Science.gov

Sample records for a-01 npdes outfall

  1. Region 9 NPDES Outfalls 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for facilities which generally represent the site of the discharge. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from treated waste water that is discharged into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more dischargers. The location represents the discharge point of a discrete conveyance such as a pipe or man made ditch.

  2. PILOT PEAT-BED TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR NPDES OUTFALL H-12

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N; Ralph Nichols, R; Topher Berry, T

    2007-10-22

    A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit was issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and became effective on December 1, 2003. The new permit contained revised limits for copper and zinc derived by adjusting the South Carolina aquatic life water quality standards in accordance with dissolved metals criteria. The new copper and zinc limits are very low and may not be met consistently at Outfall H-12. The outfall has periodically exceeded the new 6 {micro}g/l (0.006 mg/L) monthly average limit and the 8 {micro}g/l (0.008 mg/L) maximummore » limit for copper and recently has begun exceeding the 100 {micro}g/l (0.100 mg/L) limit for zinc. The compliance date for Outfall H-12 is November 1, 2008. A study was conducted on this outfall and other outfalls to evaluate possible alternatives for meeting the new permit limits (Shipman and Bugher 2004). The study team recommended construction of a peat bed for treatment of the Outfall H-12 effluent. This recommendation was repeated by a second alternatives study team in 2007 (WSRC 2007). A bench-scale laboratory study demonstrated the feasibility of peat-bed treatment for Outfall H-12 effluent, with the peat demonstrating excellent removal of copper (Nelson and Specht 2005). An additional study was performed in 2006 and early 2007 using vertical-flow peat columns to investigate the influence of water retention time (contact time) on the removal of copper and zinc from the water (Nelson 2007c). Analytical results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the three retention times tested, ranging from 99.6% removal at five and three hours to 98.8% removal at one hour. Effluent copper levels from these studies were much lower than the new compliance limit for the outfall. Most divalent metals, including zinc, were removed to below their normal reporting detection limit. The H-Area Material Disposition organization

  3. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)more » of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).« less

  4. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  5. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  6. NPDES Permit for Westmoreland Resources, Inc.'s Absaloka Mine South Extension in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030783, Westmoreland Resources, Inc. is authorized to discharge mine drainage from outfalls associated with the Absaloka Mine South Extension on the Crow Indian reservation near Hardin, Montana to Middle Fork of Sarpy Creek.

  7. NPDES Permit for Denver VA Hospital Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042008, the Veterans Administration (Medical Center, Denver Campus) is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to the receiving waters specified in the permit in the City of Denver, Colorado.

  8. NPDES Permit for Air Force Academy Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042007, the U.S. Air Force Academy is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to the receiving waters specified in the permit in El Paso County, Colorado.

  9. NPDES Permit Writers' Course

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the NPDES permit writers' course is to provide the basic regulatory framework and technical considerations that support the development of wastewater discharge permits as required under the NPDES Permit Program.

  10. Nevada NPDES Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Nevada, EPA’s Pacific Southwest (Region 9) issues all NPDES permits for any discharges on tribal lands. All other NPDES permits are issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  11. NPDES Permit for NIST Boulder Laboratories Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042002,NIST is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer outfalls existing as of the effective date of this permit to receiving waters within the exterior boundaries of the Boulder Laboratories in Boulder, Colo.

  12. NPDES Permit for Buckley Air Force Base Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042003, the U.S. Air Force is authorized to discharge from all MS4 outfalls existing as of the effective date of this permit to specified receiving waters within the exterior boundaries of Buckley Air Force Base, in Aurora, Colorado

  13. NPDES Permit for Fort Carson Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042001, Fort Carson is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to receiving waters which include B-Ditch, Clover Ditch, Infantry Creek, Rock Creek, and others in El Paso County, Colorado.

  14. NPDES Permit for Peterson Air Force Base Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES permit CO-R042006, authorizes Peterson AFB to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to receiving waters which include the East Fork of Sand Creek and others within exterior AFB boundaries in El Paso County, Colorado.

  15. NPDES Permit for Federal Corrections Institution, Englewood Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042005, the Federal Corrections Institution (FCI), Englewood is authorized to discharge from all MS4 outfalls to receiving waters which include Bear Creek, the South Platte River in the City of Lakewood, Jefferson County, Colo.

  16. NPDES Stormwater Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater program regulates some stormwater discharges from three potential sources: municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s), construction activities, and industrial activities.

  17. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  18. Locations of Combined Sewer Overflow Outfalls - US EPA Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer identifies the locations of Combined sewer overflow outfalls. Combined sewer systems are sewers that are designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe. Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant, where it is treated and then discharged to a water body. During periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume in a combined sewer system can exceed the capacity of the sewer system or treatment plant. For this reason, combined sewer systems are designed to overflow occasionally and discharge excess untreated wastewater directly to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies. For further information visit: http://cfpub1.epa.gov/npdes/home.cfm?program_id=5

  19. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  2. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  4. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expensemore » required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.« less

  5. NPDES CAFO Regulations Implementation Status Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA compiles annual summaries on the implementation status of the NPDES CAFO regulations. Reports include, for each state: total number of CAFOs, number and percentage of CAFOs with NPDES permits, and other information associated with implementation of the

  6. Priority rating : stormwater outfall prioritization scheme

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-10-01

    The prioritization system, which compares the impacts of one outfall to another : and makes a determination of their overall impacts, was developed in the : Prioritization Method for Retrofitting Highways with Stormwater BMPs, prepared : by the Water...

  7. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC)more » out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)« less

  8. Final NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet explaining the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Rule. The fact sheet provides information on the purpose of the rule, benefits and implementation.

  9. DIVERSE MODELS FOR SOLVING CONTRASTING OUTFALL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixing zone initial dilution and far-field models are useful for assuring that water quality criteria will be met when specific outfall discharge criteria are applied. Presented here is a selective review of mixing zone initial dilution models and relatively simple far-field tran...

  10. NPDES Permit for Washington Navy Yard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  11. NPDES Permit: Shiprock Wastewater Treatment Facility, Shiprock, New Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES Permit, Fact Sheet, and Response to Comments explaining EPA's issue of NPDES Permit No. NN0020621 to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Shiprock Wastewater Treatment Facility, Shiprock, San Juan County, New Mexico.

  12. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  13. Discharge Permit for MWRA Outfall Questions and Answers, May, 1999

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA and the MassDEP are issuing the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority's NPDES Permit to discharge industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater from 43 member communities through the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  14. Predicting the physical effects of relocating Boston's sewage outfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Jenter, H.L.; Blumberg, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Boston is scheduled to cease discharge of sewage effluent in Boston Harbor in Spring 2000 and begin discharge at a site 14 km offshore in Massachusetts Bay in a water depth of about 30 m. The effects of this outfall relocation on effluent dilution, salinity and circulation are predicted with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The simulations predict that the new bay outfall will greatly decrease effluent concentrations in Boston Harbor (relative to the harbour outfall) and will not significantly change mean effluent concentrations over most of Massachusetts Bay. With the harbour outfall, previous observations and these simulations show that effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% throughout the harbour, with a harbour wide average of 1-2%. With the bay outfall, effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% only within a few km of the new outfall, and harbour concentrations drop to 0??1-0??2%, a 10-fold reduction. During unstratified winter conditions, the local increase in effluent concentration at the bay outfall site is predicted to exist throughout the water column. During stratified summer conditions, however, effluent released at the sea bed rises and is trapped beneath the pycnocline. The local increase in effluent concentration is limited to the lower layer, and as a result, surface layer effluent concentrations in the vicinity of the new outfall site are predicted to decrease (relative to the harbour outfall) during the summer. Slight changes are predicted for the salinity and circulation fields. Removing the fresh water associated with the effluent discharge in Boston Harbor is predicted to increase the mean salinity of the harbour by 0??5 and decrease the mean salinity by 0??10-0??15 within 2-3 km of the outfall. Relative to the existing mean flow, the buoyant discharge at the new outfall is predicted to generate density-driven mean currents of 2-4 cm s-1 that spiral out in a clockwise motion at the surface during winter and at the pycnocline (15-20 m depth

  15. 78 FR 46005 - NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... reports, and enforcement responses is provided (i.e., electronic rather than paper-based), it does not... is proposing a regulation that would require electronic reporting for current paper-based NPDES....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or...

  16. Global Petroleum Corporation (MA0003425) | NPDES | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) have developed final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River (Creek) in Chelsea and Revere, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  17. Proposed Issuance of NPDES Permit for NTUA Kayenta WWTF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Public Notice of proposed Issuance of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (NPDES No. NN0020281) for Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (“NTUA”) Kayenta Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  18. NPDES Monitoring Data Download | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  19. 300 area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, C.M.

    1995-09-05

    This document presents the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan (MP). The MP describes how ongoing monitoring of the TEDF effluent stream for compliance with the NPDES permit will occur. The MP also includes Quality Assurance protocols to be followed.

  20. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  1. NPDES Permit for Charlo Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022551, the Consolidated Charlo-Lake County Water & Sewer District is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed swale that runs to Dublin Gulch.

  2. NPDES Permit for Northern Border Pipeline Company in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  3. NPDES Permits for Phase 2 Stormwater Program in Puerto Rico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's 1999 stormwater Phase II regulations established small municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) in urbanized areas, and small MS4s outside the urbanized areas that are designated by the permitting authority, to obtain NPDES permit coverage.

  4. NPDES Permit Writers' Manual for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual is designed to provide general information on the CWA and NPDES requirements for CAFOs, explain CAFO permitting, and provide technical information to understand options for nutrients management planning.

  5. NPDES Permit for Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  6. Proposed Reopening of NPDES Permit for NTUA Tuba City WWTF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a notice of proposed action under the Clean Water Act to reopen a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit NN0020290 issued to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) Tuba City Wastewater Treatment Facility.

  7. NPDES Permit for Glendale Colony and Harvey Farms in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031819, Glendale Colony, Inc., and Harvey Farms, Inc. are authorized to discharge and must operate their facilities in accordance with provisions set forth herein.Indian Country on the Blackfeet Reserva

  8. NPDES Permit for Wulf Cattle Depot in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  9. NPDES Permit for Shoshone Utility Organization in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0044580, the Shoshone Utility Organization is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to an unnamed irrigation drainage ditch tributary to the South Fork of the Little Wind R.

  10. NPDES Permit for Chemtrade Refinery Services in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0034207, Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County,Wyoming, to an unnamed drainage way that flows into the Little Wind River near St. Stephens, Wyo.

  11. NPDES Permit for Fort Carson Wastewater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit no. CO-0021181 the United States Department of the Army, Fort Carson, in authorized to discharge from its sanitary wastewater treatment facility in El Paso County, Colorado, to Clover Ditch, a tributary of Fountain Creek.

  12. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Permit Compliance System (PCS) or the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). PCS tracks NPDES surface water permits issued under the Clean Water Act. This system is being incrementally replaced by the NPDES module of ICIS. Under NPDES, all facilities that discharge pollutants from any point source into waters of the United States are required to obtain a permit. The permit will likely contain limits on what can be discharged, impose monitoring and reporting requirements, and include other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not adversely affect water quality. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to NPDES facilities once the PCS or ICIS-NPDES data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available

  13. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Conditions § 122.45 Calculating NPDES permit conditions..., and prohibitions, including those necessary to achieve water quality standards, shall unless...

  14. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  15. Documents related to the Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy's Petition for Withdrawal of Minnesota's NPDES Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES Petition for Program Withdrawal in Minnesota: Documents related to the Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy (MCEA) Petition for Corrective Action or Withdrawal of NPDES Program Approval from the State of Minnesota.

  16. NPDES Permit for Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  17. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD..., and PSD Permits. (a) Within 30 days after a RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD final permit decision (or a... may also decide on its own initiative to review any condition of any RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD permit...

  18. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD..., and PSD Permits. (a) Within 30 days after a RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD final permit decision (or a... may also decide on its own initiative to review any condition of any RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD permit...

  19. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD..., and PSD Permits. (a) Within 30 days after a RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD final permit decision (or a... may also decide on its own initiative to review any condition of any RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD permit...

  20. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. The NPDES permit program regulates direct discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities that discharge directly into surface waters. The NPDES permit program is part of the Permit Compliance System (PCS) which issues, records, tracks, and regulates point source discharge facilities. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit. Facilities in PCS are identified as either major or minor. Within the major/minor classification, facilities are grouped into municipals or non-municipals. In many cases, non-municipals are industrial facilities. This data layer contains Minor dischargers. Major municipal dischargers include all facilities with design flows of greater than one million gallons per day; minor dischargers are less that one million gallons per day. Essentially, a minor discharger does not meet the discharge criteria for a major. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

  1. Implementing the NPDES program: An update on the WET ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA has utilized the Clean Water Act - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting program to protect waters of the U.S for over 40 years. NPDES permit effluent limitations serve as the primary mechanism for controlling discharges of pollutants to receiving waters. When developing effluent limitations for an NPDES permit, a permit writer must consider limits based on both the technology available to control the pollutants (i.e., technology-based effluent limits) and limits that are protective of the water quality standards of the receiving water (i.e., water quality-based effluent limits). WET testing is one of the water quality-based effluent limitation mechanisms available to permit writers that is useful in determining how the additive, synergistic and compounding effects of toxic effluents effect streams. This presentation will provide an overview of the current EPA NPDES permit program direction for increasing the efficacy of NPDES permits program administered by the U.S. EPA and States. The training implementation plan is expected to provide permit writers with a clearer understanding of WET requirements as established via the U.S. EPA WET test manuals, NPDES permitting regulatory authorities, and the WET science which has been long established. not applicable

  2. State National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program Withdrawal Petitions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search for pending and resolved NPDES withdrawal petitions by state, region, date, or keyword. Pending means EPA has received the petition and is working with the state and petitioner to resolve it. Withdrew petition means that the petitioner has withdrawn the petition they submitted. Resolved means that EPA has resolved the issues raised in the petition and has denied the petition. Partially resolved means that EPA has partially denied the petition by resolving some of the issues, while continuing to work with the state and petitioner on other pending issues. Program withdrawn would apply if, after conducting investigations, EPA withdrew a state's NPDES authority.

  3. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  4. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  5. NPDES Permit for Fort Carson Landfill No. 5 in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034771, the United States Army, HQ, Fort Carson, is authorized to discharge groundwater seepage from the Landfill No. 5 facility at the Fort Carson Army Post in El Paso County, Colorado, to B Ditch, a tributary of Fountain Creek.

  6. NPDES Permit for Yellowtail Dam Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022993, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located at the Yellowtail Dam Field Office in Big Horn County, Montana, to the Yellowtail Afterbay Reservoir/Bighorn River.

  7. Implementing the NPDES program: An update on the WET requirements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has utilized the Clean Water Act - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting program to protect waters of the U.S for over 40 years. NPDES permit effluent limitations serve as the primary mechanism for controlling discharges of pollutants to receivin...

  8. NPDES Draft Permit for Leadville National Fish Hatchery in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES public notice, permit and statement of basis would authorize discharge of treated water from settling ponds of the Leadville National Fish Hatchery to an unnamed tributary to Hunt Gulch, which flows into Lake Fork, a tributary to the Arkansas River.

  9. EPA's/MassDEP's Permit for MWRA's Outfall and Combined Sewer Overflows

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA and the MassDEP are issuing the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority's NPDES Permit to discharge industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater from 43 member communities through the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  10. 77 FR 13601 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Proposed NPDES General Permit for New and Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... guideline or new source performance standard is promulgated in accordance with these sections, NPDES permits..., company, business, organization, etc., may be affected by today's action, you should carefully examine the... Produced Water Discharges on Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, Limno-Tech, Inc., 2006). Since this reissued...

  11. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations, standards and prohibitions shall be established for each outfall or discharge point of the permitted facility, except as otherwise provided under § 122.44(k) (BMPs where limitations are infeasible) and paragraph (i) of this section (limitations on internal waste streams). (b) Production-based...

  12. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pollutants limited in permits shall have limitations, standards or prohibitions expressed in terms of mass... by mass; (ii) When applicable standards and limitations are expressed in terms of other units of... limitations, standards and prohibitions shall be established for each outfall or discharge point of the...

  13. Outfall siting with dye-buoy remote sensing of coastal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine siting problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in siting two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall site was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall site was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.

  14. NPDES eRule Readiness and Data Completeness ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  15. 300 Area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Loll, C.M.

    1994-10-13

    This monitoring plan describes the activities and methods that will be employed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in order to ensure compliance with the National Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Included in this document are a brief description of the project, the specifics of the sampling effort, including the physical location and frequency of sampling, the support required for sampling, and the Quality Assurance (QA) protocols to be followed in the sampling procedures.

  16. ICIS-NPDES Biosolids Annual Report Download Summary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  17. ICIS-NPDES Data Set Download | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  18. ICIS-NPDES Permit Limit and Discharge Monitoring Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  19. NPDES Monitoring Data Download Help | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  20. NPDES eRule Dashboard Download Help | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  1. NPDES DMR Non-Receipt Status Search | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  2. NPDES eRule Dashboard User Guide and Data Caveats ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  3. ICIS-NPDES Download Summary and Data Element ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  4. ICIS-NPDES Limit Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  5. ICIS-NPDES DMR Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  6. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in the...

  7. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in the...

  8. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in the...

  9. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of storm...

  10. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of storm...

  11. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of storm...

  12. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.10 Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. (a...

  13. 76 FR 55384 - Notice of Decision Not To Reissue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for the Final Beneficial Reuse or Disposal of Municipal... intend to reissue the NPDES General Permit for the Final Beneficial Reuse or Disposal of Municipal Sewage... part except in accordance with such requirements. Authority: Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  14. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES and PSD... PSD Permits. (a) Petitioning for review of a permit decision. (1) Initiating an appeal. Appeal from a RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD final permit decision issued under § 124.15 of this part, or a decision to...

  15. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES and PSD... PSD Permits. (a) Petitioning for review of a permit decision. (1) Initiating an appeal. Appeal from a RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD final permit decision issued under § 124.15 of this part, or a decision to...

  16. 78 FR 25435 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems in the Middle Rio Grande Watershed in... Elimination System (NPDES) general permit for storm water discharges from municipal separate storm sewer... issued for various categories of storm water discharges. Section 402(p)(2) requires permits for five...

  17. NPDES permit compliance and enforcement: A resource guide for oil and gas operators

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    During the fall of 1996, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission sponsored sessions for government and industry representatives to discuss concerns about the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program under the Clean Water Act. In January 1997, the NPDES Education/Communication/Training Workgroup (ECT Workgroup) was established with co-leaders from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and industry. The ECT Workgroup`s purpose was to develop ideas that would improve communication between NPDES regulators and the oil and gas industry regarding NPDES compliance issues. The Workgroup focused on several areas, including permit compliance monitoring and reporting, enforcement activity and options, and treatmentmore » technology. The ECT Workgroup also discussed the need for materials and information to help NPDES regulatory agency personnel understand more about oil and gas industry exploration and extraction operations and treatment processes. This report represents a compendium of the ECT Workgroup`s efforts.« less

  18. Ocean outfalls as an alternative to minimizing risks to human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia

    2017-06-01

    Submarine outfalls are proposed as an efficient alternative for the final destination of wastewater in densely populated coastal areas, due to the high dispersal capacity and the clearance of organic matter in the marine environment, and because they require small areas for implementation. This paper evaluates the probability of unsuitable bathing conditions in coastal areas nearby to the Ipanema, Barra da Tijuca and Icaraí outfalls based on a computational methodology gathering hydrodynamic, pollutant transport, and bacterial decay modelling. The results show a strong influence of solar radiation and all factors that mitigate its levels in the marine environment on coliform concentration. The aforementioned outfalls do not pollute the coastal areas, and unsuitable bathing conditions are restricted to nearby effluent launching points. The pollution observed at the beaches indicates that the contamination occurs due to the polluted estuarine systems, rivers and canals that flow to the coast.

  19. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density.more » The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.« less

  20. Proposed Issuance of NPDES Permit for NTUA Chinle Wastewater Treatment Lagoon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit No. NN0020265 to Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) for the Chinle wastewater treatment plant located in northern Arizona’s Apache County on the Navajo reservation

  1. NPDES Permit for Wesco Operating, Inc. – Maverick Springs in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000469, Wesco Operating, Inc. - Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  2. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  3. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  4. NPDES Permit for Arboles Sand & Stone's Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0048194, Arboles Sand & Stone, LLC is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility at the Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Archuleta County, Colorado, to the Piedra River.

  5. NPDES Permit for U.S. Air Force Academy Wastewater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0020974, the U.S. Air Force Academy is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in El Paso County, Colorado, to Non-Potable Reservoir No. 1 on Lehman Run and to Monument Creek.

  6. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Wastewater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034398, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park wastewater treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  7. NPDES Permit for City of Eagle Butte Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020192, the City of Eagle Butte, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility within the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in Dewey County, South Dakota, to Green Grass Creek.

  8. NPDES Permit for Dakota Magic Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  9. Tools to Help the NPDES Program Adapt to Fluctuating Environmental Conditions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate-related circumstances pose challenges for permittees and permit writers. Managing discharges to protect water quality can be aided by the refinement of the methods, tools and information used to develop and implement NPDES permits and programs.

  10. Economic Analysis of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Economic Analysis (EA) quantifies the costs and savings of the proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule, while acknowledging many of the qualitative benefits that will result from its implementation.

  11. NPDES Permit for Denver Federal Center Building 52A in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034860, the GSA is authorized to discharge wastewater from construction dewatering activities at Denver Federal Center Building 52A in Lakewood, Colo., to to the storm drain system entering McIntyre Gulch.

  12. NPDES Permit for Devon Energy Production Company – Riverton Dome in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000671, Devon Energy Production Company, L.P. – Riverton Dome is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to the Little Wind River via unnamed draw.

  13. NPDES Permit for Town of Hot Springs Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT0020591, the Town of Hot Springs, Montana, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Sanders County, Montana, to a ditch discharging to Hot Springs Creek.

  14. NPDES Draft Permit for Southern Ute Indian Tribe Wastewater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES draft permit number CO-0022853, the Southern Ute Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in La Plata County, Colorado,to Rock Creek, a tributary of the Los Pinos River.

  15. NPDES Permit for City of Wagner Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020184, the City of Wagner, South Dakota is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Charles Mix County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary of Choteau Creek.

  16. NPDES Draft Permit for Dakota Magic Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES draft permit ND0030813, the Dakota Magic Hotel and Casino WWTF is authorized to discharge, in accordance with the requirements as contained in the provisions of this Permit, from its wastewater treatment facility to the Bois de Sioux.

  17. NPDES Draft Permit for MHA Interpretive Center Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under draft NPDES permit ND0031160, the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara (MHA) Nation Public Works is authorized to discharge from its MHA Interpretive Center wastewater treatment facility to Missouri River as set forth in the permit.

  18. NPDES Draft Permit for Standing Rock Rural Water System in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES draft permit SD-0030996, the Standing Rock Rural Water System is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Corson County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary to Oahe Reservoir on the Missouri River.

  19. NPDES Permit for Lower Brule Wastewater Lagoon System in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number SD-0020800, Lower Brule Rural Water is authorized to discharge from its wastewater lagoon system serving the town of Lower Brule, located in Lyman County, South Dakota, to the bank of the Missouri River (Lake Sharpe).

  20. Report: Agency-Wide Application of Region 7 NPDES Program Process Improvements Could Increase EPA Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-P-0315, July 6, 2011. Although Region 7 NPDES Kaizen event participants continued to follow up on the commitments and action items identified, no single authority was responsible for tracking the process improvement outcomes.

  1. NPDES Permit for the Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  2. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  3. NPDES Permit for Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. Refinery in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-003098, the Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. refinery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facilities near Makoti in Ward County, North Dakota, to wetlands tributary to the East Fork of Shell Creek.

  4. NPDES Permit for Phoenix Production Company – Rolff Lake Unit in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-002494, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Rolff Lake Unit wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  5. NPDES Permit for Wesco Operating, Inc. – Sheldon Dome Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0025607, Wesco Operating, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyo. to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry (Pasup) Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  6. NPDES Permit for Yellowtail Visitor Center Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES permit MT-0029106 for United States Bureau of Reclamation discharge from its Yellowtail Visitor Center wastewater treatment facility into the Bighorn Lake/Bighorn River in Big Horn County, Montana.

  7. Documents for NPDES Permit – Grand Portage Wastewater Sewage Lagoon – Grand Portage Indian Reservation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA final NPDES permit for the treated wastewater discharges from the Grand Portage Wastewater Sewage Lagoon located within the boundaries of the Grand Portage Indian Reservation located in Grand Portage, Minnesota.

  8. NPDES Permit for Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000949, the Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Coal Draw.

  9. NPDES Permit for Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000779, the Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  10. NPDES Permit for the St. Ignatius-Southside Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0029017, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed tributary of Sabine Creek.

  11. NPDES Permit for Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030554, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority is authorized to discharge from its Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Lake County, Montana, to a swale draining to Middle Crow Creek.

  12. Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Shiprock Wastewater Treatment Facility; Draft NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to issue a NPDES permit (No. NN0020621) to Navajo Tribal Utility Authority (NTUA) for the Shiprock wastewater treatment facility in San Juan County, New Mexico, within the northeastern portion of the Navajo Nation.

  13. NPDES Permit for Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000922, the Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  14. Canyon Day Sand and Gravel Wash Process Plant: Draft NPDES Permit AZ0024511

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a notice of proposed action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No.permit renewal (No. AZ0024511) to White Mountain Apache Tribe Canyon Day Sand and Gravel Wash Process Plant, Greer, Arizona.

  15. NPDES Permit for Rosebud Casino and Hotel Wastewater Treatment Facility in South Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  16. 78 FR 277 - Section 610 Review of NPDES Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitations Guidelines Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... 12, 2003 (68 FR 7175). The ``2003 CAFO Rule'' expanded the number of operations covered by the CAFO... small entities by reducing the universe of CAFOs that must apply for NPDES permits. Although the EPA has...

  17. NPDES Permit for Phoenix Production Company – Sheldon Dome Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0024953, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  18. NPDES Permit for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Recycled Water Pipeline in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  19. NPDES Permit for Wesco Operating, Inc. – Winkleman Dome Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0025232, Wesco Operating, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its Winkleman Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyo. to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Big Horn Draw, a tributary to the Little Wind River.

  20. NPDES Permit for F.E. Warren Air Force Base Missile Launch Facilities in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034789, the USAF, F. E. Warren Air Force Base, is authorized to discharge from the Missile Launch Facilities located in northeastern Colorado to unnamed drainage ditches located in the Cedar Creek and Pawnee Creek drainage basins.

  1. NPDES Permit for Eastern Colorado Health Care System (VA Hospital) in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034991, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Adams County, Colorado, to a storm sewer to Toll Gate Creek, a tributary of Sand Creek.

  2. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  3. Criteria for reducing predation by northern squawfish near juvenile salmonid bypass outfalls at Columbia River dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, Rip S.; Poe, Thomas P.; Sheer, Mindi B.; Peters, Rock

    1996-01-01

    Predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) has been documented to be significant on emigrating juvenile salmonids near juvenile bypass outfalls at hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Criteria for siting juvenile fish bypass outfalls to reduce predation were developed using locational data from radio-tagged northern squawfish in The Dalles Dam trailrace, Columbia River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted in 164 northern squawfish in 1993 and 1994, and their movements and distribution were monitored. Position estimates of northern squawfish were compared with data from a physical hydraulic model of the dam to estimate water velocities where northern squawfish were located. Eighty-two percent of northern squawfish position estimates were in water velocities ≤110 cm/s in 1993 and ≤90 cm/s in 1994. Fish locations were usually associated with water depths ≤10 m (84% in 1993 and 82% in 1994); 90% were within 110 m of the shore or dam structure in 1993, and 86% were within 80 m in 1994. In a related study at John Day Dam, Columbia River, where the juvenile bypass outfall is located 40 m from shore, water depth is 10 m and water velocities typically exceed 75 cm/s, only 13 of 1443 (0.9%) contacts on radio-tagged northern squawfish were located within 200 m of the bypass outfall. We recommend that new or modified juvenile bypass outfalls on the Columbia River be located in water velocities of ≥100 cm/s, ≥75 m from the shore or dam structure, and in water ≥10 m deep.

  4. Best Practices for NPDES Permit Writers and Pretreatment Coordinators to Address Toxic and Hazardous Chemical Discharges to POTWs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance generally describes measures (“best practices”) NPDES permit writers and pretreatment coordinators should consider adopting to address hazardous and toxic chemical discharges to POTWs.

  5. NPDES Permit for Denver Federal Center Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Denver Federal Center Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer outfalls existing as of the effective date of permit CO-R042004 to receiving waters Lakewood, Jefferson County, Colorado.

  6. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, includingmore » harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).« less

  7. Rapid nitrification of wastewater ammonium near coastal ocean outfalls, Southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Beck, Carly D. A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mengel, Michael J.; Robertson, George L.

    2017-02-01

    In the southern California Bight (SCB), there has been a longstanding hypothesis that anthropogenic nutrient loading is insignificant compared to the nutrient loading from upwelling. However, recent studies have demonstrated that, in the nearshore environment, nitrogen (N) flux from wastewater effluent is equivalent to the N flux from upwelling. The composition of the N pool and N:P ratios of wastewater and upwelled water are very different and the environmental effects of wastewater discharges on coastal systems are not well characterized. Capitalizing on routine maintenance of the Orange County Sanitation District's ocean outfall, wherein a wastewater point source was "turned off" in one area and "turned on" in another for 23 days, we were able to document changes in coastal N cycling, specifically nitrification, related to wastewater effluent. A "hotspot" of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrite (NO2-) occurred over the ocean outfall under normal operations and nitrification rates were significantly higher offshore when the deeper outfall pipe was operating. These rates were sufficiently high to transform all effluent NH4+ to nitrate (NO3-). The dual isotopic composition of dissolved NO3- (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) indicated that N-assimilation and denitrification were low relative to nitrification, consistent with the relatively low chlorophyll and high dissolved oxygen levels in the region during the study. The isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) recorded low δ15NPN and δ13CPN values around the outfall under normal operations suggesting the incorporation of "nitrified" NO3- and wastewater dissolved organic carbon into POM. Our results demonstrate the critical role of nitrification in nitrogen cycling in the nearshore environment of urban oceans.

  8. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9195-3] Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater... Elimination System (NPDES) general permits for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian country in... general permit for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian country in the State of Colorado...

  9. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9650-8] Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category to Coastal Waters in Texas (TXG330000) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposal of NPDES General Permit Renewal. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6...

  10. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Permit requirement. Discharges into aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section 318...

  11. Impact of storm-water outfalls on sediment quallity in corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R. Scott; Montagna, Paul A.; Biedenbach, James M.; Kalke, Rick; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Hooten, Russell L.; Cripe, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industrial and domestic outfalls, oil field–produced water discharges, and dredging activity) and eight reference sites were also evaluated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physical–chemical characteristics, contaminant concentrations (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and pesticides), toxicity (amphipod and mysid solid phase and sea urchin pore-water fertilization and embryological development tests), and a benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI) composed of 10 independent metrics calculated for each site. This large data matrix was reduced using multivariate analysis to create new variables for each component representing overall means and containing most of the variance in the larger data set. The new variables were used to conduct the correlation analysis. Toxicity was significantly correlated with both chemistry and ecological responses, whereas no correlations between the benthic metrics and sediment chemistry were observed. Using the combined information from the SQT, four of the five most degraded sites were storm-water outfall sites. Although estuaries are naturally stressful environments because of salinity and temperature fluctuations, this ecosystem appears to have been compromised by anthropogenic influences similar to what has been observed for other heavily urbanized bay systems along the Texas and Gulf coast.

  12. Third Annual Report: 2006 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2007-02-01

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditionsmore » and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots

  13. NPDES Permit for Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0021717, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant in Lake County, Colorado to an unnamed drainage way tributary to the East Fork of the Arkansas River.

  14. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits. 124.60 Section 124.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal...

  15. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits. 124.60 Section 124.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal...

  16. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits. 124.60 Section 124.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal...

  17. 77 FR 6112 - Notice of Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs... permit for discharges from eligible owners/operators of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs... of the final permit, animal feeding operations that are defined as CAFOs or designated as CAFOs by...

  18. 76 FR 65431 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...-AF22 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation... co-proposes two options for obtaining basic information from CAFOs to support EPA in meeting its water quality protection responsibilities under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The purpose of this co...

  19. NPDES Permit – East Lake Sewage Lagoon – Mille Lacs Indian Reservation (Aitkin County, MN)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit for the treated wastewater discharges from the East Lake Sewage Lagoon located within the boundaries of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation located in East Lake (McGregor), Minnesota (Aitkin County) to be issued by EPA.

  20. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Methods for Permit Applications and Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... System (NPDES) program, only ``sufficiently sensitive'' analytical test methods can be used when... methods with respect to measurement of mercury and extend the approach outlined in that guidance to the...

  1. 77 FR 25717 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... required by section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general... entities.'' EPA has concluded that NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or the RFA. Notwithstanding that general permits are...

  2. NPDES Permit for Dakota Magic Casino and Hotel Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND0030813, the the Dakota Magic Casino and Hotel is authorized is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  3. 75 FR 51458 - Notice of Extended Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... No. EPA-R01-OW-2010- 0292 by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on..., appendices, and fact sheet are available at: http://www.epa.gov/region1/npdes/stormwater . DATES: The public...

  4. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits. 124.60 Section 124.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal...

  5. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits. 124.60 Section 124.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal...

  6. 76 FR 22891 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA Regions 1... System (NPDES) general permits for stormwater discharges associated with construction activity in order... permits will be referred to as ``permit'' or ``2008 construction general permit'' or ``2008 CGP.'' This...

  7. 76 FR 40355 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA Regions 1... (NPDES) general permits for stormwater discharges associated with construction activity in order to... permits will be referred to as ``permit'' or ``2008 construction general permit'' or ``2008 CGP.'' This...

  8. 75 FR 4554 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA Regions 1... System (NPDES) general permits for stormwater discharges associated with construction activity in order... will be referred to as ``permit'' or ``2008 construction general permit'' or ``2008 CGP.'' The 2008 CGP...

  9. 75 FR 21625 - Notice of Availability of the Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Remediation Facility Discharges in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Including Both Commonwealth and Indian Country Lands) and the State of New Hampshire: The Remediation General Permits (RGP) AGENCY: Environmental... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permits for remediation facility discharges to certain waters...

  10. NPDES Permit for Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  11. 75 FR 5788 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4... at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``* * * all separate storm sewers that are: (1) Owned or operated by the United States, a State, city, town, borough, county...

  12. 75 FR 67960 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4... requirements of the CWA. The regulations at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``* * * all separate storm sewers that are: (1) Owned or operated by the United States, a State...

  13. Planning and Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Marine Outfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demands for water in urban areas and agricultural zones in arid and semi-arid regions have urged planners and regulators to look for alternative renewable water sources. Worldwide, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants have become an essential supply source for the production of fresh water in such regions. Disposal of their wastes, however, has not been fully and properly addressed. This study presents a strategy for the analysis and design of optimal disposal systems of hypersaline wastes that are generated by SWRO desalination plants. The study evaluates current disposal methods and recommends ways to effectively employ multiport marine outfalls for this purpose. Such outfalls emerged as reliable means for conveying wastes from process plants, to include wastewater treatment and power plants, into the coastal waters. Their proper use, however, in conjunction with SWRO desalination plants is still in its beginning stage, and much work needs to be done to employ them effectively. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to provide design engineers with effective procedures that meet environmental permitting requirements and restrictions, while ascertaining adequate hydrodynamic performance. The study is tested by employing a simulation model and examining its reliability under many parameter perturbation scenarios. This is further extended by providing a solution to the same problem using a heuristic approach.

  14. NPDES Draft Permit for U.S. General Services Administration Downing Reservoir Groundwater Treatment Facility in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES draft permit number CO-0035033, the U.S. General Services Administration is authorized to discharge from its Downing Reservoir Groundwater Treatment Plant to McIntyre Gulch entering Lakewood Gulch, tributary to the South Platte River.

  15. 77 FR 123 - Final Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  16. 78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA... NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking...

  17. Effect of receiving environment on the transport and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers near two submarine municipal outfalls.

    PubMed

    Dinn, Pamela M; Johannessen, Sophia C; Macdonald, Robie W; Lowe, Christopher J; Whiticar, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The fate of contaminants entering the marine environment through wastewater outfalls depends on the contaminant's persistence and affinity for particles. However, the physical characteristics of the receiving environment, for example, current velocity and sedimentary processes, may be even more important. Because of the complexity of natural settings and the lack of appropriate comparative settings, this is not frequently evaluated quantitatively. The authors investigated the near-field accumulation of particle-reactive polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) entering coastal waters by way of two municipal outfalls: one discharging into a high-energy, low-sedimentation environment near Victoria, BC, Canada; the other into a low-energy, high-sedimentation environment, near Vancouver, BC. The authors used ²¹⁰Pb profiles in box cores together with an advection-diffusion model to determine surface mixing and sedimentation rates, and to model the depositional history of PBDEs at these sites. Surprisingly, 88 to 99% of PBDEs were dispersed beyond the near-field at both sites, but a greater proportion of PBDEs was captured in the sediment near the Vancouver outfall where rapid burial was facilitated by inorganic sediment supplied from the nearby Fraser River. Although the discharge of PBDEs was much lower from the Victoria outfall than from Vancouver, some sediment PBDE concentrations were higher near Victoria. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  18. The environmental impact of sewage and wastewater outfalls in Antarctica: An example from Davis station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Corbett, Patricia A; Dunshea, Glenn; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Mondon, Julie A; Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Snape, Ian; Riddle, Martin

    2016-11-15

    We present a comprehensive scientific assessment of the environmental impacts of an Antarctic wastewater ocean outfall, at Davis station in East Antarctica. We assessed the effectiveness of current wastewater treatment and disposal requirements under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Macerated wastewater has been discharged from an outfall at Davis since the failure of the secondary treatment plant in 2005. Water, sediment and wildlife were tested for presence of human enteric bacteria and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities were tested for differences between sites near the outfall and controls. Local fish were examined for evidence of histopathological abnormalities. Sediments, fish and gastropods were tested for uptake of sewage as measured by stable isotopes of N and C. Escherichia coli carrying antibiotic resistance determinants were found in water, sediments and wildlife (the filter feeding bivalve Laternula eliptica). Fish (Trematomus bernacchii) within close proximity to the outfall had significantly more severe and greater occurrences of histopathological abnormalities than at controls, consistent with exposure to sewage. There was significant enrichment of 15 N in T. bernacchii and the predatory gastropod Neobuccinum eatoni around the outfall, providing evidence of uptake of sewage. There were significant differences between epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities at control and outfall sites (<1.5 km), when sites were separated into groups of similar habitat types. Benthic community composition was also strongly related to habitat and environmental drivers such as sea ice. The combined evidence indicated that the discharge of wastewater from the Davis outfall is causing environmental impacts. These findings suggest that conditions in Antarctic coastal locations, such as Davis, are unlikely to be conducive to initial dilution and rapid dispersal of wastewater as required

  19. Seawater quality and microbial communities at a desalination plant marine outfall. A field study at the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Drami, Dror; Yacobi, Yosef Z; Stambler, Noga; Kress, Nurit

    2011-11-01

    Global desalination quadrupled in the last 15 years and the relative importance of seawater desalination by reverse osmosis (SWRO) increased as well. While the technological aspects of SWRO plants are extensively described, studies on the environmental impact of brine discharge are lacking, in particular in situ marine environmental studies. The Ashqelon SWRO plant (333,000 m(3) d(-1) freshwater) discharges brine and backwash of the pre-treatment filters (containing ferric hydroxide coagulant) at the seashore, next to the cooling waters of a power plant. At the time of this study brine and cooling waters were discharged continuously and the backwash discharge was pulsed, with a frequency dependent on water quality at the intake. The effects of the discharges on water quality and neritic microbial community were identified, quantified and attributed to the different discharges. The mixed brine-cooling waters discharge increased salinity and temperature at the outfall, were positively buoyant, and dispersed at the surface up to 1340 m south of the outfall. Nutrient concentrations were higher at the outfall while phytoplankton densities were lower. Chlorophyll-a and picophytoplankton cell numbers were negatively correlated with salinity, but more significantly with temperature probably as a result of thermal pollution. The discharge of the pulsed backwash increased turbidity, suspended particulate matter and particulate iron and decreased phytoplankton growth efficiency at the outfall, effects that declined with distance from the outfall. The discharges clearly reduced primary production but we could not attribute the effect to a specific component of the discharge. Bacterial production was also affected but differently in the three surveys. The combined and possible synergistic effects of SWRO desalination along the Israeli shoreline should be taken into account when the three existing plants and additional ones are expected to produce 2 Mm(3) d(-1) freshwater by

  20. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  1. Fourth Annual Report: 2007 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2007-10-04

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrassmore » conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass

  2. Steam Electric Industry - EIA&NPDES ID Match-Up.xlsx ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  3. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification of...

  4. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification of...

  5. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification of...

  6. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification of...

  7. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification of...

  8. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  9. The effect of the new Massachusetts Bay sewage outfall on the concentrations of metals and bacterial spores in nearby bottom and suspended sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Casso, M.A.; Rendigs, R. R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the new outfall for Boston's treated sewage effluent began operation on September 6, 2000, no change has been observed in concentrations of silver or Clostridium perfringens spores (an ecologically benign tracer of sewage), in bottom sediments at a site 2.5 km west of the outfall. In suspended sediment samples collected with a time-series sediment trap located 1.3 km south of the outfall, silver and C. perfringens spores increased by 38% and 103%, respectively, in post-outfall samples while chromium, copper, and zinc showed no change. All metal concentrations in sediments are <50% of warning levels established by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. An 11-year data set of bottom sediment characteristics collected three times per year prior to outfall startup provides perspective for the interpretation of post-outfall data. A greater than twofold increase in concentrations of sewage tracers (silver and C. perfringens) was observed in muddy sediments following the exceptional storm of December 11-16, 1992 that presumably moved contaminated inshore sediment offshore. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-06-04

    A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves themore » immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness.« less

  12. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.28 Section 122.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) City, county, or State political boundaries; (iv) State highway systems; (v) Standard metropolitan...

  13. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.28 Section 122.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) City, county, or State political boundaries; (iv) State highway systems; (v) Standard metropolitan...

  14. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.28 Section 122.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) City, county, or State political boundaries; (iv) State highway systems; (v) Standard metropolitan...

  15. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.28 Section 122.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) City, county, or State political boundaries; (iv) State highway systems; (v) Standard metropolitan...

  16. 76 FR 65723 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... that regulated discharges will not cause unreasonable degradation of the marine environment, as... human health. EPA is also soliciting comments on whether or not to prohibit the discharge of produced... determining potential degradation of the marine environment in issuance of NPDES permits. These Ocean...

  17. 77 FR 8855 - Final Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Final NPDES General Permit. SUMMARY: The Director of the Water Quality... Extraction Point Source Category as authorized by section 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1342 (CWA... change to the proposed permit. A copy of the Region's responses to comments and the final permit may be...

  18. 77 FR 65547 - Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9747-5] Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and... Sea and on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Chukchi Sea, AK AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... draft general permits were also published in the Anchorage Daily News, the Arctic Sounder, and Petroleum...

  19. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Specia...

  20. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Specia...

  1. 78 FR 72080 - Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9903-65-Region-6] Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category to Coastal Waters in Texas and Onshore Stripper Well Category East of The 98th Meridian (TXG330000) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  2. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related Activities in Federal Waters of the Beaufort... (NPDES) General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related Activities in Federal Waters of... authorizes twelve types of discharges from facilities engaged in oil and gas geotechnical surveys to evaluate...

  3. 76 FR 45792 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... General NPDES Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction AGENCY: Environmental Protection... (GP) regulating activities related to the extraction of oil and gas on the North Slope of the Brooks... intended to regulate activities related to the extraction of oil and gas on the North Slope of the Brooks...

  4. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.27... or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored...

  5. 75 FR 54873 - Notice of Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From Remediation Activities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Including Both Commonwealth and Indian Country Lands) and the State of New Hampshire: The Remediation... Elimination System (NPDES) general permits for discharges from remediation activities to certain waters of the...

  6. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MS4 storm water program.) (b) You must develop a process, as well as criteria, to designate small MS4s... under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality...

  7. 78 FR 20316 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9799-1] Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  8. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MS4 storm water program.) (b) You must develop a process, as well as criteria, to designate small MS4s... under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality...

  9. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MS4 storm water program.) (b) You must develop a process, as well as criteria, to designate small MS4s... under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality...

  10. 78 FR 27964 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9812-8] Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  11. Notices of Intent for Coverage Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Chukchi Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Notices of Intent (NOIs) submitted to EPA for coverage under the NPDES general permit for discharges from oil and gas exploration facilities on the outer continental shelf in the Chukchi Sea off Alaska.

  12. Independent University Study to Assess the Performance of a Humate Amendment for Copper Detoxification at the H-12 Outfall at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Harmon, S.; King, J.

    2016-09-06

    The overarching objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the copper detoxification process that is in place at the Savannah River Site H-12 Outfall. The testing was performed in two phases; Phase 1 assessed the safety and potential for intrinsic toxicity of the humate amendment being used at the H-12 Outfall, Borregro HA-1, as well as an alternative amendment sodium humic acid. The second phase assessed the effectiveness of Borregro HA-1 in mitigating and reducing toxic effects of copper.

  13. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  14. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls

    PubMed Central

    Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. IMPORTANCE Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in suspended-sediment samples from outfalls to Meandering Road Creek at Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, 2003-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Meandering Road Creek is an intermittent stream and tributary to Lake Worth, a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth. Meandering Road Creek gains inflow from several stormwater outfalls as it flows across AFP4. Several studies have characterized polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water and sediments of Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek; sources of PCBs are believed to originate primarily from AFP4. Two previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports documented elevated PCB concentrations in surficial sediment samples from Woods Inlet relative to concentrations in surficial sediment samples from other parts of Lake Worth. The second of these two previous reports also identified some of the sources of PCBs to Lake Worth. These reports were followed by a third USGS report that documented the extent of PCB contamination in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and identified runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 as prominent sources of these PCBs. This report describes the results of a fourth study by the USGS, in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Corporation, to investigate PCBs in suspended-sediment samples in storm runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 following the implementation of engineering controls designed to potentially alleviate PCB contamination in the drainage areas of these outfalls. Suspended-sediment samples collected from outfalls 4 and 5 during storms on March 2 and November 10, 2008, were analyzed for selected PCBs. Sums of concentrations of 18 reported PCB congeners (Sigma PCBc) in suspended-sediment samples collected before and after implementation of engineering controls are compared. At both outfalls, the Sigma PCBc before engineering controls was higher than the Sigma PCBc after engineering controls. The Sigma PCBc in suspended-sediment samples collected at AFP4 before and after implementation of

  16. Evaluation of the novel crAssphage marker for sewage pollution tracking in storm drain outfalls in Tampa, Florida.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Warish; Lobos, Aldo; Senkbeil, Jacob; Peraud, Jayme; Gallard, Javier; Harwood, Valerie J

    2017-12-24

    CrAssphage are recently-discovered DNA bacteriophages that are prevalent and abundant in human feces and sewage. We assessed the performance characteristics of a crAssphage quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for quantifying sewage impacts in stormwater and surface water in subtropical Tampa, Florida. The mean concentrations of crAssphage in untreated sewage ranged from 9.08 to 9.98 log 10 gene copies/L. Specificity was 0.927 against 83 non-human fecal reference samples and the sensitivity was 1.0. Cross-reactivity was observed in DNA extracted from soiled poultry litter but the concentrations were substantially lower than untreated sewage. The presence of the crAssphage marker was monitored in water samples from storm drain outfalls during dry and wet weather conditions in Tampa, Florida. In dry weather conditions, 41.6% of storm drain outfalls samples were positive for the crAssphage marker and the concentrations ranged from 3.60 to 4.65 log 10 gene copies/L of water. After a significant rain event, 66.6% of stormwater outlet samples were positive for the crAssphage marker and the concentration ranged from 3.62 to 4.91 log 10 gene copies/L of water. The presence of the most commonly used Bacteroides HF183 marker in storm drain outfalls was also tested along with the crAssphage. Thirteen samples (55%) were either positive (i.e., both markers were present) or negative (i.e., both markers were absent) for both the markers. Due to the observed cross-reactivity of this marker with DNA extracted from poultry litter samples, it is recommended that this marker should be used in conjunction with additional markers such as HF183. Our data indicate that the crAssphage marker is highly sensitive to sewage, is adequately specific, and will be a valuable addition to the MST toolbox. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Estimate the abatement rate of septic tank sewage outfall soil on nitrogen pollutants of typical farmer household sewage].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Wen-Lin; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Ma, Jiu-Yuan; Wan, Yin-Jing; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Bin; Ji, Bin

    2013-10-01

    The surface soil on sewage outfall and effluent of farmer household septic tank were collected in situ from the typical region of plain river network areas in Taihu Lake Basin, and the typical rainfall (summer 30 mm . times-1, winter 5 mm times -1), temperature (summer 27 degrees C, winter 5 degrees C ) condition and pollutant load were artificial simulated by indoor simulation soil column experiments for estimating nitrogen abatement rate of rural sewage treated by the outfall soil and exploring the abatement rule in different seasons and weather process (7 days before the rain, 3 rainy days, 7 days after the rain). Results showed that: there was the significant difference (P <0.05) in abatement/increase rate of outfall soil on nitrogen between summer and winter. The TN abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate of summer showed a significant difference (P <0.01) among different weather processes, but the NH+4 -N abatement rate of summer and the TN, NH+4 -N abatement rate, NO -N increase rate of winter were not significant (P > 0. 05). Therefore, the TN, NH+4 -N abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate need to be divided by seasons, TN abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate of summer need to be divided by the weather process, which were 38.5% , - 25.0% , 46. 0% and 478. 1%, 913.8%, 382. 0% , before the rain, in rainy day, after the rain, respectively; while the NH+4 -N abatement rate of summer and the TN, NH+4 -N abatement rate, NO-3 -N increase rate of winter do not need to be divided by weather process, were 91.7% , 50.4% , 85.5% and 276.0% , respectively. In the summer, the TN abatement rate in different weather processes was not correlated with NH+4 -N abatement rate, but significantly negative correlated with NO-3 -N increase rate. In the winter, the stable accumulation of TN in soil was an important reason of the TN abatement rate which had no significant difference and kept a high level among different weather processes, and it was closely related to the stable

  18. Effect of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) on ocean beach water quality near the USA-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Gersberg, Richard; Tiedge, Jürgen; Gottstein, Dana; Altmann, Sophie; Watanabe, Kayo; Lüderitz, Volker

    2008-04-01

    In early 1999, primary treatment and discharge of sewage from Tijuana, Mexico (approximately 95 million liters per day) began through South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) into the ocean 4.3 km offshore. In this study, statistical comparisons were made of the bacterial water quality (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci densities) of the ocean, both before and after discharge of sewage to the SBOO began, so that the effect of this ocean discharge on nearshore ocean water quality could be quantitatively assessed. The frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds was statistically analyzed for 11 shore (surfzone) stations throughout US and Mexico using the Fisher's exact test, for the years before (1995-1998) as compared to after the SBOO discharge began (1999-2003). Only four of the 11 shoreline stations (S2, S3, S11, and S12) showed significant improvement (decreased frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds) after SBOO discharge began.

  19. Assessment of metals bioaccumulation and bioavailability in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to outfalls pollution in coastal areas of Casablanca.

    PubMed

    Mejdoub, Zineb; Zaid, Younes; Hmimid, Fouzia; Kabine, Mostafa

    2018-07-01

    The present work aims to study the metallic contamination of four sampling sites located nearby major sewage outfalls of the Casablanca coast (Morocco), using indigenous mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as bioindicators of pollution. This research offered the opportunity to study trace metals bioaccumulation mechanisms, which represent a major factor in assessment processes of the pollution effects in coastal ecosystem health. The bioavailability and the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb) were evaluated in order to compare the metallic contamination in mussels' tissues and find a possible correlation with physiological parameters of this filter feeding species. Our results showed a significant spatiotemporal variation of bioaccumulation, compared to control. A significant correlation coefficient between metals (Zn and Pb) bioavailability and physiological index (CI) was revealed in mussels from the most polluted location. The seasonal variation of trace metal accumulation was also raised; the highest values recorded during the dry period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Analysis of Endocrine Disruption in Hornyhead Turbot at Wastewater Outfalls in Southern California Using a Second Generation Multi-Species Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael E.; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E.; Ribecco, Cataldo; Sprague, L. James; Angert, Mila; Lekmine, Narimene; Ludka, Colleen; Martella, Andrea; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Bay, Steven M.; Gully, Joseph R.; Kelley, Kevin M.; Schlenk, Daniel; Carnevali, Oliana; Šášik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel fish hornyhead turbot ( Pleuronichthys verticalis ) captured near wastewater outfalls are used for monitoring exposure to industrial and agricultural chemicals of ~ 20 million people living in coastal Southern California. Although analyses of hormones in blood and organ morphology and histology are useful for assessing contaminant exposure, there is a need for quantitative and sensitive molecular measurements, since contaminants of emerging concern are known to produce subtle effects. We developed a second generation multi-species microarray with expanded content and sensitivity to investigate endocrine disruption in turbot captured near wastewater outfalls in San Diego, Orange County and Los Angeles California. Analysis of expression of genes involved in hormone [e.g., estrogen, androgen, thyroid] responses and xenobiotic metabolism in turbot livers was correlated with a series of phenotypic end points. Molecular analyses of turbot livers uncovered altered expression of vitellogenin and zona pellucida protein, indicating exposure to one or more estrogenic chemicals, as well as, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase-α indicating induction of the detoxification response. Molecular responses indicative of exposure to endocrine disruptors were observed in field-caught hornyhead turbot captured in Southern California demonstrating the utility of molecular methods for monitoring environmental chemicals in wastewater outfalls. Moreover, this approach can be adapted to monitor other sites for contaminants of emerging concern in other fish species for which there are few available gene sequences. PMID:24086568

  1. Estimation of the dilution field near a marine outfall by using effluent turbidity as an environmental tracer and comparison with dye tracer data.

    PubMed

    Pecly, José Otavio Goulart

    2018-01-01

    The alternative use of effluent turbidity to determine the dilution field of a domestic marine outfall located off the city of Rio de Janeiro was evaluated through field work comprising fluorescent dye tracer injection and tracking with simultaneous monitoring of sea water turbidity. A preliminary laboratory assessment was carried out with a sample of the outfall effluent whose turbidity was measured by the nephelometric method before and during a serial dilution process. During the field campaign, the dye tracer was monitored with field fluorometers and the turbidity was observed with an optical backscattering sensor interfaced to an OEM data acquisition system. About 4,000 samples were gathered, covering an area of 3 km × 3 km near the outfall diffusers. At the far field - where a drift towards the coastline was observed - the effluent plume was adequately labeled by the dye tracer. The turbidity plume was biased due to the high and variable background turbidity of sea water. After processing the turbidity dataset with a baseline detrending method, the plume presented high correlation with the dye tracer plume drawn on the near dilution field. However, dye tracer remains more robust than effluent turbidity.

  2. 78 FR 77122 - Proposed Modification of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging-Permit Number IDG-37-0000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... required by section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general... entities.'' EPA has concluded that NPDES general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or the RFA. Notwithstanding that general permits are...

  3. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit...

  4. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit...

  5. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall-- a frequency-domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Noble, M A; Xu, J P; Robertson, G L; Rosenfeld, L K

    2006-06-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches.

  6. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Precipitation influences pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance gene abundance in storm drain outfalls in coastal sub-tropical waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Warish; Zhang, Qian; Lobos, Aldo; Senkbeil, Jacob; Sadowsky, Michael J; Harwood, Valerie J; Saeidi, Nazanin; Marinoni, Oswald; Ishii, Satoshi

    2018-07-01

    Stormwater contamination can threaten the health of aquatic ecosystems and human exposed to runoff via nutrient and pathogen influxes. In this study, the concentrations of 11 bacterial pathogens and 47 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were determined by using high-throughput microfluidic qPCR (MFQPCR) in several storm drain outfalls (SDOs) during dry and wet weather in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Data generated in this study were also compared with the levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and sewage-associated molecular markers (i.e., Bacteroides HF183 and crAssphage markers) in same SDOs collected in a recent study (Ahmed et al., 2018). Concentration of FIB, sewage-associated markers, bacterial pathogens and many ARGs in water samples were relatively high and SDOs may be potentially hotspots for microbial contamination in Tampa Bay. Mean concentrations of culturable E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were tenfold higher in wet compared to dry weather. The majority of microbiological contaminants followed this trend. E. coli eaeA, encoding the virulence factor intimin, was correlated with levels of 20 ARGs, and was more frequently detected in wet weather than dry weather samples. The bla KPC gene associated with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae and the beta-lactam resistant gene (bla NPS ) were only detected in wet weather samples. Frequency of integron genes Intl2 and Intl3 detection increased by 42% in wet weather samples. Culturable E. coli and Enterococcus spp. significantly correlated with 19 of 47 (40%) ARG tested. Sewage-associated markers crAssphage and HF183 significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with the following ARGs: intl1, sul1, tet(M), ampC, mexB, and tet(W). The presence of sewage-associated marker genes along with ARGs associated with sewage suggested that aging sewage infrastructure contributed to contaminant loading in the Bay. Further research should focus on collecting spatial and temporal data on the microbiological contaminants

  8. Persistence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and their primary degradation products in sediments from near a municipal outfall in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, D.Y.; Macdonald, R.W.; Ikonomou, M.G.

    1999-05-01

    Marine sediment cores and surface grabs were collected from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, near the Iona municipal outfall and were analyzed for nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylate compounds (NPnEOs). The authors used normal-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometric detection to determine concentrations of ethoxylates from n = 1 to n = 19. Over half the NPnEO inventory in marine sediments resides in ethoxylates of chain length greater than n = 2, suggesting that analyses limited to short-chain ethoxylates (n = 2) are under-reporting total NPnEO by a factor of 2. The NPnEO vertical profiles and oligomermore » distributions in dated sediment cores suggest that little degradation occurs once these compounds enter the sediments: the half-life for these compounds is estimated to be greater than 60 yr. The lack of change in NPnEO oligomer distribution with age suggests that degradation by chain shortening does not occur significantly. A rough inventory shows that over 30 t of NPnEO resides in Fraser River Delta sediments near the Iona municipal outfall and that the entire Strait of Georgia sediments contain over 170 t of NPnEO.« less

  9. Dissolved Oxygen decrease near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf affected by the Athens Sewage Outfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, A.; Hatzianestis, I.; Psillidou-Giouranovits, R.

    2012-04-01

    that the organic matter which is carried by the wastewater plume, follows the prevailing circulation and finally decomposes in a distance from the pipe, resulting to the DO decrease. The investigation of fecal sterols in the sediments (coprostanol values, coprostanol/cholesterol and coprostanol/coprostanol+cholestanol rations) confirms the sewage dispersion pathways. According to these results, although the whole area in a distance ~14 km from the outlet is contaminated by human wastes, the sediments in a direction southwest of Psittalia were more seriously affected than in the southeast direction. Additionally, historical data for the period 1992-2009 showed decreasing trend of the DO concentrations also near the bottom of the stations located southeast of Psittalia Sewage outfall. Consequently, the sewage plume from Psittalia Treatment Plant affects the DO concentrations near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf and the area within a circle of ~ 14Km diameter is assumed to be sensitive, with relatively lower DO values that potentially can affect the zoobenthic and the benthopelagic communities.

  10. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  11. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  12. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points;more » three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.« less

  13. 17 CFR 210.3A-01 - Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Statements § 210.3A-01 Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05. Sections 210.3A-01 to 210.3A-05 shall govern the presentation of consolidated and combined financial statements. [44 FR 19386, Apr. 3... COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, SECURITIES...

  14. Massport Logan International Airport NPDES Permit | NPDES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-28

    Massport was issued a permit for discharging storm water to Boston Harbor on March 1, 1978. The permit expired five years later. However, EPA administratively continued the permit as allowed by regulations. EPA issued a draft permit and fact sheet (which provides EPA's technical basis for establishing effluent limits and monitoring) for public comment on July 25, 2006.

  15. Using Arc/Info GIS to help implement the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater permit for Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Pace, P.J.; Woods, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    One of Los Angeles County Department of Public Works` many responsibilities is to manage non-point pollution that enters the storm drain network within Los Angeles County. The management of this non-point source pollution is mandated by the NPDES guidelines under the Federal Clean Water Act. These guidelines require the County to monitor the drainage network and the storm water and urban runoff flowing through it. The County covers over 3,117 square miles, with the NPDES Permit covering over 3,100 square miles and over 2500 miles of storm drains. A proposed solution to monitor and manage this vast geographic area ismore » centered upon an Arc/Info GIS. Some of the many concerns which need to be addressed include the administration and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMP`s), storm drain inspection for illegal connections and illicit discharges, and pollutant load assessment and modeling. The storm drain network and other coverages will be related to external data bases currently used for facility management and planning. This system would be used for query purposes to perform spatial modeling and {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} scenarios needed to create maps and reports required by the permit and to evaluate various BMP implementation strategies.« less

  16. 17 CFR 210.6A-01 - Application of §§ 210.6A-01 to 210.6A-05.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Employee Stock Purchase... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of §§ 210.6A-01...

  17. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cai Ge; Liu, Wei Cheng; Qiu, Ji Yan; Wang, Hui Min; Liu, Ting; De Liu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503%) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with U V, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases. PMID:24031293

  18. NPDES Permit Status Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports show the backlog status nationwide, based on EPA databases and input from EPA regions and states. The reports show a snapshot in time, keep in mind that the status of facilities and the universe of permits change.

  19. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  20. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends formore » toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to

  1. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent.more » After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.« less

  2. NPDES Permit Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000361, the Department of the Army is authorized to discharge from a facility located at Walter Reed Army Medical Center into receiving waters named Rock Creek.

  3. NPDES Pretreatment Program in Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) collect wastewater from homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities and transport it via a series of pipes, known as a collection system, to the treatment plant. The POTW removes harmful organisms and othe

  4. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides information about how the permit program interacts with other CWA programs to protect and improve water quality, and provides resources for professionals working in the program at the federal, state, local, and firm level, and concerned public.

  5. 2004 NPDES CSO Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, delivered to Congress on Thursday, August 26, 2004, presents a comprehensive characterization of CSOs and SSOs, including the extent of environmental and human health impacts caused by CSOs and SSOs.

  6. 2002 NPDES CSO Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, delivered to Congress on January 29, 2002, identifies progress made in implementing and enforcing combined sewer overflow (CSO) controls prior to, and because of, the 1994 CSO control policy.

  7. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Proposed Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  8. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*01 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Fuliang; Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Lou, Zhiyong

    2005-06-01

    Crystallization of the first rhesus macaque MHC class I complex. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques has been used as the best model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans, especially in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, the structure of rhesus macaque (or any other monkey model) major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presenting a specific peptide (the ligand for CTL) has not yet been elucidated. Here, using in vitro refolding, the preparation of the complex of the rhesus macaque MHC I allele (Mamu-A*01) with human β{sub 2}m and an immunodominant peptide,more » CTPYDINQM (Gag-CM9), derived from SIV Gag protein is reported. The complex (45 kDa) was crystallized; the crystal belongs to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 183.8, c = 155.2 Å. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracts X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. The structure is being solved by molecular replacement and this is the first attempt to determined the crystal structure of a peptide–nonhuman primate MHC complex.« less

  9. OCEAN OUTFALLS. II: SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF SUBMERGED WASTEFIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the basic features of submerged wastefield formation in stratified currents are reported in this paper. ilution increased with distance from the diffuser in the initial mixing region until it attained a maximum value, which is the initial dilution, after which it remained...

  10. MODELS FOR SUBMARINE OUTFALL - VALIDATION AND PREDICTION UNCERTAINTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This address reports on some efforts to verify and validate dilution models, including those found in Visual Plumes. This is done in the context of problem experience: a range of problems, including different pollutants such as bacteria; scales, including near-field and far-field...

  11. NPDES Permit for Colorado National Monument in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO0034975, the National Park Service is directed to have no discharge from the wastewater treatment lagoons at the Colorado National Monument in Mesa County, Colorado.

  12. NPDES Permit for Transit Waste's Bondad Landfill in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-R050005, Transit Waste, LLC is authorized to discharge from the Bondad Landfill facility in La Plata County, Colorado, to an unnamed tributary of the Animas River.

  13. Wesco Operating Inc., Lander Field NPDES Proposed Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indian Country, Minor, indust., non-discharge, proposed permit WY-0000221 establishes monitoring and reporting provisions should an unauthorized release of produced water occur from the Wesco Operating, Inc., Lander Field NW Discharge oil production site.

  14. NPDES Permit for General Services Administration (GSA) West Heating Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000035, General Services Administration (GSA) West Heating Plant is authorized to discharge from a facility to receiving waters named Rock Creek.

  15. NPDES Permit for Wesco Operating, Inc., Lander Field in Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indian Country, Minor, indust., non-discharge, permit WY-0000221 Wesco Operating, Inc., is directed to have no discharge from the Lander Field NW Discharge oil production site in Fremont County, Wyoming.

  16. SBAR Panel: NPDES Comprehensive Storm Water Phase II Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SBAR panel on proposed regulations to address currently unregulated discharges of storm water and provide regulatory relief to industrial facilities where industrial materials and activities are not exposed to storm water

  17. NPDES Permit for Leadville National Fish Hatchery in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  18. NPDES Permit for Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit in Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0035024, the Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatement facility in Plata County, Colorado, to Deer Canyon, a tributary of the Animas River.

  19. NPDES Permit for National World War II Memorial

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000345, the National World War II Memorial is authorized to discharge from a facility located at 17th St. and Independence Ave., S.W. Washington DC 20024.

  20. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or (2) In establishing... the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA; or (3) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g., hexavalent...

  1. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or (2) In establishing... the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA; or (3) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g., hexavalent...

  2. 77 FR 61605 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... as listed below. A copy of the Region's responses to comments and the final permit may be obtained... testing requirements for discharges containing methanol up to 20 bbl/ event and ethylene glycol up to 200...

  3. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    None

    This is the second annual storm water report prepared in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) on December 1, 2011, and the corresponding Y-12 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) which became effective on September 7, 2012. However, Appendix A does contain some analytical data gathered under the previous NPDES permit and SWP3 for comparison purposes. The quality of storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek remained relatively stable from 2012 to 2013. However, there was one largely unexpected high concentration of mercurymore » noted in an area that is not known to have previously been a mercury use area. This was noted in Sector AA, Outfall 014. This outfall is normally sampled on a rotating basis but, due this elevated concentration, will be sampled again in 2014. The Y-12 Complex will continue to implement appropriate BMPs and reduce outside material storage ares where possible. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and timely implementation of proper storm water control measures.« less

  4. RESPONSE PATTERNS OF GREAT RIVER FISH ASSEMBLAGE METRICS TO OUTFALL EFFECTS FROM POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human disturbance alters key attributes of aquatic ecosystems such as water quality, habitat structure, hydrological regime, energy flow, and biological interactions. In great rivers, this is particularly evident because they are disproportionately degraded by habitat alteration...

  5. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitativemore » Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement and imaging can contribute to diagnosis of breast and prostate cancer, staging of liver fibrosis, age estimation of deep veinous fhrombosis, confirmation of thermal lesions in the liver after RF ablation.« less

  6. WE-D-16A-01: ACR Radiology Leadership Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, G

    The Radiology Leadership Institute (RLI) was established in 2011 by the American College of Radiology with a mission to prepare leaders who will shape the future of radiology to ensure quality, elevate service and deliver extraordinary patient care. Leadership skills are critical to medical physicists in order for them to assure that imaging and therapy are safe and of the highest quality possible. This session will provide an introduction to the RLI and its programs with an emphasis on how medical physicists can get involved and what they might expect to gain through their engagement with the RLI. The sessionmore » will also provide a framework for leadership in healthcare with an emphasis on roles and opportunities for medical physicists to enhance their effectiveness as members of the healthcare, medical education, and research communities.« less

  7. WE-G-9A-01: Radiation Oncology Outcomes Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C; Miller, R; Sloan, J

    2014-06-15

    The construction of databases and support software to enable routine and systematic aggregation, analysis and reporting of patient outcomes data is emerging as an important area. “How have results for our patients been affected by the improvements we have made in our practice and in the technologies we use?” To answer this type of fundamental question about the overall pattern of efficacy observed, it is necessary to systematically gather and analyze data on all patients treated within a clinic. Clinical trials answer, in great depth and detail, questions about outcomes for the subsets of patients enrolled in a given trial.more » However, routine aggregation and analysis of key treatment parameter data and outcomes information for all patients is necessary to recognize emergent patterns that would be of interest from a public health or practice perspective and could better inform design of clinical trials or the evolution of best practice principals. To address these questions, Radiation Oncology outcomes databases need to be constructed to enable combination essential data from a broad group of data types including: diagnosis and staging, dose volume histogram metrics, patient reported outcomes, toxicity metrics, performance status, treatment plan parameters, demographics, DICOM data and demographics. Developing viable solutions to automate aggregation and analysis of this data requires multidisciplinary efforts to define nomenclatures, modify clinical processes and develop software and database tools requires detailed understanding of both clinical and technical issues. This session will cover the developing area of Radiation Oncology Outcomes Informatics. Learning Objectives: Audience will be able to speak to the technical requirements (software, database, web services) which must be considered in designing an outcomes database. Audience will be able to understand the content and the role of patient reported outcomes as compared to traditional toxicity measures. Audience will be understand approaches, clinical process changes, consensus building efforts and standardizations which must be addressed to succeed in a multi-disciplinary effort to aggregate data for all patients. Audience will be able to discuss technical and process issues related to pooling data among institutions in the context of collaborative studies among the presenting institutions.« less

  8. WE-E-16A-01: Medical Physics Economics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, J; Dirksen, B; White, G

    Radiology and Medical Physics reimbursement for Medicare services is constantly changing. In this presentation we will review the proposed reimbursement rules and levels for 2015 and compare them with those currently in effect for 2014. In addition, we will discuss the challenges that may lie ahead for the medical physics profession as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) moves away from a fee for service payment model and towards one of prospective payment. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in the Medicare reimbursement systems for outpatient departments as opposed to physicians and free standing centers. Learn the proposed Medicaremore » rules for 2015 and how they may affect Radiology and Medical Physics revenues. Be aware of possible long term changes in reimbursement and how they may affect our employers, our pocket books and our profession.« less

  9. WE-E-19A-01: Globalization of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehani, M; Meghzifene, A; Tsapaki, V

    Following successful 2012–2013 International Professional Symposiums as a part of Annual AAPM meetings, representatives of AAPM and International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) suggested to make this tradiational Symposium a permanent part of Annual AAPM meetings in future. Following the tradition, this session includes presentations of representatives of AAPM, IOMP, European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The speakers will cover various aspects of International collaboration such as educational, professional, and scientific issues, as well as help to developing countries. With further developments of medicine and technology and increasedmore » communication with our colleagues overseas, Medical Physics becomes more and more global profession. Use of the same technology, significant progress in medical physics research and developing practical regulations worldwide makes it increasingly useful to organize global collaboration of medical physicists. Several international organizations are tasked to promote such collaboration and provide help to developing countries. Not all AAPM members are fully aware of these international efforts. It is very useful for medical physicists to know about success of our profession in other countries. Different schools present different approaches to the same problem, which allows to find the best solution. By communicating with colleagues overseas, one can learn more than from just reading scientific publications. At this session the attendees will receive a glimpse of International Medical Physics activities. Learning Objectives: Understand the globalization of Medical Physics profession and advantages of collaboration with foreign colleagues. See what role AAPM is playing in establishing contacts with colleagues overseas. Understand the role of IOMP and main directions of its activity. Learn about IAEA and how it helps developing countries. Learn about activity of EFOMP and how can help the global development of Medical Physics. Find out about ICTP and its educational programs.« less

  10. Managing storm water at airports

    SciTech Connect

    Halm, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    Airports are active facilities with numerous on-going operations at their sites. The following operations may adversely affect the water quality of nearby aquatic environments: De-icing runways; de-icing taxiways; de-icing and anti-icing aircraft; aircraft maintenance; and salt de-icer application. Until the amendments to the Clean Water Act of 1972, referred to as the Water Quality Act of 1987, were passed by Congress, the majority of storm water discharges in the US were unregulated. The Water Quality Act of 1987 was promulgated as an effort to manage the pollution resulting from storm water runoff. Many industrial facilities, especially airports, were faced withmore » complex problems in attempting to comply with these new federal regulations. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for airports with more than 50,000 flight operations per year require periodic monitoring of receiving waters and storm sewer outfalls. The federal government has given states jurisdiction in issuing NPDES permits for storm water discharges. States may require composite or grab samples.« less

  11. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. Anmore » individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.« less

  12. Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Borst, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) database. Microorganism concentrations from high-density residential areas were higher than those associated with low-density residential and landscaped commercial areas. Since the outfalls were free of sanitary wastewater cross-connections, the major sources of microorganisms to the stormwater runoff were most likely from the feces of domestic animals and wildlife. Concentrations of microorganisms were significantly affected by the season during which the samples were collected. The lowest concentrations were observed during winter except for Staphylococcus aureus. The Pearson correlation coefficients among different indicators showed weak linear relationships and the relationships were statistically significant. However, the relationships between indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated and were not statistically significant, suggesting the use of indicators as evidence of the presence of pathogens is not appropriate. Further, the correlation between the concentration of the traditionally monitored indicators (total coliforms and fecal coliforms) and the suggested substitutes (enterococci and E. coli) is weak, but statistically significant, suggesting that historical time series will be only a qualitative indicator of impaired waters under the revised criteria for recreational water quality by the US EPA.

  13. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for themore » 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.« less

  14. 76 FR 22882 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you... include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM... visually assess the quality of the discharge (e.g., color, odor, floating, settled, or suspended solids) if...

  15. UNDERSTANDING AND ACCOUNTING FOR METHOD VARIABILITY IN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY APPLICATIONS UNDER THE NPDES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing and describes the regulatory background and context of WET testing. This chapter also describes the purpose of this document and outlines the issues addressed in each chapter.

  16. Town of Sandwich, MA | 2012 Annual Report |  NPDES Phase II Small MS4 General Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-07-12

    ... rJñ lrtt¿ 2. r¡tlllr oufi ¡l ÞlnxEf nl auFil¡ tîf. t. ül rltit t ¡r ? rto 0{ l¡lö¡Lt ¡r¡l! ß tþ sm^r ttr¡ìt0 t¡üa t t^Yû.tLl atlv tlol.t ,¡aÞ ¡rBñO l{Ol toff¡ ¡¡O ¡tr tüû!. ...

  17. NPDES Permit for NRG Energy (Formerly GenOn Potomac River Generating Station)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0022004, NRG Energy (Formerly GenOn Potomac River Generating Station) is authorized to discharge from a facility into receiving waters named Potomac River.

  18. NPDES Permit for Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000094, the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station is authorized to discharge from from a facility to receiving waters named Anacostia River.

  19. Documents for SBAR Panel: NPDES Comprehensive Storm Water Phase II Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SBAR panel on proposed regulations to address currently unregulated discharges of storm water and provide regulatory relief to industrial facilities where industrial materials and activities are not exposed to storm water

  20. NPDES Permit for Town of Lodge Grass Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT0021890, the Town of Lodge Grass is authorized to discharge from from its wastewater treatment facility in Big Horn County to an unnamed slough to the Little Bighorn River.

  1. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND... Industrial User is in compliance with Pretreatment Standards; (iv) Seek civil and criminal penalties, and...

  2. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  3. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Definitions and General Program Requirements § 122.4 Prohibitions (applicable to State... imposition of conditions cannot ensure compliance with the applicable water quality requirements of all...

  4. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Definitions and General Program Requirements § 122.4 Prohibitions (applicable to State... imposition of conditions cannot ensure compliance with the applicable water quality requirements of all...

  5. Supplemental Notice to the Proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice allows EPA to identify the issues raised by commenters during the public comment period, clarify any misunderstandings about the proposal, and discuss possibilities for how EPA might modify the rule to address issues raised by stakeholders.

  6. 77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    .... SUMMARY: On October 21, 2011, the EPA proposed a rulemaking to improve and restore water quality by... comments on improving water quality by promoting environmental stewardship and compliance rather than... from CAFOs to support the EPA in meeting its water quality protection responsibilities under the CWA...

  7. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... permit. Major changes also include definition of ``operator'', acute toxicity test for produced water... Category as authorized by section 402 of the Clean Water Act, (CWA). This permit renewal authorizes... considered all comments received and makes few changes to the proposed permit: pH limit for formation test...

  8. 77 FR 75429 - Notice of Availability of Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... produced water. These changes are discussed in more detail below, and in the fact sheet accompanying the... part, the proposed permit is very similar to the 2004 permit. The major changes from the 2004 permit... limits and monitoring requirements for produced water based on an updated reasonable potential analysis...

  9. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where...

  10. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where...

  11. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where...

  12. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from inactive mining operations may, where...

  13. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Faulk, EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management at tel.: 202-564-0768 or e... activities. Resource management parties 924110 Government (includes State departments Administration of... Solid in the regulation, State Waste Management administration, environmental agencies, and Programs...

  14. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Heavy and Civil Engineering 237 Construction. EPA does not intend the preceding table to be exhaustive... challenged later in civil or criminal proceedings to enforce these requirements. In addition, this permit may...

  15. 77 FR 47065 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... activities: Construction Buildings........ 236 Heavy and Civil Engineering 237 Construction. EPA does not... permit may not be challenged later in civil or criminal proceedings to enforce these requirements. In...

  16. 78 FR 20316 - Final Issuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Small Suction Dredges in Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA exempts... permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or...

  17. NPDES Permit for Keller Transport, Inc. Groundwater Remediation Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT0030805, Keller Transport, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its groundwater remediation treatment facility in Lake County, Montana, to Flathead Lake.

  18. NPDES Permit for \\tWashington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Mississippi Avenue Pumping Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000337, the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) is authorized to dischargefrom a facility to receiving waters named Oxon Run.

  19. NPDES Permit for Riverview Estates Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number ND-0031143, the Riverview Estates Wastewater Treatment Facility is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in designated locations as described in the permit.

  20. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  1. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CWA; (6) Ensure consistency with the requirements of a Water Quality Management plan approved by EPA..., or controls a pollutant or practice not limited in the permit. (d) Water quality standards and State... quality standards established under section 303 of the CWA, including State narrative criteria for water...

  2. NPDES Permit for Lame Deer Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Final permit authorizes the Northern Cheyenne Utilities Commission to discharge from its Lame Deer Lagoon wastewater treatment facility located in Rosebud County, Montana to Lame Deer Creek, a tributary to Rosebud Creek.

  3. 77 FR 21098 - Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Watersheds, EPA Region 10, is publishing notice of availability of the final National Pollutant Discharge... prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis for rules subject to the requirements of 5 U.S.C. 553(b) that.... Michael A. Bussell, Director, Office of Water and Watersheds, Region 10, U.S. Environmental Protection...

  4. 76 FR 35431 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ...: Table 1--Entities Potentially Regulated by This Permit North American Examples of affected Industry... intend the preceding table to be exhaustive, but provides it as a guide for readers regarding entities.../wastetech/guide/construction/index.cfm . B. Extension of Comment Period EPA is extending the deadline for...

  5. 75 FR 20592 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... control is necessary based on wasteload allocations in the Lower Charles River Phosphorus TMDL (``the TMDL... management plan and a phosphorus reduction plan, as the mechanisms to achieve the required pollutant... Consistent with the wasteload allocation of the Lower Charles River Phosphorus TMDL, Part IV and Appendix D...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foundries Gum and wood chemicals Inorganic chemicals manufacturing Iron and steel manufacturing Leather tanning and finishing Mechanical products manufacturing Nonferrous metals manufacturing Ore mining Organic...

  7. 78 FR 21938 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... shore and then enters the Great Lakes, and (2) the vessel has taken on ballast water that has a salinity... a vessel meeting the description in (1) has not taken on ballast water with a salinity of less than...

  8. 76 FR 76716 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Discharges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...) the vessel has taken on ballast water that has a salinity of less than 18 ppt from a coastal... has not taken on ballast water with a salinity of less than 18 ppt in the previous month, the master...

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. A Shipyard Program for NPDES Compliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-15

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM November 15, 2000 NSRP...software as provided with this report. Software Requirements (both optional): TecPlot Version 7.0 or later Available from: Amtec Engineering, Inc. 13920 SE...Region Atlantic Marine 4 Avondale 6 Bath Iron Works 1 Electric Boat Corp. 1 Ingalls 4 NASSCO 9 Newport News 3 Puget Sound Naval Shipyard 10 Table 1

  10. NPDES Permit for City of Polson Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0020559, the City of Polson is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to the Flathead River.

  11. 78 FR 64435 - Extension of Comment Period for the NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...-1752. Docket visitors are required to show photographic identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All visitor bags are processed through an X-ray machine and are subject...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total Radioactivity... dodecylbenzenesulfonate Triethylamine Trimethylamine Uranium Vanadium Vinyl acetate Xylene Xylenol Zirconium [Note 1: The.... Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total Radioactivity... dodecylbenzenesulfonate Triethylamine Trimethylamine Uranium Vanadium Vinyl acetate Xylene Xylenol Zirconium [Note 1: The.... Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total Radioactivity... dodecylbenzenesulfonate Triethylamine Trimethylamine Uranium Vanadium Vinyl acetate Xylene Xylenol Zirconium [Note 1: The.... Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total Radioactivity... dodecylbenzenesulfonate Triethylamine Trimethylamine Uranium Vanadium Vinyl acetate Xylene Xylenol Zirconium [Note 1: The.... Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total Radioactivity... dodecylbenzenesulfonate Triethylamine Trimethylamine Uranium Vanadium Vinyl acetate Xylene Xylenol Zirconium [Note 1: The.... Testing and reporting for the pesticide fraction in the Tall Oil Rosin Subcategory (subpart D) and Rosin...

  17. NPDES Permit for Super Concrete Ready-Mix Corp. (Aggregate Industries)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000175, Super Concrete Ready-Mix Corporation is authorized to discharge from a facility to receiving waters named unnamed tributary to Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River.

  18. 78 FR 59672 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... particulates and other potential pollutants present on pavement, specific effluent limits have been included to ensure particulates and other potential pollutants mobilized by pavement washing are controlled via treatment controls before they are discharged, unless the pavement wash waters were treated by the control...

  19. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ..., pesticides will not pose unreasonable risks to human health and the environment. All new pesticides must... human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Under FIFRA, EPA is required... health and environmental effects and exposures. The applicant for registration of the pesticide must...

  20. 78 FR 72676 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    .... Email: [email protected] , Attention Docket ID No. EPA- HQ-OW-2012-0803. Fax: (202) 566-9744 Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 28221T, Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2012..., Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC, Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0803...

  1. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Application Requirement for Storm Water Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    schedule for construction, upgrading or operation of wastewater treatment facilities or any other environmental programs, which may effect storm water quality of...if the storm water quality may be similar. c. Two sets of samples are required to be collected: (1) A grab during the first 30 minutes of the rainfall

  2. 75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ..., 2005 draft Peak Flows Policy. This draft Policy attempted to clarify EPA's interpretation that the... treatment plants that are recombined with the flows from the secondary treatment units prior to discharge... peak flow as part of an SSO rulemaking to allow for a holistic and integrated approach to reducing SSOs...

  3. 77 FR 57084 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Draft General Permit for Point Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., including to conveyances to Waters of the United States, including interstate waters that flow across or... Treatment Systems to Waters of the United States, Including to Conveyances to Waters of the United States, Including Interstate Waters That Flow Across or Form Part of the Boundary of Illinois and in All Areas of...

  4. NPDES Permit for Sunlight Ranch Company, Little Horn Unit in Montana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Draft permit and statement of basis MT0029424 for a beef cattle feedlot located on the Crow Reservation at the SW ¼ of Section 3, NW 1/4 of Section 10, Township 9 South Range 34 East, Montana Principal Meridian.

  5. 75 FR 76984 - Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... certification pursuant to section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) from Hawaii and a final response on the... Robin Danesi at EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management, Mail Code 4203M... Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management, Mail Code 4203M, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coating Copper forming Electrical and electronic components Electroplating Explosives manufacturing... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical preparations...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coating Copper forming Electrical and electronic components Electroplating Explosives manufacturing... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical preparations...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coating Copper forming Electrical and electronic components Electroplating Explosives manufacturing... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical preparations...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coating Copper forming Electrical and electronic components Electroplating Explosives manufacturing... chemicals manufacturing Paint and ink formulation Pesticides Petroleum refining Pharmaceutical preparations...

  10. 76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 9 and 122 [EPA-HQ-OW-2011-0188; FRL-9608-3] RIN 2040... address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public.... Sheep or lambs 10,000 or more....... 3,000-9,999 Less than 3,000. Turkeys 55,000 or more....... 16,500...

  11. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals withmore » establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern.« less

  12. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff associated with industrial activities at Fort Gordon was conducted from January through December 2011. The assessment was provided to satisfy the requirements from a general permit that authorizes the discharge of stormwater under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System from a site associated with industrial activities. The stormwater quantity refers to the runoff discharge at the point and time of the runoff sampling. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. The initial scope of this study was to sample stormwater runoff from five stations at four industrial sites (two landfills and two heating and cooling sites). As a consequence of inadequate hydrologic conditions during 2011, no samples were collected at the two landfills; however, three samples were collected from the heating and cooling sites. The assessment included the collection of physical properties, such as water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH; the detection of suspended materials (total suspended solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids), nutrients and organic compounds, and major and trace inorganic compounds (metals); and the detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Nutrients and organic compounds, major and trace inorganic compounds, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were detected above the laboratory reporting levels in all samples collected from the three stations. The detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds included anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, cis,1, 2-dichloroethene, dimethyl phthalate, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, acenaphthylene (station SWR11-3), and di-n-butyl phthalate (station SWR11-4).

  13. West shore hood canal outfall windshield survey SR 101 MP 293.5 tO 341.0

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    Western Washington's population increased dramatically during the last 40 years. The west shore of Hood Canal is now largely settled with the homes of retirees and seasonal residents. Many of these beachfront houses are connected to septic systems th...

  14. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.

    2013-01-01

    Samples from sites SWR11–3, SWR11–4, and SWR11–5 were analyzed for 83 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, were detected at all three sites. Of the 86 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds that were analyzed in stormwater samples from heating and cooling sites, 15 (18 percent) were detected at site SWR11–3, 12 (14 percent) were detected at site SWR11–4, and 17 (20 percent) were detected at site SWR11–5.

  15. Radioactive contamination in the marine environment adjacent to the outfall of the radioactive waste treatment plant at ATOMFLOT, northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Nikitin, A; Valetova, N K; Chumichev, V B; Katrich, I Yu; Berezhnoy, V I; Pegoev, N N; Kabanov, A I; Pichugin, S N; Vopiyashin, Yu Ya; Lind, B; Grøttheim, S; Sickel, M; Strand, P

    2002-01-01

    RTP "ATOMFLOT" is a civilian nuclear icebreaker base located on the Kola Bay of northwest Russia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distributions of man-made radionuclides in the marine environment adjacent to the base, to explain the form of the distributions in sediments and to derive information concerning the fate of radionuclides discharged from ATOMFLOT. Mean activity concentrations (d.w.) for surface sediment, of 63 Bq kg(-1 137Cs, 5.8 Bq kg(-1) 90Sr and 0.45 Bq kg(-1 239,240)Pu were measured. Filtered seawater activity levels were in the range of 3--6.9 Bq m(-3) 137Cs, 2.0-11.2 Bq m(-3) 90Sr, and 16-40 m Bq m(-3), 239,240Pu. Short-lived radionuclides were present at sediment depths in excess of 10cm indicating a high degree of sediment mixing. Correlations of radionuclide activity concentrations with grain-size appear to be absent; instead, the presence of relatively contaminated sediment appears to be related to the existence of radioactive particles.

  16. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes Margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M A.; Karl, H; Murray, Christopher J.

    2001-12-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km{sup 2}, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m{sup 3}. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct overmore » most of the mapped area, implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30 m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs.« less

  17. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Storm Water Detection System at Storm Water Outfall #3, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    germination success for grass (i.e. hydro-mulch seeding ); 6. To prevent overloading of the aforementioned water containment methods, this work shall...12. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The United...was made available for a 30-day federal, state, and local agency and public review and comment period through publication of a notice of

  18. Effect of surface on the dissociation of perfect dislocations into Shockley partials describing the herringbone Au(1\\xA01\\xA01) surface reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Oubba, A.; Coupeau, C.; Durinck, J.; Talea, M.; Grilhé, J.

    2018-06-01

    In the framework of the continuum elastic theory, the equilibrium positions of Shockley partial dislocations have been determined as a function of their distance from the free surface. It is found that the dissociation width decreases with the decreasing depth, except for a depth range very close to the free surface for which the dissociation width is enlarged. A similar behaviour is also predicted when Shockley dislocation pairs are regularly arranged, whatever the wavelength. These results derived from the elastic theory are compared to STM observations of the reconstructed (1 1 1) surface in gold, which is usually described by a Shockley dislocations network.

  19. MO-G-9A-01: Imaging Refresher for Standard of Care Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Labby, Z; Sensakovic, W; Hipp, E

    2014-06-15

    Imaging techniques and technology which were previously the domain of diagnostic medicine are becoming increasingly integrated and utilized in radiation therapy (RT) clinical practice. As such, there are a number of specific imaging topics that are highly applicable to modern radiation therapy physics. As imaging becomes more widely integrated into standard clinical radiation oncology practice, the impetus is on RT physicists to be informed and up-to-date on those imaging modalities relevant to the design and delivery of therapeutic radiation treatments. For example, knowing that, for a given situation, a fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image set is most likely whatmore » the physician would like to import and contour is helpful, but may not be sufficient to providing the best quality of care. Understanding the physics of how that pulse sequence works and why it is used could help assess its utility and determine if it is the optimal sequence for aiding in that specific clinical situation. It is thus important that clinical medical physicists be able to understand and explain the physics behind the imaging techniques used in all aspects of clinical radiation oncology practice. This session will provide the basic physics for a variety of imaging modalities for applications that are highly relevant to radiation oncology practice: computed tomography (CT) (including kV, MV, cone beam CT [CBCT], and 4DCT), positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging specific to brachytherapy (including ultrasound and some brachytherapy specific topics in MR). For each unique modality, the image formation process will be reviewed, trade-offs between image quality and other factors (e.g. imaging time or radiation dose) will be clarified, and typically used cases for each modality will be introduced. The current and near-future uses of these modalities and techniques in radiation oncology clinical practice will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review the basic physical science principles of CT, PET, MR, and ultrasound imaging. To understand how the images are created, and present their specific role in patient management and treatment planning for therapeutic radiation (both external beam and brachytherapy). To discuss when and how each specific imaging modality is currently used in clinical practice, as well as how they may come to be used in the near future.« less

  20. TU-C-9A-01: IROC Organization and Clinical Trial Credentialing

    SciTech Connect

    Followill, D; Molineu, A; Xiao, Y

    2014-06-15

    As a response to recommendations from a report from the Institute of Medicine, NCI is reorganizing it clinical trial groups into a National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) that consists of four adult groups (Alliance, ECOGACRIN, NRG, and SWOG) and one children’s group (COG). NRG will house CIRO, a center to promote innovative radiation therapy research and intergroup collaboration in radiation. The quality assurance groups that support clinical trials have also been restructured. ITC, OSU Imaging corelab, Philadelphia Imaging core-lab, QARC, RPC, and RTOGQA have joined together to create the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Group. IROC’s mission is tomore » provide integrated radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging quality control programs in support of the NCI’s NCTN thereby assuring high quality data for clinical trials designed to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients worldwide. This will be accomplished through five core services: site qualification, trial design support, credentialing, data management, case review.These changes are important for physicist participating in NCI clinical trials to understand. We will describe in detail the IROC’s activities and five core services so that as a user, the medical physicist can learn how to efficiently utilize this group. We will describe common pitfalls encountered in credentialing for current protocols and present methods to avoid them. These may include the which benchmarks are required for NSABP B-51/RTOG 1304 and how to plan them as well as tips for phantom planning. We will explain how to submit patient and phantom cases in the TRIAD system used by IROC. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic organization of IROC, its mission and five core services To learn how to use TRIAD for patient and phantom data submission To learn how to avoid common pitfalls in credentialing for current trials.« less

  1. WE-G-12A-01: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, K; O'Neill, B

    More and more emphasis is being made on alternatives to invasive surgery and the use of ionizing radiation to treat various diseases including cancer. Novel screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of response to treatment are also hot areas of research and new clinical technologies. Ultrasound(US) has gained traction in all of the aforementioned areas of focus. Especially with recent advances in the use of ultrasound to noninvasively treat various diseases/organ systems. This session will focus on covering MR-guided focused ultrasound and the state of the art clinical applications, and the second speaker will survey the more cutting edge technologies e.g.more » Focused Ultrasound (FUS) mediated drug delivery, principles of cavitation and US guided FUS. Learning Objectives: Fundamental physics and physical limitations of US interaction with tissue and nanoparticles The alteration of tissue transport using focused ultrasound US control of nanoparticle drug carriers for targeted release The basic principles of MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery and therapy the current state of the art clinical applications of MRgFUS requirements for quality assurance and treatment planning.« less

  2. An atlas of low latitude 6300A (01) night airglow from OGO-4 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Fowler, W. B.; Blamont, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The atomic oxygen emission line at 6300 A, measured in the nadir direction by a photometer on the polar orbiting satellite OGO-4, was plotted between 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitude on a series of maps for the moon-free periods between 30 August 1967 and 10 January 1968 The longitudinal and local time variations which occur during the northern fall-winter season are indicated. The northern tropical arc is more widespread while the southern arc is not present at all longitudes. The conditions under which the observations were made are described, and four airglow maps were selected to show the local time variations.

  3. TU-B-16A-01: To Which Journal Should I Submit My Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J; Mills, M; Klein, E

    Research papers authored by Medical Physicists address a large spectrum of oncologic, imaging, or basic research problems; exploit a wide range of physical and engineering methodologies; and often describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary research team. Given the large number (about 100) competing journals accepting medical physics articles, it may not be clear to an individual author which journal is the best venue for disseminating their work to the scientific community. Relevant factors usually include the Journal’s audience and scientific impact, but also such factors as perceived acceptance rate, interest in their topic, and quality of service. The purpose ofmore » this symposium is to provide the medical physics community with an overview of scope, review processes, and article guidelines for the following journals: Medical Physics, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Physics, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, and Practical Radiation Oncology. The senior editors for each journal will provide details as to the journals review process, for example: single blind versus double blind reviews; the hierarchy of the review process in terms of editorial board structure; the reality of acceptance, in terms of acceptance rate; and the types of research the journal prefers to publish. The goal is to provide for authors guidance before they begin to write their papers, not only for proper formatting, but also that the readership is appropriate for the particular paper, hopefully increasing the likelihood of publication. Learning Objectives: To review each Journal’s submission and review process Guidance as to how to increase chances of acceptance To help decipher which journal is appropriate for a given work.« less

  4. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methodsmore » as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.« less

  5. MO-E-18A-01: Imaging: Best Practices In Pediatric Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C; Strauss, K; MacDougall, R

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. Areas of focus will include general radiography, the use of manual and automatic dose management in computed tomography, and enterprise-wide radiation dose management in the pediatric practice. The educational program will begin with a discussion of the complexities of exposure factor control in pediatric projection radiography. Following this introduction will be two lectures addressing the challenges of computed tomography (CT) protocol optimization in the pediatric population. The firstmore » will address manual CT protocol design in order to establish a managed radiation dose for any pediatric exam on any CT scanner. The second CT lecture will focus on the intricacies of automatic dose modulation in pediatric imaging with an emphasis on getting reliable results in algorithmbased technique selection. The fourth and final lecture will address the key elements needed to developing a comprehensive radiation dose management program for the pediatric environment with particular attention paid to new regulations and obligations of practicing medical physicists. Learning Objectives: To understand how general radiographic techniques can be optimized using exposure indices in order to improve pediatric radiography. To learn how to establish diagnostic dose reference levels for pediatric patients as a function of the type of examination, patient size, and individual design characteristics of the CT scanner. To learn how to predict the patient's radiation dose prior to the exam and manually adjust technique factors if necessary to match the patient's dose to the department's established dose reference levels. To learn how to utilize manufacturer-provided automatic dose modulation technology to consistently achieve patient doses within the department's established size-based diagnostic reference range. To understand the key components of an enterprise-wide pediatric dose management program that integrates the expanding responsibilities of medial physicists in the new era of dose monitoring.« less

  6. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within themore » reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical applications. Learning Objectives: Learn the general methodologies associated with model-based 3D image reconstruction. Learn the potential advantages in image quality and dose associated with model-based image reconstruction. Learn the challenges associated with computational load and image quality assessment for such reconstruction methods. Learn how imaging task can be incorporated as a means to drive optimal image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. Learn how model-based reconstruction methods can incorporate prior information to improve image quality, ease sampling requirements, and reduce dose.« less

  7. SU-C-19A-01: A Simple Deep Inspiration Breath Hold System

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, B; Kaznowski, L; Blackburn, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) Radiation therapy for left sided breast can reduce dose to the lungs and heart. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how to implement a simple method of DIBH for simulation and treatment using equipment readily available in most radiation oncology clinics. Methods: For simulation and treatment, a foam block is placed on the patient's abdomen or chest and a horizontal laser mounted on a movable slide is aimed at the center of the foam block. After a coaching session the block is marked at the average free breathing position and average DIBHmore » position. The position of block relative to laser can be seen by the patient via prism glasses as well as the radiation therapists via a video camera system. Simulation CT scans and treatment delivery are performed under DIBH conditions. Imaging and treatment are performed by manually turning the beam on once the patient has achieved DIBH after being given verbal instructions. Results: Manually triggered imaging was used daily to verify DIBH reproducibility for all patients treated using this system. Sets of before and during port images were used to ensure patient position was appropriate for treatment. Results of the laser on block method were compared to a sister facility using surface mapping techniques for DIBH and the two methods were found to have clinically equivalent reproducibility. Conclusion: The laser and block system was found to be simple to implement and robust during patient treatment. This system can be created from readily available materials at low cost and provides adequate feedback to patient and therapists. During treatment images document the reproducibility of setup and give confidence to clinicians that this method is reproducible from day to day.« less

  8. MO-G-18A-01: Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mahesh, M; Gingold, E; Jones, A

    2014-06-15

    Advances in medical x-ray imaging have provided significant benefits to patient care. According to NCRP 160, there are more than 400 million x-ray procedures performed annually in the United States alone that contributes to nearly half of all the radiation exposure to the US population. Similar growth trends in medical x-ray imaging are observed worldwide. Apparent increase in number of medical x-ray imaging procedures, new protocols and the associated radiation dose and risk has drawn considerable attention. This has led to a number of technological innovations such as tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dose alerts, dose displays, flat panelmore » digital detectors, high efficient digital detectors, storage phosphor radiography, variable filters, etc. that are enabling users to acquire medical x-ray images at a much lower radiation dose. Along with these, there are number of radiation dose optimization strategies that users can adapt to effectively lower radiation dose in medical x-ray procedures. The main objectives of this SAM course are to provide information and how to implement the various radiation dose optimization strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography. Learning Objectives: To update impact of technological advances on dose optimization in medical imaging. To identify radiation optimization strategies in computed tomography. To describe strategies for configuring fluoroscopic equipment that yields optimal images at reasonable radiation dose. To assess ways to configure digital radiography systems and recommend ways to improve image quality at optimal dose.« less

  9. SU-C-17A-01: MRI-Based Radiotherapy Treatment Planning In Pelvis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S; Cao, Y; Jolly, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To support radiotherapy dose calculation, synthetic CT (MRCT) image volumes need to represent the electron density of tissues with sufficient accuracy. This study compares CT and MRCT for pelvic radiotherapy. Methods: CT and multi-contrast MRI acquired using T1- based Dixon, T2 TSE, and PETRA sequences were acquired on an IRBapproved protocol patient. A previously published method was used to create a MRCT image volume by applying fuzzy classification on T1- weighted and calculated water image volumes (air and fluid voxels were excluded using thresholds applied to PETRA and T2-weighted images). The correlation of pelvic bone intensity between CT andmore » MRCT was investigated. Two treatment plans, based on CT and MRCT, were performed to mimic treatment for: (a) pelvic bone metastasis with a 16MV parallel beam arrangement, and (b) gynecological cancer with 6MV volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using two full arcs. The CT-calculated fluence maps were used to recalculate doses using the MRCT-derived density grid. The dose-volume histograms and dose distributions were compared. Results: Bone intensities in the MRCT volume correlated linearly with CT intensities up to 800 HU (containing 96% of the bone volume), and then decreased with CT intensity increase (4% volume). There was no significant difference in dose distributions between CT- and MRCTbased plans, except for the rectum and bladder, for which the V45 differed by 15% and 9%, respectively. These differences may be attributed to normal and visualized organ movement and volume variations between CT and MR scans. Conclusion: While MRCT had lower bone intensity in highly-dense bone, this did not cause significant dose deviations from CT due to its small percentage of volume. These results indicate that treatment planning using MRCT could generate comparable dose distributions to that using CT, and further demonstrate the feasibility of using MRI-alone to support Radiation Oncology workflow. NIH R01EB016079.« less

  10. MO-D-16A-01: International Day of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, K; Damilakis, J

    International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) which represents medical physicists in more than 80 countries decided to celebrate 7th November, birth date of the Polish and naturalized-French physicist Marie Sklodowska-Curie, as International Day of Medical Physics (IDMP). The main purpose of the initiative is to raise the visibility and awareness of medical physicist in the global community, to introduce ourselves to the general public, and bring a message to the community that a group of health professionals, the medical physicists are there to help the patients and other health professionals. First celebration was done in 2013 and now IDMP willmore » be celebrated every year. The theme of IDMP will be different each year. The theme for 2013 was ‘Radiation exposure from medical procedures, ask the Medical Physicist’. The inaugural event was celebrated in 23 countries and the amount of attention gained was remarkable. Main IDMP events were held in Poland, birthplace of Marie Curie, and France, workplace of Marie Curie. This year IOMP celebrates the 2nd IDMP and theme will be ‘Looking into the body-Advancement in Imaging through Medical Physics’ to draw attention to the profound contributions Medical Physics has made to the use of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation for the imaging of human body. A number of countries have informed about events that they are going to organize on IDMP. This gives wide attention to medical physics globally. AAPM is a major and important member of IOMP. It is hoped that AAPM will join in organizing activities. Learning Objectives: To learn about International Day of Medical Physics To become familiar with how first IDMP was celebrated in 2013 and learning achieved To understand on future plans for IDMPs.« less

  11. TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Badal, A; Zbijewski, W; Bolch, W

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are widely used in medical physics research and are starting to be implemented in clinical applications such as radiation therapy planning systems. Monte Carlo simulations offer the capability to accurately estimate quantities of interest that are challenging to measure experimentally while taking into account the realistic anatomy of an individual patient. Traditionally, practical application of Monte Carlo simulation codes in diagnostic imaging was limited by the need for large computational resources or long execution times. However, recent advancements in high-performance computing hardware, combined with a new generation of Monte Carlo simulation algorithms and novel postprocessing methods,more » are allowing for the computation of relevant imaging parameters of interest such as patient organ doses and scatter-to-primaryratios in radiographic projections in just a few seconds using affordable computational resources. Programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), for example, provide a convenient, affordable platform for parallelized Monte Carlo executions that yield simulation times on the order of 10{sup 7} xray/ s. Even with GPU acceleration, however, Monte Carlo simulation times can be prohibitive for routine clinical practice. To reduce simulation times further, variance reduction techniques can be used to alter the probabilistic models underlying the x-ray tracking process, resulting in lower variance in the results without biasing the estimates. Other complementary strategies for further reductions in computation time are denoising of the Monte Carlo estimates and estimating (scoring) the quantity of interest at a sparse set of sampling locations (e.g. at a small number of detector pixels in a scatter simulation) followed by interpolation. Beyond reduction of the computational resources required for performing Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging, the use of accurate representations of patient anatomy is crucial to the virtual generation of medical images and accurate estimation of radiation dose and other imaging parameters. For this, detailed computational phantoms of the patient anatomy must be utilized and implemented within the radiation transport code. Computational phantoms presently come in one of three format types, and in one of four morphometric categories. Format types include stylized (mathematical equation-based), voxel (segmented CT/MR images), and hybrid (NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces). Morphometric categories include reference (small library of phantoms by age at 50th height/weight percentile), patient-dependent (larger library of phantoms at various combinations of height/weight percentiles), patient-sculpted (phantoms altered to match the patient's unique outer body contour), and finally, patient-specific (an exact representation of the patient with respect to both body contour and internal anatomy). The existence and availability of these phantoms represents a very important advance for the simulation of realistic medical imaging applications using Monte Carlo methods. New Monte Carlo simulation codes need to be thoroughly validated before they can be used to perform novel research. Ideally, the validation process would involve comparison of results with those of an experimental measurement, but accurate replication of experimental conditions can be very challenging. It is very common to validate new Monte Carlo simulations by replicating previously published simulation results of similar experiments. This process, however, is commonly problematic due to the lack of sufficient information in the published reports of previous work so as to be able to replicate the simulation in detail. To aid in this process, the AAPM Task Group 195 prepared a report in which six different imaging research experiments commonly performed using Monte Carlo simulations are described and their results provided. The simulation conditions of all six cases are provided in full detail, with all necessary data on material composition, source, geometry, scoring and other parameters provided. The results of these simulations when performed with the four most common publicly available Monte Carlo packages are also provided in tabular form. The Task Group 195 Report will be useful for researchers needing to validate their Monte Carlo work, and for trainees needing to learn Monte Carlo simulation methods. In this symposium we will review the recent advancements in highperformance computing hardware enabling the reduction in computational resources needed for Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging. We will review variance reduction techniques commonly applied in Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging systems and present implementation strategies for efficient combination of these techniques with GPU acceleration. Trade-offs involved in Monte Carlo acceleration by means of denoising and “sparse sampling” will be discussed. A method for rapid scatter correction in cone-beam CT (<5 min/scan) will be presented as an illustration of the simulation speeds achievable with optimized Monte Carlo simulations. We will also discuss the development, availability, and capability of the various combinations of computational phantoms for Monte Carlo simulation of medical imaging systems. Finally, we will review some examples of experimental validation of Monte Carlo simulations and will present the AAPM Task Group 195 Report. Learning Objectives: Describe the advances in hardware available for performing Monte Carlo simulations in high performance computing environments. Explain variance reduction, denoising and sparse sampling techniques available for reduction of computational time needed for Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging. List and compare the computational anthropomorphic phantoms currently available for more accurate assessment of medical imaging parameters in Monte Carlo simulations. Describe experimental methods used for validation of Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging. Describe the AAPM Task Group 195 Report and its use for validation and teaching of Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging.« less

  12. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J

    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of informationmore » that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues.« less

  13. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapymore » process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what Fault tree analysis is all about. Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, FMEA and FTA.« less

  14. WE-E-17A-01: Characterization of An Imaging-Based Model of Tumor Angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikarla, V; Jeraj, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Understanding the transient dynamics of tumor oxygenation is important when evaluating tumor-vasculature response to anti-angiogenic therapies. An imaging-based tumor-vasculature model was used to elucidate factors that affect these dynamics. Methods: Tumor growth depends on its doubling time (Td). Hypoxia increases pro-angiogenic factor (VEGF) concentration which is modeled to reduce vessel perfusion, attributing to its effect of increasing vascular permeability. Perfused vessel recruitment depends on the existing perfused vasculature, VEGF concentration and maximum VEGF concentration (VEGFmax) for vessel dysfunction. A convolution-based algorithm couples the tumor to the normal tissue vessel density (VD-nt). The parameters are benchmarked to published pre-clinical datamore » and a sensitivity study evaluating the changes in the peak and time to peak tumor oxygenation characterizes them. The model is used to simulate changes in hypoxia and proliferation PET imaging data obtained using [Cu- 61]Cu-ATSM and [F-18]FLT respectively. Results: Td and VD-nt were found to be the most influential on peak tumor pO2 while VEGFmax was marginally influential. A +20 % change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax resulted in +50%, +25% and +5% increase in peak pO2. In contrast, Td was the most influential on the time to peak oxygenation with VD-nt and VEGFmax playing marginal roles. A +20% change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax increased the time to peak pO2 by +50%, +5% and +0%. A −20% change in the above parameters resulted in comparable decreases in the peak and time to peak pO2. Model application to the PET data was able to demonstrate the voxel-specific changes in hypoxia of the imaged tumor. Conclusion: Tumor-specific doubling time and vessel density are important parameters to be considered when evaluating hypoxia transients. While the current model simulates the oxygen dynamics of an untreated tumor, incorporation of therapeutic effects can make the model a potent tool for analyzing anti-angiogenic therapies.« less

  15. MO-E-217A-01: Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography - Physical Aspects and QA.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, M; Hill, M

    2012-06-01

    To describe the current state of dual energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography, to discuss those aspects of its operation that require evaluation or monitoring and to propose elements of a program for quality assurance of such systems. The principles of dual-energy contrast imaging will be discussed and tools and techniques for assessment of performance will be described. Many of the elements affecting image quality and dose performance in digital mammography (eg noise, system linearity, consistency of x-ray output and detector performance, artifacts) remain important. In addition, the ability to register images can influence the resultant image quality. The maintenance of breast compression thickness during the imaging procedure and calibration of the system to allow quantification of iodine in the breast represent new challenges to quality assurance. CESM provides a means of acquiring new information regarding tumor angiogenesis and may reveal some cancers that will not be detectable on digital mammography. It may also better demonstrate the extent of disease. The medical physicist must understand the dependence of image quality on physical factors. Implementation of a relevant QA program will be required if the promise of this new modality is to be delivered. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. MO-F-16A-01: Implementation of MPPG TPS Verification Tests On Various Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, J; Bredfeldt, J; Geurts, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the implementation of the Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) for dose calculation and beam parameters verification of treatment planning systems (TPS). Methods: We implemented the draft TPS MPPG for three linacs: Varian Trilogy, TomoHDA and Elekta Infinity. Static and modulated test plans were created. The static fields are different than used in commissioning. Data was collected using ion chambers and diodes in a scanning water tank, Delta4 phantom and a custom phantom. MatLab and Microsoft Excel were used to create analysis tools to compare reference DICOM dose with scan data. This custom code allowed for the interpolation,more » registration and gamma analysis of arbitrary dose profiles. It will be provided as open source code. IMRT fields were validated with Delta4 registration and comparison tools. The time for each task was recorded. Results: The tests confirmed the strengths, and revealed some limitations, of our TPS. The agreement between calculated and measured dose was reported for all beams. For static fields, percent depth dose and profiles were analyzed with criteria in the draft MPPG. The results reveal areas of slight mismatch with the model (MLC leaf penumbra, buildup region.) For TomoTherapy, the IMRT plan 2%/2 mm gamma analysis revealed poorest agreement in the low dose regions. For one static test plan for all 10MV Trilogy photon beams, the plan generation, scan queue creation, data collection, data analysis and report took 2 hours, excluding tank setup. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the implementation feasibility of the TPS MPPG. This exercise generated an open source tool for dose comparisons between scan data and DICOM dose data. An easily reproducible and efficient infrastructure with streamlined data collection was created for repeatable robust testing of the TPS. The tests revealed minor discrepancies in our models and areas for improvement that are being investigated.« less

  17. TU-F-9A-01: Balancing Image Quality and Dose in Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, D; Pasciak, A

    2014-06-15

    Emphasis is often placed on minimizing radiation dose in diagnostic imaging without a complete consideration of the effect on image quality, especially those that affect diagnostic accuracy. This session will include a patient image-based review of diagnostic quantities important to radiologists in conventional radiography, including the effects of body habitus, age, positioning, and the clinical indication of the exam. The relationships between image quality, radiation dose, and radiation risk will be discussed, specifically addressing how these factors are affected by image protocols and acquisition parameters and techniques. This session will also discuss some of the actual and perceived radiation riskmore » associated with diagnostic imaging. Regardless if the probability for radiation-induced cancer is small, the fear associated with radiation persists. Also when a risk has a benefit to an individual or to society, the risk may be justified with respect to the benefit. But how do you convey the risks and the benefits to people? This requires knowledge of how people perceive risk and how to communicate the risk and the benefit to different populations. In this presentation the sources of errors in estimating risk from radiation and some methods used to convey risks are reviewed. Learning Objectives: Understand the image quality metrics that are clinically relevant to radiologists. Understand how acquisition parameters and techniques affect image quality and radiation dose in conventional radiology. Understand the uncertainties in estimates of radiation risk from imaging exams. Learn some methods for effectively communicating radiation risk to the public.« less

  18. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, M; Miyaoka, R; Shao, Y

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality andmore » quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications.« less

  19. WE-G-16A-01: Evolution of Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, L; Mohan, R; Van Dyk, J

    Welcome and Introduction - Lawrence N. Rothenberg This symposium is one a continuing series of presentations at AAPM Annual Meetings on the historical aspects of medical physics, radiology, and radiation oncology that have been organized by the AAPM History Committee. Information on previous presentations including “Early Developments in Teletherapy” (Indianapolis 2013), “Historical Aspects of Cross-Sectional Imaging” (Charlotte 2012), “Historical Aspects of Brachytherapy” (Vancouver 2011), “50 Years of Women in Medical Physics” (Houston 2008), and “Roentgen's Early Investigations” (Minneapolis 2007) can be found in the Education Section of the AAPM Website. The Austin 2014 History Symposium will be on “Evolution ofmore » Radiation Treatment Planning.” Overview - Radhe Mohan Treatment planning is one of the most critical components in the chain of radiation therapy of cancers. Treatment plans of today contain a wide variety of sophisticated information conveying the potential clinical effectiveness of the designed treatment to practitioners. Examples of such information include dose distributions superimposed on three- or even four-dimensional anatomic images; dose volume histograms, dose, dose-volume and dose-response indices for anatomic structures of interest; etc. These data are used for evaluating treatment plans and for making treatment decisions. The current state-of-the-art has evolved from the 1940s era when the dose to the tumor and normal tissues was estimated approximately by manual means. However, the symposium will cover the history of the field from the late-1950's, when computers were first introduced for treatment planning, to the present state involving the use of high performance computing and advanced multi-dimensional anatomic, functional and biological imaging, focusing only on external beam treatment planning. The symposium will start with a general overview of the treatment planning process including imaging, structure delineation, assignment of dose requirements, consideration of uncertainties, selection of beam configurations and shaping of beams, and calculations, optimization and evaluation of dose distributions. This will be followed by three presentations covering the evolution of treatment planning, which parallels the evolution of computers, availability of advanced volumetric imaging and the development of novel technologies such as dynamic multi-leaf collimators and online image guidance. This evolution will be divided over three distinct periods - prior to 1970's, the 2D era; from 1980 to the mid-1990's, the 3D era; and from the mid 1990's to today, the IMRT era. When the World was Flat: The Two-Dimensional Radiation Therapy Era” - Jacob Van Dyk In the 2D era, anatomy was defined with the aid of solder wires, special contouring devices and projection x-rays. Dose distributions were calculated manually from single field, flat surface isodoses on transparencies. Precalculated atlases of generic dose distributions were produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Massive time-shared main frames and mini-computers were used to compute doses at individual points or dose distributions in a single plane. Beam shapes were generally rectangular, with wedges, missing tissue compensators and occasional blocks to shield critical structures. Dose calculations were measurement-based or they used primary and scatter calculations based on scatter-air ratio methodologies. Dose distributions were displayed on line printers as alpha-numeric character maps or isodose patterns made with pen plotters. More than Pretty Pictures: 3D Treatment Planning and Conformal Therapy - Benedick A. Fraass The introduction of computed tomography allowed the delineation of anatomy three-dimensionally and, supported partly by contracts from the National Cancer Institute, made possible the introduction and clinical use of 3D treatment planning, leading to development and use of 3D conformal therapy in the 1980's. 3D computer graphics and 3D anatomical structure definitions made possible Beam's Eye View (BEV) displays, making conformal beam shaping and much more sophisticated beam arrangements possible. These conformal plans significantly improved target dose coverage as well as normal tissue sparing. The use of dose volume histograms, gross/clinical/planning target volumes, MRI and PET imaging, multileaf collimators, and computer-controlled treatment delivery made sophisticated planning approaches practical. The significant improvements in dose distributions and analysis achievable with 3D conformal therapy made possible formal dose escalation and normal tissue tolerance clinical studies that set new and improved expectations for improved local control and decreasing complications in many clinical sites. From the Art to the State of the Art: Inverse Planning and IMRT - Thomas R. Bortfeld While the potential of intensity modulation was recognized in the mid- 1980's, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) did not become a reality until the mid-1990's. Broad beams of photons could be sub-divided into narrow beamlets whose intensities could be determined using sophisticated optimization algorithms to appropriately balance tumor dose with normal tissue sparing. The development of dynamic multi-leaf collimators (on conventional linear accelerators as well as in helical delivery devices) enabled the efficient delivery of IMRT. The evolution of IMRT planning is continuing in the form of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and through advanced optimization tools, such as multi-criteria optimization, automated IMRT planning, and robust optimization to protect dose distributions against uncertainties. IMRT also facilitates “dose painting” in which different sub-volumes of the target are prescribed different doses. Clearly, these advancements are being made possible by the increasing power and lower cost of computers and developments in other fields such as imaging and operations research. Summary - Radhe Mohan The history does not end here. The advancement of treatment planning is expected to continue, leading to further automation and improvements in conformality and robustness of dose distributions, particularly in the area of particle therapy. Radiobiological modeling will gain emphasis as part of the planning process. Learning Objectives: The scope of changes in technology and the capabilities of radiation treatment planning The impact of these changes in the quality of treatment plans and optimality of dose distributions The impact of development in other fields (imaging, computers, operations research, etc.) on the evolution of radiation treatment planning.« less

  20. MO-A-16A-01: QA Procedures and Metrics: In Search of QA Usability

    SciTech Connect

    Sathiaseelan, V; Thomadsen, B

    Radiation therapy has undergone considerable changes in the past two decades with a surge of new technology and treatment delivery methods. The complexity of radiation therapy treatments has increased and there has been increased awareness and publicity about the associated risks. In response, there has been proliferation of guidelines for medical physicists to adopt to ensure that treatments are delivered safely. Task Group recommendations are copious, and clinical physicists' hours are longer, stretched to various degrees between site planning and management, IT support, physics QA, and treatment planning responsibilities.Radiation oncology has many quality control practices in place to ensure themore » delivery of high-quality, safe treatments. Incident reporting systems have been developed to collect statistics about near miss events at many radiation oncology centers. However, tools are lacking to assess the impact of these various control measures. A recent effort to address this shortcoming is the work of Ford et al (2012) who recently published a methodology enumerating quality control quantification for measuring the effectiveness of safety barriers. Over 4000 near-miss incidents reported from 2 academic radiation oncology clinics were analyzed using quality control quantification, and a profile of the most effective quality control measures (metrics) was identified.There is a critical need to identify a QA metric to help the busy clinical physicists to focus their limited time and resources most effectively in order to minimize or eliminate errors in the radiation treatment delivery processes. In this symposium the usefulness of workflows and QA metrics to assure safe and high quality patient care will be explored.Two presentations will be given:Quality Metrics and Risk Management with High Risk Radiation Oncology ProceduresStrategies and metrics for quality management in the TG-100 Era Learning Objectives: Provide an overview and the need for QA usability metrics: Different cultures/practices affecting the effectiveness of methods and metrics. Show examples of quality assurance workflows, Statistical process control, that monitor the treatment planning and delivery process to identify errors. To learn to identify and prioritize risks and QA procedures in radiation oncology. Try to answer the question: Can a quality assurance program aided by quality assurance metrics help minimize errors and ensure safe treatment delivery. Should such metrics be institution specific.« less

  1. MO-G-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging Metrology: What Should Be Assessed and How?

    SciTech Connect

    Giger, M; Petrick, N; Obuchowski, N

    The first two symposia in the Quantitative Imaging Track focused on 1) the introduction of quantitative imaging (QI) challenges and opportunities, and QI efforts of agencies and organizations such as the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST, and 2) the techniques, applications, and challenges of QI, with specific examples from CT, PET/CT, and MR. This third symposium in the QI Track will focus on metrology and its importance in successfully advancing the QI field. While the specific focus will be on QI, many of the concepts presented are more broadly applicable to many areas of medical physics research and applications. Asmore » such, the topics discussed should be of interest to medical physicists involved in imaging as well as therapy. The first talk of the session will focus on the introduction to metrology and why it is critically important in QI. The second talk will focus on appropriate methods for technical performance assessment. The third talk will address statistically valid methods for algorithm comparison, a common problem not only in QI but also in other areas of medical physics. The final talk in the session will address strategies for publication of results that will allow statistically valid meta-analyses, which is critical for combining results of individual studies with typically small sample sizes in a manner that can best inform decisions and advance the field. Learning Objectives: Understand the importance of metrology in the QI efforts. Understand appropriate methods for technical performance assessment. Understand methods for comparing algorithms with or without reference data (i.e., “ground truth”). Understand the challenges and importance of reporting results in a manner that allows for statistically valid meta-analyses.« less

  2. MO-C-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging Initiatives: Why, Who, What, and How?

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D; Jackson, E; Clarke, L

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging (QI), which, according to one definition, is “the extraction of quantifiable features from medical images for the assessment of normal or the severity, degree of change, or status of a disease, injury, or chronic condition relative to normal” ( www.rsna.org/QIBA ). To achieve the goals of QI requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QI relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informaticsmore » as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QI techniques will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response, and the heterogeneity of that response, and outcome. Such non-invasive measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research as well as patient care. In addition to modality-specific QI efforts implemented by individual scientific organizations, national and international organizations, including the NCI, RSNA, FDA, and NIST, appreciating the tremendous potential of QI but also understanding the associated challenges, have become increasingly involved. This symposium session will focus on 1) introducing QI and illustrating why it is important, even though challenging, in both research and clinical applications, and 2) providing overviews of QI efforts from national and international organizations, including the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. Learning Objectives: Understand the importance and potential of QI in research and clinical applications. Understand key challenges of QI and current barriers to implementation. Understand the current QI efforts of several national and international agencies and organizations, including the FDA, NCI, NIST, and RSNA.« less

  3. MO-E-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging: Techniques, Applications, and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E; Jeraj, R; McNitt-Gray, M

    The first symposium in the Quantitative Imaging Track focused on the introduction of quantitative imaging (QI) by illustrating the potential of QI in diagnostic and therapeutic applications in research and patient care, highlighting key challenges in implementation of such QI applications, and reviewing QI efforts of selected national and international agencies and organizations, including the FDA, NCI, NIST, and RSNA. This second QI symposium will focus more specifically on the techniques, applications, and challenges of QI. The first talk of the session will focus on modalityagnostic challenges of QI, beginning with challenges of the development and implementation of QI applicationsmore » in single-center, single-vendor settings and progressing to the challenges encountered in the most general setting of multi-center, multi-vendor settings. The subsequent three talks will focus on specific QI challenges and opportunities in the modalityspecific settings of CT, PET/CT, and MR. Each talk will provide information on modality-specific QI techniques, applications, and challenges, including current efforts focused on solutions to such challenges. Learning Objectives: Understand key general challenges of QI application development and implementation, regardless of modality. Understand selected QI techniques and applications in CT, PET/CT, and MR. Understand challenges, and potential solutions for such challenges, for the applications presented for each modality.« less

  4. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B; Yang, K; Yaffe, M

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists.more » In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.« less

  5. TU-A-17A-01: Memorial to Benjamin M. Galkin - Memorial Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Suntharalingam, N

    2014-06-15

    This past year Medical Physics lost one of its active members, Benjamin M. Galkin. Ben Galkin was a Past-Treasurer of the AAPM. During his leadership role he played an important part in Securing membership, for the AAPM, in the American Institute of physics. As Treasurer he was also a prime mover in starting the journal, Medical Physics, and served as its business manager in the formative years.Ben Galkin received his Masters Degree at Columbia University in New York, under the mentorship of Dr. Edith Quimby, one of the pioneer Hospital Radiation Physicists in the country. He started his professional careermore » at Jefferson Hospital in Philadelphia, joining Robert Gorson, and remained there until retirement. He served as the institution’s Radiation Safety Officer throughout his career. His research interest was Breast Imaging. He held joint faculty appointments in the Department of Radiology and the Department of Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine, rising up to the rank of Full professor. He was a well respected teacher for the residents in Radiology.« less

  6. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, S.

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar “densities”, making lesion detectionmore » more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really “pseudo 3-D” due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O’Connell et al., AJR 195: 496–509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939–46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657–67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography. In diagnostic studies, the median MGD from BCT and mammography were 12.6 and 11.1 mGy, respectively [Vedantham et al., Phys Med Biol. 58: 7921–36, 2013]. Moreover, in diagnostic imaging of the breast the location of the lesion is known and therefore characterization and not detection is by far the primary consideration. The role of bCT is particularly compelling for diagnostic imaging of the breast because it may replace in part the multiple mammographic views of the breast under vigorous compression. Other non-screening potential applications of bCT include the assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy [Vedantham et al., J Clin Imaging Sci 4, 64, 2014] and pre-surgical evaluation. Learning Objectives: To understand the metrics used to evaluate screening and diagnostic imaging To understand the benefits and limitations of current clinical modalities To understand how breast CT can improve over current clinical modalities To note the early attempts to translate breast CT to the clinic in 1970s-1990s To understand the recent developments in low-dose cone-beam breast CT To understand the recent developments in photon-counting breast CT To understand the radiation dose, clinical translation, and recent developments in diagnostic imaging with breast CT Supported in part by NIH grants R21 CA134128, R01 CA128906 and R01 CA195512. The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the official views of the NIH or the NCI.; S. Vedantham, Funding sources: Supported in part by NIH/NCI grants R01 CA128906 and R01 CA195512. The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the official views of the NIH/NCI. Disclosures: Research collaboration with Koning Corporation, West Henrietta, NY. Conflicts of Interest: J. Boone, This research was supported in part by NIH grant R01CA181081; W. Kalender, WK is founder and CEO of CT Imaging GmbH Erlangen, Germany.; A. Karellas, NIH R21 CA134128, R01 CA128906, and R01 CA195512 and Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.« less

  7. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E; Ezzell, G; Miller, B

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA,more » and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good error proofing that extends beyond traditional prescriptive QA measures.« less

  8. MO-C-9A-01: Effective Medical Physics Educational Activities: Models and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sprawls, P

    Medical physics is learned in a combination of activities including classroom sessions, individual study, small-group collaborative problem solving, and direct experience in the laboratory or clinical environment. Each type of learning activity is characterized by its effectiveness in producing the desired knowledge for the learner and the cost in terms of resources and human effort required providing it. While learning and teaching is a human activity, modern technology provides a variety of tools that can be used to enhance human performance. The class or conference room is the common setting for educational sessions in both academic institutions and continuing educationmore » conferences and programs such as those sponsored by the AAPM. A major value of a class/conference room program is efficiency by bringing a group of learners together to share in a common learning experience under the guidance of one or more experienced learning facilitators (lecturers or presenters). A major challenge is that the class/conference room is separated from the real world of medical physics. The design of an educational activity needs to take into consideration the desired outcomes with respect to what the learners should be able to do. The distinction is that of being able to apply the knowledge to perform specific physics functions rather than just knowing and being able to recall facts, and perhaps do well on written examinations. These are different types of knowledge structures within the human brain and distinctly different learning activities to develop each. Much of medical physics education, especially at the post-graduate and continuing education level, is for the purpose of enhancing the ability of physicists and other related professionals to perform applied procedures and tasks and requires specific types of knowledge.In this session we will analyze various learning activity models, the values and limitations of each, and how they can be used in medical physics education. An example we will use is optimizing CT image quality and dose which is an important topic for medical physicists, radiologists and residents, along with technologists. The knowledge structure for this is best developed by a combination of learning activities including class/conference discussions, individual study and review, and direct observation and interaction in the clinical setting under the direction of a knowledgeable leader.The function of the human brain will be considered with respect to learning experiences that contribute to effective medical physics knowledge structures. The characteristics of various types of educational activities will be compared with respect to their effectiveness for producing desired outcomes along with their limitations. Emphasis will be given to the design of highly-effective classroom/conference presentations, and activities will be demonstrated with an emphasis on using technology to enhance human performance of both learners and the learning facilitators. Learning Objectives: Develop and provide highly effective medical physics educational sessions. Use technology to enhance human performance in the educational process. Identify and analyze various models of educational activities Select and use educational activities that contribute value to the medical physics profession.« less

  9. MO-B-19A-01: MOC: A How-To Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbott, G; Seibert, J; Allison, J

    2014-06-15

    Medical physicists who were certified in 2002 or later, as well as those who become certified in the future, are enrolled in Maintenance of Certification. Many physicists with life-time certificates have voluntarily enrolled in MOC, as have physicists who volunteer their time to participate in the ABR exam development and administration processes. MOC consists of four components: Part 1, Professional standing; Part 2, Lifelong learning and self-assessment; Part 3, Cognitive expertise; and Part 4, Practice quality improvement. These four components together evaluate six competencies: Medical knowledge, patient care and procedural skills, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement,more » and systems-based practice. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are fairly straightforward, although many participants have questions about the process for attesting to professional standing, the opportunities for obtaining self-assessed continuing education, and the timing of the cognitive exam. MOC participants also have questions about Part 4, Practice Quality Improvement. PQI projects are powerful tools for improving the quality and safety of the environments in which we practice medical physics. In the current version of MOC known as “Continuous Certification” a medical physicist must have completed a PQI project within the previous three years, at the time of the ABR's annual look-back each March. For the first “full” annual look-back in March 2016, diplomates will be given an additional year, so that a PQI project completed in 2012, 2013, 2014, or 2015 will fulfill this requirement. Each component of MOC will be addressed, and the specifics of interest to medical physicists will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Understand the four components and six competencies evaluated by MOC. Become familiar with the annual requirements of Continuous Certification. Learn about opportunities for Practice Quality Improvement projects. Understand refinements occurring in the MOC program.« less

  10. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include themore » following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image registration.« less

  11. 78 FR 727 - Public Notice of Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Facilities/Operations That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... Means of Land Application, Landfill, and Surface Disposal in the EPA Region 8 AGENCY: Environmental..., treat, and/or use/dispose of sewage sludge by means of land application, landfill, and surface disposal... landfill. The purpose is to require agronomic soil sampling for calculating the proper amount of sewage...

  12. 78 FR 25081 - Reissuance of Final NPDES General Permits for Facilities/Operations That Generate, Treat, and/or...

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    2013-04-29

    ..., Landfill, and Surface Disposal in EPA Region 8 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... operations that generate, treat, and/or use/ dispose of sewage sludge by means of land application, landfill... application, landfill, and surface disposal in the States of CO, MT, ND, and WY and in Indian country in the...

  13. 77 FR 53834 - Notice of Proposed Revisions to Stormwater Regulations To Clarify That an NPDES Permit Is Not...

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    2012-09-04

    ... language to existing stormwater regulations to clarify that, for the purposes of assessing whether... operations, surface drainage, or road construction and maintenance from which there is natural runoff.'' In... if a discharge was ``directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at...

  14. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    .... SUMMARY: EPA Region 10 today issues a final action for six effluent limits for produced water under the... hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole effluent toxicity (WET), pursuant to the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1251. The Permit continues to...

  15. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  16. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal production...

  17. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controls would be those suitable to the site conditions and consistent with generally accepted engineering... Wetlands Inventory as wetlands; and (9) Found to have pollutants in bottom sediments, fish tissue or...

  18. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... field activities or operations associated with oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or...) of this section. Discharges of sediment from construction activities associated with oil and gas... operators of oil and gas field activities or operations to implement and maintain Best Management Practices...

  19. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... field activities or operations associated with oil and gas exploration, production, processing, or...) of this section. Discharges of sediment from construction activities associated with oil and gas... operators of oil and gas field activities or operations to implement and maintain Best Management Practices...

  20. 77 FR 4813 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the...

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    2012-01-31

    ... the conditions of the Beaufort general permit are stringent enough to comply with State water quality... conditions than what is proposed in the Beaufort general permit to ensure compliance with State water quality... Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1342. State Certification of Beaufort General Permit...

  1. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to...

  2. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to...

  3. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to...

  4. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicant plans to confine the cultivated species, using a method or plan or operation (including, but not limited to, physical confinement) which, on the basis of reliable scientific evidence, is expected to...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(5)(ii)(D) of this section, and the amount of any supplemental fertilizer applied during the previous... of land application; and volatilization of nitrogen and mineralization of organic nitrogen. (B) The...

  6. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to section 313 of title III of SARA; fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products such as ashes... and access areas, areas where pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied... location, manner and frequency in which pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are...

  7. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controls are not needed based on a TMDL or, for non-impaired waters that do not require a TMDL, an... applied; the location and a description of existing structural and non-structural control measures to... controls would be those suitable to the site conditions and consistent with generally accepted engineering...

  8. 76 FR 39396 - Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG580000 and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly...

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    ... and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW Treatment Plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the... Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW treatment plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage...

  9. 75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... proposed rule'' for which the agency ``is required by section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or...

  10. 77 FR 30473 - Notice of Intent To Revise Stormwater Regulations To Specify That an NPDES Permit Is Not Required...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... submit for approval by the Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR) a Road Maintenance and... potential road maintenance problems. While the program is enforceable, the state focuses first on technical... the maintenance of roads within and near the public lands and perform that work, in part, by...

  11. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting operations, surface drainage, or road construction and... roads) may involve point source discharges of dredged or fill material which may require a CWA section...

  12. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrogen and phosphorus content of the manure, litter, and process wastewater, the results of calculations... paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken... and phosphorus, according to the following specifications: (A) The terms include maximum application...

  13. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA Region 10 today re-proposes six effluent limits for produced water under the... Source Category as authorized by Section 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA or ``the Act''), 33 U.S.C. 1342... water quality standards. EPA obtained a draft certification from the Alaska Department of Environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or disposal... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the...

  15. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking). (See 40 CFR part 429, subpart... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT...

  16. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or after removal of bark held in self-contained bodies of water (mill ponds or log ponds) or stored on land where water is applied intentionally on the logs (wet decking). (See 40 CFR part 429, subpart... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL...

  17. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... management programs, TMDL programs, and water quality monitoring programs; (v) Where appropriate, you may... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality standards, including impairment of designated uses, or other significant water quality impacts, including...

  18. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management programs, TMDL programs, and water quality monitoring programs; (v) Where appropriate, you may... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water quality standards, including impairment of designated uses, or other significant water quality impacts, including...

  19. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the following categories: (i) 700 mature dairy cows, whether milked or dry; (ii) 1,000 veal calves; (iii) 1,000 cattle other than mature dairy cows or veal calves. Cattle includes but is not limited to heifers, steers, bulls and cow/calf pairs; (iv) 2,500 swine each weighing 55 pounds or more; (v) 10,000...

  20. 75 FR 67963 - Availability of Draft NPDES General Permits MAG580000 and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW Treatment Plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the... certain Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW treatment plants) and Other Treatment Works...

  1. 77 FR 72970 - Revisions to Stormwater Regulations To Clarify That an NPDES Permit Is Not Required for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... extent of pollutants in such discharges''; and ``establishing procedures and methods to control... the Clean Water Act that created section 402(p) for stormwater controls. The Agency defined..., reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting...

  2. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; (vii) Identify protocols for appropriate testing of manure, litter, process wastewater, and soil; (viii... under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55... paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken...

  3. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; (vii) Identify protocols for appropriate testing of manure, litter, process wastewater, and soil; (viii... under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55... paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken...

  4. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; (vii) Identify protocols for appropriate testing of manure, litter, process wastewater, and soil; (viii... under roof (beef cattle, broilers, layers, swine weighing 55 pounds or more, swine weighing less than 55... paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, the results of any soil testing for nitrogen and phosphorus taken...

  5. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... manure handling system). (5) The term manure is defined to include manure, bedding, compost and raw... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area...

  6. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... manure handling system). (5) The term manure is defined to include manure, bedding, compost and raw... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area...

  7. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... manure handling system). (5) The term manure is defined to include manure, bedding, compost and raw... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area...

  8. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... manure handling system). (5) The term manure is defined to include manure, bedding, compost and raw... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement area...

  9. John Day Lock and Dam Juvenile Fish Bypass System, Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Supplement No. 3 to General Letter Report, Transportation Conduit and Outfall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    guide surfaces will be fabricated from ASTM A-276 stainless steel bars. The following allowable stresses will be used: Structural Steel Gates... stainless steel . The gatewell will be l foot deeper than the height of the gate. This will allow space for silt and debris to build up. A 6-inch... steel holding tank. 2. A 3-foot x 3-foot x 2-1/2-foot-deep stainless steel recovery tank. 7-2 • • • • 3. A 4-foot x 6-foot work table with a 6

  10. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporationmore » (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.« less

  11. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichmentmore » Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.« less

  12. Environmental surveillance data report for the second quarter of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, P.Y.; Horwedel, B.M.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.

    1991-02-01

    Each section of this report consists of a program description; results for the quarter; and an analysis of trends over the previous two years, depending upon the availability of data. Emissions of tritium to the atmosphere returned to levels consistent with the latter part of 1989. Osmium-191 releases were down by a factor of fifty due to changes in operations. Ambient air sampling around ORNL and the reservation showed that I-131 and H-3 continue to be at concentrations of less than 0.01% of the derived concentration guides (DCG) for these isotopes. Tritium and strontium concentrations at White Oak Dam weremore » at 11% and 22% of their DCGs for the quarter respectively. All of the other radionuclides that were evaluated at the dam were at 2% or less of their DCGs. The NPDES compliance ratio for this quarter was 97% due to 20 noncompliances. Twelve of the exceedences were due to Category outfalls. Total radioactive strontium in milk was detected at two of the stations. The concentrations were less than 1% of the DCG for Sr-90. Samples from the perimeter wells of SWSA 6 were consistent with the data collected during the assessment phase with the exception of one well that showed twice the concentration of tritium previously seen (920 Bq/L versus 530 Bq/L). 20 figs., 39 tabs.« less

  13. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.

    2009-07-01

    ), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8, located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Actual sampling locations on EFPC may differ slightly by task according to specific requirements of the task. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 and Hinds Creek at kilometer (HCK) 20.6 are the most commonly used reference sites for the Y-12 BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Cox Creek, and Paint Rock Creek (Fig. 1.2). Summaries of the sampling designs for the three primary tasks of the Y-12 Complex BMAP for EFPC are presented in Tables 1.1-1.3. This report covers the 2008 period, although data collected outside this time period are included as appropriate. To address the biological monitoring requirements for Bear Creek and McCoy Branch, CERLCA-funded programs, data are summarized in Appendix A and Appendix B respectively. Data for these two watersheds are provided herein to address Section IX of the NPDES Permit for Y-12, where 'Results of these CERCLA programs can be used to meet the biological monitoring requirements of this permit...'. A summary of the toxicity testing results for Y-12 outfalls into upper EFPC is provided in Appendix C (these results have been previously reported) to provide a more thorough perspective of conditions in the stream. Data summarized in this report are available from the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) in an Arc-GIS usable format (http://www-oreis.bechteljacobs.org/oreis/help/oreishome.html). Per requirements specified in the NPDES permit, data collected following TDEC monitoring protocols (TDEC 2006) is also submitted directly to TDEC in Excel format.« less

  14. TH-A-9A-01: Active Optical Flow Model: Predicting Voxel-Level Dose Prediction in Spine SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J; Wu, Q.J.; Yin, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To predict voxel-level dose distribution and enable effective evaluation of cord dose sparing in spine SBRT. Methods: We present an active optical flow model (AOFM) to statistically describe cord dose variations and train a predictive model to represent correlations between AOFM and PTV contours. Thirty clinically accepted spine SBRT plans are evenly divided into training and testing datasets. The development of predictive model consists of 1) collecting a sequence of dose maps including PTV and OAR (spinal cord) as well as a set of associated PTV contours adjacent to OAR from the training dataset, 2) classifying data into fivemore » groups based on PTV's locations relative to OAR, two “Top”s, “Left”, “Right”, and “Bottom”, 3) randomly selecting a dose map as the reference in each group and applying rigid registration and optical flow deformation to match all other maps to the reference, 4) building AOFM by importing optical flow vectors and dose values into the principal component analysis (PCA), 5) applying another PCA to features of PTV and OAR contours to generate an active shape model (ASM), and 6) computing a linear regression model of correlations between AOFM and ASM.When predicting dose distribution of a new case in the testing dataset, the PTV is first assigned to a group based on its contour characteristics. Contour features are then transformed into ASM's principal coordinates of the selected group. Finally, voxel-level dose distribution is determined by mapping from the ASM space to the AOFM space using the predictive model. Results: The DVHs predicted by the AOFM-based model and those in clinical plans are comparable in training and testing datasets. At 2% volume the dose difference between predicted and clinical plans is 4.2±4.4% and 3.3±3.5% in the training and testing datasets, respectively. Conclusion: The AOFM is effective in predicting voxel-level dose distribution for spine SBRT. Partially supported by NIH/NCI under grant #R21CA161389 and a master research grant by Varian Medical System.« less

  15. TH-A-16A-01: Image Quality for the Radiation Oncology Physicist: Review of the Fundamentals and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J; Imbergamo, P

    The expansion and integration of diagnostic imaging technologies such as On Board Imaging (OBI) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) into radiation oncology has required radiation oncology physicists to be responsible for and become familiar with assessing image quality. Unfortunately many radiation oncology physicists have had little or no training or experience in measuring and assessing image quality. Many physicists have turned to automated QA analysis software without having a fundamental understanding of image quality measures. This session will review the basic image quality measures of imaging technologies used in the radiation oncology clinic, such as low contrast resolution, highmore » contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, and contrast scale, and how to measure and assess them in a meaningful way. Additionally a discussion of the implementation of an image quality assurance program in compliance with Task Group recommendations will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of automated analysis methods. Learning Objectives: Review and understanding of the fundamentals of image quality. Review and understanding of the basic image quality measures of imaging modalities used in the radiation oncology clinic. Understand how to implement an image quality assurance program and to assess basic image quality measures in a meaningful way.« less

  16. TH-A-12A-01: Medical Physicist's Role in Digital Information Security: Threats, Vulnerabilities and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K; Curran, B

    I. Information Security Background (Speaker = Kevin McDonald) Evolution of Medical Devices Living and Working in a Hostile Environment Attack Motivations Attack Vectors Simple Safety Strategies Medical Device Security in the News Medical Devices and Vendors Summary II. Keeping Radiation Oncology IT Systems Secure (Speaker = Bruce Curran) Hardware Security Double-lock Requirements “Foreign” computer systems Portable Device Encryption Patient Data Storage System Requirements Network Configuration Isolating Critical Devices Isolating Clinical Networks Remote Access Considerations Software Applications / Configuration Passwords / Screen Savers Restricted Services / access Software Configuration Restriction Use of DNS to restrict accesse. Patches / Upgrades Awareness Intrusionmore » Prevention Intrusion Detection Threat Risk Analysis Conclusion Learning Objectives: Understanding how Hospital IT Requirements affect Radiation Oncology IT Systems. Illustrating sample practices for hardware, network, and software security. Discussing implementation of good IT security practices in radiation oncology. Understand overall risk and threats scenario in a networked environment.« less

  17. TH-AB-207A-01: Contrast-Enhanced CT: Correlation of Radiation Dose and Biological Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Abadi, E; Sanders, J; Agasthya, G

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The potential risk from CT is generally characterized in terms of radiation dose. The presence of iodinated-contrast medium increases radiation dose. However, it is unclear how much of this increase is biologically relevant. The purpose of this study was to establish the contribution of dose increase from iodine to biological effect. Methods: Radiation organ dose was estimated in 58 human (XCAT) phantoms “undergoing” chest CT examination (120 kVp, 9 mGy CTDI) on a simulated CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens) with and without iodinated-contrast agent (62.5 mL of iodine per subject). The dose without and with the presence of iodinemore » was compared to the increase in foci per cell (a surrogate of DNA damage) measured before and after similar CT exams without and with contrast agent (Piechowiak et al. 2015). The data were analyzed to ascertain how the enhancement in biological effect in contrast-enhanced CTs correlated with the increase in dose due to the presence of iodine. Results: The presence of iodinated-contrast in CT increased the organ doses by 2% to 50% on average. Typical values were heart (50%±7%), kidney (19%±7%), and liver (2%±3%). The corresponding increase in the average foci per cell was 107%±19%, indicating biological effect of iodine was greater than what would be anticipated from the iodine-initiated increase in radiation dose alone. Conclusion: Mean foci per cell and organ dose both increase in the presence of contrast agent. The former, however, is at least twice as large as the latter, indicating that iodine contributes to an increase in the probability of DNA damage not only as a consequence of increased x-ray energy deposition but also from other mechanisms. Hence iodine radiation dose, while relevant to be included in estimating the risk associated with contrast-enhanced CT, still can underestimate the biological effects.« less

  18. TU-C-18A-01: Models of Risk From Low-Dose Radiation Exposures: What Does the Evidence Say?

    SciTech Connect

    Bushberg, J; Boreham, D; Ulsh, B

    2014-06-15

    At dose levels of (approximately) 500 mSv or more, increased cancer incidence and mortality have been clearly demonstrated. However, at the low doses of radiation used in medical imaging, the relationship between dose and cancer risk is not well established. As such, assumptions about the shape of the dose-response curve are made. These assumptions, or risk models, are used to estimate potential long term effects. Common models include 1) the linear non-threshold (LNT) model, 2) threshold models with either a linear or curvilinear dose response above the threshold, and 3) a hormetic model, where the risk is initially decreased belowmore » background levels before increasing. The choice of model used when making radiation risk or protection calculations and decisions can have significant implications on public policy and health care decisions. However, the ongoing debate about which risk model best describes the dose-response relationship at low doses of radiation makes informed decision making difficult. This symposium will review the two fundamental approaches to determining the risk associated with low doses of ionizing radiation, namely radiation epidemiology and radiation biology. The strengths and limitations of each approach will be reviewed, the results of recent studies presented, and the appropriateness of different risk models for various real world scenarios discussed. Examples of well-designed and poorly-designed studies will be provided to assist medical physicists in 1) critically evaluating publications in the field and 2) communicating accurate information to medical professionals, patients, and members of the general public. Equipped with the best information that radiation epidemiology and radiation biology can currently provide, and an understanding of the limitations of such information, individuals and organizations will be able to make more informed decisions regarding questions such as 1) how much shielding to install at medical facilities, 2) at what dose level are risk vs. benefit discussions with patients appropriate, 3) at what dose level should we tell a pregnant woman that the baby’s health risk from a prenatal radiation exposure is “significant”, 4) is informed consent needed for patients undergoing medical imaging, and 5) at what dose level is evacuation appropriate after a radiological accident. Examples of the tremendous impact that choosing different risks models can have on the answers to these types of questions will be given.A moderated panel discussion will allow audience members to pose questions to the faculty members, each of whom is an established expert in his respective discipline. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamental principles, strengths and limitations of radiation epidemiology and radiation biology for determining the risk from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation Become familiar with common models of risk used to describe the dose-response relationship at low dose levels Learn to identify strengths and weaknesses in studies designed to measure the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation Understand the implications of different risk models on public policy and health care decisions.« less

  19. TH-C-18A-01: Is Automatic Tube Current Modulation Still Necessary with Statistical Iterative Reconstruction?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K; Zhao, W; Gomez-Cardona, D

    Purpose: Automatic tube current modulation (TCM) has been widely used in modern multi-detector CT to reduce noise spatial nonuniformity and streaks to improve dose efficiency. With the advent of statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR), it is expected that the importance of TCM may diminish, since SIR incorporates statistical weighting factors to reduce the negative influence of photon-starved rays. The purpose of this work is to address the following questions: Does SIR offer the same benefits as TCM? If yes, are there still any clinical benefits to using TCM? Methods: An anthropomorphic CIRS chest phantom was scanned using a state-of-the-art clinical CTmore » system equipped with an SIR engine (Veo™, GE Healthcare). The phantom was first scanned with TCM using a routine protocol and a low-dose (LD) protocol. It was then scanned without TCM using the same protocols. For each acquisition, both FBP and Veo reconstructions were performed. All scans were repeated 50 times to generate an image ensemble from which noise spatial nonuniformity (NSN) and streak artifact levels were quantified. Monte-Carlo experiments were performed to estimate skin dose. Results: For FBP, noise streaks were reduced by 4% using TCM for both routine and LD scans. NSN values were actually slightly higher with TCM (0.25) than without TCM (0.24) for both routine and LD scans. In contrast, for Veo, noise streaks became negligible (<1%) with or without TCM for both routine and LD scans, and the NSN was reduced to 0.10 (low dose) or 0.08 (routine). The overall skin dose was 2% lower at the shoulders and more uniformly distributed across the skin without TCM. Conclusion: SIR without TCM offers superior reduction in noise nonuniformity and streaks relative to FBP with TCM. For some clinical applications in which skin dose may be a concern, SIR without TCM may be a better option. K. Li, W. Zhao, D. Gomez-Cardona: Nothing to disclose; G.-H. Chen: Research funded, General Electric Company Research funded, Siemens AG Research funded, Varian Medical Systems, Research funded, Hologic, Inc.« less

  20. TH-D-16A-01: Medical Physics Workshop: Editorial Vision and Guidance On Writing and Reviewing Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J; Das, S; Goodsitt, M

    On January 1, 2014, editorial leadership of Medical Physics passed from esteemed long-time Editor Bill Hendee to a collective editorial group composed of the three presenters listed above. In this presentation, we would like to outline our vision for the future of Medical Physics and review recent work-in-progress initiatives to implement this vision. Finally, we will close with guidance to authors on how to write a good Medical Physics paper. Vision for Medical Physics and current initiatives: Jeff Williamson, Editor-in-Chief We cannot improve on Dr. Hendee's succinct vision statement “to continue the Journal's tradition of publishing the very best sciencemore » that propels our discipline forward and improves our contribution to patient care.” More concretely, the Journal should be s the preeminent forum for electronic exchange of cutting edge medical physics science. We seek to identify the best contributions in (a) high impact clinical physics innovations; (b) clinical translation and validation of basic science innovations; or (c) cutting edge basic science developments with potential for patient care improvements. Among the challenges and opportunities we face are: are electronic-only and open access publishing; trends towards more interactive, social-media based scientific communities; and diversification of the medical physics research, authorship, and readership domains, including clinical applications quite foreign to core ABR clinical competencies. To address these issues over the next 3 years, we have reduced the size of our Editorial Board and focused its efforts on improving the Journal's impact through 4 working groups (WGs): WG-1: Review process quality and selectivity Creation of 120 member Board of Associate Editors to improve review uniformity by placing Ms. management in fewer hands New reviewer guidelines and templates Answer: “what is the scope of medical physics research?” Recursive taxonomy for tagging review expertise and article contents WG-2 Improving reader experience Redesigning http://MedPhys.org to host interactive features and gateway to electronic issue archive Experimentation with interactive features beginning with “Point/Counterpoint” Data mining and Journal quality evaluation Find out who are audiences are Identify characteristics of high impact articles Measure effectiveness of innovations Outreach to related communities Special issues presenting high-impact work in designated subcommunities Addressing the needs of new research constituencies: engineers, biophysicists, clinicians Guidelines and templates for reviewers and associate editors: Shiva Das, Therapy Physics Editor We will discuss the Med. Phys. review process and a new initiative to create review templates that attempts to address current shortcomings. Template design is informed by the literature on of the review process effectiveness and practices of other journals. Its goals are to provide authors more constructive criticism to improve the manuscript; quantifying perceived importance and potential impact; and providing structured sections that prompt the reviewer to addresses important technical and editorial elements. While the template is recommended to be used, reviewers could alternatively enter their comments in the older free-form style. The expectations of the template are that it will enable consistently thorough, high quality reviews that accurately separate acceptable vs. substandard submissions but continue our tradition of helping authors to enhance papers with high potential. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce variability and subjectivity in the peer-review process, in turn leading to articles with higher research and clinical impact. We will also discuss interesting perspectives from several journals on aspects of the peer-review process such as public input via comments, influence of author-suggested reviewers, and bias in reviewer selection. Writing good scientific papers and responding to critiques: Mitch Goodsitt, Imaging Physics Editor The essential components of the abstract, introduction, methods, discussion and conclusion sections, as well as the desired writing style and style of the figures and tables will be reviewed. Publishable Medical Physics Ms. must include a clear and concise statement of the novelty and clinical and/or scientific importance of their work. Examples of novelty include: new technical solution to an important clinical problem; new generalizable knowledge; or first demonstration that an existing engineering solution solves a clinical problem. Authors must also include: sufficient background information and rationale; enough detail that the work can be reproduced by others; sufficient statistical analysis to refute or validate their hypothesis, how it compares to; is distinct from, and improves upon others' work; and the limitations of their study. When the authors receive critiques from the referees and associate editor, the authors should provide a detailed point-bypoint response to each comment. We now ask that the authors' rebuttal include the text of the original criticism, the authors' response, and the modified text along with the line numbers in the revised article. We also ask that the new text be highlighted in a different font color in the revised submission. These changes and others will be discussed. Their purpose is to facilitate the review process.« less

  1. MO-H-19A-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Treatment Planning Tool for Radiotherapy with Very High-Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Palma, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a tool for treatment planning optimization for fast radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron beams (VHEE) and to compare VHEE plans to state-of-the-art plans for challenging pelvis and H'N cases. Methods: Treatment planning for radiotherapy delivered with VHEE scanning pencil beams was performed by integrating EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with spot scanning optimization run in a research version of RayStation. A Matlab GUI for MC beamlet generation was developed, in which treatment parameters such as the pencil beam size and spacing, energy and number of beams can be selected. Treatment planning study for H'N andmore » pelvis cases was performed and the effect of treatment parameters on the delivered dose distributions was evaluated and compared to the clinical treatment plans. The pelvis case with a 691cm3 PTV was treated with 2-arc 15MV VMAT and the H'N case with four PTVs with total volume of 531cm3 was treated with 4-arc 6MV VMAT. Results: Most studied VHEE plans outperformed VMAT plans. The best pelvis 80MeV VHEE plan with 25 beams resulted in 12% body dose sparing and 8% sparing to the bowel and right femur compared to the VMAT plan. The 100MeV plan was superior to the 150MeV plan. Mixing 100 and 150MeV improved dose sparing to the bladder by 7% compared to either plan. Plans with 16 and 36 beams did not significantly affect the dose distributions compared to 25 beam plans. The best H'N 100MeV VHEE plan decreased mean doses to the brainstem, chiasm, and both globes by 10-42% compared to the VMAT plan. Conclusion: The pelvis and H'N cases suggested that sixteen 100MeV beams might be sufficient specifications of a novel VHEE treatment machine. However, optimum machine parameters will be determined with the presented VHEE treatment-planning tool for a large number of clinical cases. BW Loo and P Maxim received research support from RaySearch Laboratories. E Hynning and B Hardemark are employees of RaySearch Laboratories.« less

  2. WE-E-12A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0: MRI, Displays, Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Pickens, D; Flynn, M; Peck, D

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidence-based medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. MRI 2.0: This presentation will look into the future of clinicalmore » MR imaging and what the clinical medical physicist will need to be doing as the technology of MR imaging evolves. Many of the measurement techniques used today will need to be expanded to address the advent of higher field imaging systems and dedicated imagers for specialty applications. Included will be the need to address quality assurance and testing metrics for multi-channel MR imagers and hybrid devices such as MR/PET systems. New pulse sequences and acquisition methods, increasing use of MR spectroscopy, and real-time guidance procedures will place the burden on the medical physicist to define and use new tools to properly evaluate these systems, but the clinical applications must be understood so that these tools are use correctly. Finally, new rules, clinical requirements, and regulations will mean that the medical physicist must actively work to keep her/his sites compliant and must work closely with physicians to ensure best performance of these systems. Informatics Display 1.0 to 2.0: Medical displays are an integral part of medical imaging operation. The DICOM and AAPM (TG18) efforts have led to clear definitions of performance requirements of monochrome medical displays that can be followed by medical physicists to ensure proper performance. However, effective implementation of that oversight has been challenging due to the number and extend of medical displays in use at a facility. The advent of color display and mobile displays has added additional challenges to the task of the medical physicist. This informatics display lecture first addresses the current display guidelines (the 1.0 paradigm) and further outlines the initiatives and prospects for color and mobile displays (the 2.0 paradigm). Informatics Management 1.0 to 2.0: Imaging informatics is part of every radiology practice today. Imaging informatics covers everything from the ordering of a study, through the data acquisition and processing, display and archiving, reporting of findings and the billing for the services performed. The standardization of the processes used to manage the information and methodologies to integrate these standards is being developed and advanced continuously. These developments are done in an open forum and imaging organizations and professionals all have a part in the process. In the Informatics Management presentation, the flow of information and the integration of the standards used in the processes will be reviewed. The role of radiologists and physicists in the process will be discussed. Current methods (the 1.0 paradigm) and evolving methods (the 2.0 paradigm) for validation of informatics systems function will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: Identify requirements for improving quality assurance and compliance tools for advanced and hybrid MRI systems. Identify the need for new quality assurance metrics and testing procedures for advanced systems. Identify new hardware systems and new procedures needed to evaluate MRI systems. Understand the components of current medical physics expectation for medical displays. Understand the role and prospect fo medical physics for color and mobile display devices. Understand different areas of imaging informatics and the methodology for developing informatics standards. Understand the current status of informatics standards and the role of physicists and radiologists in the process, and the current technology for validating the function of these systems.« less

  3. 5A.01: CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND ADVERSE OUTCOME IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH RECENT-ONSET ATRIAL FIBRILLATION AND TROPONIN RISE.

    PubMed

    Conti, A; Angeli, E; Trausi, F; Grifoni, C; Lazzeretti, D; Bianchi, S; Catarzi, S; Covelli, A; Perrotta, M E; Lencioni, A M; Pisani, N; Bertolini, L

    2015-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac-arrhythmia in critical-care, has reached a high prevalence in hypertensive patients. Prevention of systemic-embolism is mandatory; unfortunately, evidence to support the treatment of comorbidities as coronary artery disease (CAD) that contribute to excess mortality is lacking, and the mechanism underlying the troponin-rise during AF without acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. This study investigates the relationship between CAD, stroke and outcomes in patients with troponin-rise and AF. Patients with a recent-onset AF and without severe comorbidities were enrolled. Baseline characteristics in those with troponin-rise versus those without were adjusted with propensity-score-matching for possible confounders. SPSS-software allowed estimation of the propensity-score using logistic-regression and specifying nearest-neighbor matching in prior-stroke, heart-rate, hypertension, TIMI-risk-score, GRACE-score, CHA2DS2Vasc-score. Patients with a troponin-rise or cardiovascular event (CVE) were considered for angiography. The primary endpoint was the composite of ACS, revascularization (with critical CAD>/ = 70%) and cardiac-death at the follow-up; the secondary endpoint was stroke. Out of 6203 AF patients without severe comorbidities, 3541 with recent-onset AF completed the study; 202(6%) showed a troponin-rise, 91(3%) a CVE. After matching no difference existed in baseline characteristics. On multivariate analysis, in the entire cohort, troponin-rise, know-CAD and hypertension were predictors of the endpoint, whereas only troponin-rise (Odd Ratio, OR: 10, Confidence Interval 95%, CI: 4-22, p < 0.001) and TIMI-score > 2 (OR 4, CI 2-9, p < 0.001) in the matching cohort, suggesting the role of CAD in poor outcomes. Patients with or without troponin-rise achieved the endpoint in 38(19%) and 43(1%), respectively (p < 0.001). Stroke occurred in 4(2%) and 20 (1%), respectively (p = 0.018). Critical CAD account for 23(12%) and 15(1%), respectively (p < 0,001). In the matching cohort, only stroke did not reach the statistical significance. Interestingly, the best cut/off troponin level for decision-making was 0.30 ng/L which, on Receiver Operator Curve analysis, was associated with 68% of sensitivity and 60% specificity; the value > 0.50 ng/L with 55% and 75%, respectively. Patients with a recent-onset AF and troponin-rise showed a high prevalence of CVE but not stroke, thus CAD might have a role in poor outcomes.

  4. MO-G-17A-01: Innovative High-Performance PET Imaging System for Preclinical Imaging and Translational Researches

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X; Lou, K; Rice University, Houston, TX

    Purpose: To develop a practical and compact preclinical PET with innovative technologies for substantially improved imaging performance required for the advanced imaging applications. Methods: Several key components of detector, readout electronics and data acquisition have been developed and evaluated for achieving leapfrogged imaging performance over a prototype animal PET we had developed. The new detector module consists of an 8×8 array of 1.5×1.5×30 mm{sup 3} LYSO scintillators with each end coupled to a latest 4×4 array of 3×3 mm{sup 2} Silicon Photomultipliers (with ∼0.2 mm insensitive gap between pixels) through a 2.0 mm thick transparent light spreader. Scintillator surface andmore » reflector/coupling were designed and fabricated to reserve air-gap to achieve higher depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and other detector performance. Front-end readout electronics with upgraded 16-ch ASIC was newly developed and tested, so as the compact and high density FPGA based data acquisition and transfer system targeting 10M/s coincidence counting rate with low power consumption. The new detector module performance of energy, timing and DOI resolutions with the data acquisition system were evaluated. Initial Na-22 point source image was acquired with 2 rotating detectors to assess the system imaging capability. Results: No insensitive gaps at the detector edge and thus it is capable for tiling to a large-scale detector panel. All 64 crystals inside the detector were clearly separated from a flood-source image. Measured energy, timing, and DOI resolutions are around 17%, 2.7 ns and 1.96 mm (mean value). Point source image is acquired successfully without detector/electronics calibration and data correction. Conclusion: Newly developed advanced detector and readout electronics will be enable achieving targeted scalable and compact PET system in stationary configuration with >15% sensitivity, ∼1.3 mm uniform imaging resolution, and fast acquisition counting rate capability for substantially improved imaging and quantification performance for small animal imaging and image-guided radiotherapy applications. This work was supported by a research award RP120326 from Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.« less

  5. TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier Transform and Anatomical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C; Suh, Y; Robertson, D

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm to generate internal respiratory signals for sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm extracted multiple time resolved features as potential respiratory signals. These features were taken from the 4D CT images and its Fourier transformed space. Several low-frequency locations in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features from the images were used as potential respiratory signals. A clustering algorithm was then used to search for the group of appropriate potential respiratory signals. The chosen signals were then normalized and averaged to form the final internal respiratory signal. Performance ofmore » the algorithm was tested in 50 4D CT data sets and results were compared with external signals from the real-time position management (RPM) system. Results: In almost all cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that visibly matched the external respiratory signals from the RPM system. On average, the end inspiration times calculated by the proposed algorithm were within 0.1 s of those given by the RPM system. Less than 3% of the calculated end inspiration times were more than one time frame away from those given by the RPM system. In 3 out of the 50 cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that were significantly smoother than the RPM signals. In these cases, images sorted using the internal respiratory signals showed fewer artifacts in locations corresponding to the discrepancy in the internal and external respiratory signals. Conclusion: We developed a robust algorithm that generates internal respiratory signals from 4D CT images. In some cases, it even showed the potential to outperform the RPM system. The proposed algorithm is completely automatic and generally takes less than 2 min to process. It can be easily implemented into the clinic and can potentially replace the use of external surrogates.« less

  6. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei; Xue, M

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point withmore » the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The dataset is provided by AAPM TG211.« less

  7. TU-A-12A-01: Consistency of Lung Expansion and Contraction During Respiration: Implications for Quantitative Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T; Du, K; Bayouth, J

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in pulmonary function. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify function change may be improved with reproducible breathing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine if inhale was more consistent than exhale, i.e., lung expansion during inhalation compared to lung contraction during exhalation. Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 8 patients. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. Equivalent lungmore » volumes (ELV) were used for 5 subjects and equivalent title volumes (ETV) for the 3 subjects who experienced a baseline shift between scans. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference. The gamma pass rates were then compared using paired t-test to determine if there was a significant difference. Results: Inhalation was more reproducible than exhalation. In the 5 ELV subjects 78.5% of the lung voxels met the gamma criteria for expansion during inhalation when comparing the two scans, while significantly fewer (70.9% of the lung voxels) met the gamma criteria for contraction during exhalation (p = .027). In the 8 total subjects analyzed the average gamma pass rate for expansion during inhalation was 75.2% while for contraction during exhalation it was 70.3%; which trended towards significant (p = .064). Conclusion: This work implies inhalation is more reproducible than exhalation, when equivalent respiratory volumes are considered. The reason for this difference is unknown. Longitudinal investigation of pulmonary function change based on inhalation images appears appropriate for Jacobian-based measure of lung tissue expansion. NIH Grant: R01 CA166703.« less

  8. SU-D-207A-01: Female Pelvic Synthetic CT Generation Based On Joint Shape and Intensity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L; Jolly, S; Cao, Y

    Purpose: To develop a method for generating female pelvic synthetic CT (MRCT) images from a single MR scan and evaluate its utility in radiotherapy. Methods: Under IRB-approval, an imaging sequence (T1-VIBE-Dixon) was acquired for 10 patients. This sequence yields 3 useful image volumes of different contrast (“in-phase” T1-weighted, fat and water). A previously published pelvic bone shape model was used to generate a rough bone mask for each patient. A modified fuzzy c-means classification was performed on the multi spectral MR data, with a regularization term that utilizes the prior knowledge provided by the bone mask and addresses the intensitymore » overlap between different tissue types. A weighted sum of classification probabilities with attenuation values yielded MRCT volumes. The mean absolute error (MAE) between MRCT and real CT on various regions was calculated following deformable alignment (Velocity). Intensity modulated Treatment plans based on actual CT and MRCT were made and compared. Results: The average/standard deviation of MAE across 10 patients was 10.1/6.7 HU for muscle, 6.7/4.6 HU for fat, 136.9/53.5 HU for bony tissues under 850 HU (97% of total bone volume), 188.9/119.3 HU for bony tissues above 850 HU and 17.3/13.3 HU for intrapelvic soft tissues. Calculated doses were comparable for plans generated on CT and calculated using MRCT densities or vice versa, with differences in PTV D99% (mean/σ) of (–0.1/0.2 Gy) and (0.3/0.2 Gy), PTV D0.5cc of (–0.3/0.2 Gy) and (–0.4/1.7 Gy). OAR differences were similarly small for comparable structures, with differences in bowel V50Gy of (–0.3/0.2%) and (0.0/0.2%), femur V30Gy of (0.7/1.2%) and (0.2/1.2%), sacrum V20GY of (0.0/0.1%) and (–0.1/1.1%) and mean pelvic V20Gy of (0.0/0.1%) and (0.6/1.8%). Conclusion: MRCT based on a single imaging sequence in the female pelvis is feasible, with acceptably small variations in attenuation estimates and calculated doses to target and critical organs. Work supported by NIHR01EB016079.« less

  9. WE-E-18A-01: Large Area Avalanche Amorphous Selenium Sensors for Low Dose X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J; Goldan, A; Zhao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A large area indirect flat panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being developed to achieve x-ray quantum noise limited low dose imaging. It uses a thin optical sensing layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se), known as High-Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP), to detect optical photons generated from a high resolution x-ray scintillator. We will report initial results in the fabrication of a solid-state HARP structure suitable for a large area FPI. Our objective is to establish the blocking layer structures and defect suppression mechanisms that provide stable and uniform avalanche gain. Methods: Samples were fabricated as follows: (1) ITOmore » signal electrode. (2) Electron blocking layer. (3) A 15 micron layer of intrinsic a-Se. (4) Transparent hole blocking layer. (5) Multiple semitransparent bias electrodes to investigate avalanche gain uniformity over a large area. The sample was exposed to 50ps optical excitation pulses through the bias electrode. Transient time of flight (TOF) and integrated charge was measured. A charge transport simulation was developed to investigate the effects of varying blocking layer charge carrier mobility on defect suppression, avalanche gain and temporal performance. Results: Avalanche gain of ∼200 was achieved experimentally with our multi-layer HARP samples. Simulations using the experimental sensor structure produced the same magnitude of gain as a function of electric field. The simulation predicted that the high dark current at a point defect can be reduced by two orders of magnitude by blocking layer optimization which can prevent irreversible damage while normal operation remained unaffected. Conclusion: We presented the first solid state HARP structure directly scalable to a large area FPI. We have shown reproducible and uniform avalanche gain of 200. By reducing mobility of the blocking layers we can suppress defects and maintain stable avalanche. Future work will optimize the blocking layers to prevent lag and ghosting.« less

  10. SU-C-207A-01: A Novel Maximum Likelihood Method for High-Resolution Proton Radiography/proton CT

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, C; Centre Hospitalier University de Quebec, Quebec, QC; Mass General Hospital

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss. The length spent by individual protons in each column is calculated through an optimized cubic spline estimate. pRad images were first produced using Geant4 simulations. Anmore » anthropomorphic head phantom and the Catphan line-pair module for 3-D spatial resolution were studied and resulting images were analyzed. Both parallel and conical beam have been investigated for simulated pRad acquisition. Then, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Specific filters were applied on proton angle and energy loss data to remove proton histories that underwent nuclear interactions. The MTF10% (lp/mm) was used to evaluate and compare spatial resolution. Results: Numerical simulations showed improvement in the pRad spatial resolution for the parallel (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.08 to 5.83 lp/cm) reconstructed with the MLLSE compared to averaging detector pixel signals. For full tomographic reconstruction, the improved pRad were used as input into a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The Catphan pCT reconstruction based on the MLLSE-enhanced projection showed spatial resolution improvement for the parallel (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.03 to 5.15 lp/cm). The anthropomorphic head pCT displayed important contrast gains in high-gradient regions. Experimental results also demonstrated significant improvement in spatial resolution of the pediatric head radiography. Conclusion: The proposed MLLSE shows promising potential to increase the spatial resolution (up to 244%) in proton imaging.« less

  11. WE-D-17A-01: A Dynamic Collimation System for Spot Scanned Proton Therapy: Conceptual Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, D; Hill, P; Wang, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In the absence of a collimation system, the lateral penumbra in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy delivered at low energies is highly dependent on the spot size. This dependence, coupled with the fact that spot sizes increase with decreasing energy, reduces the benefit of the PBS technique for treating shallow tumors such as those found in the head and neck region. In order to overcome this limitation, a dynamic collimation system (DCS) was developed for sharpening the lateral penumbra of low energy proton therapy dose distributions delivered by PBS. Methods: The proposed DCS consists of two pairs ofmore » orthogonal trimmer blades which intercept the edges of the proton beam near the target edge in the beam's eye view. Each trimmer blade is capable of rapid motion in the direction perpendicular to the central beam axis by means of a linear motor, with maximum velocity and acceleration of 2.5 m/s and 19.6 m/s{sup 2}, respectively. Two-dimensional treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ-air) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm, representing a wide array of clinically available equipment. Results: In its current configuration, the snout of the DCS has outer dimensions of 22.6 × 22.6 cm{sup 2} and is capable of delivering a minimum treatment field size of 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}. Using off the shelf components, the constructed system would weigh less than 20 kg. The treatment plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The DCS can be integrated with current or future proton therapy equipment and we believe it will serve as a useful tool to further improve the next generation of proton therapy delivery.« less

  12. BIA Wingate High School WWTF, Fort Wingate, NM: NN0020958

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0020958 to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Wingate High School Wastewater Treatment Lagoon, Fort Wingate, NM.

  13. Old Torreon Navajo Day School, Cuba, NM: NN0030341

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030341 to Bureau of Indian Affairs Old Torreon Navajo Day School Wastewater Treatment Lagoon.

  14. Northern Edge Navajo Casino, Fruitland, NM: NN0030343

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030343) to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Northern Edge Navajo Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility, 2752 Indian Service Road 36, Fruitland, NM.

  15. 40 CFR 124.3 - Application for a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... person who requires a permit under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD programs shall complete, sign, and submit....21 (PSD), and 122.1 (NPDES). Applications are not required for RCRA permits by rule (§ 270.60...), 144.31 (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD), and 122.21 (NPDES). (3) Permit applications (except for PSD permits...

  16. 40 CFR 124.3 - Application for a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... person who requires a permit under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD programs shall complete, sign, and submit....21 (PSD), and 122.1 (NPDES). Applications are not required for RCRA permits by rule (§ 270.60...), 144.31 (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD), and 122.21 (NPDES). (3) Permit applications (except for PSD permits...

  17. 40 CFR 124.3 - Application for a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... person who requires a permit under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD programs shall complete, sign, and submit....21 (PSD), and 122.1 (NPDES). Applications are not required for RCRA permits by rule (§ 270.60...), 144.31 (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD), and 122.21 (NPDES). (3) Permit applications (except for PSD permits...

  18. 40 CFR 124.3 - Application for a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... person who requires a permit under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD programs shall complete, sign, and submit....21 (PSD), and 122.1 (NPDES). Applications are not required for RCRA permits by rule (§ 270.60...), 144.31 (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD), and 122.21 (NPDES). (3) Permit applications (except for PSD permits...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,2-trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Acid-extractable compounds P-chloro-m-creso 2...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,2-trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Acid-extractable compounds P-chloro-m-creso 2...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,2-trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Acid-extractable compounds P-chloro-m-creso 2...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,2-trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Acid-extractable compounds P-chloro-m-creso 2...-nitrophenol Pentachlorophenol Phenol 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Base-neutral compounds Acenaphthene Acenaphthylene...

  3. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., accumulated sediments, floatables, and other debris); and ways to ensure that new flood management projects... management program designed to reduce the discharge of pollutants from your MS4 to the maximum extent... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described...

  4. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... management program designed to reduce the discharge of pollutants from your MS4 to the maximum extent... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... (BMPs) are generally the most appropriate form of effluent limitations when designed to satisfy...

  5. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management program designed to reduce the discharge of pollutants from your MS4 to the maximum extent... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... (BMPs) are generally the most appropriate form of effluent limitations when designed to satisfy...

  6. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... management program designed to reduce the discharge of pollutants from your MS4 to the maximum extent... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... (BMPs) are generally the most appropriate form of effluent limitations when designed to satisfy...

  7. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... management program designed to reduce the discharge of pollutants from your MS4 to the maximum extent... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... (BMPs) are generally the most appropriate form of effluent limitations when designed to satisfy...

  8. 75 FR 3731 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging-Permit Number IDG-37-0000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA exempts... permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA rulemaking requirements or...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-ethylhexyl) phthalate 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether Butyl benzyl phthalate 2-chloronaphthalene 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether Chrysene Di-n-butyl phthalate Di-n-octyl phthalate Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 1,2-dichlorobenzene 1,3-dichlorobenzene 1,4-dichlorobenzene 3,3-dichlorobenzidine Diethyl phthalate Dimethyl phthalate...

  10. Establishing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Wasteload Allocations (WLAs) for Storm Water Sources and NPDES Permit Requirements Based on Those WLAs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The memoranda clarify existing EPA regulatory requirements for, and provide guidance on, establishing wasteload allocations (WLAs) for storm water discharges in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) approved or established by EPA.

  11. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.

    2008-07-01

    ), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8, located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Actual sampling locations on EFPC may differ slightly by task according to specific requirements of the task. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 and Hinds Creek at kilometer (HCK) 20.6 are the most commonly used reference sites for the Y-12 BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Cox Creek, and Paint Rock Creek (Fig. 1.2). Summaries of the sampling designs for the three primary tasks of the Y-12 Complex BMAP for EFPC are presented in Tables 1.1-1.3. This report covers the 2007 study period, although data collected outside this time period are included as appropriate. To address the biological monitoring requirements for Bear Creek and McCoy Branch, CERCLA-funded data is summarized in Appendix A (for Bear Creek) and Appendix B (for McCoy Branch). Data for these two watersheds is provided herein to address Section IX of the NPDES Permit for Y-12, where 'Results of these CERCLA programs can be used to meet the biological monitoring requirements of this permit'. For potential comparison with instream biological measures, a summary of the toxicity testing results for Y-12 outfalls into upper EFPC is provided in Appendix C (these results have been previously reported).« less

  12. 76 FR 34971 - City of Dover, NH; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Hydraulic Energy Harvester Project (Outfall Project). f. Location: The Effluent Outfall Hydraulic Energy... hydraulic energy harvester, placed on the outfall pipe that discharges treated effluence from the city's... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI11-8-000] City of Dover...

  13. An estimate of the enroute noise of an advanced turboprop airplane NASA-TM-87302 E-3020 NAS 1.15:87302 HC A02/MF A01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The enroute noise of an Advanced Turboprop powered aircraft was estimated. The measured noise levels were roughly equivalent in annoyance to the noise 15.24 m from an automobile traveling at 80 km/h. It is felt that these levels would not illicit noise complaints from urban areas during the day but might be a slight annoyance in rural areas or in urban areas at night. Although it is not felt that the enroute noise is a major problem, it is indicated that a reduction in the enroute noise could improve the acceptability of advance turboprop airplanes.

  14. WE-AB-207A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): High-Resolution Cone-Beam CT of the Extremities and Cancellous Bone Architecture with a CMOS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Brehler, M; Sisniega, A

    Purpose: Extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) with an amorphous silicon (aSi) flat-panel detector (FPD) provides low-dose volumetric imaging with high spatial resolution. We investigate the performance of the newer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors to enhance resolution of extremities CBCT to ∼0.1 mm, enabling morphological analysis of trabecular bone. Quantitative in-vivo imaging of bone microarchitecture could present an important advance for osteoporosis and osteoarthritis diagnosis and therapy assessment. Methods: Cascaded systems models of CMOS- and FPD-based extremities CBCT were implemented. Performance was compared for a range of pixel sizes (0.05–0.4 mm), focal spot sizes (0.3–0.6 FS), and x-ray techniques (0.05–0.8 mAs/projection)more » using detectability of high-, low-, and all-frequency tasks for a nonprewhitening observer. Test-bench implementation of CMOS-based extremity CBCT involved a Teledyne DALSA Xineos3030HR detector with 0.099 mm pixels and a compact rotating anode x-ray source with 0.3 FS (IMD RTM37). Metrics of bone morphology obtained using CMOS-based CBCT were compared in cadaveric specimens to FPD-based system using a Varian PaxScan4030 (0.194 mm pixels). Results: Finer pixel size and reduced electronic noise for CMOS (136 e compared to 2000 e for FPD) resulted in ∼1.9× increase in detectability for high-frequency tasks and ∼1.1× increase for all-frequency tasks. Incorporation of the new x-ray source with reduced focal spot size (0.3 FS vs. 0.5 FS used on current extremities CBCT) improved detectability for CMOS-based CBCT by ∼1.7× for high-frequency tasks. Compared to FPD CBCT, the CMOS detector yielded improved agreement with micro-CT in measurements of trabecular thickness (∼1.7× reduction in relative error), bone volume (∼1.5× reduction), and trabecular spacing (∼3.5× reduction). Conclusion: Imaging performance modelling and experimentation indicate substantial improvements for high-frequency imaging tasks through adoption of the CMOS detector and small FS x-ray source, motivating the use of these components in a new system for quantitative in-vivo imaging of trabecular bone. Financial Support: US NIH grant R01EB018896. Qian Cao is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Student Research Fellow. Disclosures: W Zbijewski, J Siewerdsen and A Sisniega receive research funding from Carestream Health.« less

  15. WE-A-12A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 2: Radiography, Mammography and Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gingold, E; Karellas, A; Strauss, K

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. Radiography 2.0: The development of electronic capture in recent years hasmore » changed the landscape and spurred reinvestment by healthcare providers. The radiography presentation will explore how the diagnostic medical physicist must adapt to these changes to support radiographic imaging, and how she/he can add value in radiography practice over the next 5-10 years. Topics of discussion include new metrology of evaluation, new models of clinical engagement, and effective integration of new technologies. Mammography 2.0: Mammography has been an interesting testing ground on the effectiveness of close involvement of medical physicists with equipment in the past twenty years. The outcomes have clearly shown major improvements in image quality and significant reduction in the average glandular dose. However, the medical physicist's role in mammography has been largely focused to annual surveys and with limited input on operational issues with image artifacts, optimal mammographic acquisition mode and problems with image quality. This mammography presentation will address why and how medical physicists must be prepared to address the new models of practice that include new metrics of performance and the integration of new technologies (DBT, syncretized mammograms, contrast mammography, breast CT) into clinical practice. Fluoroscopy 2.0: Physics support of fluoroscopy should be operationally as opposed to compliance focused. Testing protocols must address new hardware, acquisition methods, and image processing. Future available tools are discussed. Proper configuration of acquisition parameters (focal spot size, voltage and added filter, tube current, pulse width, pulse rate, scatter removal) as a function of patient size from the neonate to bariatric patient is key to providing diagnostic image quality at properly managed radiation doses. Learning Objectives: Appreciate the limitations of the currently available tools and techniques in clinical medical physics in radiography, mammography, and fluoroscopy, and ways to improve upon current deficiencies. Appreciate the changing environment of imaging practice and the need for the medical physicist to be an expert consultant and educator in a capacity that extends beyond the annual survey of equipment. Understand the status of the rapidly changing environment in breast imaging from planar imaging to tomosynthesis and possibly to breast CT. Identify appropriate configuration of acquisition parameters as a function of patient size to manage radiation dose and ensure diagnostic image quality.« less

  16. WE-D-18A-01: Evaluation of Three Commercial Metal Artifact Reduction Methods for CT Simulations in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J; Kerns, J; Nute, J

    Purpose: To evaluate three commercial metal artifact reduction methods (MAR) in the context of radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: Three MAR strategies were evaluated: Philips O-MAR, monochromatic imaging using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) dual energy CT, and monochromatic imaging with metal artifact reduction software (GSIMARs). The Gammex RMI 467 tissue characterization phantom with several metal rods and two anthropomorphic phantoms (pelvic phantom with hip prosthesis and head phantom with dental fillings), were scanned with and without (baseline) metals. Each MAR method was evaluated based on CT number accuracy, metal size accuracy, and reduction in the severity of streak artifacts. CTmore » number difference maps between the baseline and metal scan images were calculated, and the severity of streak artifacts was quantified using the percentage of pixels with >40 HU error (“bad pixels”). Results: Philips O-MAR generally reduced HU errors in the RMI phantom. However, increased errors and induced artifacts were observed for lung materials. GSI monochromatic 70keV images generally showed similar HU errors as 120kVp imaging, while 140keV images reduced errors. GSI-MARs systematically reduced errors compared to GSI monochromatic imaging. All imaging techniques preserved the diameter of a stainless steel rod to within ±1.6mm (2 pixels). For the hip prosthesis, O-MAR reduced the average % bad pixels from 47% to 32%. For GSI 140keV imaging, the percent of bad pixels was reduced from 37% to 29% compared to 120kVp imaging, while GSI-MARs further reduced it to 12%. For the head phantom, none of the MAR methods were particularly successful. Conclusion: The three MAR methods all improve CT images for treatment planning to some degree, but none of them are globally effective for all conditions. The MAR methods were successful for large metal implants in a homogeneous environment (hip prosthesis) but were not successful for the more complicated case of dental artifacts.« less

  17. Optimum conditions for the production of soy polyol oils and diacylglycerol from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 NRRL B-59985

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing hydroxy fatty acids have many industrial uses such as the manufacture of aviation lubricant, plastic, paint, nylons, and cosmetics, because of the hydroxyl groups on the fatty acid (FA) constituents. Diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA can also be used in th...

  18. WE-DE-207A-01: Parallels in the Evolution of X-Ray Angiographic Systems and Devices Used for Minimally Invasive Endovascular Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, C.

    1. Parallels in the evolution of x-ray angiographic systems and devices used for minimally invasive endovascular therapy Charles Strother - DSA, invented by Dr. Charles Mistretta at UW-Madison, was the technology which enabled the development of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. As DSA became widely available and the potential benefits for accessing the cerebral vasculature from an endovascular approach began to be apparent, industry began efforts to develop tools for use in these procedures. Along with development of catheters, embolic materials, pushable coils and the GDC coils there was simultaneous development and improvement of 2D DSA image quality and the introductionmore » of 3D DSA. Together, these advances resulted in an enormous expansion in the scope and numbers of minimally invasive endovascular procedures. The introduction of flat detectors for c-arm angiographic systems in 2002 provided the possibility of the angiographic suite becoming not just a location for vascular imaging where physiological assessments might also be performed. Over the last decade algorithmic and hardware advances have been sufficient to now realize this potential in clinical practice. The selection of patients for endovascular treatments is enhanced by this dual capability. Along with these advances has been a steady reduction in the radiation exposure required so that today, vascular and soft tissue images may be obtained with equal or in many cases less radiation exposure than is the case for comparable images obtained with multi-detector CT. Learning Objectives: To understand the full capabilities of today’s angiographic suite To understand how c-arm cone beam CT soft tissue imaging can be used for assessments of devices, blood flow and perfusion. Advances in real-time x-ray neuro-endovascular image guidance Stephen Rudin - Reacting to the demands on real-time image guidance for ever finer neurovascular interventions, great improvements in imaging chains are being pursued. For the highest spatial and temporal resolution, x-ray guidance with fluoroscopy and angiography although dominant are still being vastly improved. New detectors such as the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) and x-ray source designs that enable higher outputs while maintaining small focal spots will be highlighted along with new methods for minimizing the radiation dose to patients. Additionally, new platforms for training and device testing that include patient-specific 3D printed vascular phantoms and new metrics such as generalized relative object detectability for objectively inter-comparing systems will be discussed. This will improve the opportunity for better evaluation of these technological advances which should contribute to the safety and efficacy of image guided minimally invasive neuro-endovascular procedures. Learning Objectives: To understand the operation of new x-ray imaging chain components such as detectors and sources To be informed about the latest testing methods, with 3D printed vascular phantoms, and new evaluation metrics for advanced imaging in x-ray image guided neurovascular interventions Advances in cone beam CT anatomical and functional imaging in angio-suite to enable one-stop-shop stroke imaging workflow Guang-Hong Chen - The introduction of flat-panel detector based cone-beam CT in clinical angiographic imaging systems enabled treating physicians to obtain three-dimensional anatomic roadmaps for bony structure, soft brain tissue, and vasculatures for treatment planning and efficacy checking after the procedures. However, much improvement is needed to reduce image artifacts, reduce radiation dose, and add potential functional imaging capability to provide four-dimensional dynamic information of vasculature and brain perfusion. In this presentation, some of the new techniques developed to address radiation dose issues, image artifact reduction and brain perfusion using C-arm cone-beam CT imaging system will be introduced for the audience. Learning Objectives: To understand the clinical need of one-stop-shop stroke imaging workflow To understand to technical challenges in cone beam CT perfusion To understand the potential technical solutions to enable one-stop-shop imaging workflow Recent advances in devices used in neuro--interventions Mattew Gounis - Over the past two decades, there has been explosive development of medical devices that have revolutionized the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. There is now Level 1, Class A evidence that intra-arterial, mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke is superior to medical management; and similarly that minimally invasive, endovascular repair of ruptured brain aneurysms is superior to surgical treatment. Stent-retrievers are now standard of care for emergent large vessel occlusions causing a stroke, with a number of patients need to treat for good clinical outcomes as low as 4. Recent technologies such as flow diverters and disrupters, intracranial self-expanding stents, flexible large bore catheters that can reach vessels beyond the circle of Willis, stent-retrievers, and super-compliant balloons are the result of successful miniaturization of design features and novel manufacturing technologies capable of building these devices. This is a rapidly evolving field, and the device technology enabling such advancements will be reviewed. Importantly, image-guidance technology has not kept pace in neurointervention and the ability to adequately characterize these devices in vivo remains a significant opportunity. Learning Objectives: A survey of devices used in neurointerventions, their materials and essential design characteristics Funding support received from NIH and DOD; Funding support received from GE Healthcare; Funding support received from Siemens AX; Patent royalties received from GE Healthcare; G. Chen, Funding received from NIH; funding received from DOD; funding received from GE Healthcare; funding received from Siemens AX.; M. Gounis, consultant for Codman Neurovascular and Stryker Neurovascular; Holds stock in InNeuroCo Inc, research grants: NIH, Medtronic Neurovascular, Microvention/Terumo, Cerevasc LLC, Gentuity, Codman Neurovascular, Philips Healthcare, Stryker Neurovascular, Tay Sachs Foundation, and InNeuroCo Inc.; S. Rudin, Supported in part by NIH Grant R01EB002873 and the Toshiba Medical System Corp.« less

  19. MO-E-17A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING) - Calculating SSDE From CT Exams Using Size Data Available in the DICOM Header of CT Localizer Radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; McNitt-Gray, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using existing data stored within the DICOM header of certain CT localizer radiographs as a patient size metric for calculating CT size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). Methods: For most Siemens CT scanners, the CT localizer radiograph (topogram) contains a private DICOM field that stores an array of numbers describing AP and LAT attenuation-based measures of patient dimension. The square root of the product of the AP and LAT size data, which provides an estimate of water-equivalent-diameter (WED), was calculated retrospectively from topogram data of 20 patients who received clinically-indicated abdomen/pelvis (n=10) and chest (n=10) scansmore » (WED-topo). In addition, slice-by-slice water-equivalent-diameter (WED-image) and effective diameter (ED-image) values were calculated from the respective image data. Using TG-204 lookup tables, size-dependent conversion factors were determined based upon WED-topo, WED-image and ED-image values. These conversion factors were used with the reported CTDIvol to calculate slice-by-slice SSDE for each method. Averaging over all slices, a single SSDE value was determined for each patient and size metric. Patientspecific SSDE and CTDIvol values were then compared with patientspecific organ doses derived from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of fixed tube current scans. Results: For abdomen/pelvis scans, the average difference between liver dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 18.70%, 8.17%, 6.84%, and 7.58%, respectively. For chest scans, the average difference between lung dose and CTDIvol, SSDE(WED-topo), SSDE(WED-image), and SSDE(ED-image) was 25.80%, 3.33%, 4.11%, and 7.66%, respectively. Conclusion: SSDE calculated using WED derived from data in the DICOM header of the topogram was comparable to SSDE calculated using WED and ED derived from axial images; each of these estimated organ dose to within 10% for both abdomen/pelvis and chest CT examinations. The topogrambased method has the advantage that WED data are already provided and therefore available without additional post-processing of the image data. Funding Support: NIH Grant R01-EB017095; Disclosures - Michael McNitt-Gray: Institutional Research Agreement, Siemens AG; Research Support, Siemens AG; Consultant, Flaherty Sensabaugh Bonasso PLLC; Consultant, Fulbright and Jaworski; Disclosures - Cynthia McCollough: Research Grant, Siemens Healthcare.« less

  20. TH-C-19A-01: Analytic Design Method to Make a 2D Planar, Segmented Ion Chamber Water-Equivalent for Proton Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Hollebeek, R; Teo, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality Assurance (QA) measurements of proton therapy fields must accurately measure steep longitudinal dose gradients as well as characterize the dose distribution laterally. Currently, available devices for two-dimensional field measurements perturb the dose distribution such that routine QA measurements performed at multiple depths require multiple field deliveries and are time consuming. Methods: A design procedure for a two-dimensional detector array is introduced whereby the proton energy loss and scatter are adjusted so that the downstream dose distribution is maintained to be equivalent to that which would occur in uniform water. Starting with the design for an existing, functional two-dimensionalmore » segmented ion chamber prototype, a compensating material is introduced downstream of the detector to simultaneously equate the energy loss and lateral scatter in the detector assembly to the values in water. An analytic formalism and procedure is demonstrated to calculate the properties of the compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. The resulting design is validated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: With respect to the specific prototype design considered, the results indicate that a graphite compensating layer of the proper dimensions can yield proton beam range perturbation less than 0.1mm and beam sigma perturbation less than 2% across the energy range of therapeutic proton beams. Conclusion: We have shown that, for a 2D gas-filled detector array, a graphite-compensating layer can balance the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering relative to uniform water. We have demonstrated an analytic formalism and procedure to determine a compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-04-2-0022. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the US Army.« less

  1. SU-D-19A-01: Can Farmer-Type Ionization Chambers Be Used to Improve the Accuracy of Low-Energy Electron Beam Reference Dosimetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B R; McEwen, M R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of cylindrical Farmer-type ionization chambers to improve the accuracy of low-energy electron beam calibration. Historically, these chamber types have not been used in beams with incident energies less than 10 MeV (R{sub 5} {sub 0} < 4.3 cm) because early investigations suggested large (up to 5 %) fluence perturbation factors in these beams, implying that a significant component of uncertainty would be introduced if used for calibration. More recently, the assumptions used to determine perturbation corrections for cylindrical chambers have been questioned. Methods: Measurements are made with cylindrical chambers in Elekta Precise 4, 8 andmore » 18 MeV electron beams. Several chamber types are investigated that employ graphite walls and aluminum electrodes with very similar specifications (NE2571, NE2505/3, FC65-G). Depth-ionization scans are measured in water in the 8 and 18 MeV beams. To reduce uncertainty from chamber positioning, measurements in the 4 MeV beam are made at the reference depth in Virtual Water™. The variability of perturbation factors is quantified by comparing normalized response of various chambers. Results: Normalized ion chamber response varies by less than 0.7 % for similar chambers at average electron energies corresponding to that at the reference depth from 4 or 6 MeV beams. Similarly, normalized measurements made with similar chambers at the reference depth in the 4 MeV beam vary by less than 0.4 %. Absorbed dose calibration coefficients derived from these results are stable within 0.1 % on average over a period of 6 years. Conclusion: These results indicate that the uncertainty associated with differences in fluence perturbations for cylindrical chambers with similar specifications is only 0.2 %. The excellent long-term stability of these chambers in both photon and electron beams suggests that these chambers might offer the best performance for all reference dosimetry applications.« less

  2. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported intomore » the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green receive travel reimbursement from ViewRay. S. Mutic has consulting and research agreements with ViewRay. Q. Zeng, R. Nana, J.L. Patrick, S. Shvartsman and J.F. Dempsey are ViewRay employees.« less

  3. SU-D-9A-01: Listmode-Driven Optimal Gating (OG) Respiratory Motion Management: Potential Impact On Quantitative PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K; Hristov, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential impact of listmode-driven amplitude based optimal gating (OG) respiratory motion management technique on quantitative PET imaging. Methods: During the PET acquisitions, an optical camera tracked and recorded the motion of a tool placed on top of patients' torso. PET event data were utilized to detect and derive a motion signal that is directly coupled with a specific internal organ. A radioactivity-trace was generated from listmode data by accumulating all prompt counts in temporal bins matching the sampling rate of the external tracking device. Decay correction for 18F was performed. The image reconstructions using OG respiratorymore » motion management technique that uses 35% of total radioactivity counts within limited motion amplitudes were performed with external motion and radioactivity traces separately with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) with 2 iterations and 21 subsets. Standard uptake values (SUVs) in a tumor region were calculated to measure the effect of using radioactivity trace for motion compensation. Motion-blurred 3D static PET image was also reconstructed with all counts and the SUVs derived from OG images were compared with SUVs from 3D images. Results: A 5.7 % increase of the maximum SUV in the lesion was found for optimal gating image reconstruction with radioactivity trace when compared to a static 3D image. The mean and maximum SUVs on the image that was reconstructed with radioactivity trace were found comparable (0.4 % and 4.5 % increase, respectively) to the values derived from the image that was reconstructed with external trace. Conclusion: The image reconstructed using radioactivity trace showed that the blurring due to the motion was reduced with impact on derived SUVs. The resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with radioactivity trace were comparable to the resolution and contrast of the images reconstructed with external respiratory traces. Research supported by Siemens.« less

  4. WE-A-16A-01: International Medical Physics Symposium: Increasing Access to Medical Physics Education/Training and Research Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Bortfeld, T; Ngoma, T; Odedina, F

    In response to a world in which cancer is a growing global health challenge, there is now a greater need for US Medical Physicists and other Radiation Oncology professionals across institutions to work together and be more globally engaged in the fight against cancer. There are currently many opportunities for Medical Physicists to contribute to alleviating this pressing need, especially in helping enhance access to Medical Physics Education/training and Research Excellence across international boundaries, particularly for low and middle-income countries (LMIC), which suffer from a drastic shortage of accessible knowledge and quality training programs in radiotherapy. Many Medical Physicists aremore » not aware of the range of opportunities that even with small effort could have a high impact. Faculty at the two CAMPEP-accredited Medical Physics Programs in New England: the University of Massachusetts Lowell and Harvard Medical School have developed a growing alliance to increase Access to Medical Physics Education/training and Research Excellence (AMPERE), and facilitate greater active involvement of U.S. Medical Physicists in helping the global fight against cancer and cancer disparities. In this symposium, AMPERE Alliance members and partners from Europe and Africa will present and discuss the growing global cancer challenge, the dearth of knowledge, research, and other barriers to providing life-saving radiotherapy in LMIC, mechanisms for meeting these challenges, the different opportunities for participation by Medical Physicists, including students and residents, and how participation can be facilitated to increase AMPERE for global health. Learning Objectives: To learn about the growing global cancer challenge, areas of greatest need and limitations to accessing knowledge and quality radiotherapy training programs, especially in LMIC; To learn about the range of opportunities for Medical Physicists, including students and residents, to work together in global health to help increase AMPERE and alleviate the growing global burden of cancer; To present and discuss a new model for harmonizing Medical Physics Training across countries and how this model (UMass and Heidelberg) could be extended to LMIC in collaboration with the IAEA; To highlight a new platform and program for facilitating contributions by Medical Physicists to increase AMPERE towards the elimination of global cancer disparities. Challenges in Cancer Control in Africa Twalib A. Ngoma, MD, Professor, Executive Director, Ocean Road Cancer Institute, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Cancer care in Africa is beset by lack of attention, political will, cancer registries, cancer plans, human resources, financial resources and treatment facilities.. As a result of this, cancer patients in Africa are far more likely to die of their disease than those in developed countries. According to data from the WHO 750,000 new cancer cases occur in Africa every year and this number is predicted to rise by 70% by 2020. To make matters worse, an estimated 75% of cancer patients in Africa have advanced or incurable cancers at diagnosis making palliative care the most realistic approach to their management. Furthermore, Cancer prevention is nearly nonexistent, cancer detection is rare and treatment usually comes too late and is inefficient. The overall mortality-to-incidence ratio for men with cancer in the Africa is 0.75 compared with 0.54 in the developed world while the ratios for women in Africa, is 0.65 compared with 0.45 for women in the developed world. There is also limited access to radiotherapy. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), whilst developed countries usually have one radiotherapy machine per 250,000 people, most African nations have only one machine per ten million people. The above numbers are alarming and speak for themselves. The only solution to improve this alarming situation is to address the major challenges which African countries face in provision of cancer services which include but not limited to lack of cancer registries, lack of funding, lack of human resources, lack of radiotherapy machines, lack of cancer drugs and lack of accessible and affordable cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Since there are considerable differences among African countries, in my presentation I will share with the audience how we address cancer control challenges in Tanzania in general and specifically in radiation oncology. The African continent cancer plan 2013 2017 Folakemi Odedina, PhD, Professor and Director of Health Disparities, UF Health Cancer Center, University of Florida The burden of cancer is rising in Africa, in addition to current heavy burden of communicable, and other non-cancer related non—communicable diseases. Conquering cancer in Africa will require a comprehensive collaborative approach with cancer clinicians, scientists, patients, advocates, policy makers and community leaders working hand-in-hand at the local, state, national, and continent levels with the primary mission: To reduce the number of deaths from cancer and improve the quality of life of cancer patients, survivors and caregivers. Unfortunately, less than 40% of African countries have a credible cancer control policy and program. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) decided to create an African Cancer Plan to provide cost-effective strategies that can be employed throughout the continent to fight cancer. Based on the African proverb that “It takes a village to raise a child”, the Cancer Plan provides specific strategies that can be used by individuals, employers, organizations and policy-makers to fight cancer. In addition, we have provided overarching strategies to address cancer in Africa and targeted 5-year plan for prostate, breast, cervix, lung and liver cancers. In developing this Cancer Plan, our primary goal is to decrease cancer incidence and mortality in Africa. This goal can only be achieved by stakeholders and dedicated individuals to lead and implement the strategies outlined in this plan. If you are interested in partnering with AORTIC to reduce the burden of cancer in Africa, please send an email to info@aortic-africa.org. Synergies in research and clinical care through international collaboration Thomas Bortfeld and David Gierga, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA Medical Physics relies on high technology that is not distributed equally. The whole spectrum of Medical Physics technologies is not available at every hospital or research institute, and not even in every high income country. One example is heavy ion therapy equipment which is currently only available in Japan, Germany and Italy. There is also a large global variation in terms of research infrastructure and focus. A student of Medical physics cannot gain broad experience, certainly not hands-on experience, by staying at one place only. While it is debatable what a good trade-off between breadth and depth in Medical Physics education is, it is generally agreed upon that some breadth is necessary. Researchers in Medical Physics have to cross borders if they need specific technologies for their projects. Therefore it is self-evident that international programs in Medical Physics education and research make sense. Yet, very few programs of this type exist. In this presentation we will report on our own experience of pursuing an international career in Medical Physics, with international student programs, and with the international exchange of researchers. We will present new or planned opportunities such as the medical beamline at CERN in Geneva. We will also report on the synergies in clinical care through international collaborations between partners in high and low income countries. One example is the partnership of the MGH/Harvard Medical School community with the oncology community and government of Botswana to form the BOTSOGO (BOTSwana Oncology Global Outreach) initiative. This collaborative effort in oncology care was spurred by existing relationships in HIV/AIDS research and care delivery developed within the Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP). The initial efforts of the BOTSOGO initiative have been organized as follows: 1) on-site visits to share expertise in clinical cancer care for capacity building purposes (e.g. cervical brachytherapy), 2) developing a forum for multi-disciplinary case discussions and education and 3) relationship building with local stakeholders for long-term sustainability and growth. An international system for the certification of medical physicists Raymond K. Wu, Chairman, IOMP Professional Relations Committee; Chairman, AAPM Exchange Scientist Program Subcommittee An international system for the certification of medical physicists is an important issue. The International Organization for Medical Physicists (IOMP) has in collaboration with a number of member countries established the International Medical Physics Certification Board (IMPCB) to address this issue, and to provide a mechanism to mark the milestone for the professional development of clinical medical physicists. Raymond Wu, PhD, is the CEO of IMPCB and the Chairman of the IOMP Professional Relations Committee. He is the invited speaker recommended by IOMP to give a talk on this important subject. He will give the latest update of the work of IMPCB, its near term goals, and pathways to the goals. He will also discuss the importance of such an International System of certification in the training/education of next generation Medical Physicists, including those in low and middle income countries (LMIC) where such training is crucial in the fight against cancer. Learning Objectives: Understand the certification program as described in the IOMP Policy Statements. Understand the plan of the IMPCB to establish the accreditation process of national certification programs. Understand the goals of this international collaborative effort and the potential impacts to the quality of clinical medical physics practice. Medical Physics Education Across Continents: The UMass Lowell and Heidelberg University Joint Coordination Effort Erno Sajo, Director of Medical Physics, University of Massachusetts at Lowell Medical Physics education has unique flavors across institutions within the US and shows significant differences across continents. In the latter, even the definition of Medical Physics may differ. Not only is there a difference in topical coverage, but often what is considered a cohesive topic in one institution, and taught as a single course, is fragmented among several other courses in the other institution due to a different philosophy. Because of the regulatory and certification requirements, these differences impact the mobility of medical physicists across continents. As a result, physicists who wish to practice in the US or Canada but have completed their education elsewhere often find that they have to take remedial courses or even obtain a new degree in Medical Physics despite the fact that they already have one. Outreach to developing countries, therefore, is even more difficult. The University of Massachusetts Lowell and Heidelberg University recently completed a joint coordination effort, in which they identified topics that are common versus complementary in their medical physics curricula. A student exchange program was developed that permits students to take any of the common topics at the other institution while taking complementary courses as electives, which count towards their degree requirements at their home institution. Thesis research is also mutually accepted. When properly documented, in this way CAMPEP recommendations can be met across the institutions. Therefore, students participating in this program satisfy both the American Board of Radiology (ABR) requirements and the European regulatory requirements. The framework on which this collaboration rests and the cross-comparison methods developed therein may be implemented in other exchange programs and thus a similar approach can be adopted in outreach programs with developing countries. IAEA PACT Program and opportunities for support and collaboration Susan Morgan, Program Coordinator, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria In response to the developing world's cancer crisis, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in 2004 to fully realize the public health impact obtained through global partnerships in cancer control and technology transfer in radiation medicine. PACT's vision strives for global partnerships to confront the cancer crisis in developing countries, notably with our sister United Nations agency, the World Health Organization (WHO), and our Joint Programme on Cancer Control established in 2009. The IAEA, through PACT, the WHO, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and other cancer-related organizations work together to make a coordinated global response in supporting low and middle income (LMI) IAEA Member States in the implementation of comprehensive national cancer control programmes. PACT's goals are: To build global partnerships of cancer-related organizations committed to addressing the challenge of cancer in LMI Member States in all its aspects; To mobilize resources from charitable trusts, foundations, and others in public and private sectors sources to assist LMI Member States to develop and implement their radiation medicine capacities within a national cancer control programme (NCCP); and, To ensure the effective and sustainable transfer of radiation medicine technologies or knowledge to all LMI Member States where unmet needs exist. PACT work focuses on: imPACT: Assessing Cancer Burden PMDS: Developing Global Partnerships VUCCnet: Promoting Cancer Control Training AGaRT: Making Radiotherapy Accessible Facilitating increased participation and professional development of Medical Physicists and other Radiation Oncology professionals in global health Wilfred Ngwa, Harvard Medical School, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Cancer report highlights an alarming increase in the global burden of cancer. It also highlights what it terms “the cancer divide”, or disparities, evinced by a substantially higher cancer burden in low and middle income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Central/South America and Africa. The WHO even predicts a potential African cancer epidemic by 2020 if significant progress is not made in global cancer control efforts. Evidence that collaborative global health approaches have led to major progress in controlling infectious diseases including in LMIC suggests that similar approaches will be useful for non-communicable diseases like cancer. In consonance with this, leaders in cancer policy from the USA and 14 economically diverse countries recently concluded that successful campaigns to control cancers with existing methods and to improve current strategies will increasingly depend onconcerted multinational collaborations (Sci Transl Med 5, p. 175, 2013). Hence there is growing urgency for increasing collaborative global cancer Care Research and Education (CaRE), as well as support for greater effectiveness of already existing initiatives involving partners from different nations, diverse economic and cultural backgrounds. The good news is that there is a growing awareness of the importance of global health and growing interest including amongst Medical Physicists and other Radiation oncology (RadOnc) professionals to participate in global health. However, many are unaware of currently existing opportunities for participation that even with small effort could have a high impact. Over 50% of cancer patients in the developed world depend on RadOnc professionals for their treatment, and hence participation of RadOnc professionals in global health efforts in the global fight against cancer is crucial. It is also important that the next generation of RadOnc professionals (students, and residents) be trained with a global perspective, to be global health leaders in cancer CaRE. This presentation will highlight a novel platform for enhancing participation and professional development of Medical Physicists and other RadOnc professionals in global health. Ways in which this platform can facilitate contributions by Medical Physicists and other RadOnc Professionals, students and residents in global health towards the elimination of global cancer disparities will be discussed. This will be followed by a panel discussion by some of the pioneers/leaders in collaborative global cancer CaRE on the growing cancer burden, challenges and opportunities for greater active involvement and professional development.« less

  5. TH-B-12A-01: TG124 “A Guide for Establishing a Credentialing and Privileging Program for Users of Fluoroscopic Equipment in Healthcare Organizations”

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M

    Fluoroscopy credentialing and privileging programs are being instituted because of recorded patient injuries and the widespread growth in fluoroscopy use by operators whose medical education did not include formal fluoroscopy training. This lack of training is recognized as a patient safety deficiency, and medical physicists and health physicists are finding themselves responsible for helping to establish fluoroscopy credentialing programs. While physicians are very knowledgeable about clinical credentials review and the privileging process, medical physicists and health physicists are not as familiar with the process and associated requirements. To assist the qualified medical physicist (QMP) and the radiation safety officer (RSO)more » with these new responsibilities, TG 124 provides an overview of the credentialing process, guidance for policy development and incorporating trained fluoroscopy users into a facility's established process, as well as recommendations for developing and maintaining a risk-based fluoroscopy safety training program. This lecture will review the major topics addressed in TG124 and relate them to practical situations. Learning Objectives: Understand the difference between credentialing and privileging. Understand the responsibilities, interaction and coordination among key individuals and committees. Understand options for integrating the QMP and/or RSO and Radiation Safety Committee into the credentialing and privileging process. Understand issues related to implementing the fluoroscopy safety training recommendations and with verifying and documenting successful completion.« less

  6. WE-F-16A-01: Commissioning and Clinical Use of PC-ISO for Customized, 3D Printed, Gynecological Brachytherapy Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, J; Sethi, R; Mellis, K

    Purpose: (1) Evaluate the safety and radiation attenuation properties of PCISO, a bio-compatible, sterilizable 3D printing material by Stratasys, (2) establish a method for commissioning customized multi- and single-use 3D printed applicators, (3) report on use of customized vaginal cylinders used to treat a series of serous endometrial cancer patient. Methods: A custom film dosimetry apparatus was designed to hold a Gafchromic radio film segment between two blocks of PC-ISO and 3D-printed using a Fortus 400mc (StrataSys). A dose plan was computed using 13 dwell positions at 2.5 mm spacing and normalized to 1500 cGy at 1 cm. Film exposuremore » was compared to control tests in only air and only water. The average Hounsfield Unit (HU) was computed and used to verify water equivalency. For the clinical use cases, the physician specifies the dimensions and geometry of a custom applicator from which a CAD model is designed and printed. Results: The doses measured from the PC-ISO Gafchromic film test were within 1% of the dose measured in only water between 1cm and 6cm from the channel. Doses increased 7–4% measured in only air. HU range was 11–43. The applicators were sterilized using the Sterrad system multiple times without damage. As of submission 3 unique cylinders have been designed, printed, and used in the clinic. A standardizable workflow for commissioning custom 3D printed applicators was codified and will be reported. Conclusions: Quality assurance (QA) evaluation of the PC-ISO 3D-printing material showed that PC-ISO is a suitable material for a gynecological brachytherapy vaginal cylinder in a clinical setting. With the material commissioning completed, if the physician determines that a better treatment would Result, a customized design is fabricated with limited additional QA necessary. Although this study was specific to PC-ISO, the same setup can be used to evaluate other 3D-printing materials.« less

  7. TU-C-12A-01: Measurement of Skeletal Muscle Lipids in Type 2 Diabetes Using in Vivo Proton MR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Valaparla, S; Boone, G; Ripley, E

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify and compare the intramyocellular (IMCL), extramyocellular (EMCL) lipids and total fat fraction in human vastus lateralis (VL) muscle between lean controls and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects using long echo time in vivo proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) Methods: {sup 1}H-MRS single voxel (15 × 15 × 15 mm{sup 3}) stimulated acquisition mode (STEAM) was performed in right vastus lateralis m. on 10 lean controls (age: 28.3±3.94 yrs, BMI: 24.25±3.20 kg/m{sup 2}) and 7 type 2 diabetic (age: 54.28±6.42 yrs, BMI: 31.34±3.13 kg/m{sup 2}) subjects with Siemens 3T MRI and four-channel flex coil. Unsuppressed water spectra (NSAmore » = 16) with TR/TE = 3000/30 msec, TM = 10 msec, BW = 2000 Hz, and water-suppressed spectra (NSA = 128) with TR/TE = 3000/270 msec, TM = 10 msec, and fixed water suppression BW = 50 Hz were acquired. Spectral intensity ratios of IMCL-CH{sub 2}, EMCL-CH{sub 2} and total lipid (IMCL {sub +} EMCL) with unsuppressed water signal (W) were converted into absolute concentrations expressed in mmol/kg. Fat fraction (100 × F/(W+F)) was calculated, where F includes the signal intensities of IMCL and EMCL methylene (CH{sub 2})n, peaks only. Results: Comparison of IMCL (controls: 11.70 ± 6.7, T2DM: 21.74 ± 10.2, p ≤ 0.01), EMCL (controls: 22.89 ± 18.42, T2DM: 77.21 ± 33.4, p ≤ 0.001) and total lipid (64.35 mmol/kg less in controls, p ≤ 0.001) showed statistical significance using two-tailed student t-test. Fat fraction (%) exhibited considerable inter-individual variability for controls (3.14 ± 2.09; range: 1.34 - 7.04) and T2DM (9.34 ± 2.88; range: 4.15 - 13.67) and deemed significant (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusion: Single voxel STEAM {sup 1}H-MRS at long TE provides a robust non-invasive method for characterizing lipids within localized muscle regions, with well-resolved IMCL/EMCL peak separation. Regional lipid estimate and fat fraction in VL m. was significantly different in T2DM compared to lean controls. American Heart Association Southwest Affiliate Pre-doctoral Fellowship.« less

  8. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in themore » last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and communication, use optimization (dose and technique factors), automated analysis and data management (automated QC methods, protocol tracking, dose monitoring, issue tracking), and meaningful QC considerations. US 2.0: Ultrasound imaging is evolving at a rapid pace, adding new imaging functions and modes that continue to enhance its clinical utility and benefits to patients. The ultrasound talk will look ahead 10–15 years and consider how medical physicists can bring maximal value to the clinical ultrasound practices of the future. The roles of physics in accreditation and regulatory compliance, image quality and exam optimization, clinical innovation, and education of staff and trainees will all be considered. A detailed examination of expected technology evolution and impact on image quality metrics will be presented. Clinical implementation of comprehensive physics services will also be discussed. Nuclear Medicine 2.0: Although the basic science of nuclear imaging has remained relatively unchanged since its inception, advances in instrumentation continue to advance the field into new territories. With a great number of these advances occurring over the past decade, the role and testing strategies of clinical nuclear medicine physicists must evolve in parallel. The Nuclear Medicine 2.0 presentation is designed to highlight some of the recent advances from a clinical medical physicist perspective and provide ideas and motivation for designing better evaluation strategies. Topics include improvement of traditional physics metrics and analytics, testing implications of hybrid imaging and advanced detector technologies, and strategies for effective implementation into the clinic. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with new physics metrics and analytics in nuclear medicine, CT, and ultrasound. To become familiar with the major new developments of clinical physics support. To understand the physics testing implications of new technologies, hardware, software, and applications. Identify approaches for implementing comprehensive medical physics services in future imaging practices.« less

  9. MO-DE-207A-01: Impact of Statistical Weights On Detection of Low-Contrast Details in Model-Based Iterative CT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Noo, F; Guo, Z

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Penalized-weighted least-square reconstruction has become an important research topic in CT, to reduce dose without affecting image quality. Two components impact image quality in this reconstruction: the statistical weights and the use of an edge-preserving penalty term. We are interested in assessing the influence of statistical weights on their own, without the edge-preserving feature. Methods: The influence of statistical weights on image quality was assessed in terms of low-contrast detail detection using LROC analysis. The task amounted to detect and localize a 6-mm lesion with random contrast inside the FORBILD head phantom. A two-alternative forced-choice experiment was used withmore » two human observers performing the task. Reconstructions without and with statistical weights were compared, both using the same quadratic penalty term. The beam energy was set to 30keV to amplify spatial differences in attenuation and thereby the role of statistical weights. A fan-beam data acquisition geometry was used. Results: Visual inspection of images clearly showed a difference in noise between the two reconstructions methods. As expected, the reconstruction without statistical weights exhibited noise streaks. The other reconstruction appeared better in this aspect, but presented other disturbing noise patterns and artifacts induced by the weights. The LROC analysis yield the following 95-percent confidence interval for the difference in reader-averaged AUC (reconstruction without weights minus reconstruction with weights): [0.0026,0.0599]. The mean AUC value was 0.9094. Conclusion: We have investigated the impact of statistical weights without the use of edge-preserving penalty in penalized weighted least-square reconstruction. A decrease rather than increase in image quality was observed when using statistical weights. Thus, the observers were better able to cope with the noise streaks than the noise patterns and artifacts induced by the statistical weights. It may be that different results would be obtained if the penalty term was used with a pixel-dependent weight. F Noo receives research support from Siemens Healthcare GmbH.« less

  10. 7A.01: INCREASED RISK OF MORTALITY IN OBESE PATIENTS WITH HIGH NOCTURNAL BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY. RESULTS FROM THE ABP-INTERNATIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Palatini, P; Reboldi, G P; Beilin, L; Casiglia, E; Eguchi, K; Imai, Y; Kario, K; Ohkubo, T; Pierdomenico, S D; Schwartz, J E; Wing, L; Verdecchia, P

    2015-06-01

    The association between obesity and all-cause mortality is controversial and may differ according to subjects' characteristics. Blood pressure variability (BPV) may be increased in obese individuals and thus impair prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the relationship between obesity and mortality is influenced by short-term ambulatory BPV. The analysis was performed in 8724 participants (54% men) aged 51 ± 15 years enrolled in 8 prospective studies in Australia, Italy, Japan, and U.S.A. The predictive power of obesity (BMI >=30 kg/m2) for mortality was evaluated from multivariable Cox models in the subjects stratified by high or low nocturnal BPV (above or below the median). Obese participants (N = 1286) had higher age-and-sex adjusted systolic and diastolic BPV than the non-obese participants (p = 0.002/<0.001). Obese subjects with high systolic or diastolic BPV had higher nocturnal heart rate (p = 0.01/<0.001) than obese subjects with low BPV and were more frequently diabetic (p<0.001) and heavy alcohol drinkers (p < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 6.4 years there were 361 deaths, 4.7% in the obese and 4.0% in the non-obese individuals (P = NS). However, the risk of mortality among the obese subjects greatly differed according to BPV level. In Cox models including age, sex, mean ambulatory BP, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, cholesterol, creatinine, and nocturnal heart rate, the obese group with high systolic BPV had a doubled risk of mortality compared to the non-obese group (HR,2.0, 95%CI,1.4-2.9, p < 0.001), whereas the risk was not increased in the obese group with low BPV (P = 0.81). Similar results were found for diastolic BPV, with a HR of 1.7 (1.2-2.5, p = 0.002) in the high BPV group and no association at all with mortality (p = 0.87) in the low BPV group. Inclusion of night-time BP dipping in the regressions did not change the strength of the associations. These data show that high nocturnal BPV greatly increases the risk of mortality related to obesity. High BPV is accompanied by increased heart rate and may reflect the influence of transient BP elevations related to sleep apnea and/or baroreflex dysfunction.

  11. 40 CFR 123.25 - Requirements for permitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subchapter N; (38) For a Great Lakes State or Tribe (as defined in 40 CFR 132.2), 40 CFR part 132 (NPDES... NPDES storm water program?); (41) § 122.32 (As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?); (42) § 122.33 (If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply...

  12. 40 CFR 123.25 - Requirements for permitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subchapter N; (38) For a Great Lakes State or Tribe (as defined in 40 CFR 132.2), 40 CFR part 132 (NPDES... NPDES storm water program?); (41) § 122.32 (As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?); (42) § 122.33 (If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply...

  13. 40 CFR 123.25 - Requirements for permitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subchapter N; (38) For a Great Lakes State or Tribe (as defined in 40 CFR 132.2), 40 CFR part 132 (NPDES... NPDES storm water program?); (41) § 122.32 (As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?); (42) § 122.33 (If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply...

  14. 40 CFR 123.25 - Requirements for permitting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subchapter N; (38) For a Great Lakes State or Tribe (as defined in 40 CFR 132.2), 40 CFR part 132 (NPDES... NPDES storm water program?); (41) § 122.32 (As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?); (42) § 122.33 (If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply...

  15. Whiteriver Sewage Lagoons, Whiteriver, AZ: AZ0024058

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Authorization to Discharge Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit No. AZ0024058 for Tribal Utility Authority, White Mountain Apache Tribe Whiteriver Sewage Lagoons, Whiteriver, AZ.

  16. 40 CFR 430.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... its application for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, or through... otherwise apply, in exchange for regulatory- and enforcement-related rewards and incentives. ...

  17. 78 FR 13339 - State Program Requirements; Approval of Maine's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... NPDES program under the Clean Water Act in the state, including the territories of the Aroostook Band of... Elimination System (NPDES) permitting program in the state under the Clean Water Act (CWA). 33 U.S.C. 1251, et... federal Clean Water Act. Second, in Aroostook Band of Micmacs v. Ryan, 484 F.3d 41 (2007) the court held...

  18. Capabilities of Air Force Wastewater Treatment Plants in Complying with Projected Regulatory Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Beale AFB ............. .................... .. 66 Columbus APB ............ ................... ... 68 Ellsworth AFB ... AFB ........... ................. .. 68 E-4-1. NPDES Parameters and Effluent Levels for Ellsworth AFB .......... ................. .. 70 E-4-2...Process Efficiencies for BOD and TSS at Ellsworth AFB ....... ................ ... 71 E-5-1. NPDES Parameters and Effluent Levels for Grand Forks AFB

  19. 40 CFR 455.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at the time of... discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification statements as described in...

  20. 40 CFR 455.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at the time of... discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification statements as described in...

  1. 40 CFR 455.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... on Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permitting authority at the....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permit writer a periodic certification statement...

  2. 40 CFR 455.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alternative listed in Table 8 to this part 455 (or received a modification by Best Professional Judgement for modifications not listed in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification...

  3. 40 CFR 455.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alternative listed in Table 8 to this part 455 (or received a modification by Best Professional Judgement for modifications not listed in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification...

  4. 40 CFR 455.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... on Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permitting authority at the....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permit writer a periodic certification statement...

  5. 40 CFR 455.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at the time of... discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification statements as described in...

  6. 40 CFR 455.45 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alternative listed in Table 8 to this part 455 (or received a modification by Best Professional Judgement for modifications not listed in Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permit writer at....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permitting authority a periodic certification...

  7. 40 CFR 455.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The discharger will meet the requirements of the Pollution Prevention Alternative listed in Table 8 to... on Table 8 of this part 455); (2) The discharger will notify its NPDES permitting authority at the....41(a); (3) The discharger will submit to its NPDES permit writer a periodic certification statement...

  8. Effluent Monitoring Procedures: Basic Laboratory Skills. Staff Guide for Conducting the Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, William T.; And Others

    This manual is designed for use by instructors who will have to teach others the basic laboratory skills needed to perform National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Analyses. It includes topics related to the presentation of training courses in which the NPDES analyses would be taught. These topics include: examples of course…

  9. 77 FR 23481 - State Program Requirements; Approval of Maine's Base National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... existing point source dischargers covered by the NPDES program. Appeal and Decision in Maine v. Johnson... Appeals for the First Circuit issued its opinion in Maine v. Johnson. 498 F.3d 37. The court held that EPA... Island treatment works (EPA NPDES Permit No. ME 0101311 and MEPDES License No. 2672) and the...

  10. 40 CFR 124.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating all RCRA, UIC, PSD and NPDES “permits... requirements for PSD permits. Subpart D contains specific procedural requirements for NPDES permits. Subpart G...)). Part 124 does not apply to PSD permits issued by an approved State. (f) To coordinate decisionmaking...

  11. 40 CFR 124.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating all RCRA, UIC, PSD and NPDES “permits... requirements for PSD permits. Subpart D contains specific procedural requirements for NPDES permits. Subpart G...)). Part 124 does not apply to PSD permits issued by an approved State. (f) To coordinate decisionmaking...

  12. 40 CFR 124.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating all RCRA, UIC, PSD and NPDES “permits... requirements for PSD permits. Subpart D contains specific procedural requirements for NPDES permits. Subpart G...)). Part 124 does not apply to PSD permits issued by an approved State. (f) To coordinate decisionmaking...

  13. 40 CFR 124.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating all RCRA, UIC, PSD and NPDES “permits... requirements for PSD permits. Subpart D contains specific procedural requirements for NPDES permits. Subpart G...)). Part 124 does not apply to PSD permits issued by an approved State. (f) To coordinate decisionmaking...

  14. 40 CFR 124.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, or terminating all RCRA, UIC, PSD and NPDES “permits... requirements for PSD permits. Subpart D contains specific procedural requirements for NPDES permits. Subpart G...)). Part 124 does not apply to PSD permits issued by an approved State. (f) To coordinate decisionmaking...

  15. 40 CFR 124.3 - Application for a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requires a permit under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD programs shall complete, sign, and submit to the Director an application for each permit required under §§ 270.1 (RCRA), 144.1 (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD... (UIC), 40 CFR 52.21 (PSD), and 122.21 (NPDES). (3) Permit applications (except for PSD permits) must...

  16. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    Treesearch

    J. Q. Wu; S. Dun; H. Rhee; X. Liu; W. J. Elliot; T. Golnar; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; P. W. Conrad; R. L. McNearny

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating site-specific sediment control and reclamation plans for the NPDES....

  17. 76 FR 29747 - State Program Requirements; Proposal To Approve Maine's Base National Pollutant Discharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...'s Base National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permitting Program AGENCY... of Maine's Base NPDES Permitting Program in these territories as part of the administrative record to... Maine's base program as EPA approved it in 2001. Thus, the state's program would not include regulation...

  18. 76 FR 81488 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES... viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket, visit the EPA Docket Center homepage at... Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program (Renewal). ICR Number: EPA ICR No. 0229.20, OMB...

  19. 40 CFR 455.41 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... system being used contains the appropriate pollution control technologies (or equivalent systems... the appropriate permitting authority, e.g., the local Control Authority (the POTW) or NPDES permit... Control Authority (the POTW) or NPDES permit writer, which states that the P2 Alternative is being...

  20. 40 CFR 455.41 - Special definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system being used contains the appropriate pollution control technologies (or equivalent systems... the appropriate permitting authority, e.g., the local Control Authority (the POTW) or NPDES permit... Control Authority (the POTW) or NPDES permit writer, which states that the P2 Alternative is being...