel were also completley * L...presence of siloxane chains and hydrophobic methyl groups an easy film deposition on glass sheets can be obtained. Rhodamine 6G and Coumarin 4 were...Research Proposal was prepared (early 1989) have witnessed a tremendous, almost explosive, progress in the field of organically doped sol-gel glasses

  20. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  2. MTN-017: A Rectal Phase 2 Extended Safety and Acceptability Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Javier R.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Ratiya Pamela; Liu, Karen; Patterson, Karen B.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Galaska, Beth; Jacobson, Cindy E.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Johnson, Sherri; Piper, Jeanna M.; Grossman, Cynthia; Ho, Ken S.; Lucas, Jonathan; Pickett, Jim; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chitwarakorn, Anupong; Gonzales, Pedro; Holtz, Timothy H.; Liu, Albert Y.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Zorrilla, Carmen; Schwartz, Jill L.; Rooney, James; McGowan, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Safe and acceptable topical HIV prevention methods that target the rectum are needed. Methods. MTN-017 was a phase 2, 3-period, randomized sequence, open-label, expanded safety and acceptability crossover study comparing rectally applied reduced-glycerin (RG) 1% tenofovir (TFV) and oral emtricitabine/TFV disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF). In each 8-week study period participants were randomized to RG-TFV rectal gel daily, or RG-TFV rectal gel before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI; or at least twice weekly in the event of no RAI), or daily oral FTC/TDF. Results. MSM and TGW (n = 195) were enrolled from 8 sites in the United States, Thailand, Peru, and South Africa with mean age of 31.1 years (range 18-64). There were no differences in ≥grade 2 adverse event rates between daily gel (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.09; P = .59) or RAI gel (IRR, 0.90; P = .51) compared to FTC/TDF. High adherence (≥80% of prescribed doses assessed by unused product return and Short Message System reports) was less likely in the daily gel regimen (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; P < .001), and participants reported less likelihood of future daily gel use for HIV protection compared to FTC/TDF (OR, 0.38; P < .001). Conclusions. Rectal application of RG TFV gel was safe in MSM and TGW. Adherence and product use likelihood were similar for the intermittent gel and daily oral FTC/TDF regimens, but lower for the daily gel regimen. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01687218. PMID:27986684

  3. Rheological effect of gamma radiation on gel-like formulation: Appraisal for the construction of radiopharmaceuticals for cutaneous application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, Vivian; Khoury, Helen Jamil; da Silva, Maria Isabel Barbosa; Mansur, Claudia Regina Elias; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2018-04-01

    Skin cancer affects a lot of people being a malignant cutaneous melanoma one of the most aggressive neoplasms. Nowadays, the FDA-approved drugs to treat them are not as efficient as needed. Thus, the development of new agents or treatments is quite urgent. In that sense, the use of radioactive materials could represent a good alternative and especially Radium-223 is already been explored with promising results. Here, a Carbopol gel-like formulation was designed and irradiated with different doses in order to prove that it is suitable to include Radium-223 for its combined application by topic route. A formulation was obtained by the addition of triethanolamine to the Carbopol solution until pH 5.0. Physical and rheological tests showed that the formulation is a weak gel with a proper consistence to be administered by both routes. The formulation kept its appearance of transparent gel without change in color, presence of grits or syneresis after all tratments. The microstructure of gels was only slightly modified when the irradiation was made with 1000 Gy while the spreadability and viscosity were more deeply affected. Since the properties of this Carbopol gel-like formulation were maintained under irradiation doses until 100 Gy it is possible to consider that the formulation is suitable to include Radium-223 in order to evaluate its performance as localized drug delivery system for topical administration.

  4. Instrumental texture profile analysis of gelatin gel extracted from grouper skin and commercial (bovine and porcine) gelatin gels.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Mahrouqi, Abdullah Issa

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical compression was used to study the gelling characteristics of gelatin gels. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that the hardness of fish and mammalian gelatin increased significantly as the concentrations of gels increased. TPA attributes of 10% fish skin gel showed significant differences from those obtained from 20% and 30% gels. In bovine and porcine cases, such generic trends were not observed. Mechanical characteristics of 10% gels of gelatin from fish skin, determined from one cycle compression, were significantly lower than other sources of gelatin gels, while bovine and porcine gels did not show any significant differences. In the case of TPA, hardness of bovine gelatin gel was highest at 41 N for 10% gel, followed by porcine (30 N) then fish skin (5 N) gelatin gels. The gels prepared from different sources did not show any generic trends when all other mechanical attributes were considered.

  5. Lippia sidoides and Myracrodruon urundeuva gel prevents alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Botelho, M A; Rao, V S; Carvalho, C B M; Bezerra-Filho, J G; Fonseca, S G C; Vale, M L; Montenegro, D; Cunha, F; Ribeiro, R A; Brito, G A

    2007-09-25

    In Brazilian folk medicine, Lippia sidoides (Ls) and Myracrodruon urundeuva (Mu) have gained popularity and reputation as effective antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of topical herbal gel from Ls 0.5% (v/w) and Mu 5% (w/w) in experimental periodontal disease (EPD) in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to ligature placement around the second upper left molars. Animals were treated topically with Ls and/or Mu-based gel, immediately after EPD induction and three times/day for 11 days until the rats were sacrificed (11th day). Saline-based gel was utilized as control for all experiments and doxycycline based gel 10% (w/w) was utilized as reference substance. Animals were weighed daily. Alveolar bone loss was measured as the difference (in millimeters) between the cusp tip and the alveolar bone. The periodontum and the surrounding gingivae were examined at histopathology, as well as the neutrophil influx into the gingivae was assayed using myeloperoxidase activity and cytokine production mainly tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) levels by ELISA method. The local bacterial flora was assessed through culture of the gingival tissue in standard aerobic and anaerobic media. Alveolar bone loss was significantly inhibited by Ls and Mu combined treatment compared to the saline control group. Ls and Mu combined treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, with partial preservation of the periodontum, coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as significantly inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production in gingival tissue compared to the saline control group. Ls and Mu combined treatment also prevented the growth of oral microorganisms and the weight loss. Ls and Mu combined based gel treatment preserved alveolar bone resorption and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in experimental periodontitis.

  6. Microstructure and rheology of thermoreversible nanoparticle gels.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, S; Zukoski, C F

    2006-08-29

    Naïve mode coupling theory is applied to particles interacting with short-range Yukawa attractions. Model results for the location of the gel line and the modulus of the resulting gels are reduced to algebraic equations capturing the effects of the range and strength of attraction. This model is then applied to thermo reversible gels composed of octadecyl silica particles suspended in decalin. The application of the model to the experimental system requires linking the experimental variable controlling strength of attraction, temperature, to the model strength of attraction. With this link, the model predicts temperature and volume fraction dependencies of gelation and modulus with five parameters: particle size, particle volume fraction, overlap volume of surface hairs, and theta temperature. In comparing model predictions with experimental results, we first observe that in these thermal gels there is no evidence of clustering as has been reported in depletion gels. One consequence of this observation is that there are no additional adjustable parameters required to make quantitative comparisons between experimental results and model predictions. Our results indicate that the naïve mode coupling approach taken here in conjunction with a model linking temperature to strength of attraction provides a robust approach for making quantitative predictions of gel mechanical properties. Extension of model predictions to additional experimental systems requires linking experimental variables to the Yukawa strength and range of attraction.

  7. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  8. [Sniffing Position and i-gel Rotation Approach for i-gel Insertion under General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Murashima, Koji; Kayashima, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    Insertion assistance techniques, such as the sniffing position (SP) and i-gel? rotation approach (RA), are recommended in the i-gel supraglottic airway device insertion manual. The usefulness of these techniques was evaluated, in this study, under general anesthesia. In 50 adult patients, the i-gel was inserted with the patient in the mild-SP with 5 degrees head extention at first attempt. When resistance was encountered during insertion or airway patency was not obtained after insertion, the i-gel was re-inserted with the patient in the full-SP with maximum head extention during second attempt. When re-insertion failed, the i-gel was inserted with the patient in the full-SP and by using the i-gel RA during third attempt. Airway patency was established in the mild-SP in 36 of 50 patients, in the full-SP in 11 of the remaining 14, and in the full-SP with the i-gel RA in the remaining 3. The average insertion time was 24.0 s during the first attempt, 22.2 s during the second, and 18.2 s during the third. No major complications were observed. Both the full-SP and the i-gel RA can be used for i-gel insertion.

  9. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications. PMID:20677327

  10. The Effects of NBF Gingival Gel Application in the Treatment of the Erosive Lichen Planus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Popovska, Mirjana; Fidovski, Jasmin; Mindova, Sonja; Dirjanska, Katerina; Ristoska, Stevica; Stefanovska, Emilija; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Mitic, Kristina; Rusevska, Biljana

    2016-03-15

    The therapy of erosive lichen planus (ELP) has been particular problem in the treatment of oral lesions. This case of ELP in male patient 29 years old was treated with topic application of the NBF gingival gel, three times a day after meal, previously rinsed with Clorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. After 5 days of treatment, initial improvements were recorded, and after two weeks of application of the NBF gingival gel we observed significant improvement. Clinical monitoring after the fifth day showed mild epithelialization of the eroded mucosa, yet still present erythematous base of the lesion. After the second week the erythema area was significantly reduced and the eroded surfaces of the mucosa were minimal, measured less than 0.5 mm. After the third week there were no erosions to detect on the oral mucosa, yet still present vague redness, which completely pulled after the fourth week. Treatment ended after the fifth week when the topical application of the NBF gingival gel was terminated, and therapy was done, and clinically achieved effects remained stable even after the third month of the treatment. Topic application of the NBF gingival gel with ELP patients showed positive clinical effects in relatively short time period.

  11. The Effects of NBF Gingival Gel Application in the Treatment of the Erosive Lichen Planus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Popovska, Mirjana; Fidovski, Jasmin; Mindova, Sonja; Dirjanska, Katerina; Ristoska, Stevica; Stefanovska, Emilija; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Mitic, Kristina; Rusevska, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    The therapy of erosive lichen planus (ELP) has been particular problem in the treatment of oral lesions. This case of ELP in male patient 29 years old was treated with topic application of the NBF gingival gel, three times a day after meal, previously rinsed with Clorhexidine gluconate 0.12%. After 5 days of treatment, initial improvements were recorded, and after two weeks of application of the NBF gingival gel we observed significant improvement. Clinical monitoring after the fifth day showed mild epithelialization of the eroded mucosa, yet still present erythematous base of the lesion. After the second week the erythema area was significantly reduced and the eroded surfaces of the mucosa were minimal, measured less than 0.5 mm. After the third week there were no erosions to detect on the oral mucosa, yet still present vague redness, which completely pulled after the fourth week. Treatment ended after the fifth week when the topical application of the NBF gingival gel was terminated, and therapy was done, and clinically achieved effects remained stable even after the third month of the treatment. Topic application of the NBF gingival gel with ELP patients showed positive clinical effects in relatively short time period. PMID:27275352

  12. Topical rosacea therapy: the importance of vehicles for efficacy, tolerability and compliance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J Mark; Pelle, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Many topical medications are available for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. While treatments contain metronidazole, azelaic acid, or sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur as the active ingredient, the composition of the vehicle formulations varies widely. These vehicles come in gels, creams, lotions and foams; some ingredients are common to many vehicles, while some vehicles contain unique ingredients designed to optimize skin penetration and delivery of the active drug to its target. Vehicles can also influence tolerability, which is always a concern in patients with heightened skin sensitivity, and compliance, which is typically lower for topical treatments than oral treatments. Ideally, the vehicle of any rosacea treatment should enhance drug delivery, be nonirritating and be easy to use. Ingredients that help repair barrier function are also desirable. This review will focus on the key components of the vehicles from the most commonly used topical therapies for papulopustular rosacea and how vehicle formulations influence the delivery of active ingredient, skin barrier repair, tolerability and compliance.

  13. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  15. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in

  16. Topical phenytoin nanostructured lipid carriers: design and development.

    PubMed

    Motawea, Amira; Borg, Thanaa; Abd El-Gawad, Abd El-Gawad H

    2018-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is an antiepileptic drug that was reported to exhibit high wound healing activity. Nevertheless, its limited solubility, bioavailability, and inefficient distribution during topical administration limit its use. Therefore, this study aims to develop, characterize nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), and evaluate their potential in topical delivery of PHT to improve the drug entrapment efficiency and sustained release. The NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultra sonication method using 2 3 factorial design. NLC formulations were characterized regarding their particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency percent (%EE), surface morphology, physicochemical stability, and in vitro release studies. The optimized NLC (F7) was further incorporated in 1%w/v carbopol gel and then characterized for appearance, pH, viscosity, stability, and in vitro drug release. The prepared NLCs were spherical in shape and possessed an average PS of 121.4-258.2 nm, ZP of (-15.4)-(-32.2) mV, and 55.24-88.80 %EE. Solid-state characterization revealed that the drug is dispersed in an amorphous state with hydrogen bond interaction between the drug and the NLC components. NLC formulations were found to be stable at 25 °C for six months. The stored F7-hydrogel showed insignificant changes in viscosity and drug content (p>.05) up to six months at 25 °C that pave a way for industrial fabrication of efficient PHT products. In vitro release studies showed a sustained release from NLC up to 48 h at pH 7.4 following non-Fickian Higuchi kinetics model. These promising findings encourage the potential use of phenytoin loaded lipid nanoparticles for future topical application.

  17. Development and evaluation of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carriers: novel topical delivery system for athlete's foot.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samipta; Singh, Mahendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhushan; Arya, Malti; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2016-02-01

    Athlete's foot is a fungal infection of the foot which causes dry, itchy, flaky condition of the skin caused by Trichophyton species. In this study, the potential of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carrier (usNLC)-based topical gel of miconazole nitrate for the treatment of athlete's foot was evaluated. Nanostructure lipid carriers (NLCs) prepared by melt emulsification and sonication technique were characterized for particle size, drug entrapment, zeta potential and drug release. The optimized usNLC revealed particle size 53.79 nm, entrapment efficiency 86.77%, zeta potential -12.9 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.27. The drug release studies of usNLC showed initial fast release followed by sustained release with 91.99% drug released in 24 h. Optimized usNLCs were incorporated into carbopol-934 gel and evaluated for pH (6.8), viscosity (36,400 mPa s) and texture analysis. Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes exhibited wider zone of inhibition, 6.6 ± 1.5 mm for optimized usNLC3 gel viz-à-viz marketed gel formulation (3.7 ± 1.2 mm). Hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) irritation test confirmed optimized usNLC gel to be non-irritant to chorioallantoic membrane. Improved dermal delivery of miconazole by usNLC gel could be achieved for treatment of athlete's foot.

  18. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  19. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite materialmore » can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.« less

  20. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  1. Topics in Extrasolar Planet Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Alex Ryan

    I present four papers exploring different topics in the area of characterizing the atmospheric and bulk properties of extrasolar planets. In these papers, I present two new codes, in various forms, for modeling these objects. A code to generate theoretical models of transit spectra of exoplanets is featured in the first paper and is refined and expanded into the APOLLO code for spectral modeling and parameter retrieval in the fourth paper. Another code to model the internal structure and evolution of planets is featured in the second and third papers. The first paper presents transit spectra models of GJ 1214b and other super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets--planets with a "solid", terrestrial composition and relatively small planets with a thick hydrogen-helium atmosphere, respectively--and fit them to observational data to estimate the atmospheric compositions and cloud properties of these planets. The second paper presents structural models of super-Earth and mini-Neptune type planets and estimates their bulk compositions from mass and radius estimates. The third paper refines these models with evolutionary calculations of thermal contraction and ultraviolet-driven mass loss. Here, we estimate the boundaries of the parameter space in which planets lose their initial hydrogen-helium atmospheres completely, and we also present formation and evolution scenarios for the planets in the Kepler-11 system. The fourth paper uses more refined transit spectra models, this time for hot jupiter type planets, to explore the methods to design optimal observing programs for the James Webb Space Telescope to quantitatively measure the atmospheric compositions and other properties of these planets.

  2. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Sultan, N

    2005-02-01

    To compare oil of evening primrose (OEP) and topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) with respect to safety, effectiveness, rapidity of response, cost effectiveness and acceptability in the treatment of breast pain. An open, non-randomised, comparative study of topical (NSAI) gel versus OEP was carried out, over a period of one year. Fifty female patients attending the outpatient department with moderate to severe breast pain were given one of the two agents alternatively, after selection. Results showed that out of 25 patients treated with OEP, 64% had a clinically significant response after three months of treatment, compared with 92% with topical NSAIDs. Only one patient (4%) had side effects with OEP, while no patient had side effects with topical NSAIDs. Twenty per cent and seventy per cent showed acceptability as far as costs were concerned and mode of administration respectively, with OEP. The acceptability rate was 68% and 96% respectively, with topical NSAIDs. This study has shown topical NSAIDs to be safe, effective, rapid and acceptable mode of treatment for cyclical and non-cyclical mastalgia.

  3. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  4. Effects of microcurrent application alone or in combination with topical Hypericum perforatum L. and Arnica montana L. on surgically induced wound healing in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castro, Fabiene C B; Magre, Amanda; Cherpinski, Ricardo; Zelante, Paulo M; Neves, Lia M G; Esquisatto, Marcelo A M; Mendonça, Fernanda A S; Santos, Gláucia M T

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the wound healing activity of microcurrent application alone or in combination with topical Hypericum perforatum L. and Arnica montana L. on skin surgical incision surgically induced on the back of Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: (1) no intervention (control group); (2) microcurrent application (10 μA/2 min); (3) topical application of gel containing H. perforatum; (4) topical application of H. perforatum gel and microcurrent (10 μA/2 min); (5) topical application of gel containing A. montana; (6) topical application of A. montana gel and microcurrent (10 μA/2 min). Tissue samples were obtained on the 2nd, 6th and 10th days after injury and submitted to structural and morphometric analysis. Differences in wound healing were observed between treatments when compared to the control group. Microcurrent application alone or combined with H. perforatum gel or A. montana gel exerted significant effects on wound healing in this experimental model in all of the study parameters (P<0.05) when compared to the control group with positive effects seen regarding newly formed tissue, number of newly formed blood vessels and percentage of mature collagen fibers. The morphometric data confirmed the structural findings. In conclusion, application of H. perforatum or A. montana was effective on experimental wound healing when compared to control, but significant differences in the parameters studied were only observed when these treatments were combined with microcurrent application. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2016-08-01

    In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Supramolecular Gel-Templated In Situ Synthesis and Assembly of CdS Quantum Dots Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; He, Jie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Dawei; He, Haibing; Ren, Lianbing; Jiang, Biwang; Wang, Yong; Teng, Chao; Xue, Gi; Tao, Huchun

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have attempted to develop strategies for spontaneously organizing nanoparticles (NPs) into three-dimensional (3D) geometries, it remains a fascinating challenge. In this study, a method for in situ synthesis and self-assembly of a CdS quantum dots (QDs) gel using a Cd supramolecular gel as a scaffold was demonstrated. During the QDs formation process, the Cd ions that constituted the Cd gels served as the precursors of the CdS QDs, and the oleic acid (OA) that ligated with the Cd in the supramolecular gels was capped on the surface of the CdS QDs in the form of carboxylate. The OA-stabilized CdS QDs were in situ synthesized in the entangled self-assembled fibrillar networks (SAFIN) of the Cd gels through reactions between the gelator and H2S. As a result, the QDs exactly replicated the framework of the SAFIN in the CdS QD gels instead of simply assembling along the SAFIN of the supramolecular gels. Moreover, the CdS QDs showed extraordinary sensitivity in the fluorescence detection of IO4 - anions. The facile one-step method developed here is a new approach to assembling nanostructured materials into 3D architectures and has general implications for the design of low molecular mass gelators to bring desired functionality to the developed supramolecular gels.

  7. Topics in Gravitation and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami Taghanaki, Sina

    This thesis is focused on two topics in which relativistic gravitational fields play an important role, namely early Universe cosmology and black hole physics. The theory of cosmic inflation has emerged as the most successful theory of the very early Universe with concrete and verifiable predictions for the properties of anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Coalescences of black hole binaries have recently been detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), opening a new arena for observationally testing the dynamics of gravity. In part I of this thesis we explore some modifications to the standard theory of inflation. The main predictions of single field slow-roll inflation have been largely consistent with cosmological observations. However, there remain some aspects of the theory that are not presently well understood. Among these are the somewhat interrelated issues of the choice of initial state for perturbations and the potential imprints of pre-inflationary dynamics. It is well known that a key prediction of the standard theory of inflation, namely the Gaussianity of perturbations, is a consequence of choosing a natural vacuum initial state. In chapter 3, we study the generation and detectability of non-Gaussianities in inflationary scalar perturbations that originate from more general choices of initial state. After that, in chapter 4, we study a simple but predictive model of pre-inflationary dynamics in an attempt to test the robustness of inflationary predictions. We find that significant deviations from the standard predictions are unlikely to result from models in which the inflaton field decouples from the pre-inflationary degrees of freedom prior to freeze-out of the observable modes. In part II we turn to a study of an aspect of the thermodynamics of black holes, a subject which has led to important advances in our understanding of quantum gravity. For objects which

  8. Topics in elementary particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate

  9. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNAmore » populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.« less

  10. Viscoplastic fracture transition of a biopolymer gel.

    PubMed

    Frieberg, Bradley R; Garatsa, Ray-Shimry; Jones, Ronald L; Bachert, John O; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Liu, X Michael; Chan, Edwin P

    2018-06-13

    Physical gels are swollen polymer networks consisting of transient crosslink junctions associated with hydrogen or ionic bonds. Unlike covalently crosslinked gels, these physical crosslinks are reversible thus enabling these materials to display highly tunable and dynamic mechanical properties. In this work, we study the polymer composition effects on the fracture behavior of a gelatin gel, which is a thermoreversible biopolymer gel consisting of denatured collagen chains bridging physical network junctions formed from triple helices. Below the critical volume fraction for chain entanglement, which we confirm via neutron scattering measurements, we find that the fracture behavior is consistent with a viscoplastic type process characterized by hydrodynamic friction of individual polymer chains through the polymer mesh to show that the enhancement in fracture scales inversely with the squared of the mesh size of the gelatin gel network. Above this critical volume fraction, the fracture process can be described by the Lake-Thomas theory that considers fracture as a chain scission process due to chain entanglements.

  11. Tretinoin microsphere gel in younger acne patients.

    PubMed

    Jorizzo, Joseph; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Facial acne is common in adolescents and can have a significant psychosocial impact. Treatments prescribed should not add stress by causing excessive localized irritation. To determine whether the lowest concentration of tretinoin microsphere gel (TMG) currently available (0.04%) provides an acceptable balance of efficacy and tolerability for adolescents with moderate facial acne. The findings of 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials of TMG 0.04% applied once nightly for 12 weeks in 245 adolescents ages 11 to 16 years with moderate facial acne were combined. Patients were evaluated via changes in acne lesion counts and the occurrence of cutaneous and other adverse effects. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% reduced total, noninflammatory, and inflammatory lesion counts to a significantly greater extent than the vehicle gel at 12 weeks (P<.000005). The mean percentage reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts at 12 weeks in females were 45.0% and 51.4%, respectively; and in males, 20.5% and 36.7%, respectively. Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% was tolerated well, with over 70% of patients experiencing no cutaneous adverse events (AEs). Tretinoin microsphere gel 0.04% is effective in significantly reducing all types of acne lesions in adolescents with moderate facial acne ages 11 to 16 years, and has a low incidence of cutaneous AEs.

  12. Structural Properties of Silk Electro-Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, A. P.; Urbach, J. S.; Blair, D. L.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2013-03-01

    The interest in Bombyx Mori silk emerges from its biocompatibility and its structural superiority to synthetic polymers. Our particular interest lies in understanding the capabilities of silk electro-gels because of their reversibility and tunable adhesion. We create an electro-gel by applying a DC electric potential across a reconstituted silk fibroin solution derived directly from Bombyx Mori cocoons. This process leads to the intermolecular self-assembly of fibroin proteins into a weak gel. In this talk we will present our results on the effects of applied shear on electro-gels. We quantify the structural properties while dynamically imaging shear induced fiber formation; known as fibrillogenesis. It is observed that the mechanical properties and microstructure of these materials are highly dependent on shear history. We will also discuss the role of surface modification, through micro-patterning, on the observed gel structure. Our results provide an understanding of both the viscoelastiticity and microstucture of reconstituted silks that are being utilized as tissue scaffolds. This work is supported by a grant from the AFOSR FA9550-07-1-0130.

  13. Structural evolution of Colloidal Gels under Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao; Jamali, Safa

    Colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in different industrial applications ranging from cosmetic and food industries to soft robotics and aerospace. Owing to the fact that mechanical properties of colloidal gels are controlled by its microstructure and network topology, we trace the particles in the networks formed under different attraction potentials and try to find a universal behavior in yielding of colloidal gels. Many authors have implemented different simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) to capture better picture during phase separation and yielding mechanism in colloidal system with short-ranged attractive force. However, BD neglects multi-body hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which are believed to be responsible for the second yielding of colloidal gels. We envision using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) with modified depletion potential and hydrodynamic interactions, as a coarse-grain model, can provide a robust simulation package to address the gel formation process and yielding in short ranged-attractive colloidal systems. The behavior of colloidal gels with different attraction potentials under flow is examined and structural fingerprints of yielding in these systems will be discussed.

  14. Long time response of soft magnetorheological gels.

    PubMed

    An, Hai-Ning; Sun, Bin; Picken, Stephen J; Mendes, Eduardo

    2012-04-19

    Swollen physical magnetorheological (MR) gels were obtained by self-assembling of triblock copolymers containing dispersed soft magnetic particles. The transient rheological responses of these systems were investigated experimentally. Upon sudden application of a homogeneous magnetic field step change, the storage modulus of MR gels continued to increase with time. Such increase trend of the storage modulus could be expressed by a double-exponential function with two distinct modes, a fast and a slow one. The result was compared with the transient rheological response of equivalent MR fluids (paraffin oil without copolymer) and a MR elastomer (PDMS) and interpreted as the consequence of strong rearrangement of the original particle network under magnetic field. Similar to the structure evolution of MR fluids, the ensemble of results suggests that "chaining" and "clustering" processes are also happening inside the gel and are responsible for the rheological behavior, provided they are happening on a smaller length scale (long chains and clusters are hindered). We show that response times of several minutes are typical for the slow response of MR gels. The characteristic time t(2) for the slow process is significantly dependent on the magnetic flux density, the matrix viscoelastic property, particle volume fraction, and sample's initial particle distribution. In order to validate our results, the role of dynamic strain history was clarified. We show that, in the linear viscoelastic region, the particle rearrangement of MR gels was not hindered or accelerated by the dynamic strain history.

  15. Sillica Gel-Amine from Geothermal Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljani, S.; Pujiastuti, C.; Wicaksono, P.; Lutfianingrum, R.

    2018-01-01

    Silica Gel-Amine (SGA) has been made from geothermal sludge by grafting amine method. Sodium silicate solution is prepared by extracted geothermal sludge powder using sodium hidroxide solution then acidification in the range of pH 5 - 9 by using tartaric acid 1N. The grafting process uses 1 ml of ammonia solution and 10 ml of toluene at a rate of 0.1 ml min-1 accompanied by a reflux process. The amine grafting is done in two methods. The first method is grafting amine in silicate solution and the second method is grafting amine in washed gel. Product SGA was confirmed by FTIR, TGA-DTG and BET characterization. The results show that the pH affects the amount of amine that is grafted onto silica gel. Differences in grafting method affect the size of the pore and surface area. SGA product prepared by grafting washed gel at pH 8 have pore diameter of 12.06 nm, surface area of 173.44 m2g-1, and mass of decomposed amine compound 0.4 mg. In the presence of amine groups on the silica gel surface, these adsorbents may be able to selectively adsorb CO2 gas from natural gas.

  16. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion - slideshow Collapsed lung (pneumothorax) Hemothorax Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  18. Fingolimod hydrochloride gel shows promising therapeutic effects in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tamakuwala, Mayurkumar; Ratna, Warren; Joshi, Amit; Stagni, Grazia

    2016-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of topically applied 2% hydroxypropyl cellulose gels containing 0.5% fingolimod hydrochloride (FNGL) with or without 6% colloidal oatmeal in an in vivo model of atopic dermatitis (AD). AD-like lesions were induced in SKH1/Hr hairless mice and were treated with FNGL gels, non-medicated base gels and Elidel(®) cream for 6 weeks. The severity/improvement of the lesions was assessed regularly using the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), pH of the skin, transepidermal water loss, g/m(2) /h (TEWL), humidity and temperature. At the end of the experiments, the plasma levels of cytokines, FNGL and white blood cells were determined. The EASI score was almost unchanged for the vehicle-only groups compared to before the treatments, whereas the medicated groups showed a significant decrease in the overall EASI score (P < 0.01), although there was non-significant differences among them (P > 0.081). Both the FNGL groups also showed a significant (P ˂ 0.05) reduction in blood WBC. This study shows that the gels containing 0.50% FNGL and FNGL 0.50% plus 6% colloidal oatmeal have potential for the treatment of AD. The presence of colloidal oatmeal may provide additional benefits. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  20. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-29

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm(-2) and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ∼200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue.

  1. Gel-Filled Holders For Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A.

    1992-01-01

    In new technique, ultrasonic transducer embedded in rubbery, castable, low-loss gel to enable transducer to "look" into surface of test object or human body at any desired angle. Composed of solution of water and ethylene glycol in collagen matrix. Provides total contact of water bath, also used on bodies or objects too large for water baths, even if moving. Also provides look angles of poly(methyl methacrylate) angle block with potential of reduced acoustic impedance and refraction. Custom-tailored to task at hand, and gel sufficiently inexpensive to be discarded upon completion. Easy to couple ultrasound in and out of gel, minimizing losses and artifacts of other types of standoffs employed in ultrasonic testing.

  2. Ultraflexible organic amplifier with biocompatible gel electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Fukushima, Takanori; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Onodera, Hiroshi; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    In vivo electronic monitoring systems are promising technology to obtain biosignals with high spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a biocompatible highly conductive gel composite comprising multi-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed sheet with an aqueous hydrogel. This gel composite exhibits admittance of 100 mS cm−2 and maintains high admittance even in a low-frequency range. On implantation into a living hypodermal tissue for 4 weeks, it showed a small foreign-body reaction compared with widely used metal electrodes. Capitalizing on the multi-functional gel composite, we fabricated an ultrathin and mechanically flexible organic active matrix amplifier on a 1.2-μm-thick polyethylene-naphthalate film to amplify (amplification factor: ∼200) weak biosignals. The composite was integrated to the amplifier to realize a direct lead epicardial electrocardiography that is easily spread over an uneven heart tissue. PMID:27125910

  3. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  4. Noncomparative contraceptive efficacy of cellulose sulfate gel.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Freziers, Ron G; Walsh, Terri L; Peacock, Karen; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-03-01

    To estimate the 6-month cumulative probability of pregnancy, short-term adverse effects, and acceptability of cellulose sulfate vaginal contraceptive gel. Two hundred fertile heterosexual couples were enrolled in this single-center, phase II, 6-month noncomparative study conducted at the California Family Health Council in Los Angeles, California. Couples did not desire pregnancy, were at low risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and agreed to use 3.5 mL of cellulose sulfate gel intravaginally before each coital act as their primary means of contraception. Scheduled follow-up visits took place after one menstrual cycle and at study completion, which occurred after 6 months and six menstrual cycles had elapsed. In addition, participants were instructed to call the site at the onset of each menses to review their diary cards. The cumulative probabilities of pregnancy during 6 months and six cycles of typical use were 13.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.5-19.4%) and 13.9% (95% CI 7.7-20.2%), respectively, and during 6 cycles of correct and consistent ("perfect") use: 3.9% (95% CI 0.0-9.2%). Slightly over one fourth of the women and one man reported experiencing gel-related adverse events, two thirds of which were mild and only possibly related to the gel. Three quarters of women and men reported that they would buy cellulose sulfate gel for contraception. Cellulose sulfate vaginal gel yields pregnancy rates comparable to nonoxynol-9 and few adverse events among couples at low risk for sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Elasticity of entangled polymer loops: Olympic gels

    SciTech Connect

    Vilgis, T.A.; Otto, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this Rapid Communication we present a scaling theory for the elasticity of olympic gels, i.e., gels where the elasticity is a consequence of topology only. It is shown that two deformation regimes exist. The first is the nonaffine deformation regime where the free energy scales linear with the deformation. In the large (affine) deformation regime the free energy is shown to scale as F{proportional_to}{lambda}{sup 5/2} where {lambda} is the deformation ratio. Thus a highly non-Hookian stress-strain relation is predicted. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. The Material Properties of Gelatin Gels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Since the gelatin gel is soluble in water, a seare’h was conducted to find a liquid that would be totally inert to the gel, and that had a dei,sity less...amount of foam removed from a gelatin batch. For example, in the 0.0% gelatin p-paration, 43g of foam was recovered out of a total of of water *.id...indeed, some hakples appeared totally unchanged iafter 75 dtas ale the container. Another particular container had only gtwo aplea on the lower level

  7. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, J.M.

    1993-04-20

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  8. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOEpatents

    Hiller, John M.; Wallace, Steven A.; Dai, Sheng

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  9. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  10. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  11. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  12. Thermosensitive chitosan gels containing calcium glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Skwarczynska, Agata L; Kuberski, Slawomir; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Modrzejewska, Zofia

    2018-08-05

    In this paper the properties of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels, formulated with chitosan chloride with β-glycerophosphate disodium salt hydrate and chitosan chloride with β-glycerophosphate disodium salt hydrate enriched with calcium glycerophosphate, are presented. The study focused on the determination of the hydrogel structure after conditioning in water. The structure of the gels was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallinity of the gel structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the thermal effects were determined based on DSC thermograms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of oral topical agents on microorganisms associated with radiated head and neck cancer patients: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Bidra, Avinash S; Tarrand, Jeffery J; Roberts, Dianna B; Rolston, Kenneth V; Chambers, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    A variety of oral topical agents have been used for prevention and management of radiotherapy-induced adverse effects. The antimicrobial nature of some of the commonly used agents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacies of various oral topical agents on common microorganisms associated with radiated head and neck cancer patients. Seven commonly used topical oral agents-0.12% chlorhexidine with alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine without alcohol, baking soda-salt rinse, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel, 0.63% stannous fluoride rinse, calcium phosphate mouthrinse, and acemannan hydrogel (aloe vera) rinse-were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial efficacies against four common microorganisms. A combination of baking soda-salt rinse and 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was evaluated as the eighth agent. The microorganisms used were Staphylococcus aureus, group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. An ELISA reader was used to measure the turbidity of microbial culture wells and optical density (OD) values for each of the 960 wells recorded. Mean OD values were rank ordered based on their turbidity. One-way ANOVA with Tukey HSD post hoc analysis was used to study differences in OD values (P < .05). Mean OD values classified for topical agents from lowest to highest were chlorhexidine with alcohol, chlorhexidine without alcohol, baking soda- salt, calcium phosphate rinse, and the combination of baking soda-salt and stannous fluoride gel. Mean OD values classified for microorganisms from lowest to highest were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, group B Streptococcus, and Candida albicans. A significant difference among the antimicrobial efficacies of topical agents was evident for each of four microorganisms (P < .05). There was also a significant difference among the antimicrobial efficacies of the same topical agent on the four microorganisms tested (P < .05).

  14. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes: a new trend in topical management of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Bendas, Ehab R; Abdullah, Hamoud; El-Komy, Mohamed H M; Kassem, Mohamed A A

    2013-12-31

    The work aimed at studying a novel topical niosomal gel formulation of hydroxychloroquine for the management of oral lichen planus. Niosomes have been reported as conceivable vesicles to deliver drug molecules to the desired mucous membrane or skin layers. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes were designed using different methods of preparation. Tween 20 and cholesterol in molar ratio (1:0.5) were used. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size and in vitro drug release. Different factors affecting the encapsulation of hydroxychloroquine in niosomes were studied vs. varying the type of surfactant, the cholesterol:surfactant molar ratio and the amount of the drug. The selected noisome formulation was dispersed in different gel formulations and evaluated according to the in vitro drug release and the physical stability. The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol ratio and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release of hydroxychloroquine from niosomes. The optimum formulation was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using Brij 98:cholesterol molar ratio (1:1.5) and containing 20mg of hydroxychloroquine and incorporated in 20% w/v Pluronic F-127 gel. A double-blind, controlled clinical study was performed using two groups of patients. Group A (n=11) who received hydroxychloroquine niosomal gel formulation, one application-a-day over 4 months showed 64.28% reduction in the size of lesions and the average score of pain was reduced from "4" to "1". Compared to placebo group B (n=5), who showed only 3.94% reduction in the lesion size and the average score of pain was remained "3". Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical treatment of oral lichen planus in short time with less side effects and no recurrence after stopping the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (P<0.05) was seen compared with the control group; the clinical results were promising. Photodynamic hair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  16. Topic Prominence in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The…

  17. Topical Treatment of Degenerative Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zengdong; Huang, Rongzhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews topical management strategies for degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library using MeSH terms including "topical," "treatment," "knee" and "osteoarthritis" was carried out. Original research and review articles on the effectiveness and safety, recommendations from international published guidelines and acceptability studies of topical preparations were included. Current topical treatments included for the management of knee OA include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin, salicylates and physical treatments such as hot or cold therapy. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an alternative and even first-line therapy for OA management, especially among elderly patients. Guidelines on other topical treatments vary, from recommendations against their use, to in favor as alternative or simultaneous therapy, especially for patients with contraindications to other analgesics. Although often well-tolerated and preferred by many patients, clinical care still lags in the adoption of topical treatments. Aspects of efficacy, safety and patient quality of life data require further research. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  19. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    PubMed Central

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  20. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  1. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  2. Topical anaesthetic and tear film stability.

    PubMed

    Mengher, L S; Pandher, K S; Bron, A J

    1986-02-01

    The effect of unpreserved topical anaesthetic on tear film stability (0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride) was investigated in a double masked randomised study in 12 healthy volunteers, using a noninvasive tear film break up technique (NIBUT). It was found that the topical anaesthetic did not reduce the pre-corneal tear film stability, contrary to the electron microscopic evidence.

  3. A Thousand Topics for Composition: Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois English Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    For use by junior and senior high school English teachers and students in search of appropriate subjects for written compositions, this publication contains 1,237 topics compiled from a questionnaire sent to about 250 teachers. The topics are divided into categories: personal reminiscences, personal reactions, the familiar essay, description,…

  4. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  5. Methods for studying sensitive family topics.

    PubMed

    Gelles, Richard J

    1978-07-01

    Researchers on sensitive topics in family relations face a number of obstacles, due to the private nature of the family and to ethical constraints on the study of humans. Difficulties in locating subjects, engaging their cooperation, and obtaining valid and reliable data are discussed, and methods are proposed for pursuing research on these important but frequently taboo topics.

  6. Some Teaching Topics from Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Short notes on a variety of science topics provide information derived from space sciences that can be used to add interest and up-to-date data to science lessons. Topics are arranged alphabetically from Alpha particles to X-rays, and include some from each of the physical, earth, and biological sciences. (AL)

  7. Topic Maps e-Learning Portal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsevicova, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    Topic Maps, ISO/IEC 13250 standard, are designed to facilitate the organization and navigation of large collections of information objects by creating meta-level perspectives of their underlying concepts and relationships. The underlying structure of concepts and relations is expressed by domain ontologies. The Topics Maps technology can become…

  8. Common Topics and Commonplaces of Environmental Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Common topics are words or phrases used to develop argument, and commonplaces aid memory or catalyze frames of understanding. When used in argumentation, each may help interested parties more effectively communicate valuable scientific and environment-related information. This article describes 12 modern topics of environmental rhetoric,…

  9. Titanium (IV) sol-gel chemistry in varied gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Matthew; Martens, Wayde; Steinberg, Theodore

    Sol-gel synthesis in reduced gravity is a relatively new topic in the literature and further inves-tigation is essential to realise its potential and application to other sol-gel systems. The sol-gel technique has been successfully applied to the synthesis of silica systems of varying porosity for many diverse applications [1-5]. It is proposed that current methods for the synthesis of silica sol-gels in reduced gravity may be applied to titanium sol-gel processing in order to enhance desirable physical and chemical characteristics of the final materials. The physical and chemical formation mechanisms for titanium alkoxide based sol-gels, to date, is not fully understood. However, various authors [6-9] have described potential methods to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of titanium alkoxides through the use of chemical inhibitors. A preliminary study of the reaction kinetics of titanium alkoxide sol-gel reaction in normal gravity was undertaken in order to determine reactant mixtures suitable for further testing under varied gravity conditions of limited duration. Through the use of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) for structural analysis of precursor materials, Ultra-Violet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and viscosity measurements, it was demonstrated that not only could the rate of the chemical reaction could be controlled, but directed linear chain growth within the resulting gel structure was achievable through the use of increased inhibitor concentrations. Two unique test systems have been fabricated to study the effects of varied gravity (reduced, normal, high) on the formation of titanium sol-gels. Whilst the first system is to be used in conjunction with the recently commissioned drop tower facility at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia to produce reduced gravity conditions. The second system is a centrifuge capable of providing high gravity environments of up to 70 G's for extended periods of time

  10. Control of gel swelling and phase separation of weakly charged thermoreversible gels by salt addition

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Francisco J.; Vernon, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Doping of thermoreversible polymer gels with charged monomers provides a way to control phase separation and gelation conditions by coupling the properties of the gel with a tunable ionic environment. We analyze the dependence of the gelation and phase separation conditions on the amount of salt present using a mean field model of weakly charged associative polymers. The ions and co-ions present are explicitly considered at the mean field level, and we determine their concentrations in the different equilibrium phases when the system undergoes phase separation. For weak polymer charge, the entropic contributions of the ions to the free energy of the system play a central role in the determination of the location of phase equilibrium. In the simplest case, when the associative interaction responsible for gel formation is independent of the electrostatic interaction, the addition of salt changes the polymer equilibrium concentrations and indirectly changes the measurable swelling of the gel. We construct phase diagrams of these systems showing the location of the coexistence region, the gel-sol boundary and the location of the tie-lines. We determine the swelling of the gel within the co-existence region. Our main result is that the description of the effect of the salt on the properties of the weakly charged gel can be described through an extra contribution to the effective immiscibility parameter χ proportional to the square of the doping degree f2 and to the inverse square of the added salt concentration s−2. PMID:19759854

  11. Free forming of the gel by 3D gel printer SWIM-ER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Koji; Tase, Taishi; Saito, Azusa; Makino, Masato; Gong, Jin; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels, soft and wet materials, have unique properties such as material permeability, biocompatibility and low friction, which are hardly found in hard and dry materials. These superior characteristics of hydrogels promise to expand the medical applications. In recent years, the optical 3D gel printer named SWIM-ER (Soft and Wet Industrial - Easy Realizer) was developed by our team in order to fabricate tough gels with free form. We are aiming to create artificial blood vessel of the gel material by 3D gel printer. Artificial blood vessel is expected to be used for vascular surgery practice. The artificial blood vessel made by 3D gel printer can be create to free form on the basis of the biological data of the patient. Therefore, we believe it is possible to contribute to increasing the success rate and safety of vascular surgery by creating artificial blood vessel with 3D gel printer. The modeling method of SWIM-ER is as follow. Pregel solution is polymerized by one-point UV irradiation with optical fiber. The irradiation area is controlled by computer program, so that exact 3D free forming is realized. In this study, synthesis conditions are re-examined in order to improve the degree of freedom of fabrication. The dimensional accuracy in height direction is improved by increasing the cross linker concentration. We examined the relationship of resolution to the pitch and UV irradiation time in order to improve the modeling accuracy.

  12. Gel-expanded to gel-condensed transition in neurofilament networks revealed by direct force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Roy; Deek, Joanna; Jones, Jayna B.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofilaments (NF)-the principal cytoskeletal constituent of myelinated axons in vertebrates-consist of three molecular-weight subunit proteins NF-L (low), NF-M (medium) and NF-H (high), assembled to form mature filaments with protruding unstructured C-terminus side arms. Liquid-crystal gel networks of side-arm-mediated neurofilament assemblies have a key role in the mechanical stability of neuronal processes. Disruptions of the neurofilament network, owing to neurofilament over-accumulation or incorrect side-arm interactions, are a hallmark of motor-neuron diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using synchrotron X-ray scattering, we report on a direct measurement of forces in reconstituted neurofilament gels under osmotic pressure (P). With increasing pressure near physiological salt and average phosphorylation conditions, NF-LMH, comprising the three subunits near in vivo composition, or NF-LH gels, undergo for P>Pc~10kPa, an abrupt non-reversible gel-expanded to gel-condensed transition. The transition indicates side-arm-mediated attractions between neurofilaments consistent with an electrostatic model of interpenetrating chains. In contrast, NF-LM gels remain in a collapsed state for Pgel-condensed state at P>Pc. These findings, which delineate the distinct roles of NF-M and NF-H in regulating neurofilament interactions, shed light on possible mechanisms for disruptions of optimal mechanical network properties.

  13. Fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined with topical tretinoin for the treatment of different forms of cystic acne.

    PubMed

    Pestoni Porvén, Carmela; Vieira Dos Santos, Vanessa; Del Pozo Losada, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    Nodulocystic acne is prone to scarring and difficult to treat with treatments other than oral isotretinoin. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of a single session of a fractional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser combined with a topical treatment with a tretinoin and antibiotic gel for a month as a successful treatment to improve nodulocystic acne and chronic microcystic acne. Two cases were involved: the first with nodulocystic acne lesions that persisted after oral retinoids and the second with chronic microcystic acne resistant to topical treatments. After only one session of treatment with the CO 2 laser and the topical treatment, a complete healing of the nodulocystic acne lesions was observed with minimal secondary effects. The microcystic acne showed great improvement. No other topical or oral treatment was needed. This treatment could be a safe and effective treatment for nodulocystic acne lesions and microcystic acne when other treatments fail. More studies should be performed to confirm our results.

  14. [The effect of locally applied Grisaldone or choline salicylate gel on bone healing after tooth extraction in animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Cendelin, E; Fröhlich, M

    1977-01-01

    Comparative histological and experimental animal studies of the effects upon bone wound healing of topically applied choline salicylate gel and Grisaldon showed that Grisaldon tends to hinder the course of reparation of bone, whereas choline salicylate gel has no appreciable influence upon the time course of wound healing. This essential difference is considered to be due predominantly to the exactly opposite behavior shown by the two pharmaceutical preparations in regard to their solubility in water. The difficultly watersoluble Grisaldon tends to exert a longer-drawn-out irritant effect upon the tissue and can be detected in alveoli even after twenty-eight days from administration thereof. By contrast, choline salicylate gel, which is known to be readily soluble in water, will be eliminated already after two days from administration thereof.

  15. Formulation of thermoresponsive and buccal adhesive in situ gel for treatment of oral thrush containing poorly water soluble drug bifonazole.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dimendra; Patel, Dipti; Prajapati, Jatin; Patel, Umang; Patel, Vijay

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of poorly water soluble drug Bifonazole based on temperature induced systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Bifonazole is poorly water soluble and low permeable drug means it's belongs to BCS Class IV. Due to its poor water solubility, it necessary to enhance solubility in water by make complex with Beta- Cyclodextrin (Drug to βCyclo Dextrine ratio is 1:1). After in situ gel preparation done by using Poloxamer (10% and 15%w/w) along with carbopol 934 (0.2 to 1.0% w/w) and Bifonazole - β CD complex (1%w/w). The formulations were evaluated for physiochemical parameter, gelation Temperature, viscosity, gel strength, content uniformity mucoadhesive force, Diffusion Study.

  16. Formulation of thermoresponsive and buccal adhesive in situ gel for treatment of oral thrush containing poorly water soluble drug bifonazole

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dimendra; Patel, Dipti; Prajapati, Jatin; Patel, Umang; Patel, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of poorly water soluble drug Bifonazole based on temperature induced systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis. Bifonazole is poorly water soluble and low permeable drug means it's belongs to BCS Class IV. Due to its poor water solubility, it necessary to enhance solubility in water by make complex with Beta- Cyclodextrin (Drug to βCyclo Dextrine ratio is 1:1). After in situ gel preparation done by using Poloxamer (10% and 15%w/w) along with carbopol 934 (0.2 to 1.0% w/w) and Bifonazole – β CD complex (1%w/w). The formulations were evaluated for physiochemical parameter, gelation Temperature, viscosity, gel strength, content uniformity mucoadhesive force, Diffusion Study. PMID:23066185

  17. Enclomiphene citrate stimulates testosterone production while preventing oligospermia: a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing topical testosterone.

    PubMed

    Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Nydell, Jennifer; Lipshultz, Larry

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Phase II clinical trial. Community dwelling men making visits to physician offices. Men with secondary hypogonadism. Oral administration of enclomiphene citrate or 1% topical T gel. Luteinizing hormone, FSH, T, and semen analysis. Treatment with enclomiphene citrate resulted in increased morning serum T, E2, and LH levels similar to those obtained with a topical T gel in men with secondary hypogonadism. Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH were increased with enclomiphene, and sperm counts were conserved. Enclomiphene citrate reverses the two hallmarks of secondary hypogonadism, namely, low serum total T and low or inappropriately normal LH while preserving sperm production. NCT01270841 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01270841). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P < 0.001). Efficacy was reduced to 60% when TFV gel was applied 3 days before SHIV challenge (P = 0.07). Plasma TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in tissues and vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  19. Fluoride gel effective at reducing caries in children.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Data Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline , Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the Web of Science Conference Proceedings, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in children up to 16 years were considered. Studies had to be at least one year in duration with a frequency of application of at least once a year with blind outcome assessment. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces in both permanent and primary teeth (D(M)FS and d(e/m)fs). At least two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. The primary measure of effect was the prevented fraction (PF). Where data could be pooled random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Potential sources of heterogeneity were examined in random-effects meta-regression analyses. Twenty-eight trials involving 9140 children and adolescents were included. Most of the studies (20) were at high risk of bias, with eight at unclear risk of bias. Twenty-five trials (8479 participants) provided data for meta-analysis on permanent teeth, with a D(M)FS pooled prevented fraction (PF) estimate of 28% (95% CI; 19-36%; P < 0.0001; with substantial heterogeneity (P < 0.0001; I(2) = 82%); moderate quality evidence). Subgroup and metaregression analyses suggested no significant association between estimates of D(M)FS prevented fractions and the prespecified trial characteristics. However, the effect of fluoride gel varied according to the type of control group used, with D(M)FS PF on average being 17% (95% CI 3% to 31%; P = 0.018) higher in non-placebo-controlled trials (the reduction in caries was 38% (95% CI 24% to 52%; P < 0.0001, 2808 participants) for the ten trials with no treatment as control group, and 21% (95

  20. Compatibility between weak gel and microorganisms in weak gel-assisted microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Ma, Tao

    2018-03-20

    To investigate weak gel-assisted microbial flooding in Block Wang Long Zhuang in the Jiangsu Oilfield, the compatibility of weak gel and microbe was evaluated using laboratory experiments. Bacillus sp. W5 was isolated from the formation water in Block Wang Long Zhuang. The rate of oil degradation reached 178 mg/day, and the rate of viscosity reduction reached 75.3%. Strain W5 could produce lipopeptide with a yield of 1254 mg/L. Emulsified crude oil was dispersed in the microbial degradation system, and the average diameter of the emulsified oil particles was 18.54 μm. Bacillus sp. W5 did not affect the rheological properties of the weak gel, and the presence of the weak gel did not significantly affect bacterial reproduction (as indicated by an unchanged microbial biomass), emulsification (surface tension is 35.56 mN/m and average oil particles size is 21.38 μm), oil degradation (162 mg/day) and oil viscosity reduction (72.7%). Core-flooding experiments indicated oil recovery of 23.6% when both weak gel and Bacillus sp. W5 were injected into the system, 14.76% when only the weak gel was injected, and 9.78% with strain W5 was injected without the weak gel. The results demonstrate good compatibility between strains W5 and the weak gel and highlight the application potential of weak gel-assisted microbial flooding. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tough Amphiphilic Gels for Antifouling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villada, Laura M.

    Biofouling is the attachment of unwanted organisms on a surface, and it is influenced by a host of variables including the chemistry of the material as well as both the surface and bulk properties, and controlling and understanding the effect of these properties is critical for the development of effective materials to combat biofouling. All surfaces that are submerged in water are subject to the rapid colonization of a wide range of marine organisms. Marine biofouling decreases fuel efficiency, costing the Navy millions of dollars in penalty, as well as having drastic environmental effects. Previous prevention of biofouling in marine systems has been accomplished by the administration of biocides and toxic coatings. In recent years, increased concerns about the impacts of these hazardous compounds into marine ecosystems has spurred efforts to develop cost effective, non-toxic, and durable anti-fouling coatings. Hydrogels, hydrophilic crosslinked networks, are being used to modify silicone marine coatings and have demonstrated potential at combatting biofouling. Understanding the impact of amphiphilic materials, i.e. their structure and properties, on biofouling is of great importance in order to address the need in the industry. In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) crosslinked networks were tailored to investigate the influence of their surface and bulk properties on biofouling. Previous research utilizing HEMA-siloxane gels suggested a relationship between molecular weight between crosslinks, M c, and the attachment of soft fouling sporelings of the green algae U. linza and adsorption of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the initial thrust of this dissertation was aimed at resolving this relationship. Gel composition was modified by varying the siloxane crosslinking agent and the siloxane hydrophobic monomer concentrations. The gels exhibited an increase in elastic modulus from 0.17 to 8.55 MPa that coincided with an increasing

  2. [Overdentures covering natural roots. The use of chlorhexidine gel].

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, M J; Kramer, J E; de Baat, C

    2000-03-01

    To prevent caries and periodontal disease in overdenture abutment teeth, daily application of chlorhexidine gel is recommended. In order to get insight into the use of the gel, 29 overdenture wearing patients were interviewed. In addition the patients were requested to show the use of the gel. It was concluded that at any time the patients were instructed about the use of the gel. Nevertheless, a majority of the patients did not use the gel daily and in accordance with the instructions given. Application of the gel in the abutment depressions of the overdenture appeared to be a heavy task.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet gel preparation using Plateltex.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, L; Balbo, V; Cattana, E; Borzini, P

    2008-04-01

    The platelet gel is made by embedding concentrate platelets within a semisolid (gel) network of polymerized fibrin. It is believed that this blood component will be used more and more in the treatment of several clinical conditions and as an adjunctive material in tissue engineering. Several systems are available to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for topical therapy. Recently, a new system became commercially available, Plateltex. Here we report the technical performance of this system in comparison with the performance of other commercially available systems: PRGF, PRP-Landesber, Curasan, PCCS, Harvest, Vivostat, Regen and Fibrinet. Both the PRP and the gel were prepared according to the manufacturer's directions. The blood samples of 20 donors were used. The yield, the efficiency, and the amount of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor beta, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were measured in the resulting PRP. The feature of the batroxobin-induced gelation was evaluated. The yield, the collection efficiency and the growth factor content of Plateltex were comparable to those of most of the other available systems. The gelation time was not dependent on the fibrinogen concentration; however, it was strongly influenced by the contact surface area of the container where the clotting reaction took place (P < 0.0001). Plateltex provided platelet recovery, collection efficiency and PDGF-AB availability close to those provided by other systems marketed with the same intended use. Batroxobin, the enzyme provided to induce gelation, acts differently from thrombin, which is used by most other systems. Platelets treated with thrombin become activated; they release their growth factors quickly. Furthermore, thrombin-platelet interaction is a physiological mechanism that hastens the clot-retraction rate. On the contrary, platelets treated with batroxobin do not become activated; they are passively entrapped

  4. Topical application of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract containing genistein and daidzein improves rheological and physiological properties of skin.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kouji; Hanamizu, Tomoko; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract (BE) containing genistein and daidzein on the hyaluronic acid (HA) content and rheological and physiological properties of hairless mouse and/or human skin. Topical application of BE for six weeks significantly restored changes in the elasticity and viscoelasticity of mouse skin, increased the HA content, and hydrated and thickened mouse skin. Also, topical application of a gel formula containing 10% BE to the human forearm for three months significantly lessened the decrease in skin elasticity. Therefore, BE is expected to become a new cosmetic ingredient to prevent the loss of skin elasticity through enhancement of HA production.

  5. Topical isotretinoin vs. topical retinoic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, J; Hojyo, M T; Celayo, J L; Domínguez-Soto, L; Teixeira, F

    1998-01-01

    This is a clinical, prospective, and longitudinal study comparing the efficacy and incidence of averse effects of topical isotretinoin against those of topical retinoic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris. The 30 participants were recruited from the patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology of "Dr Manuel Gea González" General Hospital in Mexico City. They belonged to either sex and any race, their ages ranged between 13 and 30 years, and they presented with 15 to 100 facial inflammatory lesions (papulo-pustules) and/or 15 to 100 noninflammatory lesions (comedones) and no more than three nodulo-cystic lesions. The criteria of exclusion were as follows: pregnancy or lactation, systemic treatment with steroids, antibiotics, antiandrogens, or oral retinoids in the preceding 24 months, treatment with ultraviolet radiation, hypersensitivity to retinoids, or a severe systemic illness. From 44 interviewed patients, 14 were excluded. A detailed clinical history was obtained from the remaining individuals, the degree of seborrhea was recorded, and acne lesions were counted. Each patient received either isotretinoin gel 0.05% or retinoic acid cream 0.05%. The patients were instructed to wash their faces in the mornings and evenings with a neutral soap, and to apply the product after the evening cleansing. The patients were examined again after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment and, at each appointment, the number of lesions was recorded and the severity of acne was graded according to the classification of Plewig and Kligman. The seriousness of the adverse effects, such as stinging, pruritus, erythema, xerosis, and desquamation, was evaluated blindly by an investigator who did not know what group the patient belonged to, and graded as 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe. The efficacy of each drug was determined by the reduction in the number of lesions between weeks 0 and 12 of treatment. An excellent response corresponded to a 76

  6. Effects of silicone gel on burn scars.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mahnoush; Hafezi, Farhad; Rahbar, Hossein; Karimi, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    To study the efficacy of silicone gel applied to hypertrophic burn scars, in reducing scar interference with normal function and improving cosmesis. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 38 people with hypertrophic burn scars. Each scar was divided into two segments; silicone gel sheet was applied randomly to one of the two and placebo to the other. Participants were seen again after 1 and 4 months. Their data and wound characteristics were collected using the Vancouver scar scale. The median age of participants was 22 years (1.5-60 years) and 16 were male; 4 did not attend follow-up and were excluded from the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Although after 1 month all scar scale measures were lower in treated areas, only the vascularity scale was significantly different between the two areas. After 4 months, all scale measures were significantly lower in the silicone gel group than in the control group, except for the pain score. Silicone gel is an effective treatment for hypertrophic burn scars.

  7. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  8. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Woodward, Charlene A.; Byers, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  9. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  10. Gel phase in hydrated calcium dipicolinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankit; Sheng, Chunyang; Tiwari, Subodh; Krishnamoorthy, Aravind; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2017-11-01

    The mineralization of dipicolinic acid (DPA) molecules in bacterial spore cores with Ca2+ ions to form Ca-DPA is critical to the wet-heat resistance of spores. This resistance to "wet-heat" also depends on the physical properties of water and DPA in the hydrated Ca-DPA-rich protoplasm. Using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, we have determined the phase diagram of hydrated Ca-DPA as a function of temperature and water concentration, which shows the existence of a gel phase along with distinct solid-gel and gel-liquid phase transitions. Simulations reveal monotonically decreasing solid-gel-liquid transition temperatures with increasing hydration, which explains the experimental trend of wet-heat resistance of bacterial spores. Our observation of different phases of water also reconciles previous conflicting experimental findings on the state of water in bacterial spores. Further comparison with an unmineralized hydrated DPA system allows us to quantify the importance of Ca mineralization in decreasing diffusivity and increasing the heat resistance of the spore.

  11. 21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1452 Moxidectin gel. (a... instars) and G. nasalis (3rd instars). One dose also suppresses strongyle egg production for 84 days. (3) Limitations. For oral use in horses and ponies 6 months of age and older. Not for use in horses and ponies...

  12. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  13. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  14. Embedding memories in colloidal gels though oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwen, Eric; Ramaswamay, Meera; Jan, Linda; Cheng, Chieh-Min; Cohen, Itai

    While gels are ubiquitous in applications from food products to filtration, their mechanical properties are usually determined by self-assembly. We use oscillatory shear to train colloidal gels, embedding memories of the training protocol in rheological responses such as the yield strain and the gel network structures. When our gels undergo shear, the particles are forced to rearrange until they organize into structures that can locally undergo reversible shear cycles. We utilize a high-speed confocal microscope and a shear cell to image a colloidal gel while simultaneously straining the gel and measuring its shear stresses. By comparing stroboscopic images of the gel, we quantify the decrease in particle rearrangement as the gel develops reversible structures. We analyze and construct a model for the rates at which different regions in the gel approach reversible configurations. Through characterizing the gel network, we determine the structural origins of these shear training memories in gels. These results may allow us to use shear training protocols to produce gels with controllable yield strains and to better understand changes in the microstructure and rheology of gels that undergo repeated shear through mixing or flowing. This research was supported in part by NSF CBET 1509308 and Xerox Corporation.

  15. Effect of topical application of dipyrone on dental sensitivity reduction after in-office dental bleaching: A randomized, triple-blind multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Márcia; Chemin, Kaprice; Vaez, Savil Costa; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Rabelo, Jéssica de Freitas; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Silva, Gisele Rodrigues da; Soares, Carlos José; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Reis, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    Tooth sensitivity commonly occurs during and immediately after dental bleaching. The authors conducted a trial to compare tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching after the use of either a topical dipyrone or placebo gel. A split-mouth, triple-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial was conducted among 120 healthy adults having teeth that were shade A2 or darker. The facial tooth surfaces of the right or left sides of the maxillary arch of each patient were randomly assigned to receive either topical dipyrone or placebo gel before 2 in-office bleaching sessions (35% hydrogen peroxide) separated by 2 weeks. Visual analog and numerical rating scales were used to record tooth sensitivity during and up to 48 hours after bleaching. Tooth color change from baseline to 1 month after bleaching was measured with shade guide and spectrophotometer measures. The primary outcome variable was absolute risk of tooth sensitivity. An intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze data from all patients who were randomly assigned to receive the dipyrone and placebo gels. No statically significant difference was found in the absolute risk of tooth sensitivity between the dipyrone and placebo gels (83% and 90%, respectively, P = .09; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.0). A whitening effect was observed in both groups with no statistically significant difference (P > .05) between them. No adverse effects were observed. Topical use of dipyrone gel before tooth bleaching, at the levels used in this study, did not reduce the risk or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. Topical application of dipyrone gel does not reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ocular penetration of topical antibiotics: study on the penetration of chloramphenicol, tobramycin and netilmicin into the anterior chamber after topical administration.

    PubMed

    Cagini, Carlo; Piccinelli, Francesco; Lupidi, Marco; Messina, Marco; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Cerqualglia, Alessio; Manes, Silvia; Fiore, Tito; Pellegrino, Roberto M

    2013-01-01

    To compare penetration in the aqueous humour of topically applied antibiotics. Randomized prospective study, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Perugia, Italy Patients undergoing cataract surgery. One hundred twenty-two patients were included: 14 received one drop of chloramphenicol suspension; 12 one application of chloramphenicol gel; 11 one drop of netilmicin suspension; 13 one drop of tobramycin suspension; 37 repeated instillations of chloramphenicol suspension every 10 min for a total of four drops; and 35 repeated instillations of chloramphenicol gel every 10 min for a total of four drops. Samples were taken immediately before surgery from the anterior chamber in order to determine the antibiotic by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were taken 45-190 min after the eye drops were instilled. Intraocular penetration of chloramphenicol, netilmicin and tobramicyn. After a single administration, netilmicin and tobramycin were undetectable, whereas the chloramphenicol suspension reached a mean concentration of 0.23 ± 0.21 μg/mL, and the chloramphenicol gel a mean concentration of 0.13 ± 0.14 μg/mL. After repeated administrations, the mean concentrations of the chloramphenicol suspension and gel were 0.60 ± 0.26 μg/mL and 0.58 ± 0.18 μg/mL, respectively. Tobramycin and netilmicin do not reach detectable concentrations, whereas chloramphenicol, after multiple administrations, reaches concentrations that are effective against Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus pneumoniae. This means th