Science.gov

Sample records for a-01 npdes outfall

  1. Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-02-17

    Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals.

  2. Constructed Wetlands for Removal of Heavy Metals from NPDES Outfall Effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.

    2002-08-29

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River Technology Center. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, necessitating treatment of nearly one million gallons of water each day plus storm runoff to meet compliance standards. A conceptual design for a constructed treatment wetland was developed as the most cost-effective alternative. A pilot study was conducted using mesocosms to confirm that the design concept would reduce copper to acceptable levels. After treatment in the mesocosms, effluent copper concentrations were routinely below permit limits, even though the influent concentrations varied widely.

  3. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  4. Wildlife use of NPDES outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T.; Blea-Edeskuty, B.

    1995-09-01

    From July through October of 1991, the Biological Resources Evaluation Team (BRET) surveyed 133 of the 140 National Pollutant Discharge and Elimination System outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of the survey was to determine the use of these wastewater outfalls by wildlife. BRET observed wildlife or evidence of wildlife (scat, tracks, or bedding) by 35 vertebrate species in the vicinity of the outfalls, suggesting these animals could be using water from outfalls. Approximately 56% of the outfalls are probably used or are suitable for use by large mammals as sources of drinking water. Additionally, hydrophytic vegetation grows in association with approximately 40% of the outfalls-a characteristic that could make these areas eligible for wetland status. BRET recommends further study to accurately characterize the use of outfalls by small and medium-sized mammals and amphibians. The team also recommends systematic aquatic macroinvertebrate studies to provide information on resident communities and water quality. Wetland assessments may be necessary to ensure compliance with wetland regulations if LANL activities affect any of the outfalls supporting hydrophytic vegetation.

  5. PILOT PEAT-BED TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR NPDES OUTFALL H-12

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N; Ralph Nichols, R; Topher Berry, T

    2007-10-22

    A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit was issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and became effective on December 1, 2003. The new permit contained revised limits for copper and zinc derived by adjusting the South Carolina aquatic life water quality standards in accordance with dissolved metals criteria. The new copper and zinc limits are very low and may not be met consistently at Outfall H-12. The outfall has periodically exceeded the new 6 {micro}g/l (0.006 mg/L) monthly average limit and the 8 {micro}g/l (0.008 mg/L) maximum limit for copper and recently has begun exceeding the 100 {micro}g/l (0.100 mg/L) limit for zinc. The compliance date for Outfall H-12 is November 1, 2008. A study was conducted on this outfall and other outfalls to evaluate possible alternatives for meeting the new permit limits (Shipman and Bugher 2004). The study team recommended construction of a peat bed for treatment of the Outfall H-12 effluent. This recommendation was repeated by a second alternatives study team in 2007 (WSRC 2007). A bench-scale laboratory study demonstrated the feasibility of peat-bed treatment for Outfall H-12 effluent, with the peat demonstrating excellent removal of copper (Nelson and Specht 2005). An additional study was performed in 2006 and early 2007 using vertical-flow peat columns to investigate the influence of water retention time (contact time) on the removal of copper and zinc from the water (Nelson 2007c). Analytical results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the three retention times tested, ranging from 99.6% removal at five and three hours to 98.8% removal at one hour. Effluent copper levels from these studies were much lower than the new compliance limit for the outfall. Most divalent metals, including zinc, were removed to below their normal reporting detection limit. The H-Area Material Disposition organization requested

  6. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  7. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  8. Results of Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`S) conducted on the A-01 outfall and its contributory waste streams, July 1996--February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted at nine locations during the summer of 1996. The results indicated that A-01B, A-01C, A-03, A-04, A-05 and A-01 were toxic to the test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, while A-01A, A-06, and WE-01 were not toxic. Beginning in August 1996, Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE`s) were initiated on all toxic outfalls in order to identify the toxicants responsible for the observed toxicity. A complete TIE was performed on A-01 because it is the regulatory compliance point for all of the combined waste streams that were tested. Only the portions of a TIE that are related to metal and chlorine toxicity were performed on the remaining locations because existing data indicated that metals and chlorine were present in potentially toxic quantities at these locations, and there was no evidence that other toxicants would be expected to be present in toxic amounts. The results of the TIE`s indicate that metals are responsible for most of the toxicity at all of the outfalls that were toxic and that chlorine contributed to the toxicity at two of the outfalls. Specifically, the toxicity at A-01B, A-01C, and A-01 was due to copper; the toxicity at A-03 was due to primarily to copper, although zinc also contributed to the toxicity; the toxicity at A-04 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine and zinc contributing to the toxicity; and the toxicity at A-05 was due primarily to copper, with residual chlorine contributing to the toxicity. A-03 was the most toxic outfall, with 100% mortality occurring at concentrations as low as 12.5% effluent. A-03 was found to have concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc that exceeded EPA water quality criteria by approximately two orders of magnitude. The metal concentrations at A-01 and WE-01, which is located approximately 0.5 miles downstream from A-01 were similar. However, A-01 was toxic, while WE-01 was not.

  9. Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an NPDES permit and statement of basis. The Crossfire-Bonds Gravel Pit is authorized to discharge to Deer Canyon. Authorization for discharge is limited to only those outfalls specifically listed in the permit.

  10. Denver VA Hospital MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042008, the Veterans Administration (Medical Center, Denver Campus) is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to the receiving waters specified in the permit in the City of Denver, Colorado.

  11. Air Force Academy MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042007, the U.S. Air Force Academy is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to the receiving waters specified in the permit in El Paso County, Colorado.

  12. Absaloka Mine South Extension NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030783, Westmoreland Resources, Inc. is authorized to discharge mine drainage from outfalls associated with the Absaloka Mine South Extension on the Crow Indian reservation near Hardin, Montana to Middle Fork of Sarpy Creek.

  13. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.45 Section 122.45 Protection of Environment... (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). (a) Outfalls and discharge points. All permit...

  14. WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect

    ANNA, KNOX

    2004-08-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

  15. Results of chronic toxicity tests conducted on selected A-area outfalls, June-August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible toxicity testing requirements in the SRS`s new (1996) NPDES permit, toxicity tests were performed at selected A-Area NPDES outfalls in order to determine if the outfalls were toxic. Chronic definitive toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia using water collected from nine locations during the summer of 1996. Six of the nine locations were toxic.

  16. NIST Boulder Laboratories MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042002,NIST is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer outfalls existing as of the effective date of this permit to receiving waters within the exterior boundaries of the Boulder Laboratories in Boulder, Colo.

  17. Fort Carson MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042001, Fort Carson is authorized to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to receiving waters which include B-Ditch, Clover Ditch, Infantry Creek, Rock Creek, and others in El Paso County, Colorado.

  18. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  19. Federal Corrections Institution, Englewood MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042005, the Federal Corrections Institution (FCI), Englewood is authorized to discharge from all MS4 outfalls to receiving waters which include Bear Creek, the South Platte River in the City of Lakewood, Jefferson County, Colo.

  20. Buckley Air Force Base MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-R042003, the U.S. Air Force is authorized to discharge from all MS4 outfalls existing as of the effective date of this permit to specified receiving waters within the exterior boundaries of Buckley Air Force Base, in Aurora, Colorado

  1. Peterson Air Force Base MS4 NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES permit CO-R042006, authorizes Peterson AFB to discharge from all municipal separate storm sewer system outfalls to receiving waters which include the East Fork of Sand Creek and others within exterior AFB boundaries in El Paso County, Colorado.

  2. DETOXIFICATION OF OUTFALL WATER USING NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Nichols, R.; Noonkester, J.; Payne, B.

    2010-07-13

    To protect stream organisms in an ephemeral stream at the Savannah River Site, a proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit reduced the copper limit from 25 {micro}g/l to 6 {micro}g/l at Outfall H-12. Efforts to reduce copper in the wastewater and stormwater draining to this outfall did not succeed in bringing copper levels below this limit. Numerous treatment methods were considered, including traditional methods such as ion exchange and natural treatment alternatives such as constructed wetlands and peat beds, all of which act to remove copper. However, the very low target metal concentration and highly variable outfall conditions presented a significant challenge for these treatment technologies. In addition, costs and energy use for most of these alternatives were high and secondary wastes would be generated. The Savannah River National Laboratory developed an entirely new 'detoxification' approach to treat the outfall water. This simple, lower-cost detoxification system amends outfall water with natural organic matter to bind up to 25 {micro}g/l copper rather than remove it, thereby mitigating its toxicity and protecting the sensitive species in the ecosystem. The amendments are OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute) certified commercial products that are naturally rich in humic acids and are commonly used in organic farming.

  3. EPA's Permit for MWRA Outfall | NPDES Permits in New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority's (MWRA) Permit from the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) for discharges into Massachusetts Bay, as well as for fourteen combined sewer overflows which discharge into boston harbor and the charles, mystic, alewife rivers during wet weather.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  5. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  6. NPDES Stormwater Permit Program in New England | NPDES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The NPDES Storm Water Program, in place since 1990, regulates discharges from municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s), construction activities, industrial activities, and those designated by EPA due to water quality impacts.

  7. Merrimack Station Draft NPDES Permit | NPDES Permits in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    EPA and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) have issued a new Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Merrimack Station power plant in Bow, New Hampshire.

  8. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expense required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.

  9. Chemtrade Refinery Services NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0034207, Chemtrade Refinery Services, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County,Wyoming, to an unnamed drainage way that flows into the Little Wind River near St. Stephens, Wyo.

  10. Wulf Cattle Depot NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034606, the Wulf Cattle Depot is authorized to discharge and must operate their facility in accordance with effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other provisions set forth herein.

  11. Shoshone Utility Organization NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0044580, the Shoshone Utility Organization is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to an unnamed irrigation drainage ditch tributary to the South Fork of the Little Wind R.

  12. Dakota Magic Casino NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  13. City of Wagner NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020184, the City of Wagner, South Dakota is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Charles Mix County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary of Choteau Creek.

  14. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  15. NPDES CAFO Regulations Implementation Status Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA compiles annual summaries on the implementation status of the NPDES CAFO regulations. Reports include, for each state: total number of CAFOs, number and percentage of CAFOs with NPDES permits, and other information associated with implementation of the

  16. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  17. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  19. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  1. Mirant Canal Station Final NPDES Permit | NPDES Permits in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) have developed a Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Mirant Canal Station (MCS, the Station) power plant in Sandwich, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  2. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) PERMIT LIMITS FOR METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B

    2009-06-26

    The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained very low metals limits for several outfalls. Copper, lead and zinc limits were as low as seven micrograms per liter (7 ug/l), 1 ug/l, and 100 ug/l, respectively. The permit contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with only three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable outfall compliance. Discharges from a few outfalls were eliminated or routed into other locations relatively inexpensively. However, some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. These innovations included (1) connecting several outfall discharges to the site's Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility (CSWTF), (2) constructing a treatment wetlands and completing a water-effects ratio (WER) on its effluent, (3) installing a stannous chloride feed system to remove mercury in an existing air stripper, and (4) constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and take advantage of biotic ligand modeling to raise effluent limits.

  3. BACTERIAL IMPACTS OF OCEAN OUTFALLS: LEGAL CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simple analytical methods are used to help establish wastewater treatment permit conditions. However, a recent lawsuit alleged one such screening method was inadequate to show bacterial water quality standards would be protected shoreward of Honolulu's Honouliuli outfall. In resp...

  4. City of Eagle Butte NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0020192, the City of Eagle Butte, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility within the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in Dewey County, South Dakota, to Green Grass Creek.

  5. Lower Brule Lagoon System NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number SD-0020800, Lower Brule Rural Water is authorized to discharge from its wastewater lagoon system serving the town of Lower Brule, located in Lyman County, South Dakota, to the bank of the Missouri River (Lake Sharpe).

  6. Crow Nation Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  7. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  8. Charlo Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022551, the Consolidated Charlo-Lake County Water & Sewer District is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed swale that runs to Dublin Gulch.

  9. Glendale Colony and Harvey Farms NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031819, Glendale Colony, Inc., and Harvey Farms, Inc. are authorized to discharge and must operate their facilities in accordance with provisions set forth herein.Indian Country on the Blackfeet Reserva

  10. Lob Lolly Industrial Site NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0048194, Arboles Sand & Stone, LLC is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility at the Lob Lolly Industrial Site in Archuleta County, Colorado, to the Piedra River.

  11. Rosebud Casino and Hotel NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.

  12. Blackfeet Community Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030643, the Blackfeet Tribe is authorized to discharge from its Blackfoot Community Water Treatment Plant in Glacier County, Montana, to an unnamed intermittent stream which flows to Two Medicine River.

  13. Southern Ute Indian Tribe NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0022853, the Southern Ute Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in La Plata County, Colorado,to Rock Creek, a tributary of the Los Pinos River.

  14. Woodcock Home Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030554, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority is authorized to discharge from its Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Lake County, Montana, to a swale draining to Middle Crow Creek.

  15. Spirit Lake Water Resource Management NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  16. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  17. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    SciTech Connect

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  18. NPDES Water Permit Program in New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    NPDES stands for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Under the NPDES program, all municipal, industrial and commercial facilities that discharge wastewater directly from a point source (a discrete conveyance such as a pipe, ditch or channel) into a receiving waterbody (lake, river, ocean) are issued an NPDES permit. Facilities that discharge wastewater to a publicly owned treatment works (POTW), which in turn discharges into the receiving waterbody, are not subject to NPDES permits; rather they are controlled by the national pretreatment program.

  19. Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  20. Standing Rock Rural Water System NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit SD-0030996, the Standing Rock Rural Water System is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Corson County, South Dakota, to an unnamed tributary to Fisher Creek, a tributary to Oahe Reservoir on the Missouri R.

  1. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES public notice, permit and statement of basis would authorize discharge of treated water from settling ponds of the Leadville National Fish Hatchery to an unnamed tributary to Hunt Gulch, which flows into Lake Fork, a tributary to the Arkansas River.

  2. 78 FR 46005 - NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...EPA is proposing a regulation that would require electronic reporting for current paper-based NPDES reports. This action will save time and resources for permittees, states, tribes, territories, and EPA while improving compliance and providing better protection of the Nation's waters. The proposed Clean Water Act regulation would require permittees and regulators to use existing, available......

  3. Yellowtail Dam Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022993, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located at the Yellowtail Dam Field Office in Big Horn County, Montana, to the Yellowtail Afterbay Reservoir/Bighorn River.

  4. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  5. Predicting the physical effects of relocating Boston's sewage outfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Jenter, H.L.; Blumberg, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Boston is scheduled to cease discharge of sewage effluent in Boston Harbor in Spring 2000 and begin discharge at a site 14 km offshore in Massachusetts Bay in a water depth of about 30 m. The effects of this outfall relocation on effluent dilution, salinity and circulation are predicted with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The simulations predict that the new bay outfall will greatly decrease effluent concentrations in Boston Harbor (relative to the harbour outfall) and will not significantly change mean effluent concentrations over most of Massachusetts Bay. With the harbour outfall, previous observations and these simulations show that effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% throughout the harbour, with a harbour wide average of 1-2%. With the bay outfall, effluent concentrations exceed 0??5% only within a few km of the new outfall, and harbour concentrations drop to 0??1-0??2%, a 10-fold reduction. During unstratified winter conditions, the local increase in effluent concentration at the bay outfall site is predicted to exist throughout the water column. During stratified summer conditions, however, effluent released at the sea bed rises and is trapped beneath the pycnocline. The local increase in effluent concentration is limited to the lower layer, and as a result, surface layer effluent concentrations in the vicinity of the new outfall site are predicted to decrease (relative to the harbour outfall) during the summer. Slight changes are predicted for the salinity and circulation fields. Removing the fresh water associated with the effluent discharge in Boston Harbor is predicted to increase the mean salinity of the harbour by 0??5 and decrease the mean salinity by 0??10-0??15 within 2-3 km of the outfall. Relative to the existing mean flow, the buoyant discharge at the new outfall is predicted to generate density-driven mean currents of 2-4 cm s-1 that spiral out in a clockwise motion at the surface during winter and at the pycnocline (15-20 m depth

  6. Risk assessment in submarine outfall projects: the case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ana; Losada, Miguel Ángel; Reis, Maria Teresa; Neves, Maria Graça

    2013-02-15

    Submarine outfalls need to be evaluated as part of an integrated environmental protection system for coastal areas. Although outfalls are tight with the diversity of economic activities along a densely populated coastline being effluent treatment and effluent reuse a sign of economic prosperity, precautions must be taken in the construction of these structures. They must be designed so as to have the least possible impact on the environment and at the same time be economically viable. This paper outlines the initial phases of a risk assessment procedure for submarine outfall projects. This approach includes a cost-benefit analysis in which risks are systematically minimized or eliminated. The methods used in this study also allow for randomness and uncertainty. The input for the analysis is a wide range of information and data concerning the failure probability of outfalls and the consequences of an operational stoppage or failure. As part of this risk assessment, target design levels of reliability, functionality, and operationality were defined for the outfalls. These levels were based on an inventory of risks associated with such construction projects, and thus afforded the possibility of identifying possible failure modes. This assessment procedure was then applied to four case studies in Portugal. The results obtained were the values concerning the useful life of the outfalls at the four sites and their joint probability of failure against the principal failure modes assigned to ultimate and serviceability limit states. Also defined were the minimum operationality of these outfalls, the average number of admissible technical breakdowns, and the maximum allowed duration of a stoppage mode. It was found that these values were in consonance with the nature of the effluent (tourist-related, industrial, or mixed) as well as its importance for the local economy. Even more important, this risk assessment procedure was able to measure the impact of the outfalls on

  7. Yellowtail Visitor Center Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NPDES permit MT-0029106 for United States Bureau of Reclamation discharge from its Yellowtail Visitor Center wastewater treatment facility into the Bighorn Lake/Bighorn River in Big Horn County, Montana.

  8. Devon Energy Production Company – Riverton Dome NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000671, Devon Energy Production Company, L.P. – Riverton Dome is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to the Little Wind River via unnamed draw.

  9. Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000779, the Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  10. Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000922, the Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  11. Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000949, the Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Coal Draw.

  12. Wesco Operating, Inc. – Maverick Springs NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000469, Wesco Operating, Inc. - Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  13. Wesco Operating, Inc. – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0025607, Wesco Operating, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyo. to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry (Pasup) Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  14. Denver Federal Center Building 52A NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034860, the GSA is authorized to discharge wastewater from construction dewatering activities at Denver Federal Center Building 52A in Lakewood, Colo., to to the storm drain system entering McIntyre Gulch.

  15. NPDES Permit Writers' Manual for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual is designed to provide general information on the CWA and NPDES requirements for CAFOs, explain CAFO permitting, and provide technical information to understand options for nutrients management planning.

  16. St. Ignatius-Southside Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0029017, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed tributary of Sabine Creek.

  17. F.E. Warren Air Force Base NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034789, the USAF, F. E. Warren Air Force Base, is authorized to discharge from the Missile Launch Facilities located in northeastern Colorado to unnamed drainage ditches located in the Cedar Creek and Pawnee Creek drainage basins.

  18. Fort Carson Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit no. CO-0021181 the United States Department of the Army, Fort Carson, in authorized to discharge from its sanitary wastewater treatment facility in El Paso County, Colorado, to Clover Ditch, a tributary of Fountain Creek.

  19. U.S. Air Force Academy NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0020974, the U.S. Air Force Academy is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in El Paso County, Colorado, to Non-Potable Reservoir No. 1 on Lehman Run and to Monument Creek.

  20. Eastern Colorado Health Care System (VA Hospital) NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034991, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Adams County, Colorado, to a storm sewer to Toll Gate Creek, a tributary of Sand Creek.

  1. Phoenix Production Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0024953, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  2. Phoenix Production Company – Rolff Lake Unit NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-002494, Phoenix Production Company is authorized to discharge from its Rolff Lake Unit wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, which is tributary to the Wind River.

  3. Administration of the NPDES Stormwater Permit Program in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In New England, the NPDES Stormwater Permit Program is administered by state government in Connecticut, Maine, Rhode Island, and Vermont ('authorized states') or by EPA, in partnership with the states, in Massachusetts and New Hampshire ('non-authorized states').

  4. Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  5. Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  6. GenOn (formerly Mirant) Kendall Station Final NPDES Permit ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection have issued a final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the Mirant Kendall Station (MKS) power plant in Cambridge, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  7. Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. Refinery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-003098, the Thunder Butte Petroleum Services Inc. refinery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facilities near Makoti in Ward County, North Dakota, to wetlands tributary to the East Fork of Shell Creek.

  8. Wesco Operating, Inc. – Winkleman Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0025232, Wesco Operating, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its Winkleman Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyo. to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Big Horn Draw, a tributary to the Little Wind River.

  9. Mesa Verde National Park Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034398, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park wastewater treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  10. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Permit Compliance System (PCS) or the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). PCS tracks NPDES surface water permits issued under the Clean Water Act. This system is being incrementally replaced by the NPDES module of ICIS. Under NPDES, all facilities that discharge pollutants from any point source into waters of the United States are required to obtain a permit. The permit will likely contain limits on what can be discharged, impose monitoring and reporting requirements, and include other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not adversely affect water quality. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to NPDES facilities once the PCS or ICIS-NPDES data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available

  11. EPA's/MADEP's Permit for MWRA's Outfall and Combined ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) are issuing the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority's (MWRA) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to discharge industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater from 43 member communities through the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  12. An overview of Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment II

    SciTech Connect

    Fergen, R.E.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    The Southeast Florida Ocean Outfall Experiment II (SEFLOE II, 1991--1994) project is the result of a cooperative effort of several government agencies and the Hazen and Sawyer, P.C. The project was designed to satisfy biomonitoring concerns and provide site specific information to allow the USEPA Regional Administrator to evaluate if four open ocean outfalls located off the Southeast Florida coast were contributing to unreasonable degradation of the local marine environment. During the field studies of the project, tremendous efforts were made to collect physical, chemical, and biological data. These data were analyzed to characterize outfall plumes and associated environmental conditions. This overview provides a summary to the SEFLOE II project.

  13. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ER_WWTP_NPDES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of Waste Water Treatment Plant facilities that link to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). ICIS tracks NPDES surface water permits issued under the Clean Water Act. Under NPDES, all facilities that discharge pollutants from any point source into waters of the United States are required to obtain a permit. The permit will likely contain limits on what can be discharged, impose monitoring and reporting requirements, and include other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not adversely affect water quality. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to NPDES facilities once the ICIS-NPDES data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  14. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  15. Implementing the NPDES program: An update on the WET requirements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has utilized the Clean Water Act - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting program to protect waters of the U.S for over 40 years. NPDES permit effluent limitations serve as the primary mechanism for controlling discharges of pollutants to receivin...

  16. Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit CO-0021717, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant in Lake County, Colorado to an unnamed drainage way tributary to the East Fork of the Arkansas River.

  17. Introduction | NetDMR | NPDES Permits in New England | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    NetDMR is a freely available Web based tool that allows National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees to electronically sign and submit their discharge monitoring reports (DMRs) to EPA via a secure internet connection. NetDMR is designed to improve data quality, save paper, and provide cost savings for permittees and regulators.

  18. Introduction | NetDMR | NPDES Permits in New England | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    NetDMR is a freely available Web based tool that allows National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees to electronically sign and submit their discharge monitoring reports (DMRs) to EPA via a secure internet connection. NetDMR is designed to improve data quality, save paper, and provide cost savings for permittees and regulators.

  19. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated.

  20. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in...

  1. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in...

  2. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in...

  3. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in...

  4. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... role under the NPDES storm water program? As a Tribe you may: (a) Be authorized to operate the NPDES program including the storm water program, after EPA determines that you are eligible for treatment in...

  5. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of...

  6. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of...

  7. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of...

  8. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of...

  9. 40 CFR 122.32 - As an operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulated under the NPDES storm water program? 122.32 Section 122.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... operator of a small MS4, am I regulated under the NPDES storm water program? (a) Unless you qualify for a... a petition to the NPDES permitting authority to require an NPDES permit for your discharge of...

  10. NPDES Program Search Criteria Help | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  11. ICIS-NPDES Download Summary and Data Element ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  12. ICIS-NPDES Limit Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  13. Monsanto analytical testing program for NPDES discharge self-monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogheem, T.J.; Woods, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The Monsanto Analytical Testing (MAT) program was devised and implemented in order to provide analytical standards to Monsanto manufacturing plants involved in the self-monitoring of plant discharges as required by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. Standards are prepared and supplied at concentration levels normally observed at each individual plant. These levels were established by canvassing all Monsanto plants having NPDES permits and by determining which analyses and concentrations were most appropriate. Standards are prepared by Monsanto's analyses and concentrations were most appropriate. Standards are prepared by Monsanto's Environmental Sciences Center (ESC) using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods. Eleven standards are currently available, each in three concentrations. Standards are issued quarterly in a company internal round-robin program or on a per request basis or both. Since initiation of the MAT program in 1981, the internal round-robin program has become an integral part of Monsanto's overall Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) program. Overall, results have shown that the company's plant analytical personnel can accurately analyze and report standard test samples. More importantly, such personnel have gained increased confidence in their ability to report accurate values for compounds regulated in their respective plant NPDES permits. 3 references, 3 tables.

  14. 40 CFR 117.12 - Applicability to discharges from facilities with NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities with NPDES permits. 117.12 Section 117.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Applicability § 117.12 Applicability to discharges from facilities with NPDES permits. (a) This regulation does... substance, as identified in § 117.12(c)(1)(i) and § 117.12(c)(1)(ii) be treated pursuant to §...

  15. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). No permit may be issued: (a) When the conditions of the permit do...

  16. 78 FR 277 - Section 610 Review of NPDES Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitations Guidelines Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... [EPA-HQ-OW-2012-0813, FRL-9764-8] Section 610 Review of NPDES Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitations Guidelines Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs); Extension of Comment... 610 review titled, Section 610 Review of NPDES Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitations...

  17. Field observations of dilution on the Ipanema Beach outfall.

    PubMed

    Roldão, J; Carvalho, J L; Roberts, P J

    2001-01-01

    Field observations of the Ipanema Beach, Rio de Janeiro, ocean sewage outfall are presented. Measurements of dilution and other wastefield characteristics were obtained by adding dye tracer to the effluent and measuring in-situ. Simultaneous measurements of oceanographic conditions were made by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, thermistor strings, and profiling instruments. Four experiments were performed, two during unstratified conditions when the plume was surfacing, and two during conditions of strong stratification when the plume was submerged. The minimum dilution varied from 30 to 130. The measurements reflect the worst case conditions as the campaigns were all made for weak currents.

  18. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  19. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  20. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES_MAJOR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that are Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) dischargers of pollutants into waters of the United States. These facilities are tracked in the Permit Compliance System (PCS), which is being incrementally replaced by the NPDES module of the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). For Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), Major dischargers include all facilities with design flows equal to or greater than one million gallons per day, or serve a population of 10,000 or more, or cause significant water quality impacts. Non-POTW discharges are classified as Major facilities on the basis of the number of points accumulated using a Rating worksheet, which evaluates the significance of a facility using several criteria, including toxic pollutant potential, flow volume, and water quality factors such as impairment of the receiving water or proximity of the discharge to coastal waters. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of co

  1. Outfall siting with dye-buoy remote sensing of coastal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine siting problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in siting two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall site was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall site was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.

  2. Economic Analysis of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Electronic Reporting Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Economic Analysis (EA) quantifies the costs and savings of the proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule, while acknowledging many of the qualitative benefits that will result from its implementation.

  3. Report: Agency-Wide Application of Region 7 NPDES Program Process Improvements Could Increase EPA Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-P-0315, July 6, 2011. Although Region 7 NPDES Kaizen event participants continued to follow up on the commitments and action items identified, no single authority was responsible for tracking the process improvement outcomes.

  4. City of Irving utilizes high resolution multispectral imagery for NPDES compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.; Urban, J.S.; Mulawa, D.; Benkelman, C.A.

    1994-04-01

    A case history of using high resolution multispectral imagery is described. A statistical clustering method was applied to identify the primary spectral signatures present within the image data. This was for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  5. Tools to Help the NPDES Program Adapt to Fluctuating Environmental Conditions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate-related circumstances pose challenges for permittees and permit writers. Managing discharges to protect water quality can be aided by the refinement of the methods, tools and information used to develop and implement NPDES permits and programs.

  6. Comparison of small mammal species diversity near wastewater outfalls, natural streams, and dry canyons

    SciTech Connect

    Raymer, D.F.; Biggs, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    A wide range of plant and wildlife species utilizes water discharged from facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this study was to compare nocturnal small mammal communities at wet areas created by wastewater outfalls with communities in naturally created wet and dry areas. Thirteen locations within LANL boundaries were selected for small mammal mark-recapture trapping. Three of these locations lacked surface water sources and were classified as {open_quotes}dry,{close_quotes} while seven sites were associated with wastewater outfalls ({open_quotes}outfall{close_quotes} sites), and three were located near natural sources of surface water ({open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} sites). Data was collected on site type (dry, outfall or natural), location, species trapped, and the tag number of each individual captured. This data was used to calculate mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity at each type of site. When data from each type of site was pooled, there were no significant differences in these variables between dry, outfall, and natural types. However, when data from individual sites was compared, tests revealed significant differences. All sites in natural areas were significantly higher than dry areas in daily mean number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity. Most outfall sites were significantly higher than dry areas in all three variables tested. When volume of water from each outfall site was considered, these data indicated that the number of species, percent capture rate, and species diversity of nocturnal small mammals were directly related to the volume of water at a given outfall.

  7. City of San Diego E.W. Blom Point Loma Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant and Ocean Outfall; NPDES Permit #CA0107409

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA and San Diego Water Board are jointly seeking public comments on proposed revisions to the Compliance Schedule for Pure Water San Diego Potable Reuse Tasks in section VI.C.7 of the Revised Tentative Order No. R9-2017-0007.

  8. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.

    2001-03-20

    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating.

  9. Best Practices for NPDES Permit Writers and Pretreatment Coordinators to Address Toxic and Hazardous Chemical Discharges to POTWs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance generally describes measures (“best practices”) NPDES permit writers and pretreatment coordinators should consider adopting to address hazardous and toxic chemical discharges to POTWs.

  10. Influence of Deep Ocean Sewage Outfalls on the Microbial Activity of the Surrounding Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Novitsky, James A.; Karl, David M.

    1985-01-01

    The microbial activity near two deep ocean sewage outfalls off the coast of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, was characterized. Water samples and sediment samples to a depth of 4.5 cm were analyzed from an area of approximately 4.5 × 104 m2 surrounding the outfalls. Although the effluent water at both sites exhibited heterotrophic activity that was 2 orders of magnitude greater than water from a control site, ambient water samples taken within 1 m of the discharge ports exhibited activity only twice that of the control water. The heterotrophic activity of the outfall sediment was only elevated above that of the control site for surface samples collected within 10 m of the outfall. Likewise, the rates of microbial nucleic acid synthesis and carbon production in the sediment were only elevated immediately adjacent to the outfalls. Total microbial biomass, as determined by the ATP content of the sediment, varied spatially but was generally elevated at the outfall sites. The specific growth rates calculated for the sediment microbial populations, however, were not greater at the outfall sites. At one site the rocks surrounding the diffuser pipe were covered with copious amounts of slime that appeared to be composed entirely of microbial cells and filaments. This microbial mat was extremely active with respect to heterotrophic activity and biomass production. Overall, it appears that the impact of the sewage discharge on the ambient seawater microbiota is slight and that the effect on the sediment microbiota is confined to an area immediately adjacent to the diffuser ports. In the sand itself, the effect is limited to the upper 2 cm at most. PMID:16346944

  11. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical... engaged in oil and gas geotechnical surveys to evaluate the subsurface characteristics of the seafloor...

  12. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in... for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian country in the States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming and the issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater...

  13. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section...

  14. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section...

  15. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section...

  16. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section...

  17. 40 CFR 122.25 - Aquaculture projects (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquaculture projects (applicable to... DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.25 Aquaculture... aquaculture projects, as defined in this section, are subject to the NPDES permit program through section...

  18. 75 FR 67963 - Availability of Draft NPDES General Permits MAG580000 and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... NPDES General Permits MAG580000 and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW Treatment Plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage in the... System (NPDES) general permits for certain Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants...

  19. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of... § 122.24 Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs,...

  20. Response of benthos to ocean outfall discharges: does a general pattern exist?

    PubMed

    Puente, A; Diaz, R J

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the effects of 40 ocean outfalls on adjacent macrobenthic invertebrates. Data were obtained from a review of gray and peer-review literature. Different parameters describing the outfall characteristics were compiled (length, maximum depth, treatment level, flow and organic matter mass discharged). Exposure to wave action was represented by significant wave height. The magnitude of the effect was categorized in three impact levels and classified considering different ecological indicators. A theoretical predictive model was formulated in which the lower the organic matter and the higher the energy of the system, the lower the benthic impact. The main conclusion was that the general pattern of the succession of benthic communities brought about by ocean outfalls fits the model of Pearson-Rosenberg but with some deviations i) the probability of a significant impact is much lower, ii) not all the successional stages occur and, iii) the magnitude of the changes are usually lower.

  1. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  2. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Urban development causes an increase in fine sediment and heavy metal stormwater pollution. Pollution load estimation theorises that stormwater pollutant load and type are strongly, directly influenced by contributing catchment land use. The research presented investigates the validity of these assumptions using an extensive novel field data set of 53 catchments. This research has investigated the relationships between land use and pollutant concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, Ba, Sn, Mn) in urban stormwater outfall sediments. Cartographic and aerial photography data have been utilised to delineate the surface and subsurface contributing catchment land use. A zoned sub-catchment approach to catchment characterisation of stormwater pollutant concentration has been defined and tested. This method effectively describes the specific land use influence on pollutant concentrations at the stormwater outfall, showing strong dependency with road length, brake points, impervious area and open space. Road networks and open space are found to influence land use, and thus stormwater pollution, closer to stormwater outfall/receiving waterbody suggesting storage, treatment, assimilation, loss or dilution of the land use influence further away from stormwater outfall. An empirical description has been proposed with which to predict outfall pollutant contributions to the receiving urban waterbody based on catchment land use information. With the definition and quantification of contributing catchment specific fine sediment and urban heavy metal pollutants, the influence of urban stormwater outfall management on the receiving watercourse has been considered. The locations of stormwater outfalls, and their proximity to the receiving waterway, are known as key water quality and river health influences. Water quality benefits from the implementation of stormwater outfalls set back from the receiving waterway banks have been investigated using the catchment case study. Setback outfalls

  3. Assessment of the effects of a marine urban outfall discharge on caged mussels using chemical and biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    de los Ríos, Ana; Juanes, José A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2012-03-01

    To assess the presence of endocrine disruptors in treated marine outfall discharges and their possible effects, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were caged in the environmental mixing zone of the outfall of the Santander sanitation system and in one control area. After 30, 60 and 90 days, samples were collected to perform chemical analyses (metals, anionic surfactants, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, phthalates and estrogenic hormones), biomarkers of general stress (lysosomal membrane stability-LMS, histopathology) and biomarkers of endocrine disruption (vitellogenin-like proteins and gonad index). There were no significant differences between outfall and control sites on contaminant levels, except for 4-tert-octylphenol which was higher in the outfall site. Bacteriological counts were higher in the outfall area. No relevant differences in biomarkers were detected between treated and control mussels. A significant reduction in LMS occurred in both groups after 90 days caging, indicating a stress situation possibly related to caging or to post-spawning reproductive state.

  4. Spatio-temporal changes in trophic categories of infaunal polychaetes near the four wastewater ocean outfalls on Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xiufu; Bailey-Brock, Julie H; Lin, David T

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of sewage discharge on benthic polychaete assemblages in the context of their functional trophic categories. We present data spanning 20 years of monitoring benthic invertebrate assemblages and sediment properties at all 4 primary- and secondary-treatment wastewater outfalls servicing Honolulu and the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. Samples collected within mandated zones of initial dilution (ZIDs) near outfall discharge sites were compared to samples collected at reference stations at varying distances away. Our findings indicate that sediment properties were not affected by the outfall discharge rate or distance from each ZID. The number of polychaete species in 4 functional trophic categories (carnivore, detritivore, omnivore, and suspension feeder) did not change with the outfall solid loading rate or with distance from each ZID, thus suggesting relatively little organic enrichment. We find no evidence of heavy organic enrichment beyond the designated ZIDs at these 4 wastewater outfalls.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-039

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 116-F-16 waste site is the former Pacific National Laboratories (PNL) Outfall, used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  7. Criteria for reducing predation by northern squawfish near juvenile salmonid bypass outfalls at Columbia River Dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, Rip S.; Poe, Thomas P.; Sheer, Mindi B.; Peters, Rock

    1996-01-01

    Predation by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) has been documented to be significant on emigrating juvenile salmonids near juvenile bypass outfalls at hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River. Criteria for siting juvenile fish bypass outfalls to reduce predation were developed using locational data from radio-tagged northern squawfish in The Dalles Dam trailrace, Columbia River. Radio transmitters were surgically implanted in 164 northern squawfish in 1993 and 1994, and their movements and distribution were monitored. Position estimates of northern squawfish were compared with data from a physical hydraulic model of the dam to estimate water velocities where northern squawfish were located. Eighty-two percent of northern squawfish position estimates were in water velocities ≤110 cm/s in 1993 and ≤90 cm/s in 1994. Fish locations were usually associated with water depths ≤10 m (84% in 1993 and 82% in 1994); 90% were within 110 m of the shore or dam structure in 1993, and 86% were within 80 m in 1994. In a related study at John Day Dam, Columbia River, where the juvenile bypass outfall is located 40 m from shore, water depth is 10 m and water velocities typically exceed 75 cm/s, only 13 of 1443 (0.9%) contacts on radio-tagged northern squawfish were located within 200 m of the bypass outfall. We recommend that new or modified juvenile bypass outfalls on the Columbia River be located in water velocities of ≥100 cm/s, ≥75 m from the shore or dam structure, and in water ≥10 m deep.

  8. Meeting NPDES permit limits for an effluent-dependent stream

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, W.L.

    1998-09-01

    When the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit containing very low copper and toxicity limits for an effluent-dependent stream, an innovative and cost-effective method to meet them was sought. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control mandated that compliance with the new limits be achieved within three years of the effective date of the permit. SRS personnel studied various regulatory options for complying with the new limits including Water Effect Ratio, use of a Metals Translator, blending with additional effluents, and outfall relocation. Regulatory options were determined to not be feasible because the receiving stream is effluent dependent. Treatment options were studied after it was determined that none of the regulatory pathways were viable. Corrosion inhibitors were evaluated on a full-scale basis with only limited benefits. Ion exchange was promising, but not cost effective for a high flow effluent with a very low concentration of copper. A treatment wetlands, not normally given consideration for the removal of metals, proved to be the most cost effective method studied and is currently under construction.

  9. 77 FR 47380 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category to Coastal Waters in Texas (TXG330000) AGENCY... today announces issuance of the final NPDES general permit for the Coastal Waters of Texas (No... Water Act, (CWA). This permit renewal authorizes discharges from exploration, development,...

  10. Chevron Mining Incorporated, McKinley Mine Remediation; NPDES Draft Permit #NN0029386

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA is issuing a notice of proposed renewal of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit No. NN0020133 to Chevron Mining Incorporated McKinley Mine remediation, 24 miles Northwest of Gallup, NM on Hwy 264.

  11. 76 FR 76716 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Discharges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... that no NPDES permits shall be required for incidental discharges (except discharges of ballast water.... Email: ow-docket@epa.gov . Mail: Original and three copies to: Water Docket, Environmental Protection... Ryan Albert at EPA Headquarters, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management, Mail Code...

  12. 75 FR 20592 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... where the property discharges wholly into an MS4 system operated by that local, state or federal... government unit where the property discharges wholly into an MS4 system operated by that local, state or... AGENCY Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)...

  13. 77 FR 21098 - Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in... from coverage in the general permit, owners/ operators of animal feeding operations that are defined...

  14. Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  15. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...

  16. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING...

  17. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING...

  18. 40 CFR 403.10 - Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment programs. 403.10 Section 403.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS FOR EXISTING...

  19. 75 FR 51458 - Notice of Extended Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... AGENCY Notice of Extended Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...-9139-4). Today EPA is extending the public comment period for the draft permit and proposed Residual... INFORMATION CONTACT: Additional information concerning the draft permit may be obtained between the hours of...

  20. 78 FR 25435 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... AGENCY Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems in the Middle Rio Grande Watershed in New Mexico (NMR04A000) AGENCY..., and public hearing. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6 Water Quality Protection Division, today is proposing...

  1. Basic Laboratory Techniques for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnette, A. K., Jr.; And Others

    This manual contains 24 self-study modules for basic laboratory procedures for the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) laboratory analyses. Areas of study include safety, identification of equipment, handling solids and liquids, use of balances, and care and use of equipment. Evaluation tests and answers are provided for each…

  2. 77 FR 25717 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging AGENCY: Environmental... mining operations in Idaho for small suction dredges (intake nozzle size of 5 inches in diameter or...

  3. 75 FR 67960 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm... requirements of the CWA. The regulations at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``* * * all separate storm sewers that are: (1) Owned or operated by the United States, a...

  4. 75 FR 4554 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA Regions 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 today are modifying the 2008 National... three (3) years. By Federal law, no NPDES permit may be issued for a period that exceeds five (5) years... recommended that EPA modify the 2008 CGP to extend the expiration date of the permit for 3 years, so that...

  5. 76 FR 40355 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Stormwater Discharges Associated With Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... construction activity in order to extend until February 15, 2012 the expiration date of the permit. Hereinafter, these NPDES general permits will be referred to as ``permit'' or ``2008 construction general permit''...

  6. 76 FR 22891 - Modification to 2008 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... construction activity in order to extend until January 31, 2012 the expiration date of the permit. Hereinafter, these NPDES general permits will be referred to as ``permit'' or ``2008 construction general permit''...

  7. 76 FR 39396 - Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG580000 and NHG580000 for Discharges From Publicly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW Treatment Plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating... (NPDES) General Permits for certain Publicly Owned Treatment Works Treatment Plants (POTW treatment plants) and Other Treatment Works Treating Domestic Sewage (collectively, ``facilities'') in...

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-16, PNL Outfall and the 100-F-43, PNL Outfall Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-046

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 100-F-43 waste site is the portion of the former discharge spillway for the PNL Outfall formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume used to discharge waste effluents from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Modeling of the near-field distribution of pollutants coming from a coastal outfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T. P.; Roux, B.; Luo, S.; Parshakova, Y. N.; Shumilova, N. S.

    2013-04-01

    The present study concerns the 3-D distribution of pollutants emitted from a coastal outfall in the presence of strong sea currents. The problem is solved using the nonlinear Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in the framework of the k-ɛ model. The constants of the logarithmic law for the vertical velocity profile in the bottom boundary layer are obtained by processing experimental data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The near-field distribution of pollutants at different distances from the diffuser is obtained in terms of the ambient flow velocity (steady or with tidal effect) and outfall discharge characteristics. It is shown that even in the case where the effluent density is substantially lower than the ambient sea water density the plume can impact the seabed, creating a risk of pollution of removable bottom sediments.

  10. Fifth Annual Report: 2008 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Judd, Chaeli; Thom, Ronald M.; Sather, Nichole K.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    This is the fifth and final report in a series documenting progress of the pre-construction eelgrass restoration and mitigation activities for the proposed King County Brightwater marine outfall, discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions, after construction of the outfall. Major eelgrass mitigation program elements include: a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over a 5 year period prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagation and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring, occurring in 2009 and beyond. The overall program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2008).

  11. Depositional history of sediments near a major submarine municipal wastewater outfall system

    SciTech Connect

    Eganhouse, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Sediments deposited near the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts` submarine outfall system contain a variety of contaminants, and the history of waste emissions is recorded in vertical concentration profiles of waste-specific molecular markers. Using cores collected in 1991 and 1992 we reconstructed the depositional history of shelf sediments by comparing distributions of three classes of hydrophobic organic compounds (DDTs, PCBs, and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) with information about their release from the outfall system and/or domestic usage patterns. These data show that the average sedimentation rate at this site during the period 1981-92 was nearly double that observed during the previous 25 years. The recent increase in sedimentation is attributable to activation of a local landslide and the occurrence of several large storms during the 1980s. Together these events have acted to mobilize a large mass of sediment for transport to offshore sediments resulting in enhanced burial of the most heavily contaminated sediments.

  12. Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

  13. Impact of storm-water outfalls on sediment quality in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Montagna, P.A.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Kalke, R.; Kennicutt, M.C.; Hooten, R.; Cripe, G.

    2000-03-01

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industrial and domestic outfalls, oil field-produced water discharges, and dredging activity) and eight reference sites were also evaluated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physical-chemical characteristics, contaminant concentrations (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and pesticides), toxicity, and a benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI) composed of 10 independent metrics calculated for each site. This large data matrix was reduced using multivariate analysis to create new variables for each component representing overall means and containing most of the variance in the larger data set. The new variables were used to conduct the correlation analysis. Toxicity was significantly correlated with both chemistry and ecological responses, whereas no correlations between the benthic metrics and sediment chemistry were observed. Using the combined information from the SQT, four of the five most degraded sites were storm-water outfall sites. Although estuaries are naturally stressful environments because of salinity and temperature fluctuations, this ecosystem appears to have been compromised by anthropogenic influences similar to what has been observed for other heavily urbanized bay systems along the Texas and Gulf coast.

  14. Impact of storm-water outfalls on sediment quallity in corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R. Scott; Montagna, Paul A.; Biedenbach, James M.; Kalke, Rick; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Hooten, Russell L.; Cripe, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industrial and domestic outfalls, oil field–produced water discharges, and dredging activity) and eight reference sites were also evaluated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physical–chemical characteristics, contaminant concentrations (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and pesticides), toxicity (amphipod and mysid solid phase and sea urchin pore-water fertilization and embryological development tests), and a benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI) composed of 10 independent metrics calculated for each site. This large data matrix was reduced using multivariate analysis to create new variables for each component representing overall means and containing most of the variance in the larger data set. The new variables were used to conduct the correlation analysis. Toxicity was significantly correlated with both chemistry and ecological responses, whereas no correlations between the benthic metrics and sediment chemistry were observed. Using the combined information from the SQT, four of the five most degraded sites were storm-water outfall sites. Although estuaries are naturally stressful environments because of salinity and temperature fluctuations, this ecosystem appears to have been compromised by anthropogenic influences similar to what has been observed for other heavily urbanized bay systems along the Texas and Gulf coast.

  15. Coastal outfalls, a sustainable alternative for improving water quality in north-east Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Juanes, José A; Puente, Araceli; Revilla, José A

    2010-09-01

    The city of Santander ceased the discharge of sewage effluents into the bay of Santander in June, 2001 and began discharging at a site 2.4 km offshore in the nearby coastal area (Virgen del Mar, Bay of Biscay) at a water depth of about 40 m. The present study investigates the effects of the new outfall discharges on the water quality of the high-energy coastal area and the recovery of the perturbed temperate estuarine area now only affected by combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and urban pollution indicators were analysed. No significant spatial or temporal change in water quality variables was found in the coastal area around the outfall. No signs of nutrification or increases in chlorophyll-a were observed throughout the study period, although a slight increase in phosphates, suspended solids and turbidity were observed two years after the relocation of the discharge. These changes were not attributed to outfall discharge but to a regional increase also observed at control stations and nearby coastal areas. Considerable reductions in indicators of urban discharges were observed in the estuary after the relocation of discharges, even at stations located around CSOs. Results from this study support the efficiency of ecological quality-driven designs of sanitation systems, which are used as management tools for sensitive and environmentally valuable coastal ecosystems in the north-east Atlantic.

  16. Effects of Jet Entry at High Flow Outfalls on Juvenile Pacific Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G. E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Heisey, Paul G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.

    2003-05-01

    We conducted field studies and laboratory experiments to document relationships between injury/mortality rates of juvenile salmon and jet entry velocities characteristic of high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfalls. During field tests the range of calculated mean entry velocities was 9.3-13.7 m/s for two high flow outfall discharges (28.3 and ~70.2 m3/s) and two tailwater elevations. Mortality of balloon-tagged hatchery spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) juveniles in the field tests was <1% at entry velocities of 9.3 m/s and 13.7 m/s. Injury rates during both field tests were also less than 1%. At a high velocity flume in a laboratory, small (87-100 mm FL) and large (135-150 mm FL) hatchery fall chinook salmon were exposed to velocities ranging from 0.0 to 24.4 m/s in a fast-fish-to-slow-water scenario. Jet entry velocities up to 15.2 m/s provided benign passage conditions for all sizes of juvenile salmonids tested. Based on our results, we concluded that a jet entry velocity up to 15.2 m/s should safely pass juvenile salmon at high flow outfalls, contingent upon site-specific, post-construction verification studies.

  17. Comparison of NPDES program findings for selected cities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fossum, Kenneth D.; McDoniel, Dawn S.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under section 402 (p) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, has required municipalities with populations of more than 100,000 to obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for urban stormwater discharge. This regulation is intended to minimize pollutant loadings from urbanized areas and preserve the quality of streams that receive stormwater. To apply for a NPDES permit, a municipality must monitor the chemistry of stormwater from basins having residential, commercial, and industrial land uses, and estimate storm- and annual pollutant loads and event-mean concentrations of 12 selected properties and constituents. The properties and constituents include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids, dissolved solids, total nitrogen, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total recoverable cadmium, total recoverable copper, total recoverable lead, and total recoverable zinc. These estimates will be used by the municipalities to evaluate the magnitude of pollutant loadings and the ef ficiency of management strategies that are intended to reduce pollutant loads. As part of a national synthesis of the study units in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) NPDES program, data were compiled on concentrations of the 12 properties and constituents required for load calculations. This report presents a comparison of these data.

  18. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information that your NPDES permitting authority requests. A storm sewer map that satisfies the requirement of... area as a medium or large MS4 with an NPDES storm water permit and that other MS4 is willing to have you participate in its storm water program, you and the other MS4 may jointly seek a modification...

  19. Outfall Site and Type Selection for a New Surface Flow Outlet to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Giorgi, Albert E.; Kuhn, Karen; Lee, Randall T.; Plump, John H.; Stensby, David A.; Sweeney, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    A site near the downstream tip of Cascades Island with a mid-level chute outfall type was selected for the high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfall of the new surface flow outlet for juvenile salmonids at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse (B2). The new passage route and outfall are a result of modifications to the original ice and trash sluice chute to increase discharge capacity and improve passage conditions, including a new outfall type and site. Technical guidelines on high flow outfall location and design were established concurrently with the outfall development process. Critical design parameters for the new B2 outfall included discharge of 150 m3/s, jet entry velocities approaching 15.2 m/s, and a tailwater elevation range of 6.1 m. For outfall siting, the selection process began with identification of nine initial alternatives. Screening, evaluation, and selection stages narrowed the list to two outfall sites – “Range D” 122 m directly downstream from the existing sluice chute outfall and “Range F” 760 m downstream near the end of Cascades Island. For outfall type, the selection process was initiated with conceptualization of 13 alternatives. Following successive screening, evaluation, consolidation, and selection stages, two outfall types became finalists – “Adjustable Cantilever” and “Mid-Level Cantilever.” The four combinations of outfall site/type were evaluated in 1:30 and 1:100 scale physical hydraulic models and a Mid-Level Cantilever at the tip of Cascades Island in Range F was selected. During further engineering after our study, the cantilever was replaced with a monolith structure to reduce construction costs, resulting in a mid-level chute outfall that was installed in 2004. Post-construction evaluations indicated survival rates around 100% through the B2CC were the highest of all passage routes at Bonneville Dam. The B2CC surface flow outlet with its high flow outfall provided a major improvement to juvenile salmonid passage at

  20. Third Annual Report: 2006 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Anderson, Michael G.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-02-01

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots

  1. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  2. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Storm Water Detection System at Storm Water Outfall #3, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    23 SWMM 24 SWMP 25 SWMU 26 SWPPP 27 TMDL 28 TPH 29 TSP 30 ^g/g 31 ug/m3 32 U.S. 33 USACE EA for Construction ozone ozone depleting... SWMM ) was used to route the design storm 19 through the storm drain system, proposed retention pond, and outlet structure to estimate runoff 20... SWMM model. 24 Outfall Modifications 25 Outfall #3 would be modified as shown in Figure 6 with an orifice plate to regulate the outlet 26 flow rate

  3. Planning and Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Marine Outfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demands for water in urban areas and agricultural zones in arid and semi-arid regions have urged planners and regulators to look for alternative renewable water sources. Worldwide, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants have become an essential supply source for the production of fresh water in such regions. Disposal of their wastes, however, has not been fully and properly addressed. This study presents a strategy for the analysis and design of optimal disposal systems of hypersaline wastes that are generated by SWRO desalination plants. The study evaluates current disposal methods and recommends ways to effectively employ multiport marine outfalls for this purpose. Such outfalls emerged as reliable means for conveying wastes from process plants, to include wastewater treatment and power plants, into the coastal waters. Their proper use, however, in conjunction with SWRO desalination plants is still in its beginning stage, and much work needs to be done to employ them effectively. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to provide design engineers with effective procedures that meet environmental permitting requirements and restrictions, while ascertaining adequate hydrodynamic performance. The study is tested by employing a simulation model and examining its reliability under many parameter perturbation scenarios. This is further extended by providing a solution to the same problem using a heuristic approach.

  4. Sediment transport and deposition processes near ocean outfalls in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Noble, M.A.; Xu, Jie; ,

    2003-01-01

    An urbanized coastal ocean that has complex topography and large-scale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing can contain a variety of sediment and pollutant distribution patterns. For example, the central southern California Bight has two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, that are connected by a short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. The complex topography causes quite different oceanographic and sediment distribution patterns in this fairly small region of the coastal ocean. In addition, three sewage outfalls discharge material over the outer shelf. A large suite of sediment cores was obtained and analyzed for contaminants, physical properties, accumulation rates, and grain sizes. Arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes margin suggest that a large reservoir of DDT and its byproducts exists in the coastal ocean sediment and will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediment and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. On the San Pedro margin an initial examination of recent data collected in the coastal ocean does not suggest that bacterial contamination on local beaches is primarily caused by transport of material from the adjacent ocean outfall.

  5. In-situ Kd values and geochemical behavior for inorganic and organic constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2000-02-11

    A series of tests were conducted to provide site-specific Kd values for constituents of concern at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit. These Kd values can be used to calculate contaminant migration within the operable unit and are, at this time considered to be the most defensible values.

  6. Dispersal and dilution of wastewater from an ocean outfall at Davis Station, Antarctica, and resulting environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Bridgen, Phil; Dunshea, Glenn; Galton-Fenzi, Ben; Hunter, John; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Leeming, Rhys; Palmer, Anne; Smith, James; Snape, Ian; Stark, Scott; Riddle, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The Antarctic Treaty permits the discharge of wastewater into Antarctic marine waters providing that conditions exist for initial dilution and rapid dispersal. We investigated the dilution and dispersal of macerated wastewater around Australia's Davis Station in East Antarctica and examined sediments for evidence of contaminants. Methods used to examine hydrodynamic conditions included current meters, dye release experiments and measurement of sewage-associated microbial markers and surfactants in the water column. We measured marine sediments for metals, nutrients, PBDEs, hydrocarbons and faecal sterols. We propose that if there is adequate dilution and dispersal there would be no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in sediments around the outfall compared to distant control sites. Currents were strongly correlated with prevailing wind conditions. Modelling indicated that diffusivity of wastewater had the greatest effect on dilution factors and that neither discharge rates nor local currents had as much effect. During summer conditions of open water, wastewater is likely to be constrained in a narrow plume close to the coast. Concentrations of sewage bacteria were high around the outfall and detected up to 1.5 km away, along with dye. There were significant differences in sediment concentrations of metals, PBDEs, hydrocarbons, nutrients and faecal sterols between sites within 2 km of the outfall and control sites. We conclude that dilution and dispersal conditions at the Davis outfall are insufficient to prevent the accumulation of contaminants in local sediments and that microbial hazards posed by wastewater are an environmental risk to local wildlife.

  7. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  8. The environmental impact of sewage and wastewater outfalls in Antarctica: An example from Davis station, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Corbett, Patricia A; Dunshea, Glenn; Johnstone, Glenn; King, Catherine; Mondon, Julie A; Power, Michelle L; Samuel, Angelingifta; Snape, Ian; Riddle, Martin

    2016-11-15

    We present a comprehensive scientific assessment of the environmental impacts of an Antarctic wastewater ocean outfall, at Davis station in East Antarctica. We assessed the effectiveness of current wastewater treatment and disposal requirements under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Macerated wastewater has been discharged from an outfall at Davis since the failure of the secondary treatment plant in 2005. Water, sediment and wildlife were tested for presence of human enteric bacteria and antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities were tested for differences between sites near the outfall and controls. Local fish were examined for evidence of histopathological abnormalities. Sediments, fish and gastropods were tested for uptake of sewage as measured by stable isotopes of N and C. Escherichia coli carrying antibiotic resistance determinants were found in water, sediments and wildlife (the filter feeding bivalve Laternula eliptica). Fish (Trematomus bernacchii) within close proximity to the outfall had significantly more severe and greater occurrences of histopathological abnormalities than at controls, consistent with exposure to sewage. There was significant enrichment of (15)N in T. bernacchii and the predatory gastropod Neobuccinum eatoni around the outfall, providing evidence of uptake of sewage. There were significant differences between epibiotic and sediment macrofaunal communities at control and outfall sites (<1.5 km), when sites were separated into groups of similar habitat types. Benthic community composition was also strongly related to habitat and environmental drivers such as sea ice. The combined evidence indicated that the discharge of wastewater from the Davis outfall is causing environmental impacts. These findings suggest that conditions in Antarctic coastal locations, such as Davis, are unlikely to be conducive to initial dilution and rapid dispersal of wastewater as

  9. 77 FR 8855 - Final Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... standards or limitations. The permit contains limitations intended to ensure compliance with Texas Water... the Territorial Seas of Texas AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Final NPDES General Permit. SUMMARY: The Director of the Water Quality Protection Division, EPA Region 6...

  10. 76 FR 65723 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... availability for comment. SUMMARY: The Director of the Water Quality Protection Division, EPA Region 6 today proposes to issue the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permit for the... 402 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1342. The permit will supersede the previous general...

  11. 78 FR 25081 - Reissuance of Final NPDES General Permits for Facilities/Operations That Generate, Treat, and/or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) general permits for facilities or operations that generate, treat, and... will begin May 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Additional information concerning the final... excluded. The final general permits, the fact sheet, and additional information may be downloaded from...

  12. 78 FR 27964 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension... period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a Notice of Availability of the draft Small Municipal Separate Storm...

  13. 78 FR 20316 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension... period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a Notice of Availability of the draft Small Municipal Separate Storm...

  14. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MS4 storm water program.) (b) You must develop a process, as well as criteria, to designate small MS4s... under the NPDES storm water discharge control program. This process must include the authority to... storm water discharge results in or has the potential to result in exceedances of water...

  15. Outfall Site and Type Selection for a New Surface Flow Outlet to Pass Juvenile Fish at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ebberts, Blaine; Giorgi, Albert E.; Kuhn, Karen; Lee, Randy; Plump, John H.; Stensby, David A.; Sweeney, Charles E.

    2008-08-01

    A site near the downstream tip of Cascades Island and a mid-level cantilever outfall type were selected for the high flow outfall of the new surface flow juvenile fish bypass at Bonneville Dam’s Second Powerhouse. The new bypass will be a modification of the existing ice and trash sluice chute, which discharges into the tailrace with jet impact on the bottom near a shoreline that predators inhabit. Thus, a new site and type are necessary for this high flow (> 28.3 m3/s) outfall. Technical guidelines on high flow outfall location and design were established and applied during the outfall development process. Critical design parameters included discharge at 150 m3/s, entry velocities approaching 15.2 m/s, and tailwater elevation range of 6.1 m. For outfall siting, the selection process began with identification of nine initial alternatives. Screening, evaluation, and selection stages narrowed the list to two sites – “Range D” 121.9 m straight downstream from the existing outfall and “Range F” 760 m downstream near the tip of Cascades Island. For outfall type, the selection process was initiated with conceptualization of 13 alternatives. During successive screening, evaluation, consolidation, and selection stages, professional judgment and quantitative comparisons were used to select two finalists – “Adjustable Cantilever” and “Mid-Level Cantilever.” The four combinations of outfall site/type were evaluated in 1:30 and 1:100 scale physical hydraulic models. The process resulted in selection of a mid-level cantilever with plunge pool at the tip of Cascades Island. The system is scheduled for completion in March 2004.

  16. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: the role of sediment organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Dinn, Pamela M; Johannessen, Sophia C; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael J; Lowe, Christopher J; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation.

  17. Fourth Annual Report: 2007 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Southard, Susan S.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-10-04

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass density

  18. Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-07-26

    A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the above-ground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or perennial trees drop their leafs. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches from the fallen leaf.

  19. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  20. Accumulation and Risk of Triclosan in Surface Sediments Near the Outfalls of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Jing, Zhaoqian; Wang, Zhulai; Cao, Shiwei; Yu, Ting

    2015-10-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent which is widely used in many personal care products. This toxic chemical is frequently found in the aquatic environment. The municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been reported to be one of the major sources for triclosan in the aquatic system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the accumulation of triclosan in the surface sediments near the outfalls of the five major municipal WWTPs of Nanjing, China, as well as to evaluate its potential ecological risk. The concentration of triclosan in the sediment samples ranged from 48.3 to 226 ng/g dry weight, which was well correlated with the acute and genetic toxicity by bioassay. The results suggested that triclosan released from municipal WWTPs could accumulate in the surface sediments nearby and may pose undetermined risk to aquatic organisms.

  1. Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-06-04

    A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness.

  2. Impact of Returning the TNX Outfall Delta to a Wetter Condition on Radionuclide Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-06-04

    A multi-faceted strategy has recently been proposed for mitigating contaminant migration at the TNX Outfall Delta. It involves (1) reducing runoff of drainage, seep, and atmospheric water, and (2) permitting the site to return to its wetter natural condition, thereby creating conditions where natural organic matter would build up and the sediment would become more chemically reduced. One manner in which the site (more specifically, the Inner Swamp) could be returned to a wetter condition is to build strategically located barriers, one between the contaminated site and the X8 Drainage Ditch and the second south of the contaminated site. The subject of this report is to evaluate the geochemical implications of this strategy on key risk drivers at the site, namely lead-212, radium-228, thorium-228, thorium-232, thorium-234, uranium-233, uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238.

  3. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6

  4. Draft NPDES Permits and Proposed Certifications Under CWA Section 401 - Two Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Within Boundary of Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Reservation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    1) Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits for two Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) within boundary of Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Reservation 2) Proposed Certifications of Compliance with Section 401 of CWA

  5. The effect of the new Massachusetts Bay sewage outfall on the concentrations of metals and bacterial spores in nearby bottom and suspended sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Casso, M.A.; Rendigs, R. R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the new outfall for Boston's treated sewage effluent began operation on September 6, 2000, no change has been observed in concentrations of silver or Clostridium perfringens spores (an ecologically benign tracer of sewage), in bottom sediments at a site 2.5 km west of the outfall. In suspended sediment samples collected with a time-series sediment trap located 1.3 km south of the outfall, silver and C. perfringens spores increased by 38% and 103%, respectively, in post-outfall samples while chromium, copper, and zinc showed no change. All metal concentrations in sediments are <50% of warning levels established by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. An 11-year data set of bottom sediment characteristics collected three times per year prior to outfall startup provides perspective for the interpretation of post-outfall data. A greater than twofold increase in concentrations of sewage tracers (silver and C. perfringens) was observed in muddy sediments following the exceptional storm of December 11-16, 1992 that presumably moved contaminated inshore sediment offshore. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program.

  7. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  8. Trace metals and organochlorines in sediments near a major ocean outfall on a high energy continental margin (Sydney, Australia).

    PubMed

    Matthai, C; Birch, G F

    2000-12-01

    Sewage effluent from a large ocean outfall south of Sydney, southeastern Australia, is efficiently dispersed on this high energy continental margin. An enrichment of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn is only detectable in the fine fraction (<62.5 microm) of sediment. Ag, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the bulk sample correlate strongly with the mud content of surficial sediment, making an identification of the anthropogenic trace metal source difficult using total sediment analyses. The concentrations of HCB and DDE in the total sediment are also slightly elevated near the outfall. In the vicinity of the outfall, the estimated sewage component in the fine fraction of sediment, using Ag, Cu and Zn in a conservative, two-endmember physical mixing model, is <5% and is <0.25% of the total sediment. A greater anthropogenic Pb component in the fine fraction (mean: 24.8%) of surficial sediment compared to Ag, Cu and Zn may suggest a source other than sewage to Sydney continental margin sediments.

  9. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-05-24

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit.

  10. Contributions of contamination and organic enrichment to sediment toxicity near a sewage outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.M.; Greenstein, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Sediment and interstitial water toxicity and contamination were measured at 12 sites near the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts sewage outfall on the Palos Verdes (Calif.) shelf, a region contaminated with many metal and organic contaminants. The spatial pattern of biological effects (sea urchin growth and fertilization) was compared with chemical concentrations in sediment, interstitial water, and gonad tissue to identify potentially meaningful relationships. Tissue analyses indicated that sediment metals were not bioavailable and therefore unlikely to be a significant factor in the sediment toxicity test responses. Sediment DDTs, PCBs, and PAHs were bioavailable and showed significant correlations with sea urchin growth effects. Interstitial water toxicity was most strongly correlated with measures of organic enrichment (hydrogen sulfide, ammonia) and hydrocarbon contamination. Subsequent dose response experiments confirmed the important role of hydrogen sulfide in interstitial water toxicity but failed to demonstrate an effect of DDE (the most abundant sediment organic contaminant) on growth. Overall, variations in measured sediment characteristics accounted for a relatively small portion of the biological responses.

  11. Optimal Planning and Design of Seawater RO Brine Outfalls under Environmental Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination has emerged as the technology of choice, adopted in most arid and semi-arid coastal regions around the world to alleviate shortages in freshwater supply. Depleted traditional water resources, population growth, frequent droughts in these regions and climate change, are among a myriad of factors that have forced coastal communities to seek alternative reliable sources of potable water. The abundance of seawater (about 97% of the volume of water on earth) makes SWRO desalination an attractive supply source of potable water for coastal communities. SWRO desalination plants, however, create hypersaline brine disposal challenges. These challenges are due to elevated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) concentration levels, of about twice of that of the receiving seawater body, and densities that are higher than the ambient seawater density. We present a model that is applied to optimize the design of a SWRO brine discharge system. We also address the need to develop a simulation-optimization framework that can be used to find the least-cost design of a multiport marine outfall system, while meeting regulatory constraints. Given the uncertainty of some of the input parameters, such as current speed, wind speed and ambient temperature, we demonstrate how one of these parameters is treated as a random variable in the development of the simulation-optimization framework. Finally, we present numerical results of a real-world problem.

  12. Mercury issues related to NPDES and the CERCLA watershed project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the current understanding of the issues and options surrounding compliance with the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. This is a complicated issue that directly impacts, and will be directly impacted by, ongoing CERCLA activities in Lower East Fork Poplar Creek and the Clinch River/Poplar Creek. It may be necessary to reconstitute the whole and combine actions and decisions regarding the entire creek (origin to confluence with the Clinch River) to develop a viable long-term strategy that meets regulatory goals and requirements as well as those of DOE`s 10-Year Plan and the new watershed management permitting approach. This document presents background information on the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) and NPDES programs insofar as it is needed to understand the issues and options. A tremendous amount of data has been collected to support the NPDES/RMPE and CERCLA programs. These data are not presented, although they may be referenced and conclusions based on them may be presented, as necessary, to support discussion of the options.

  13. Improvement of the sediment ecosystem following diversion of an intertidal sewage outfall at the Fraser river estuary, Canada, with emphasis on Corophium salmonis (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Arvai, J L; Levings, C D; Harrison, P J; Neill, W E

    2002-06-01

    Primary treated sewage effluent from the city of Vancouver, Canada was deposited directly onto the intertidal ecosystem of Sturgeon bank, Fraser river estuary between 1962 and 1988. In response to the degraded sediment conditions an azoic zone developed near the discharge outfall. Effluent discharges into the intertidal zone were almost completely stopped in 1988 with the construction of a submerged outfall. Our studies, conducted between 1994 and 1996, showed considerable improvement in the environment of the mudflat ecosystem, including increased dissolved oxygen, decreased sediment chlorophyll, decreased organic material in the sediment, reduced heavy metals in surficial sediment and increased grain size. The amphipod Corophium salmonis, important in the food web for juvenile salmon and other fish species, recolonized the previously azoic location. At reference stations, C. salmonis density was similar to that observed in previous surveys two decades earlier. Our data strongly suggest that improvement or sediment conditions near the former sewage outfall was a major factor enabling colonization by C. salmonis.

  14. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens and fecal sterols in a benthic coastal marine environment influenced by the sewage outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D D; McFeters, G A; Venkatesan, M I

    1998-07-01

    The spatial distribution, movement, and impact of the untreated wastewater outfall from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, were investigated under early austral summer conditions. The benthic environment was examined to determine the distribution of Clostridium perfringens in sediment cores and the intestinal contents of native invertebrates and fish along a transect of stations. These stations extended ca. 411 m south of the outfall. The findings revealed that the concentration of C. perfringens decreased with depth in the sediment and distance from the outfall. High percentages of tunicates and sea urchins were colonized with this bacterium along the transect. Coprostanol concentrations were also measured in sediment samples taken from each of the transect stations, and a similar trend was observed. These results are in agreement with the findings of previous studies performed with the water column and collectively provide evidence that the disposal of domestic wastes deserves special consideration in polar marine environments.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-045

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-26

    The 100-F-42 waste site is the portion of the former emergency overflow spillway for the 1904-F Outfall Structure formerly existing above the ordinary high water mark of the Columbia River. The spillway consisted of a concrete flume designed to discharge effluent from the 107-F Retention Basin in the event that flows could not be completely discharged via the river outfall pipelines. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Independent University Study to Assess the Performance of a Humate Amendment for Copper Detoxification at the H-12 Outfall at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B.; Harmon, S.; King, J.

    2016-09-06

    The overarching objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the copper detoxification process that is in place at the Savannah River Site H-12 Outfall. The testing was performed in two phases; Phase 1 assessed the safety and potential for intrinsic toxicity of the humate amendment being used at the H-12 Outfall, Borregro HA-1, as well as an alternative amendment sodium humic acid. The second phase assessed the effectiveness of Borregro HA-1 in mitigating and reducing toxic effects of copper.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in suspended-sediment samples from outfalls to Meandering Road Creek at Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, 2003-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Meandering Road Creek is an intermittent stream and tributary to Lake Worth, a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth. Meandering Road Creek gains inflow from several stormwater outfalls as it flows across AFP4. Several studies have characterized polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water and sediments of Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek; sources of PCBs are believed to originate primarily from AFP4. Two previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports documented elevated PCB concentrations in surficial sediment samples from Woods Inlet relative to concentrations in surficial sediment samples from other parts of Lake Worth. The second of these two previous reports also identified some of the sources of PCBs to Lake Worth. These reports were followed by a third USGS report that documented the extent of PCB contamination in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and identified runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 as prominent sources of these PCBs. This report describes the results of a fourth study by the USGS, in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Corporation, to investigate PCBs in suspended-sediment samples in storm runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 following the implementation of engineering controls designed to potentially alleviate PCB contamination in the drainage areas of these outfalls. Suspended-sediment samples collected from outfalls 4 and 5 during storms on March 2 and November 10, 2008, were analyzed for selected PCBs. Sums of concentrations of 18 reported PCB congeners (Sigma PCBc) in suspended-sediment samples collected before and after implementation of engineering controls are compared. At both outfalls, the Sigma PCBc before engineering controls was higher than the Sigma PCBc after engineering controls. The Sigma PCBc in suspended-sediment samples collected at AFP4 before and after implementation of

  18. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  19. Liver lesions in demersal fishes near a large ocean outfall on the San Pedro Shelf, California.

    PubMed

    Basmadjian, Edward; Perkins, Edwin M; Phillips, Charles R; Heilprin, Daniel J; Watts, Susan D; Diener, Douglas R; Myers, Mark S; Koerner, Kelly A; Mengel, Michael J; Robertson, George; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Lissner, Andrew L; Frank, Victoria L

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of toxicopathic liver lesions in demersal fish on the San Pedro Shelf, California was determined for a 15-year period (1988-2003). Fish livers were sampled at fixed locations as part of the Orange County Sanitation Districts (OCSD) ocean monitoring program. Histopathological examination of selected fish liver tissues was studied to determine whether the wastewater discharge had affected fish health. The prevalence of toxicopathic lesion classes neoplasms (NEO), preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration (FCA), and hydropic vacuolation (HYDVAC) varied among species and locations. For all species sampled, severe lesions occurred in 6.2% of the fish examined (n=7,694). HYDVAC (4.1%) was the most common toxicopathic lesion type followed by FCA (1.4%) and NEO (0.7%). HYDVAC occurred only in white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), accounting for 84.8% of the toxicopathic lesions for this species. Prevalence of HYDVAC, NEO, and FCA in white croaker was 15.2, 2.0, and 0.7%, respectively. The prevalence of HYDVAC and NEO in white croaker increased with age and size but there was no sexual difference. A linear regression model was used for hypothesis testing to account for significant differences in fish size (and age for croakers) at the different sampling locations. This analysis showed that for HYDVAC there was no spatial or location effect for lesion rate or size/age of onset. For NEO, the model predicted that white croaker near the wastewater outfall may acquire these lesions at a smaller size/younger age, and at a higher rate, than at other sites. However, this result may be biased due to the unequal size frequency distributions and the low prevalence of NEO in white croaker at the different sampling sites. Bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata) had a prevalence of FCA and NEO of 1.3 and 0.35%, respectively, but the prevalence and distribution of lesions was too few for statistical testing. There was no sexual difference for lesion prevalence in hornyhead

  20. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds.

  1. Effect of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) on ocean beach water quality near the USA-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Gersberg, Richard; Tiedge, Jürgen; Gottstein, Dana; Altmann, Sophie; Watanabe, Kayo; Lüderitz, Volker

    2008-04-01

    In early 1999, primary treatment and discharge of sewage from Tijuana, Mexico (approximately 95 million liters per day) began through South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO) into the ocean 4.3 km offshore. In this study, statistical comparisons were made of the bacterial water quality (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci densities) of the ocean, both before and after discharge of sewage to the SBOO began, so that the effect of this ocean discharge on nearshore ocean water quality could be quantitatively assessed. The frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds was statistically analyzed for 11 shore (surfzone) stations throughout US and Mexico using the Fisher's exact test, for the years before (1995-1998) as compared to after the SBOO discharge began (1999-2003). Only four of the 11 shoreline stations (S2, S3, S11, and S12) showed significant improvement (decreased frequency of exceedence of bacterial indicator thresholds) after SBOO discharge began.

  2. Reduction in organic contaminant exposure and resultant hepatic hydropic vacuolation in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) following improved effluent quality and relocation of the Boston sewage outfall into Massachusetts Bay, USA: 1987-2003.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Hall, Maury; Hillman, Robert; Mitchell, David; Burnett, Jay

    2005-02-01

    Effluent upgrades for metropolitan Boston have included toxicant reduction, primary and secondary treatment and outfall extension. Between 1992 and 2003 winter flounder at five stations were surveyed annually for liver and muscle burden and chronic hepatic sub-lethal impacts of polynuclear and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. Trends in flounder availability and fin condition were also examined. In 1988 12% of the adult winter flounder in Boston Harbor exhibited hepatic neoplasms and up to 80% had hepatic hydropic vacuolation (HV). Tumor prevalence fell to 0-2% and HV to <50% by 1996. Since then tumors have been absent, while a steady prevalence of HV has persisted, consistent with lower hydrocarbon loading and tissue levels. Contaminants and HV also fell with distance from the Boston outfall. After the outfall extension was activated in 2000, there has been no significant change in flounder liver health at the new outfall site.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-F-8, 1904-F Outfall Structure and the 100-F-42, 1904-F Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-038

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-25

    The 116-F-8 waste site is the former 1904-F Outfall Structure used to discharge reactor cooling water effluent fro mthe 107-F Retention Basin to the Columbia River. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Molecular Analysis of Endocrine Disruption in Hornyhead Turbot at Wastewater Outfalls in Southern California Using a Second Generation Multi-Species Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Michael E.; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E.; Ribecco, Cataldo; Sprague, L. James; Angert, Mila; Lekmine, Narimene; Ludka, Colleen; Martella, Andrea; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Bay, Steven M.; Gully, Joseph R.; Kelley, Kevin M.; Schlenk, Daniel; Carnevali, Oliana; Šášik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel fish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthysverticalis) captured near wastewater outfalls are used for monitoring exposure to industrial and agricultural chemicals of ~ 20 million people living in coastal Southern California. Although analyses of hormones in blood and organ morphology and histology are useful for assessing contaminant exposure, there is a need for quantitative and sensitive molecular measurements, since contaminants of emerging concern are known to produce subtle effects. We developed a second generation multi-species microarray with expanded content and sensitivity to investigate endocrine disruption in turbot captured near wastewater outfalls in San Diego, Orange County and Los Angeles California. Analysis of expression of genes involved in hormone [e.g., estrogen, androgen, thyroid] responses and xenobiotic metabolism in turbot livers was correlated with a series of phenotypic end points. Molecular analyses of turbot livers uncovered altered expression of vitellogenin and zona pellucida protein, indicating exposure to one or more estrogenic chemicals, as well as, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase-α indicating induction of the detoxification response. Molecular responses indicative of exposure to endocrine disruptors were observed in field-caught hornyhead turbot captured in Southern California demonstrating the utility of molecular methods for monitoring environmental chemicals in wastewater outfalls. Moreover, this approach can be adapted to monitor other sites for contaminants of emerging concern in other fish species for which there are few available gene sequences. PMID:24086568

  5. Evaluation of relationships between reproductive metrics, gender and vitellogenin expression in demersal flatfish collected near the municipal wastewater outfall of Orange County, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Ann Rempel, Mary; Reyes, Jesus; Steinert, Scott; Hwang, Wendy; Armstrong, Jeff; Sakamoto, Ken; Kelley, Kevin; Schlenk, Daniel

    2006-05-10

    Estrogenic activity in fish has primarily been evaluated using vitellogenin (vtg) expression in male and juvenile animals. Although the response has been widespread in field and laboratory studies, the relevance of the response to higher level adverse effects, particularly in the field, is less than clear. Previous evaluations of vtg within flatfish species collected near the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) outfall and stations as far as 7.7 km down current indicated bioavailable estrogens within demersal flatfish populations. In order to evaluate the persistence of estrogenic activity and relationships to reproduction and development, fish were sampled in the winter and summer of 2003 and 2004 at the outfall and a reference location. Vtg, plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, gonadosomatic indices (GSI), sperm DNA damage, development, and gender ratios were measured in English Sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and Hornyhead Turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis). Variable levels of vtg were continually observed in the plasma samples of fish collected at both locations. Vtg expression and plasma E2 levels were significantly correlated in females. A positive relationship was demonstrated between plasma E2 levels and sperm DNA damage. Rather than an expected feminization of populations, a trend toward masculinization was observed particularly at the OCSD outfall, as indicated by gender ratios and significantly higher GSI in males versus females. These results are consistent with previous studies showing vtg expression in male flatfish, but no alteration in overall flatfish abundance at the sampled sites.

  6. Migration of Sr-20, Cs-137, and Pu-239/240 in Canyon below Los Alamos outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.; Mason, C.F.V.; Boak, J.M.; Longmire, P.A.

    1996-04-01

    Technical Area-21 (TA-21) of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is on a mesa bordered by two canyons DP Canyon and Los Alamos (LA) Canyon. DP Canyon is a small semiarid watershed with a well defined channel system where the stream flow is ephemeral. TA-21 has had a complex history of waste disposal as research to determine the chemical and metallurgical properties of nuclear materials occurred here from 1945-1978. Due to these operations, the TA-21 mesa top and bordering canyons have been monitored and characterized by the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Results identify radionuclide values at outfall. 21-011 (k) which exceed Screening Action Levels, and points along DP Canyon which exceed regional background levels. The radiocontaminants considered in this study are strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium-239. This research examines sediment transport and speciation of radionuclide contaminant migration from a source term named SWMU 21-011 (k) down DP Canyon. Three dimensional surface plots of data from 1977-1994 are used to portray the transport and redistribution of radioactive contaminants in an alluvial stream channel. An overall decrease in contamination concentration since 1983 has been observed which could be due to more stringent laboratory controls and also to the removal of main plutonium processing laboratories to another site.

  7. A model to relate environmental variation to NPDES permit violations at thermoelectric facilities on the Taunton River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Seth D.

    Large thermoelectric facilities are issued permits to discharge high volume, high temperature effluents as part of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Once-through cooled power plants are especially dependent on large quantities of cool water to operate. When ambient temperatures are high or streamflow is very low, power plant managers must reduce (i.e., "dial back") energy generation in order to avoid violating their NPDES permit limitations. Sudden dial-back can have human health impacts when electricity is no longer available to provide cooling or other vital services. A superior system of electricity and environmental management would reduce the probability of future violations and/or dial-back by explicitly recognizing the facilities for which those events are highly likely. An original statistical model is presented and used to answer the following research questions: 1) Do electricity demand and natural environmental conditions influence withdrawal rates and effluent temperatures at once-through thermoelectric facilities? 2) Is it possible to estimate past withdrawal rates and effluent temperatures where reported observations are unavailable? 3) In the future, how often will power plant managers face the decision to dial-back generation or violate their plant's discharge permit? 5) What can be done to avoid such decisions and the resulting negative impacts? Two facilities in Massachusetts were chosen as representative case studies. Using public records, several decades of daily and monthly observations of environmental variables (e.g. ambient air temperature, streamflow) and monthly energy generation were tested against monthly observations of facility water withdrawal rates and maximum discharge temperatures using a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach. The MLR model successfully estimated monthly maximum discharge temperatures for both facilities using monthly average of daily high air temperatures and monthly net electricity

  8. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction of Contaminant Mobility at the TNX Outfall Delta Through the Use of Apatite and Zero-Valent Iron as Soil Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    2002-12-18

    The TNX pilot-scale research facility released processed waste, containing high concentrations of several metals and radionuclides into an unlined seepage basin between 1958 and 1980. The contents of this basin have entered the nearby swamp, the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD), by subsurface and overland flow. A multi-faceted strategy has been proposed recently for mitigating contaminant migration at the site. The intent of this remediation strategy is not only to minimize contaminant leaching in a cost-effective manner, but also to minimize harm to the sensitive TNX wetland ecosystem.

  10. Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Bay, Steven M; Kwon, Jeong W; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence and bioaccumulation of organic contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) near four major wastewater ocean outfalls in the Southern California Bight, more than 75 pharmaceutical and personal care products, current-use pesticides, and industrial/commercial chemicals were analyzed in sediment and liver tissues of hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although most CECs targeted were infrequently detected or not detectable, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate) were detected in all sediments at median (maximum) concentrations of 5.1 (8.6), 30 (380), and 121 (470) µg/kg, respectively. In the liver, 4-NP and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners 47 and 99 were detected in >90% of samples at median (maximum) concentrations of 85 (290) and 210 (480) µg/kg, respectively. The sedative diazepam was detected in all liver samples, but was infrequently detected in sediments. Sediment and liver concentrations across outfall locations ranged over several orders of magnitude and were elevated relative to a reference site. Relative to sediment, accumulation in liver of PBDEs 47 and 99 was comparable to that for legacy organochlorines, confirming their high bioaccumulation potential and suggesting their inclusion in future tissue monitoring studies. Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies.

  11. Using Arc/Info GIS to help implement the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater permit for Los Angeles County

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.A.; Pace, P.J.; Woods, J.A.; DePoto, W.

    1997-06-01

    One of Los Angeles County Department of Public Works` many responsibilities is to manage non-point pollution that enters the storm drain network within Los Angeles County. The management of this non-point source pollution is mandated by the NPDES guidelines under the Federal Clean Water Act. These guidelines require the County to monitor the drainage network and the storm water and urban runoff flowing through it. The County covers over 3,117 square miles, with the NPDES Permit covering over 3,100 square miles and over 2500 miles of storm drains. A proposed solution to monitor and manage this vast geographic area is centered upon an Arc/Info GIS. Some of the many concerns which need to be addressed include the administration and evaluation of Best Management Practices (BMP`s), storm drain inspection for illegal connections and illicit discharges, and pollutant load assessment and modeling. The storm drain network and other coverages will be related to external data bases currently used for facility management and planning. This system would be used for query purposes to perform spatial modeling and {open_quotes}what if{close_quotes} scenarios needed to create maps and reports required by the permit and to evaluate various BMP implementation strategies.

  12. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  13. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-10

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  14. Dissolved Oxygen decrease near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf affected by the Athens Sewage Outfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, A.; Hatzianestis, I.; Psillidou-Giouranovits, R.

    2012-04-01

    that the organic matter which is carried by the wastewater plume, follows the prevailing circulation and finally decomposes in a distance from the pipe, resulting to the DO decrease. The investigation of fecal sterols in the sediments (coprostanol values, coprostanol/cholesterol and coprostanol/coprostanol+cholestanol rations) confirms the sewage dispersion pathways. According to these results, although the whole area in a distance ~14 km from the outlet is contaminated by human wastes, the sediments in a direction southwest of Psittalia were more seriously affected than in the southeast direction. Additionally, historical data for the period 1992-2009 showed decreasing trend of the DO concentrations also near the bottom of the stations located southeast of Psittalia Sewage outfall. Consequently, the sewage plume from Psittalia Treatment Plant affects the DO concentrations near the bottom of the Inner Saronikos Gulf and the area within a circle of ~ 14Km diameter is assumed to be sensitive, with relatively lower DO values that potentially can affect the zoobenthic and the benthopelagic communities.

  15. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  16. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  17. Bondad Landfill NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-R050005, Transit Waste, LLC is authorized to discharge from the Bondad Landfill facility in La Plata County, Colorado, to an unnamed tributary of the Animas River.

  18. NPDES Permit Status Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports show the backlog status nationwide, based on EPA databases and input from EPA regions and states. The reports show a snapshot in time, keep in mind that the status of facilities and the universe of permits change.

  19. Phosphate Mineral Source Evaluation and Zone-of-Influence Estimates for Sediment Contaminant Amendments at the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    KAPLAN, DI

    2004-07-06

    The TNX pilot-scale research facility released processed waste, containing elevated concentrations of several metals and radionuclides into an unlined seepage basin between 1958 and 1980. The contents of this basin have entered the nearby swamp, the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD), by subsurface and overland flow. Studies were conducted to evaluate whether sediment amendments could be used to reduce contaminant mobility and bioavailability. Previous studies showed that the addition of a phosphate mineral, apatite, and zero-valent iron, Fe(0), were effective at immobilizing a broad range of contaminants at the site. It is anticipated that the sediment amendments will be broadcast on the ground surface and backfilled into drilled 2 cm diameter x 15 cm deep holes spaced across the contaminated area. The amendments' zone-of-influence of these two application methods was conducted to permit treatment design. The objective of this study was to determine (1) which source of phosphate mineral is most suitable for sediment-contaminant stabilization, and (2) what is the extent of the zone-of-influence of applied apatite and Fe(0).

  20. Integrated Forensics Approach to Fingerprint PCB Sources in Sediments using Rapid Sediment Characterization (RSC) and Advanced Chemical Fingerprinting (ACF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    with a former landfill and nearby creek with combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfalls that represent multiple potential PCB sources. Total PCB...typical DoD sediment cleanup site with a former landfill and nearby creek with combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfalls that represent multiple...contaminant sources (e.g., NPDES, stormwater, marinas, or combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfalls), or in locations where historic releases are

  1. New selective inhibitors of calcium-activated chloride channels … T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA … what do they inhibit?

    PubMed Central

    Boedtkjer, D M B; Kim, S; Jensen, A B; Matchkov, V M; Andersson, K E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA are identified as selective inhibitors of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). The aim of this study was to examine the chloride-specificity of these compounds on isolated resistance arteries in the presence and absence (±) of extracellular chloride. Experimental Approach Isolated resistance arteries were maintained in a myograph and tension recorded, in some instances combined with microelectrode impalement for membrane potential measurements or intracellular calcium monitoring using fura-2. Voltage-dependent calcium currents (VDCC) were measured in A7r5 cells with voltage-clamp electrophysiology using barium as a charge carrier. Key Results Rodent arteries preconstricted with noradrenaline or U46619 were concentration-dependently relaxed by T16Ainh-A01 (0.1–10 μM): IC50 and maximum relaxation were equivalent in ±chloride (30 min aspartate substitution) and the T16Ainh-A01-induced vasorelaxation ±chloride were accompanied by membrane hyperpolarization and lowering of intracellular calcium. However, agonist concentration–response curves ±chloride, with 10 μM T16Ainh-A01 present, achieved similar maximum constrictions although agonist-sensitivity decreased. Contractions induced by elevated extracellular potassium were concentration-dependently relaxed by T16Ainh-A01 ±chloride. Moreover, T16Ainh-A01 inhibited VDCCs in A7r5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA (0.1–10 μM) induced vasorelaxation ±chloride and both compounds lowered maximum contractility. MONNA, 10 μM, induced substantial membrane hyperpolarization under resting conditions. Conclusions and Implications T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA concentration-dependently relax rodent resistance arteries, but an equivalent vasorelaxation occurs when the transmembrane chloride gradient is abolished with an impermeant anion. These compounds therefore display poor selectivity for TMEM16A

  2. Changes in Menidia beryllina Gene Expression and In Vitro Hormone-Receptor Activation After Exposure to Estuarine Waters Near Treated Wastewater Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Cole, Bryan J; Brander, Susanne M; Jeffries, Ken M; Hasenbein, Simone; He, Guochun; Denison, Michael S; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Fishes in estuarine waters are frequently exposed to treated wastewater effluent, among numerous other sources of contaminants, yet the impacts of these anthropogenic chemicals are not well understood in these dynamic and important waterways. Inland silversides (Menidia beryllina) at an early stage of development [12 days posthatch (dph)] were exposed to waters from two estuarine wastewater-treatment outfall locations in a tidal estuary, the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta (California, USA) that had varied hydrology and input volumes. The genomic response caused by endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in these waters was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on a suite of hormonally regulated genes. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activities of the waters were measured using CALUX reporter bioassays. The presence of bifenthrin, a pyrethroid pesticide and known EDC, as well as caffeine and the anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical ibuprofen, which were used as markers of wastewater effluent input, were determined using instrumental analysis. Detectable levels of bifenthrin (2.89 ng L(-1)) were found on one of the sampling dates, and caffeine was found on all sampling dates, in water from the Boynton Slough. Neither compound was detected at the Carquinez Strait site, which has a much smaller effluent discharge input volume relative to the receiving water body size compared with Boynton Slough. Water samples from both sites incubated in the CALUX cell line induced estrogenic and androgenic activity in almost all instances, though the estrogenicity was relatively higher than the androgenicity. Changes in the abundance of mRNA transcripts of endocrine-responsive genes and indicators of general chemical stress were observed after a 96-h exposure to waters from both locations. The relative levels of endocrine response, changes in gene transcript abundance, and contaminant concentrations were greater in water from the Boynton Slough site despite those

  3. Identification of an antifungal metabolite produced by a potential biocontrol Actinomyces strain A01

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cai Ge; Liu, Wei Cheng; Qiu, Ji Yan; Wang, Hui Min; Liu, Ting; De Liu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Actinomyces strain A01 was isolated from soil of a vegetable field in the suburb of Beijing, China. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain A01 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. In the antimicrobial spectrum test strain A01 presented a stable and strong inhibitory activity against several plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia laxa, etc. However, no antibacterial activity was found. In pot experiments in greenhouse, the development of tomato gray mold was markedly suppressed by treatment with the fermentation broth of the strain A01, and the control efficacy was higher than those of Pyrimethanil and Polyoxin. A main antifungal compound (purity 99.503%) was obtained from the fermentation broth of strain A01 using column chromatography and HPLC. The chemical structural analysis with U V, IR, MS, and NMR confirmed that the compound produced by the strain A01 is natamycin, a polyene antibiotic produced by S. chattanovgensis, S. natalensis, and S. gilvosporeus, widely used as a natural biological preservative for food according to previous reports. The present study revealed a new producing strain of natamycin and its potential application as a biological control agent for fungal plant diseases. PMID:24031293

  4. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  5. Thermostable chitinase from Cohnella sp. A01: isolation and product optimization.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Nasrin; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Haghbeen, Kamahldin

    Twelve bacterial strains isolated from shrimp farming ponds were screened for their growth activity on chitin as the sole carbon source. The highly chitinolytic bacterial strain was detected by qualitative cup plate assay and tentatively identified to be Cohnella sp. A01 based on 16S rDNA sequencing and by matching the key morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. The cultivation of Cohnella sp. A01 in the suitable liquid medium resulted in the production of high levels of enzyme. The colloidal chitin, peptone, and K2HPO4 represented the best carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus sources, respectively. Enzyme production by Cohnella sp. A01 was optimized by the Taguchi method. Our results demonstrated that inoculation amount and temperature of incubation were the most significant factors influencing chitinase production. From the tested values, the best pH/temperature was obtained at pH 5 and 70°C, with Km and Vmax values of chitinase to be 5.6mg/mL and 0.87μmol/min, respectively. Ag(+), Co(2+), iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Tweens (20 and 80), Triton X-100, and EDTA increased the same. In addition, the study of the morphological alteration of chitin treated by enzyme by SEM revealed cracks and pores on the chitin surface, indicating a potential application of this enzyme in several industries.

  6. Final NPDES Permit Issued to Acadia Aquaculture | NPDES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    EPA NE issued a final permit to Acadia Aquaculture Inc. on February 21, 2002 for the regulation of discharges from a proposed Atlantic salmon growing net pen facility in Blue Hill Bay, Maine. Links to the Final Permit and the Response to Comments are provided on this page.

  7. Geology of the U-1a. 01 horizontal drift complex, southwestern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Thompson, P.H.; Rayburn, C.J.

    1989-03-01

    The U-1a.01 complex, site of a Los Alamos National Laboratory-sponsored experiment, is located in southwestern Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. The complex is comprised of the vertical U-1a shaft, two large-diameter cable access holes, and approximately 229 m (750') of horizontal drift mined within alluvium 292.6 m (960') below the surface. Geologic mapping and related work at U-1a.01 afforded a unique opportunity to observe and evaluate the characteristics of alluvium in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and to compare the results with surface and drill hole alluvium data. The Los Alamos Support Group of the Fenix and Scisson, Inc. Geology and Hydrology Division carried out a program of mapping, sampling and photography while mining was in progress, with the dual purpose of characterizing the geology of the site and documenting the mining operation. This report details the products and the results of that effort. 12 refs., 8 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  9. Keller Transport, Inc. NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0030805, Keller Transport, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its groundwater remediation treatment facility in Lake County, Montana, to Flathead Lake.

  10. Molecular characterization of a novel family-46 chitosanase from Pseudomonas sp. A-01.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akikazu; Saito, Akihiro; Arai, Sayaka; Usuda, Sakiko; Furuno, Maiko; Kaneko, Naomi; Shida, Osamu; Nagata, Yoshiho

    2008-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. A-01, isolated as a strain with chitosan-degrading activity, produced a 28 kDa chitosanase. Following purification of the chitosanase (Cto1) and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence, the corresponding gene (cto1) was cloned by a reverse-genetic technique. The gene encoded a protein, composed of 266 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence (1-28), that showed an amino acid sequence similar to known family-46 chitosanases. Cto1 was successfully overproduced and was secreted by a Brevibacillus choshinensis transformant carrying the cto1 gene on expression plasmid vector pNCMO2. The purified recombinant Cto1 protein was stable at pH 5-8 and showed the best chitosan-hydrolyzing activity at pH 5. Replacement of two acidic amino acid residues, Glu23 and Asp41, which correspond to previously identified active centers in Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase, with Gln and Asn respectively caused a defect in the hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus MN-BM-A01, a strain with high exopolysaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Sun, Erna; Shi, Yudong; Jiang, Yunyun; Chen, Yun; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhang, Hao; Mu, Zhishen; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-04-20

    Streptococcus thermophilus MN-BM-A01 (ST MN-BM-A01) (CGMCC No. 11383) was a strain isolated from Yogurt Block in Gansu, China. The yogurt fermented with this strain has good flavor, acidity, and viscosity. Moreover, ST MN-BM-A01 could produce a high level of EPS which can confer the yogurt with improved rheological properties. We reported the complete genome sequence of ST MN-BM-A01 that contains 1,876,516bp encoding 1704 coding sequences (CDSs), 67 tRNA genes and 6 rRNA operons. The genomic sequence indicated that this strain included a 35.3-kb gene cluster involved in EPS biosynthesis.

  12. 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility operating specifications document

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    These specifications deal with the release of treated water into the Columbia River via the TEDF submerged outfall. Specific limits are set for contaminants to be discharged in NPDES permit WA-002591-7. This section contains the operating ranges that will be used to best meet the permit limits.

  13. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  14. Environmental assessment for effluent reduction, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-11

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to eliminate industrial effluent from 27 outfalls at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Proposed Action includes both simple and extensive plumbing modifications, which would result in the elimination of industrial effluent being released to the environment through 27 outfalls. The industrial effluent currently going to about half of the 27 outfalls under consideration would be rerouted to LANL`s sanitary sewer system. Industrial effluent from other outfalls would be eliminated by replacing once-through cooling water systems with recirculation systems, or, in a few instances, operational changes would result in no generation of industrial effluent. After the industrial effluents have been discontinued, the affected outfalls would be removed from the NPDES Permit. The pipes from the source building or structure to the discharge point for the outfalls may be plugged, or excavated and removed. Other outfalls would remain intact and would continue to discharge stormwater. The No Action alternative, which would maintain the status quo for LANL`s outfalls, was also analyzed. An alternative in which industrial effluent would be treated at the source facilities was considered but dismissed from further analysis because it would not reasonably meet the DOE`s purpose for action, and its potential environmental effects were bounded by the analysis of the Proposed Action and the No Action alternatives.

  15. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  16. UNIQUE APPROACH TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM PERMIT LIMITS FOR COPPER

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.; Halverson, N.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Nichols, R.; Noonkester, J.

    2011-03-15

    The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained copper limits as low as six micrograms per liter. It also contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with anywhere from three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable compliance at several outfalls. Some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct than others. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. One innovation, constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, has proven to be very successful.

  17. 2002 NPDES CSO Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, delivered to Congress on January 29, 2002, identifies progress made in implementing and enforcing combined sewer overflow (CSO) controls prior to, and because of, the 1994 CSO control policy.

  18. Industrial Pretreatment Program | NPDES | New England | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    The Industrial Pretreatment Program prevents the discharge of pollutants to Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) which will interfere with the operations of the POTW or its use and disposal of municipal biosolids.

  19. NPDES Permits Water | Region 2 | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-01-24

    Water resources are central to the region's aesthetics, economics and health. There are some 60,000 miles of rivers and streams in Region 2, including waterways of major importance such as the Hudson and Passaic Rivers, the ports of San Juan and New York/New Jersey Harbor, Lake Ontario, Niagara Falls and the St. Lawrence Seaway. New York, New Jersey, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands have a combined 685 miles of ocean coastline as well.

  20. 2004 NPDES CSO Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, delivered to Congress on Thursday, August 26, 2004, presents a comprehensive characterization of CSOs and SSOs, including the extent of environmental and human health impacts caused by CSOs and SSOs.

  1. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  2. Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} transgenic and MHC Class I knockout mice as a tool for HIV vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinliang; Srivastava, Tumul; Rawal, Ravindra; Manuel, Edwin; Isbell, Donna; Tsark, Walter; La Rosa, Corinna; Wang Zhongde; Li Zhongqi; Barry, Peter A.; Hagen, Katharine D.; Longmate, Jeffrey; Diamond, Don J.

    2009-04-25

    We have developed a murine model expressing the rhesus macaque (RM) Mamu-A*01 MHC allele to characterize immune responses and vaccines based on antigens of importance to human disease processes. Towards that goal, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeric RM (alpha1 and alpha2 Mamu-A*01 domains) and murine (alpha3, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic H-2K{sup b} domains) MHC Class I molecules were derived by transgenesis of the H-2K{sup b}D{sup b} double MHC Class I knockout strain. After immunization of Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} Tg mice with rVV-SIVGag-Pol, the mice generated CD8{sup +} T-cell IFN-gamma responses to several known Mamu-A*01 restricted epitopes from the SIV Gag and Pol antigen sequence. Fusion peptides of highly recognized CTL epitopes from SIV Pol and Gag and a strong T-help epitope were shown to be immunogenic and capable of limiting an rVV-SIVGag-Pol challenge. Mamu-A*01/K{sup b} Tg mice provide a model system to study the Mamu-A*01 restricted T-cell response for various infectious diseases which are applicable to a study in RM.

  3. Construction of a Streptomyces lydicus A01 transformant with a chit42 gene from Trichoderma harzianum P1 and evaluation of its biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Bai, Linquan; Liu, Weicheng; Li, Yingying; Lu, Caige; Li, Yaqian; Fu, Kehe; Yu, Chuanjin; Chen, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Streptomyces lydicus A01 and Trichoderma harzianum P1 are potential biocontrol agents of fungal diseases in plants. S. lydicus A01 produces natamycin to bind the ergosterol of the fungal cell membrane and inhibits the growth of Botrytis cinerea. T. harzianum P1, on the other hand, features high chitinase activity and decomposes the chitin in the cell wall of B. cinerea. To obtain the synergistic biocontrol effects of chitinase and natamycin on Botrytis cinerea, this study transformed the chit42 gene from T. harzianum P1 to S. lydicus A01. The conjugal transformant (CT) of S. lydicus A01 with the chit42 gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associated chitinase activity and natamycin production were examined using the 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. The S. lydicus A01-chit42 CT showed substantially higher chitinase activity and natamycin production than its wild type strain (WT). Consequently, the biocontrol effects of S. lydicus A01-chit42 CT on B. cinerea, including inhibition to spore germination and mycelial growth, were highly improved compared with those of the WT. Our research indicates that the biocontrol effect of Streptomyces can be highly improved by transforming the exogenous resistance gene, i.e. chit42 from Trichoderma, which not only enhances the production of antibiotics, but also provides a supplementary function by degrading the cell walls of the pathogens.

  4. MODELS FOR SUBMARINE OUTFALL - VALIDATION AND PREDICTION UNCERTAINTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This address reports on some efforts to verify and validate dilution models, including those found in Visual Plumes. This is done in the context of problem experience: a range of problems, including different pollutants such as bacteria; scales, including near-field and far-field...

  5. Hydrofoil controls outfall effluents in rivers and oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    System, which consists of vertical semispan hydrofoil anchored in water bed and set at angle of attack with respect to ambient water flow, works by keeping pollutants concentrated within long trailing vortex generated by hydrofoil and either deflecting vortex away from sensitive regions or sweeping it from side to side for rapid dispersion.

  6. Experimental Model of the L-Area Outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.S.

    2001-07-17

    A once-through cooling lake has been chosen to provide for thermal mitigation of the reactor effluent cooling water. This alternative provides satisfactory cooling performance and thermal buffering, with moderate construction time, cost, and maintenance. In the event that the cooling lake fails to meet South Carolina environmental requirements during the summer months, SRP will reduce reactor power until supplemental cooling can be provided. To minimize this further expense and delay, it is desirable to realize the best performance possible from the cooling lake.

  7. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*01 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Fuliang; Lou, Zhiyong; Gao, Bin; Bell, John I.; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.

    2005-06-01

    Crystallization of the first rhesus macaque MHC class I complex. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques has been used as the best model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans, especially in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, the structure of rhesus macaque (or any other monkey model) major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presenting a specific peptide (the ligand for CTL) has not yet been elucidated. Here, using in vitro refolding, the preparation of the complex of the rhesus macaque MHC I allele (Mamu-A*01) with human β{sub 2}m and an immunodominant peptide, CTPYDINQM (Gag-CM9), derived from SIV Gag protein is reported. The complex (45 kDa) was crystallized; the crystal belongs to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 183.8, c = 155.2 Å. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracts X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. The structure is being solved by molecular replacement and this is the first attempt to determined the crystal structure of a peptide–nonhuman primate MHC complex.

  8. TCR Affinity Associated with Functional Differences between Dominant and Subdominant SIV Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Mamu-A*01+ Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Christa E.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S. Munir; Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design. PMID:24743648

  9. TCR affinity associated with functional differences between dominant and subdominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in Mamu-A*01+ rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Christa E; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S Munir; Letvin, Norman L

    2014-04-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design.

  10. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  12. City of Polson Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0020559, the City of Polson is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to the Flathead River.

  13. SBAR Panel: NPDES Comprehensive Storm Water Phase II Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SBAR panel on proposed regulations to address currently unregulated discharges of storm water and provide regulatory relief to industrial facilities where industrial materials and activities are not exposed to storm water

  14. Region 8 NPDES Lagoon General Permit Notice of Intent Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adobe Acrobat fillable form of the Notice of Intent for Coverage under the EPA Region 8 Lagoon General Permit for Wastewater Systems located in Indian Country in Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.

  15. NPDES General Permit for Discharges from CAFOs in New Mexico

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This general permit authorizes owners and operators of concentrated animal feeding operations in New Mexico, except those excluded, authorization to discharge, and sets forth effluent limitations, monitoring requirements and other provisions.

  16. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or (2) In establishing... the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA; or (3) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g.,...

  17. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or (2) In establishing... the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA; or (3) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g.,...

  18. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specifies the limitation for the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form; or (2) In establishing... the metal in the dissolved or valent or total form to carry out the provisions of the CWA; or (3) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form (e.g.,...

  19. 77 FR 13601 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Proposed NPDES General Permit for New and Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Sources and New Dischargers in the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Category for the... of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category (40 CFR Part 435, Subpart A), located in and... (2007 permit). The 2007 permit limitations conform with the Oil and Gas Offshore Subcategory...

  20. 40 CFR 122.45 - Calculating NPDES permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... except: (i) For pH, temperature, radiation, or other pollutants which cannot appropriately be expressed... anticipated increased (not to exceed maximum production capability) or decreased production levels. (2) For... days prior to a month in which the permittee expects to operate at a level higher than the...

  1. 77 FR 61605 - Notice of Proposed NPDES General Permit; Final NPDES General Permit for New and Existing Sources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... discharges containing methanol up to 20 bbl/ event and ethylene glycol up to 200 bbl/event; 5. Change the... (NetDMR) requirement in the permit. The time for NetDMR preparation will be much less than that...

  2. Genetic data on 11 STRs (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, F13B, LPL) in an Argentine northeast population.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Gustavo; Vázquez, Estefanía; Schaller, Cecilia; Quevedo, Natalia

    2003-05-05

    Allele frequencies for 11 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, F13B and LPL) were obtained from a sample of 225 unrelated individuals born in the Entre Ríos state of Argentina.

  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Escobedo, G.M.; Hargis, K.M.; Douglass, C.R.

    2007-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) waste management program is responsible for disposition of waste generated by many of the LANL programs and operations. LANL generates liquid and solid waste that can include radioactive, hazardous, and other constituents. Where practical, LANL hazardous and mixed wastes are disposed through commercial vendors; low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and radioactive asbestos-contaminated waste are disposed on site at LANL's Area G disposal cells, transuranic (TRU) waste is disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and high-activity mixed wastes are disposed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) after treatment by commercial vendors. An on-site radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) removes the radioactive constituents from liquid wastes and treated water is released through an NPDES permitted outfall. LANL has a very successful waste minimization program. Routine hazardous waste generation has been reduced over 90% since 1993. LANL has a DOE Order 450.1-compliant environmental management system (EMS) that is ISO 14001 certified; waste minimization is integral to setting annual EMS improvement objectives. Looking forward, under the new LANL management and operating contractor, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC, a Zero Liquid Discharge initiative is being planned that should eliminate flow to the RLWTF NPDES-permitted outfall. The new contractor is also taking action to reduce the number of permitted waste storage areas, to charge generating programs directly for the cost to disposition waste, and to simplify/streamline the waste system. (authors)

  4. Annual Storm Water Report for the Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    This is the second annual storm water report prepared in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) on December 1, 2011, and the corresponding Y-12 Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) which became effective on September 7, 2012. However, Appendix A does contain some analytical data gathered under the previous NPDES permit and SWP3 for comparison purposes. The quality of storm water exiting the Y-12 Complex via East Fork Poplar Creek remained relatively stable from 2012 to 2013. However, there was one largely unexpected high concentration of mercury noted in an area that is not known to have previously been a mercury use area. This was noted in Sector AA, Outfall 014. This outfall is normally sampled on a rotating basis but, due this elevated concentration, will be sampled again in 2014. The Y-12 Complex will continue to implement appropriate BMPs and reduce outside material storage ares where possible. Emphasis will continue to be placed on site inspections and timely implementation of proper storm water control measures.

  5. Fate and persistence of glutaraldehyde and retention lagoon diversity of life at a natural gas storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.M.; Morris, E.A. III; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    In view of increasingly stringent environmental regulations concerning Produced water disposal, the natural gas industry needs to approximate the maximum amount of biocide which can be applied downhole and not adversely impact the local biology in retention lagoons receiving produced waters. Biocide treatment data from a microbially sour aquifer-storage natural gas facility, archived by the operations personnel, were incorporated into a study sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), Chicago, Illinois along with additional data from focused field sampling. The sandy assessed the persistence and fate of glutaraldehyde and its possible effects on diversity of life in the produced water system and outfall areas which receive the lagoon discharge under a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. In this study, a mathematical model was constructed that incorporated experimentally-determined glutaraldehyde persistence, wellhead Outaraldehyde residuals, rates of water production, and lagoon specifications. The model was used to calculate the levels of glutaraldehyde in the lagoons as a function of time, based on the amount of glutaraldehyde applied downhole. The modeled results were used to assess the potential impacts of various levels of downhole treatment using glutaraldehyde and confirmed that the current treatment regime provided little potential for adverse environmental effects in the retention lagoons or the lagoon outfall areas. Chemical and biological sampling and diversity of life analyses were performed in the retention lagoon system and outfall areas to further test for environmental impacts relating to biocide use; no evidence of adverse effects was found.

  6. RESPONSE PATTERNS OF GREAT RIVER FISH ASSEMBLAGE METRICS TO OUTFALL EFFECTS FROM POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human disturbance alters key attributes of aquatic ecosystems such as water quality, habitat structure, hydrological regime, energy flow, and biological interactions. In great rivers, this is particularly evident because they are disproportionately degraded by habitat alteration...

  7. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The results obtained from this study showed that the test area contamination is extremely heterogeneous, and that it contains extremely high levels of the three major contaminants, HMX, RDX and TNT. The potential for success of a bioremediation strategy is discussed.

  8. Independent Engineering Assessment of the New Orleans Temporary Outfall Canal Pumps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-27

    483 12 85059 16.95 78.3 467 13 96448 12.1 74.4 399 14 100683 9.26 68 348 15 104367 7.59 64.1 313 a Q is flowrate b TDH is Total Dynamic Head Ref...Hydraulic Pumping Units The equipment specifications called for the HPUs to be pressure tested, both statically and dynamically , at the factory. This... dynamically for 15 minutes at maximum speed, pressure, and temperature. In early factory tests, the original cams (66&42) of the Denison pumps on the HPUs

  9. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents.

  10. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  11. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  12. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  13. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek.

  14. WE-E-16A-01: Medical Physics Economics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, J; Dirksen, B; White, G

    2014-06-15

    Radiology and Medical Physics reimbursement for Medicare services is constantly changing. In this presentation we will review the proposed reimbursement rules and levels for 2015 and compare them with those currently in effect for 2014. In addition, we will discuss the challenges that may lie ahead for the medical physics profession as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) moves away from a fee for service payment model and towards one of prospective payment. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in the Medicare reimbursement systems for outpatient departments as opposed to physicians and free standing centers. Learn the proposed Medicare rules for 2015 and how they may affect Radiology and Medical Physics revenues. Be aware of possible long term changes in reimbursement and how they may affect our employers, our pocket books and our profession.

  15. WE-G-9A-01: Radiation Oncology Outcomes Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C; Miller, R; Sloan, J; Wu, Q; Howell, R

    2014-06-15

    The construction of databases and support software to enable routine and systematic aggregation, analysis and reporting of patient outcomes data is emerging as an important area. “How have results for our patients been affected by the improvements we have made in our practice and in the technologies we use?” To answer this type of fundamental question about the overall pattern of efficacy observed, it is necessary to systematically gather and analyze data on all patients treated within a clinic. Clinical trials answer, in great depth and detail, questions about outcomes for the subsets of patients enrolled in a given trial. However, routine aggregation and analysis of key treatment parameter data and outcomes information for all patients is necessary to recognize emergent patterns that would be of interest from a public health or practice perspective and could better inform design of clinical trials or the evolution of best practice principals. To address these questions, Radiation Oncology outcomes databases need to be constructed to enable combination essential data from a broad group of data types including: diagnosis and staging, dose volume histogram metrics, patient reported outcomes, toxicity metrics, performance status, treatment plan parameters, demographics, DICOM data and demographics. Developing viable solutions to automate aggregation and analysis of this data requires multidisciplinary efforts to define nomenclatures, modify clinical processes and develop software and database tools requires detailed understanding of both clinical and technical issues. This session will cover the developing area of Radiation Oncology Outcomes Informatics. Learning Objectives: Audience will be able to speak to the technical requirements (software, database, web services) which must be considered in designing an outcomes database. Audience will be able to understand the content and the role of patient reported outcomes as compared to traditional toxicity measures. Audience will be understand approaches, clinical process changes, consensus building efforts and standardizations which must be addressed to succeed in a multi-disciplinary effort to aggregate data for all patients. Audience will be able to discuss technical and process issues related to pooling data among institutions in the context of collaborative studies among the presenting institutions.

  16. TH-C-9A-01: Lean Tools and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rangaraj, D; Chan, K; Boddu, S; Pawlicki, T; Dieterich, S

    2014-06-15

    Lean thinking has revolutionized the manufacturing industry. Toyota has pioneered and leveraged this aspect of Lean thinking. Application of Lean thinking and Lean Six Sigma techniques into Healthcare and in particular in Radiation Oncology has its merits and challenges. To improve quality, safety and patient satisfaction with available resources or reducing cost in terms of time, staff and resources is demands of today's healthcare. Radiation oncology treatment involves many processes and steps, identifying and removing the non-value added steps in a process can significantly improve the efficiency. Real projects undertaken in radiation oncology department in cutting down the procedure time for MRI guided brachytherapy to 40% less using lean thinking will be narrated. Simple Lean tools and techniques such as Gemba walk, visual control, daily huddles, standard work, value stream mapping, error-proofing, etc. can be applied with existing resources and how that improved the operation in a Radiation Oncology department's two year experience will be discussed. Lean thinking focuses on identifying and solving the root-cause of a problem by asking “Why” and not “Who” and this requires a culture change of no blame. Role of leadership in building lean culture, employee empowerment and trains and develops lean thinkers will be presented. Why Lean initiatives fail and how to implement lean successfully in your clinic will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Concepts of lean management or lean thinking. Lean tools and techniques applied in Radiation Oncology. Implement no blame culture and focus on system and processes. Leadership role in implementing lean culture. Challenges for Lean thinking in healthcare.

  17. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement and imaging can contribute to diagnosis of breast and prostate cancer, staging of liver fibrosis, age estimation of deep veinous fhrombosis, confirmation of thermal lesions in the liver after RF ablation.

  18. WE-E-19A-01: Globalization of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehani, M; Meghzifene, A; Tsapaki, V; Pipman, Y; Lief, E

    2014-06-15

    Following successful 2012–2013 International Professional Symposiums as a part of Annual AAPM meetings, representatives of AAPM and International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) suggested to make this tradiational Symposium a permanent part of Annual AAPM meetings in future. Following the tradition, this session includes presentations of representatives of AAPM, IOMP, European Federation of Medical Physics (EFOMP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP). The speakers will cover various aspects of International collaboration such as educational, professional, and scientific issues, as well as help to developing countries. With further developments of medicine and technology and increased communication with our colleagues overseas, Medical Physics becomes more and more global profession. Use of the same technology, significant progress in medical physics research and developing practical regulations worldwide makes it increasingly useful to organize global collaboration of medical physicists. Several international organizations are tasked to promote such collaboration and provide help to developing countries. Not all AAPM members are fully aware of these international efforts. It is very useful for medical physicists to know about success of our profession in other countries. Different schools present different approaches to the same problem, which allows to find the best solution. By communicating with colleagues overseas, one can learn more than from just reading scientific publications. At this session the attendees will receive a glimpse of International Medical Physics activities. Learning Objectives: Understand the globalization of Medical Physics profession and advantages of collaboration with foreign colleagues. See what role AAPM is playing in establishing contacts with colleagues overseas. Understand the role of IOMP and main directions of its activity. Learn about IAEA and how it helps developing countries. Learn about activity of EFOMP and how can help the global development of Medical Physics. Find out about ICTP and its educational programs.

  19. WE-D-16A-01: ACR Radiology Leadership Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, G

    2014-06-15

    The Radiology Leadership Institute (RLI) was established in 2011 by the American College of Radiology with a mission to prepare leaders who will shape the future of radiology to ensure quality, elevate service and deliver extraordinary patient care. Leadership skills are critical to medical physicists in order for them to assure that imaging and therapy are safe and of the highest quality possible. This session will provide an introduction to the RLI and its programs with an emphasis on how medical physicists can get involved and what they might expect to gain through their engagement with the RLI. The session will also provide a framework for leadership in healthcare with an emphasis on roles and opportunities for medical physicists to enhance their effectiveness as members of the healthcare, medical education, and research communities.

  20. Bioaccumulation monitoring and toxicity testing in streams and groundwater wells at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Peterson, M.J.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1992-03-01

    The Kansas City Plant (KCP) is part of a federal complex located in south Kansas City, Missouri. The plant, operated by Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division for the US Department of Energy (DOE), occupies 137 of the 300 acres covered by the complex. Blue River and its tributary Indian Creek receive surface water runoff, discharges permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), and groundwater from the complex. Indian Creek also receives runoff from residential and commercial facilities and discharges from a sewage treatment plant upstream from the KCP. Blue River, a tributary of the Missouri River, receives runoff from an urban area, including a large landfill downstream from the KCP. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been detected in outfall 002 and in soils in various locations around the KCP. The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) found that both carp and channel catfish collected from the Blue River were contaminated with PCBs and chlordane; however, the source of this contamination was not identified. Trichlorethene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) are present in some wells adjacent to the Blue River, both TCE and DCE have been detected in outfall 001. To assess the biological significance of PCB and chlorinated solvent contamination from the KCP and to determine whether the KCP was a significant source of PCB contamination in fish, two separate studies were conducted by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report presents the results of these studies.

  1. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  2. Annual Report: 2010-2011 Storm Season Sampling For NON-DRY DOCK STORMWATER MONITORING FOR PUGET SOUND NAVAL SHIPYARD, BREMERTON, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Metallo, David; Johnston, Robert K.; Gebhardt, Christine; Hsu, Larry

    2012-09-01

    This interim report summarizes the stormwater monitoring conducted for non-dry dock outfalls in both the confined industrial area and the residential areas of Naval Base Kitsap within the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (referred to as the Shipyard). This includes the collection, analyses, and descriptive statistics for stormwater sampling conducted from November 2010 through April 2011. Seven stormwater basins within the Shipyard were sampled during at least three storm events to characterize non-dry dock stormwater discharges at selected stormwater drains located within the facility. This serves as the Phase I component of the project and Phase II is planned for the 2011-2012 storm season. These data will assist the Navy, USEPA, Ecology and other stakeholders in understanding the nature and condition of stormwater discharges from the Shipyard and inform the permitting process for new outfall discharges. The data from Phase I was compiled with current stormwater data available from the Shipyard, Sinclair/Dyes Inlet watershed, and Puget Sound in order to support technical investigations for the Draft NPDES permit. The permit would require storm event sampling at selected stormwater drains located within the Shipyard. However, the data must be considered on multiple scales to truly understand potential impairments to beneficial uses within Sinclair and Dyes Inlets.

  3. 78 FR 21938 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Discharges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... equipment; users of products that are pre- lubricated (e.g., wire ropes) have no available alternatives..., even though the final permit requires that wire ropes or cables and other equipment must be...

  4. 75 FR 31775 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... or e-mail. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA..., and the telephone number for the Water Docket is 202-566-2426. 2. Electronic Access. You may access... Dockets. You may use EPA Dockets at http://www.regulations.gov to view public comments, access the...

  5. 77 FR 12286 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Statutory and Regulatory History The Clean Water Act (``CWA'') establishes a comprehensive program ``to... construction and development industry on December 1, 2009. The permit also includes new water quality-based... necessary to provide dischargers with the immediate opportunity to comply with Clean Water Act...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enameling Printing and publishing Pulp and paper mills Rubber processing Soap and detergent manufacturing... dischargers in the following categories shall include effluent limitations and a compliance schedule to meet... effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated. See §§ 122.44 and 122.46. Industry...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enameling Printing and publishing Pulp and paper mills Rubber processing Soap and detergent manufacturing... dischargers in the following categories shall include effluent limitations and a compliance schedule to meet... effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated. See §§ 122.44 and 122.46. Industry...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enameling Printing and publishing Pulp and paper mills Rubber processing Soap and detergent manufacturing... dischargers in the following categories shall include effluent limitations and a compliance schedule to meet... effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated. See §§ 122.44 and 122.46. Industry...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enameling Printing and publishing Pulp and paper mills Rubber processing Soap and detergent manufacturing... dischargers in the following categories shall include effluent limitations and a compliance schedule to meet... effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated. See §§ 122.44 and 122.46. Industry...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 122 - NPDES Primary Industry Categories

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enameling Printing and publishing Pulp and paper mills Rubber processing Soap and detergent manufacturing... dischargers in the following categories shall include effluent limitations and a compliance schedule to meet... effluent limitations guidelines have been promulgated. See §§ 122.44 and 122.46. Industry...

  11. 77 FR 57084 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Draft General Permit for Point Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Discharges From New and Replacement Surface Discharging Wastewater Treatment Systems to Waters of the United... wastewater treatment systems to Waters of the United States, including to conveyances to Waters of the...

  12. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability of... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... identified in a storm water pollution prevention plan are adequate and properly implemented in...

  13. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cause, have the reasonable potential to cause, or contribute to an excursion above any State water... discharge causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an in-stream excursion above a... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  14. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cause, have the reasonable potential to cause, or contribute to an excursion above any State water... discharge causes, has the reasonable potential to cause, or contributes to an in-stream excursion above a... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability...

  15. 76 FR 22882 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Rule'', on November 16, 1990, establishing permit application requirements for, among other things..., organics, pesticides, herbicides, and metals. These pollutants may be present naturally in the soil, such..., which indefinitely postpones the application of this limit in permits. EPA also intends to propose...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in the Papergrade Sulfite subcategories (subparts J and U) of the Pulp and Paper industry (40 CFR... Publishing 2 2 2 2 Pulp and Paper Mills 2 2 2 2 Rubber Processing 2 2 2 Soap and Detergent Manufacturing 2 2... Textile Mills industry (Subpart C—Low water use processing of 40 CFR part 410), and testing and...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Papergrade Sulfite subcategories (subparts J and U) of the Pulp and Paper industry (40 CFR... Publishing 2 2 2 2 Pulp and Paper Mills 2 2 2 2 Rubber Processing 2 2 2 Soap and Detergent Manufacturing 2 2... Textile Mills industry (Subpart C—Low water use processing of 40 CFR part 410), and testing and...

  18. 76 FR 68750 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Pesticide General Permit for Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... control of land use, including recreational areas; conservation and preservation of natural resources... (includes 221 Utilities.... Provide electric utilities). power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply, and...., Natural Res. Def. Council v. Costle, 568 F.2d 1369 (DC Cir. 1977); EDC v. U.S. EPA, 344 F.3d 832, 853...

  19. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Application Requirement for Storm Water Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Group 28 (Chemicals and Allied Products ), Group 33 (Primary Metal Industries) and Group 34 (Fabricated Metal Products ) would be applicable to a number of...rail lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products , waste material, or byproducts used or created by the facility. (c...areas (including tank farms) for raw materials, intermediate and final products . (j) Areas where industrial activity has taken place in the past and

  20. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than revised regulations, guidance, or test methods) and which would have justified the application of... narrative or numeric criteria within a State water quality standard, the permitting authority shall use... contributes to an in-stream excursion above the allowable ambient concentration of a State numeric...

  1. 78 FR 59672 - Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... mccauley.margaret@epa.gov . II. Background Section 405 of the Water Quality Act of 1987 (WQA) added section 402(p) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to... ``No Significant Impact'' under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), or to complete...

  2. Documents for SBAR Panel: NPDES Comprehensive Storm Water Phase II Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SBAR panel on proposed regulations to address currently unregulated discharges of storm water and provide regulatory relief to industrial facilities where industrial materials and activities are not exposed to storm water

  3. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants in Each of Four Fractions in Analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GS/MS) Volatiles... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants in Each of Four Fractions in Analysis by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GS/MS) Volatiles... Coliform Fluoride Nitrate-Nitrite Nitrogen, Total Organic Oil and Grease Phosphorus, Total...

  5. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waters of the United States would be substantially impaired by the discharge; (f) For the discharge of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State... ELIMINATION SYSTEM Definitions and General Program Requirements § 122.4 Prohibitions (applicable to...

  6. 77 FR 6112 - Notice of Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...'') and that are subject to 40 CFR part 412, Subparts A (Horses and Sheep), C (Dairy Cows and Cattle Other... Feeders, LLC; Tri-State Feeders, Inc.; Dairy Producers of New Mexico (DPNM); Karen Brewer;...

  7. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE... operator of a new source or new discharger proposing to discharge into a water segment which does not meet... imposition of conditions cannot ensure compliance with the applicable water quality requirements of...

  8. 78 FR 20316 - Final Issuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Small Suction Dredges in Idaho

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...: Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. ACTION: Final notice of reissuance of a general permit. SUMMARY: EPA... placer mining operations in Idaho for small suction dredges (intake nozzle size of 5 inches in...

  9. Compliance evaluation inspection report: Marathon Oil Company, Garyville, Louisiana. NPDES Permit No. LA0045683. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The report presents the findings of a compliance evaluation inspection of the Marathon Oil Company in Garyville, Louisiana, Conducted on June 24, 1992. It is part of a series of inspections of industrial waste dischargers.

  10. The US Environmental Protection Agency National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earls, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the Lewis Research Center's storm, sanitary and industrial sewer systems, in compliance with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, is presented. The investigation of a proposed sampling and flow measurement system includes cost estimates to meet the Federal and State of Ohio requirements.

  11. 76 FR 65431 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For..., and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket, visit the... or tags. The annual amount of antimicrobial drugs sold and distributed in 2009 for use in...

  12. 78 FR 64435 - Extension of Comment Period for the NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... applicable, with any disk or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties... copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard- copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard-copy at the Enforcement and...

  13. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... sensitive'' analytical methods with respect to measurement of mercury and extend the approach outlined in... example, mercury) have an array of EPA-approved methods, including some methods that have greater... EPA published two new analytical methods for mercury that were several orders of magnitude...

  14. Supplemental Notice to the Proposed NPDES Electronic Reporting Rule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice allows EPA to identify the issues raised by commenters during the public comment period, clarify any misunderstandings about the proposal, and discuss possibilities for how EPA might modify the rule to address issues raised by stakeholders.

  15. 75 FR 5788 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Permits for Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... of the CWA. The regulations at 40 CFR 122.26(b)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``* * * all separate storm sewers that are: (1) Owned or operated by the United States, a...

  16. 75 FR 30395 - Stakeholder Input; National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... integrated approach to reducing SSOs while at the same time addressing peak flows at the POTW treatment plant... public listening sessions. Input generated from what was learned at a public listening session will be... view public input, access the index listing of the contents of the official public docket, and...

  17. 77 FR 42679 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Size Thresholds for All Sectors Sector Large Medium \\1\\ Small \\2\\ Cattle or cow/calf pairs....... 1,000 or more 300-999 Less than 300. Mature dairy cattle 700 or more 200-699 Less than 200. Veal calves 1... Less than 9,000. manure handling system). Chickens other than laying hens 125,000 or more...

  18. 76 FR 78599 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Medium \\1\\ Small \\2\\ Cattle or cow/calf pairs 1,000 or more........ 300-999 Less than 300. Mature dairy cattle 700 or more 200-699 Less than 200. Veal calves 1,000 or more........ 300-999 Less than 300. Swine............ Less than 9,000. manure handling system). Chickens other than laying hens 125,000 or more.........

  19. 77 FR 47065 - Final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Stormwater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... control of a construction project to a new operator, the new operator must submit a NOI 14 days prior to... Discharges From Construction Activities AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of corrections to the 2012 Construction General Permit. SUMMARY: EPA previously announced the issuance of...

  20. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or controls a pollutant or practice not limited in the permit. (d) Water quality standards and State... quality. (i) Limitations must control all pollutants or pollutant parameters (either conventional...; (ii) Requirements for construction site operators to control waste such as discarded...

  1. 40 CFR 124.19 - Appeal of RCRA, UIC, NPDES, and PSD Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Permits. 124.19 Section 124.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... petition under this section or otherwise challenge the conditions of the general permit in further Agency proceedings. They may, instead, either challenge the general permit in court, or apply for an individual...

  2. 77 FR 75429 - Notice of Availability of Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... exploratory drilling operations in the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source... Permit for Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and Production Operations off Southern... (permit No. CAG280000) for discharges from offshore oil and gas exploration, development and...

  3. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental drilling rig which has never received a final effective permit to discharge at...

  4. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental drilling rig which has never received a final effective permit to discharge at...

  5. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental drilling rig which has never received a final effective permit to discharge at...

  6. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental drilling rig which has never received a final effective permit to discharge at...

  7. 40 CFR 124.60 - Issuance and effective date and stays of NPDES permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of § 124.16(a)(1), if, for any offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental drilling rig which has never received a final effective permit to discharge at...

  8. 75 FR 76984 - Notice Regarding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES); General Permit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... became effective on February 6, 2009. EPA noticed final issuance of the VGP for the states of Hawaii and... VGP (Docket ID No. EPA- HQ-OW-2008-0055).\\2\\ \\1\\ In order for EPA to remove these deleted conditions... under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0055. The official public docket is the collection of...

  9. 75 FR 21625 - Notice of Availability of the Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... hearing. A public hearing may be held at least thirty days (30) after public notice whenever the Regional... Office Square, Suite 100, Mail Code OEP-06-4, Boston, MA 02109-3912, or sent via email to alvarez.victor... available for public review at EPA-Region I, Office of Ecosystem Protection, 5 Post Office Square, Suite...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2 Aluminum Forming 2 2 2 Auto and Other Laundries 2 2 2 2 Battery Manufacturing 2 2 Coal Mining 2... Textile Mills industry (Subpart C—Low water use processing of 40 CFR part 410), and testing and reporting... sealants (1) (1) (1) Aluminum forming (1) (1) (1) Auto and other laundries (1) (1) (1) (1)...

  11. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals with establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern.

  12. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff associated with industrial activities at Fort Gordon was conducted from January through December 2011. The assessment was provided to satisfy the requirements from a general permit that authorizes the discharge of stormwater under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System from a site associated with industrial activities. The stormwater quantity refers to the runoff discharge at the point and time of the runoff sampling. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon. The initial scope of this study was to sample stormwater runoff from five stations at four industrial sites (two landfills and two heating and cooling sites). As a consequence of inadequate hydrologic conditions during 2011, no samples were collected at the two landfills; however, three samples were collected from the heating and cooling sites. The assessment included the collection of physical properties, such as water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH; the detection of suspended materials (total suspended solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids), nutrients and organic compounds, and major and trace inorganic compounds (metals); and the detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Nutrients and organic compounds, major and trace inorganic compounds, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds were detected above the laboratory reporting levels in all samples collected from the three stations. The detection of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds included anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, cis,1, 2-dichloroethene, dimethyl phthalate, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, acenaphthylene (station SWR11-3), and di-n-butyl phthalate (station SWR11-4).

  13. Quantity and quality of stormwater collected from selected stormwater outfalls at industrial sites, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, Doug D.

    2013-01-01

    Samples from sites SWR11–3, SWR11–4, and SWR11–5 were analyzed for 83 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, were detected at all three sites. Of the 86 volatile and semivolatile organic compounds that were analyzed in stormwater samples from heating and cooling sites, 15 (18 percent) were detected at site SWR11–3, 12 (14 percent) were detected at site SWR11–4, and 17 (20 percent) were detected at site SWR11–5.

  14. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  15. F/H Area for ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 27, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-12-31

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten tests organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Probit Analysis (or Trimmed Spearman Karber if Probit can not be used) to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  16. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Stephens, J.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  17. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 17, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine if Savannah River Plant effluents cause death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day exposure period. A series of dilutions of the effluent were used to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted.

  18. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the H/F area of Savannah River Plant affect the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Probit Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  19. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 Outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, Test date: September 18, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms (Ceriodaphnia) to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Trimmed Spearman Karber Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.5) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among distribution to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions.

  20. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: March 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber test to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  1. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Stephens, J.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  2. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: September 21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant causes death (acute toxicity) or reduction in the reproduction of the test organisms (chronic toxicity) during a seven day period. A series of dilutions of the effluent are set to determine how much the effluent must be diluted before toxic effects are no longer noted. Acute toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly more organisms die in the effluent dilutions than in the control treatment, and, if significantly more die, how much the effluent must be diluted so as to kill only 50% of the test organisms (the LC50). Chronic toxicity is checked by statistically analyzing whether significantly fewer young are produced by test organisms exposed to the effluent dilutions. Results indicate the lowest effluent concentration which shows a toxic effect (the LOEC) and the highest effluent concentration which does not demonstrate an effect (NOEC). Results are discussed.

  3. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: March 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber test to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  4. F/H Area for ETF effluent (H-016 outfall), ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: June 27, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area at Savannah River Plant affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten tests organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and Probit Analysis (or Trimmed Spearman Karber if Probit can not be used) to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p = 0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  5. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-08-01

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the H/F area of Savannah River Plant affect the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the test organisms to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher`s Exact Test and Probit Analysis to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine the appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in stormwater runoff entering the tidal Anacostia River, Washington, DC, through small urban catchments and combined sewer outfalls.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Foster, Gregory D

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the loadings, solid-water partitioning, transport dynamics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in urban stormwater runoff entering into the lower tidal Anacostia River, which flows south of Washington, DC, USA, storm and base flow samples were collected in six branches. Stormwater runoff contained elevated levels of PCBs (9.82 to 211 ng/L) higher than base flow by up to 80-fold. The present study suggests that input of PCBs from Lower Beaverdam Creek is likely to be greater than those from the two major branches (Northeast and Northwest Branches) that were believed as primary source areas. PCBs in storm flow were significantly enriched in the particle phase, which accounted for more than 90% of the total PCBs. Particles were the primary vector transporting PCBs into the Anacostia River, suggesting that removal of particles in stormwater runoff using best management practices (BMPs) such as post treatment system likely decrease PCBs significantly. PCB congener patterns found in stormwater samples clearly explain stormwater runoff is a major transport pathway adding substantial amount of PCBs to the tidal Anacostia River.

  7. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Murray, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes Shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km2, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m3. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct over most of the mapped area. implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acoustic profiles and images of the Palos Verdes Margin: Implications concerning deposition from the White's Point outfall

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M A.; Karl, H; Murray, Christopher J. )

    2001-12-01

    Subbottom profiles and sidescan-sonar images collected on and around the Palos Verdes shelf show a surficial deposit interpreted to contain effluent from the White's Point diffusers, as well as showing several geologic features that affect the deposit's distribution. The effluent-affected deposit is visible in high-resolution subbottom profiles on the shelf and the adjacent San Pedro basin slope to water depths of 170 m. It has a maximum thickness of 75 cm and was mapped acoustically over an area of 10.8 km{sup 2}, which encompasses a volume of about 3.2 million m{sup 3}. The deposit's basal reflector is acoustically distinct over most of the mapped area, implying that the deposit has not been extensively mixed across its base, perhaps being relatively free of reworking since its initial deposition. Nearshore, the basal reflector is weak and fades away toward land, which could result from syndepositional intermixing of coarse native sediment (particularly from the Portuguese Bend landslide) with effluent in the high-energy nearshore zone, or postdepositionally by physical (wave) or biological mixing across the interface. The geometry of the deposit implies that effluent is dispersed primarily in a northwesterly and seaward direction from the diffusers. Dispersal across the shelf break is in some places strongly affected by topography, particularly by submarine canyons. The deposit overlies stratified and unstratified Quaternary sediment, up to 30 m thick, that in turn overlies the irregular erosional surface of deformed Miocene bedrock that crops out in places on the shelf and upper basin slope. The effluent-affected deposit rests on potentially unstable landslide deposits on the San Pedro basin slope. The acoustic profiles and side-scan images show evidence for active and inactive vents, probably of hot water and gas, some of which are within the boundary of the effluent-affected sediment deposit and could disrupt it if seepage occurs.

  9. Hanford Site storm water comprehensive site compliance evaluation report for the reporting period July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-09-18

    On September 9, 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF, Authorization to Discharge Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). RL submitted a Notice of Intent to comply with this permit to EPA in conformance with the General Permit requirements on October 1, 1992. On February 14, 1994, EPA issued a Storm Water General Permit Coverage Notice and assigned WA-R-00-Al7F as the Hanford Site`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit number. The Hanford Site Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) (WHC 1996a) was certified by J. E Rasmussen, Director Environmental Assurance, RL, on September 24, 1996, in compliance with Part IV.B(i) of the General Permit. As required by General Permit No. WA-R-00-OOOF (WA-R-00-Al7F), Section IV, Part D, Section 4.c, an annual report must be developed by RL and retained on site to verify that the requirements listed in the General Permit are being implemented. The previous Hanford Site Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation Report (WHC 1996b) addressed the period from July 1995 through June 1996. This document fulfills the requirement to prepare an annual report and contains the results of inspections of the storm water outfalls listed in the SWPPP (WHC 1996a). This report also describes the methods used to conduct the 1100 Storm Plater Comprehensive Site Compliance Evaluation (SWCSCE) as required in Part IV, Section D.4.c in the General Permit; summarizes the results of the compliance evaluation; and documents significant leaks and spills. The reporting year for this SWCSCE report is July 1, 1996 through June 30, 1997.

  10. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE... animal production facility means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which meets the criteria in... any warm or cold water aquatic animal production facility as a concentrated aquatic animal...

  11. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Coastal Waters in Texas (TXG330000) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposal of... Subcategory in Texas and in the Stripper Subcategory which discharge into coastal waters in Texas. DATES...), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733....

  12. 76 FR 68749 - Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-31-5000 (Permit). The effluent limits subject to the final action are: mercury, copper, total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver, and whole effluent toxicity...

  13. 78 FR 727 - Public Notice of Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Facilities/Operations That...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    .... Wastewater lagoon systems that are not using/ disposing of sewage sludge do not need to apply for permit...--Wastewater lagoon systems that need to land apply sewage sludge on an occasional, restricted...

  14. 77 FR 123 - Final Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska expired on January 2, 2009. On July 2, 2009, EPA proposed to.... EPA agreed so the final coverage area reverts back to the North Slope Borough, Alaska. EPA has...

  15. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are..., including the effluent limitations guidelines). (3) Log sorting and log storage facilities means...

  16. 78 FR 17661 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... requirements designed to minimize pollution and protect water quality. DATES: Comments. Interested persons may... Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Island & Ocean Visitor Center Auditorium, 95 Sterling Highway... general permit, Fact Sheet and Ocean Discharge Criteria Evaluation are available upon request....

  17. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density... basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population or commercial... MS4 located outside of an urbanized area serving a jurisdiction with a population density of at...

  18. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density... basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population or commercial... MS4 located outside of an urbanized area serving a jurisdiction with a population density of at...

  19. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density... basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population or commercial... MS4 located outside of an urbanized area serving a jurisdiction with a population density of at...

  20. 40 CFR 123.35 - As the NPDES Permitting Authority for regulated small MS4s, what is my role?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... local basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population density... basis: discharge to sensitive waters, high growth or growth potential, high population or commercial... MS4 located outside of an urbanized area serving a jurisdiction with a population density of at...

  1. 77 FR 72970 - Revisions to Stormwater Regulations To Clarify That an NPDES Permit Is Not Required for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ..., reforestation and subsequent cultural treatment, thinning, prescribed burning, pest and fire control, harvesting... Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use The action is not a ``significant energy action'' as defined in Executive Order 13211 (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001), because it is...

  2. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other AFO facilities; direct contact swimming, washing, or spray... includes but is not limited to open lots, housed lots, feedlots, confinement houses, stall barns, free stall barns, milkrooms, milking centers, cowyards, barnyards, medication pens, walkers, animal...

  3. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and quantity of effluent introduced into the POTW, and (ii) any anticipated impact of the change on... systems. The operator of a large or medium municipal separate storm sewer system or a municipal separate... of enforcement actions, inspections, and public education programs; (7) Identification of...

  4. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and quantity of effluent introduced into the POTW, and (ii) any anticipated impact of the change on... systems. The operator of a large or medium municipal separate storm sewer system or a municipal separate... of enforcement actions, inspections, and public education programs; (7) Identification of...

  5. 75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Procedure Act (APA), or any other law, to publish general notice of proposed rulemaking.'' The RFA exempts... general permits are permits, not rulemakings, under the APA and thus not subject to APA...

  6. 78 FR 72080 - Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... require freshwater whole effluent toxicity species for discharges to freshwater receiving waters. DATES... modification also adds WET testing requirements using freshwater species for produced waters which discharge to freshwater receiving waters. To determine whether your facility, company, business, organization, etc....

  7. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The raw materials storage area includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement...

  8. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The raw materials storage area includes but is not limited to feed silos, silage bunkers, and bedding... with any raw materials, products, or byproducts including manure, litter, feed, milk, eggs or bedding... storage area, the raw materials storage area, and the waste containment areas. The animal confinement...

  9. 77 FR 53834 - Notice of Proposed Revisions to Stormwater Regulations To Clarify That an NPDES Permit Is Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... ``directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant.'' (Vol... of various types of areas (e.g., material handling sites, sites used for the storage and maintenance.... Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard...

  10. 76 FR 28776 - Re-Proposal of Effluent Limits Under the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Exploration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...- proposal are: mercury, copper, total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH), total aqueous hydrocarbons (TAqH), silver... requested the Court to remand the less stringent produced water effluent limits for mercury, copper,...

  11. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the... more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or...

  12. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the... more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or...

  13. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal. (6) Medium concentrated..., treatment, or disposal of mortalities. (9) Small concentrated animal feeding operation (“Small CAFO”). An... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Concentrated animal feeding...

  14. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the... more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or...

  15. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the... more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or...

  16. 40 CFR 122.23 - Concentrated animal feeding operations (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials or other materials commingled with manure or set aside for disposal. (6) Medium concentrated..., treatment, or disposal of mortalities. (9) Small concentrated animal feeding operation (“Small CAFO”). An... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Concentrated animal feeding...

  17. 40 CFR 122.28 - General permits (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities described in the... more categories or subcategories of discharges or sludge use or disposal practices or facilities... operations; (B) Discharge the same types of wastes or engage in the same types of sludge use or...

  18. 76 FR 45792 - Proposed Reissuance of a General NPDES Permit for Facilities Related to Oil and Gas Extraction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... covered discharges include gravel pit dewatering, construction dewatering, hydrostatic test water, mobile... Alaska's Water Quality Standards and material contained in the administrative record. A description...

  19. 75 FR 54873 - Notice of Availability of Final NPDES General Permits MAG910000 and NHG910000 for Discharges From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... contaminated groundwater. Owners and/or operators of facilities with remediation discharges, including those... proceedings. ADDRESSES: The required notification information to obtain permit coverage is provided in the general permits. This information shall be submitted to both EPA and the appropriate state....

  20. 77 FR 30473 - Notice of Intent To Revise Stormwater Regulations To Specify That an NPDES Permit Is Not Required...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... those roads (Nelson et al., 2010; Fly et al., 2010; Luce and Black, 2001; Luce and Black, 1999). Thus... portion of those roads (Nelson et al., 2010; Fly et al., 2010; Luce and Black, 2001; Luce and Black, 1999.... Shelly, J. Black, K. Kuzis. 2010. Washington Road Sub-Basin Scale Effectiveness Monitoring First...

  1. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities... section, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards...-product or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the...

  2. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities... section, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards...-product or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the...

  3. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities... section, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards...-product or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the...

  4. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities... section, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards...-product or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the...

  5. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... areas at an industrial plant. The term does not include discharges from facilities or activities... section, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant yards...-product or waste product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from the...

  6. 77 FR 4813 - Proposed Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... drilling activities under the Offshore Subcategory of the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category (40... authorization to discharge non-aqueous drilling fluids and associated drill cuttings (i.e., only discharges of water- based drilling fluids and cuttings are authorized); (3) Eliminate the authorization to...

  7. 77 FR 65547 - Reissuance of the NPDES General Permits for Oil and Gas Exploration Facilities on the Outer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... from facilities engaged in field exploration and exploratory drilling activities under the Offshore.... the Ocean Discharge Criteria), 33 U.S.C. 1343(c). DATES: The issuance date of the Beaufort and Chukchi... Chukchi general permits, the Response to Comments document, and the Ocean Discharge Criteria...

  8. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... management plan that are not in the planned crop rotation. Where a CAFO includes alternative crops in its... planned crop rotation for that field, and the nutrient management plan must include realistic crop yield... not terms of the nutrient management plan: The CAFO's planned crop rotations for each field for...

  9. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management plan that are not in the planned crop rotation. Where a CAFO includes alternative crops in its... planned crop rotation for that field, and the nutrient management plan must include realistic crop yield... not terms of the nutrient management plan: The CAFO's planned crop rotations for each field for...

  10. 40 CFR 122.42 - Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES permits (applicable to State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... management plan that are not in the planned crop rotation. Where a CAFO includes alternative crops in its... planned crop rotation for that field, and the nutrient management plan must include realistic crop yield... not terms of the nutrient management plan: The CAFO's planned crop rotations for each field for...

  11. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are..., including the effluent limitations guidelines). (3) Log sorting and log storage facilities means facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  12. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are..., including the effluent limitations guidelines). (3) Log sorting and log storage facilities means facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  13. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are..., including the effluent limitations guidelines). (3) Log sorting and log storage facilities means facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  14. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log sorting, or log storage facilities which are..., including the effluent limitations guidelines). (3) Log sorting and log storage facilities means facilities whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  15. 17 CFR 210.3A-01 - Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Consolidated and...

  16. 17 CFR 210.3A-01 - Application of § 210.3A-01 to § 210.3A-05.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Consolidated and...

  17. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Del Signore, John C.

    2012-05-16

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one of these pathways was used; all treated water (3,352,890 liters) was fed to the effluent evaporator. The quality of treated water was established by collecting a weekly grab sample of water being fed to the effluent evaporator. Forty weekly samples were collected; each was analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Weekly samples were also composited at the end of each month. These flow-weighted composite samples were then analyzed for 37 radioisotopes: nine alpha-emitting isotopes, 27 beta emitters, and tritium. These monthly analyses were used to estimate the radioactive content of treated water fed to the effluent evaporator. Table 1 summarizes this information. The concentrations and quantities of radioactivity in Table 1 are for treated water fed to the evaporator. Amounts of radioactivity discharged to the environment through the evaporator stack were likely smaller since only entrained materials would exit via the evaporator stack.

  18. Development of a site-specific water quality criterion for hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; Sticko, J.P.; Reash, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The effluent of treated fly ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the Ohio River periodically exceeds its NPDES acute permit limit for hexavalent chromium of 15 {micro}g/L. The increased levels of hexavalent chromium in the effluent are a recent occurrence which are likely due to changes in coal blends burned in the generating units. Ohio EPA determined the use designation of the receiving stream (Limited Resource Water) was being attained and a one-year biomonitoring program of the effluent detected no acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia or Daphnia magna. The water-effect ratio (WER) procedure was selected to develop a site-specific criterion maximum concentration for hexavalent chromium for the effluent`s receiving stream. WER procedures followed those described in EPA`s ``Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals`` (1994). Site water used in the WER determinations was undiluted effluent since the receiving stream originates at the discharge point of the outfall. 48-hour acute D. magna and 96-hour acute fathead minnow toxicity tests were selected as the primary and secondary tests, respectively for use in three seasonal WER determinations. The results of the three WER determinations and the status of the regulatory process will be presented.

  19. Ion Exchange Conceptual Design for Treating Seven Technical Area Sumps with Elevated Levels of Copper and Zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-02-17

    Recently a meeting was held to discuss technical support for developing a conceptual design and estimate for installing and operating an in-line ion exchange system to treat seven Technical Area Sumps with elevated levels (high ppb - low ppm) of copper and potentially zinc (copper level is above the outfall limits). These sump waters are currently routed to the A01 outfall, which is permitted by the State of South Carolina. a study of potential treatment options and followup laboratory work done in the summer of 1997 by Larry Oji and John Hage identified two commercially available ion exchange resins, Duolit GT-73 and Chelex 100, for treating waters at these metals concentrations.

  20. WE-G-16A-01: Evolution of Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, L; Mohan, R; Van Dyk, J; Fraass, B; Bortfeld, T

    2014-06-15

    Welcome and Introduction - Lawrence N. Rothenberg This symposium is one a continuing series of presentations at AAPM Annual Meetings on the historical aspects of medical physics, radiology, and radiation oncology that have been organized by the AAPM History Committee. Information on previous presentations including “Early Developments in Teletherapy” (Indianapolis 2013), “Historical Aspects of Cross-Sectional Imaging” (Charlotte 2012), “Historical Aspects of Brachytherapy” (Vancouver 2011), “50 Years of Women in Medical Physics” (Houston 2008), and “Roentgen's Early Investigations” (Minneapolis 2007) can be found in the Education Section of the AAPM Website. The Austin 2014 History Symposium will be on “Evolution of Radiation Treatment Planning.” Overview - Radhe Mohan Treatment planning is one of the most critical components in the chain of radiation therapy of cancers. Treatment plans of today contain a wide variety of sophisticated information conveying the potential clinical effectiveness of the designed treatment to practitioners. Examples of such information include dose distributions superimposed on three- or even four-dimensional anatomic images; dose volume histograms, dose, dose-volume and dose-response indices for anatomic structures of interest; etc. These data are used for evaluating treatment plans and for making treatment decisions. The current state-of-the-art has evolved from the 1940s era when the dose to the tumor and normal tissues was estimated approximately by manual means. However, the symposium will cover the history of the field from the late-1950's, when computers were first introduced for treatment planning, to the present state involving the use of high performance computing and advanced multi-dimensional anatomic, functional and biological imaging, focusing only on external beam treatment planning. The symposium will start with a general overview of the treatment planning process including imaging, structure delineation, assignment of dose requirements, consideration of uncertainties, selection of beam configurations and shaping of beams, and calculations, optimization and evaluation of dose distributions. This will be followed by three presentations covering the evolution of treatment planning, which parallels the evolution of computers, availability of advanced volumetric imaging and the development of novel technologies such as dynamic multi-leaf collimators and online image guidance. This evolution will be divided over three distinct periods - prior to 1970's, the 2D era; from 1980 to the mid-1990's, the 3D era; and from the mid 1990's to today, the IMRT era. When the World was Flat: The Two-Dimensional Radiation Therapy Era” - Jacob Van Dyk In the 2D era, anatomy was defined with the aid of solder wires, special contouring devices and projection x-rays. Dose distributions were calculated manually from single field, flat surface isodoses on transparencies. Precalculated atlases of generic dose distributions were produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Massive time-shared main frames and mini-computers were used to compute doses at individual points or dose distributions in a single plane. Beam shapes were generally rectangular, with wedges, missing tissue compensators and occasional blocks to shield critical structures. Dose calculations were measurement-based or they used primary and scatter calculations based on scatter-air ratio methodologies. Dose distributions were displayed on line printers as alpha-numeric character maps or isodose patterns made with pen plotters. More than Pretty Pictures: 3D Treatment Planning and Conformal Therapy - Benedick A. Fraass The introduction of computed tomography allowed the delineation of anatomy three-dimensionally and, supported partly by contracts from the National Cancer Institute, made possible the introduction and clinical use of 3D treatment planning, leading to development and use of 3D conformal therapy in the 1980's. 3D computer graphics and 3D anatomical structure definitions made possible Beam's Eye View (BEV) displays, making conformal beam shaping and much more sophisticated beam arrangements possible. These conformal plans significantly improved target dose coverage as well as normal tissue sparing. The use of dose volume histograms, gross/clinical/planning target volumes, MRI and PET imaging, multileaf collimators, and computer-controlled treatment delivery made sophisticated planning approaches practical. The significant improvements in dose distributions and analysis achievable with 3D conformal therapy made possible formal dose escalation and normal tissue tolerance clinical studies that set new and improved expectations for improved local control and decreasing complications in many clinical sites. From the Art to the State of the Art: Inverse Planning and IMRT - Thomas R. Bortfeld While the potential of intensity modulation was recognized in the mid- 1980's, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) did not become a reality until the mid-1990's. Broad beams of photons could be sub-divided into narrow beamlets whose intensities could be determined using sophisticated optimization algorithms to appropriately balance tumor dose with normal tissue sparing. The development of dynamic multi-leaf collimators (on conventional linear accelerators as well as in helical delivery devices) enabled the efficient delivery of IMRT. The evolution of IMRT planning is continuing in the form of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and through advanced optimization tools, such as multi-criteria optimization, automated IMRT planning, and robust optimization to protect dose distributions against uncertainties. IMRT also facilitates “dose painting” in which different sub-volumes of the target are prescribed different doses. Clearly, these advancements are being made possible by the increasing power and lower cost of computers and developments in other fields such as imaging and operations research. Summary - Radhe Mohan The history does not end here. The advancement of treatment planning is expected to continue, leading to further automation and improvements in conformality and robustness of dose distributions, particularly in the area of particle therapy. Radiobiological modeling will gain emphasis as part of the planning process. Learning Objectives: The scope of changes in technology and the capabilities of radiation treatment planning The impact of these changes in the quality of treatment plans and optimality of dose distributions The impact of development in other fields (imaging, computers, operations research, etc.) on the evolution of radiation treatment planning.

  1. MO-B-19A-01: MOC: A How-To Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbott, G; Seibert, J; Allison, J; Frey, G

    2014-06-15

    Medical physicists who were certified in 2002 or later, as well as those who become certified in the future, are enrolled in Maintenance of Certification. Many physicists with life-time certificates have voluntarily enrolled in MOC, as have physicists who volunteer their time to participate in the ABR exam development and administration processes. MOC consists of four components: Part 1, Professional standing; Part 2, Lifelong learning and self-assessment; Part 3, Cognitive expertise; and Part 4, Practice quality improvement. These four components together evaluate six competencies: Medical knowledge, patient care and procedural skills, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Parts 1, 2, and 3 of MOC are fairly straightforward, although many participants have questions about the process for attesting to professional standing, the opportunities for obtaining self-assessed continuing education, and the timing of the cognitive exam. MOC participants also have questions about Part 4, Practice Quality Improvement. PQI projects are powerful tools for improving the quality and safety of the environments in which we practice medical physics. In the current version of MOC known as “Continuous Certification” a medical physicist must have completed a PQI project within the previous three years, at the time of the ABR's annual look-back each March. For the first “full” annual look-back in March 2016, diplomates will be given an additional year, so that a PQI project completed in 2012, 2013, 2014, or 2015 will fulfill this requirement. Each component of MOC will be addressed, and the specifics of interest to medical physicists will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Understand the four components and six competencies evaluated by MOC. Become familiar with the annual requirements of Continuous Certification. Learn about opportunities for Practice Quality Improvement projects. Understand refinements occurring in the MOC program.

  2. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, M; Miyaoka, R; Shao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality and quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications.

  3. WE-A-19A-01: SRT I: Comparison of SRT Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G; Schlesinger, D; Descovich, M

    2014-06-15

    Within the past several years, the field of radiosurgery has seen numerous technological enhancements, including new dedicated devices for stereotactic delivery, the use of re-locatable frames to facilitate fractionated delivery and the image guided frameless approaches. The goal of this symposium is to compare and contrast competing technologies for cranial SRS/SRT. The symposium will open with a review of the general concept of cranial SRS/SRT procedures as well as describe the key differences from conventional radiotherapy. The speakers will then review each of the delivery technique (Gamma Knife, CyberKnife and Conventional linear accelerator) in turn. The focus of each speaker will be to describe the general workflow of each SRS modality, indications and counterindications for treatment. To compare and contrast different technologies, 2–3 cases examples demonstrating interesting treatment situations and expected outcomes, a sample treatment plan (either live or pre-recorded with live commentary) demonstrating the treatment planning technique, and machine and patient-specific QA required for treatment (if applicable). Additionally, workflows and data describing the use of immobilization devices or tracking/monitoring during SRS/SRT delivery will also be discussed. The session will close with a roundtable discussion of methods to evaluate plan quality, and achievable technical and clinical goals for intracranial SRS. Learning Objectives: Understand the key differences between cranial SRS/SRT and conventional treatments. Review Gamma Knife, CyberKnife and Conventional Linac-based radiosurgery delivery techniques and quality assurance Compare and contrast treatment plans, treatment planning strategy and and quality assurance procedures for each technology. Be able to establish cranial SRS/SRT procedure with optimized quality assurance program for each technology.

  4. WE-B-19A-01: SRT II: Uncertainties in SRT

    SciTech Connect

    Dieterich, S; Schlesinger, D; Geneser, S

    2014-06-15

    SRS delivery has undergone major technical changes in the last decade, transitioning from predominantly frame-based treatment delivery to imageguided, frameless SRS. It is important for medical physicists working in SRS to understand the magnitude and sources of uncertainty involved in delivering SRS treatments for a multitude of technologies (Gamma Knife, CyberKnife, linac-based SRS and protons). Sources of SRS planning and delivery uncertainty include dose calculation, dose fusion, and intra- and inter-fraction motion. Dose calculations for small fields are particularly difficult because of the lack of electronic equilibrium and greater effect of inhomogeneities within and near the PTV. Going frameless introduces greater setup uncertainties that allows for potentially increased intra- and interfraction motion, The increased use of multiple imaging modalities to determine the tumor volume, necessitates (deformable) image and contour fusion, and the resulting uncertainties introduced in the image registration process further contribute to overall treatment planning uncertainties. Each of these uncertainties must be quantified and their impact on treatment delivery accuracy understood. If necessary, the uncertainties may then be accounted for during treatment planning either through techniques to make the uncertainty explicit, or by the appropriate addition of PTV margins. Further complicating matters, the statistics of 1-5 fraction SRS treatments differ from traditional margin recipes relying on Poisson statistics. In this session, we will discuss uncertainties introduced during each step of the SRS treatment planning and delivery process and present margin recipes to appropriately account for such uncertainties. Learning Objectives: To understand the major contributors to the total delivery uncertainty in SRS for Gamma Knife, CyberKnife, and linac-based SRS. Learn the various uncertainties introduced by image fusion, deformable image registration, and contouring variation. Learn a variety of strategies for dealing with uncertainty, including margin recipes and explicit visualization of uncertainty. Understand how the assessment of PTV margins differs from regular fractionation (van Herk recipe) for 1–5 fraction deliveries.

  5. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image registration.

  6. SU-C-19A-01: A Simple Deep Inspiration Breath Hold System

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, B; Kaznowski, L; Blackburn, J; Chu, K; Duelge, J; Baldwin, B; Valenti, M; Hunsader, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) Radiation therapy for left sided breast can reduce dose to the lungs and heart. The purpose of this work is to illustrate how to implement a simple method of DIBH for simulation and treatment using equipment readily available in most radiation oncology clinics. Methods: For simulation and treatment, a foam block is placed on the patient's abdomen or chest and a horizontal laser mounted on a movable slide is aimed at the center of the foam block. After a coaching session the block is marked at the average free breathing position and average DIBH position. The position of block relative to laser can be seen by the patient via prism glasses as well as the radiation therapists via a video camera system. Simulation CT scans and treatment delivery are performed under DIBH conditions. Imaging and treatment are performed by manually turning the beam on once the patient has achieved DIBH after being given verbal instructions. Results: Manually triggered imaging was used daily to verify DIBH reproducibility for all patients treated using this system. Sets of before and during port images were used to ensure patient position was appropriate for treatment. Results of the laser on block method were compared to a sister facility using surface mapping techniques for DIBH and the two methods were found to have clinically equivalent reproducibility. Conclusion: The laser and block system was found to be simple to implement and robust during patient treatment. This system can be created from readily available materials at low cost and provides adequate feedback to patient and therapists. During treatment images document the reproducibility of setup and give confidence to clinicians that this method is reproducible from day to day.

  7. MO-F-16A-01: Implementation of MPPG TPS Verification Tests On Various Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, J; Bredfeldt, J; Geurts, M; Miller, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the implementation of the Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) for dose calculation and beam parameters verification of treatment planning systems (TPS). Methods: We implemented the draft TPS MPPG for three linacs: Varian Trilogy, TomoHDA and Elekta Infinity. Static and modulated test plans were created. The static fields are different than used in commissioning. Data was collected using ion chambers and diodes in a scanning water tank, Delta4 phantom and a custom phantom. MatLab and Microsoft Excel were used to create analysis tools to compare reference DICOM dose with scan data. This custom code allowed for the interpolation, registration and gamma analysis of arbitrary dose profiles. It will be provided as open source code. IMRT fields were validated with Delta4 registration and comparison tools. The time for each task was recorded. Results: The tests confirmed the strengths, and revealed some limitations, of our TPS. The agreement between calculated and measured dose was reported for all beams. For static fields, percent depth dose and profiles were analyzed with criteria in the draft MPPG. The results reveal areas of slight mismatch with the model (MLC leaf penumbra, buildup region.) For TomoTherapy, the IMRT plan 2%/2 mm gamma analysis revealed poorest agreement in the low dose regions. For one static test plan for all 10MV Trilogy photon beams, the plan generation, scan queue creation, data collection, data analysis and report took 2 hours, excluding tank setup. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the implementation feasibility of the TPS MPPG. This exercise generated an open source tool for dose comparisons between scan data and DICOM dose data. An easily reproducible and efficient infrastructure with streamlined data collection was created for repeatable robust testing of the TPS. The tests revealed minor discrepancies in our models and areas for improvement that are being investigated.

  8. WE-A-18A-01: TG246 On Patient Dose From Diagnostic Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Supanich, M; Dong, F; Andersson, J; Pavlicek, W; Bolch, W; Fetterly, K

    2014-06-15

    Radiation dose from diagnostic and interventional radiations continues to be a focus of the regulatory, accreditation and standards organizations in the US and Europe. A Joint AAPM/EFOMP effort has been underway in the past year — having the goal to assist the clinical medical physicist with communicating optional and varied approaches in estimating (and validating) patient dose. In particular, the tools provided by DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports, either by themselves or as part of a networked data repository of dose related information are a rich source of actionable information. The tools of the medical physicist have evolved to include using DICOM data in meaningful ways to look at patient dose with respect to imaging practices. In addition to how accurate or reproducible a dose value is (totally necessary and our traditional workspace) it is now being asked how reproducible (patient to patient, device to device) are the delivered doses (new tasking)? Clinical medical physicists are best equipped to assist our radiology and technologist colleagues with this effort. The purpose of this session is to review the efforts of TG246 - bringing forward a summary content of the TG246 Report including specific dose descriptors for CT and Fluoroscopy — particularly in a focus of leveraging the RDSR as a means for monitoring good practices ALARA. Additionally, rapidly evolving technologies for more refined dose estimates are now in use. These will be presented as they look to having highly patient specific dose estimates in automated use.

  9. MO-A-16A-01: QA Procedures and Metrics: In Search of QA Usability

    SciTech Connect

    Sathiaseelan, V; Thomadsen, B

    2014-06-15

    Radiation therapy has undergone considerable changes in the past two decades with a surge of new technology and treatment delivery methods. The complexity of radiation therapy treatments has increased and there has been increased awareness and publicity about the associated risks. In response, there has been proliferation of guidelines for medical physicists to adopt to ensure that treatments are delivered safely. Task Group recommendations are copious, and clinical physicists' hours are longer, stretched to various degrees between site planning and management, IT support, physics QA, and treatment planning responsibilities.Radiation oncology has many quality control practices in place to ensure the delivery of high-quality, safe treatments. Incident reporting systems have been developed to collect statistics about near miss events at many radiation oncology centers. However, tools are lacking to assess the impact of these various control measures. A recent effort to address this shortcoming is the work of Ford et al (2012) who recently published a methodology enumerating quality control quantification for measuring the effectiveness of safety barriers. Over 4000 near-miss incidents reported from 2 academic radiation oncology clinics were analyzed using quality control quantification, and a profile of the most effective quality control measures (metrics) was identified.There is a critical need to identify a QA metric to help the busy clinical physicists to focus their limited time and resources most effectively in order to minimize or eliminate errors in the radiation treatment delivery processes. In this symposium the usefulness of workflows and QA metrics to assure safe and high quality patient care will be explored.Two presentations will be given:Quality Metrics and Risk Management with High Risk Radiation Oncology ProceduresStrategies and metrics for quality management in the TG-100 Era Learning Objectives: Provide an overview and the need for QA usability metrics: Different cultures/practices affecting the effectiveness of methods and metrics. Show examples of quality assurance workflows, Statistical process control, that monitor the treatment planning and delivery process to identify errors. To learn to identify and prioritize risks and QA procedures in radiation oncology. Try to answer the question: Can a quality assurance program aided by quality assurance metrics help minimize errors and ensure safe treatment delivery. Should such metrics be institution specific.

  10. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    SciTech Connect

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P; Thomadsen, B

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what Fault tree analysis is all about. Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, FMEA and FTA.

  11. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E; Ezzell, G; Miller, B; Yorke, E

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA, and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good error proofing that extends beyond traditional prescriptive QA measures.

  12. WE-E-17A-01: Characterization of An Imaging-Based Model of Tumor Angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikarla, V; Jeraj, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Understanding the transient dynamics of tumor oxygenation is important when evaluating tumor-vasculature response to anti-angiogenic therapies. An imaging-based tumor-vasculature model was used to elucidate factors that affect these dynamics. Methods: Tumor growth depends on its doubling time (Td). Hypoxia increases pro-angiogenic factor (VEGF) concentration which is modeled to reduce vessel perfusion, attributing to its effect of increasing vascular permeability. Perfused vessel recruitment depends on the existing perfused vasculature, VEGF concentration and maximum VEGF concentration (VEGFmax) for vessel dysfunction. A convolution-based algorithm couples the tumor to the normal tissue vessel density (VD-nt). The parameters are benchmarked to published pre-clinical data and a sensitivity study evaluating the changes in the peak and time to peak tumor oxygenation characterizes them. The model is used to simulate changes in hypoxia and proliferation PET imaging data obtained using [Cu- 61]Cu-ATSM and [F-18]FLT respectively. Results: Td and VD-nt were found to be the most influential on peak tumor pO2 while VEGFmax was marginally influential. A +20 % change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax resulted in +50%, +25% and +5% increase in peak pO2. In contrast, Td was the most influential on the time to peak oxygenation with VD-nt and VEGFmax playing marginal roles. A +20% change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax increased the time to peak pO2 by +50%, +5% and +0%. A −20% change in the above parameters resulted in comparable decreases in the peak and time to peak pO2. Model application to the PET data was able to demonstrate the voxel-specific changes in hypoxia of the imaged tumor. Conclusion: Tumor-specific doubling time and vessel density are important parameters to be considered when evaluating hypoxia transients. While the current model simulates the oxygen dynamics of an untreated tumor, incorporation of therapeutic effects can make the model a potent tool for analyzing anti-angiogenic therapies.

  13. An atlas of low latitude 6300A (01) night airglow from OGO-4 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, E. I.; Fowler, W. B.; Blamont, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The atomic oxygen emission line at 6300 A, measured in the nadir direction by a photometer on the polar orbiting satellite OGO-4, was plotted between 40 deg N and 40 deg S latitude on a series of maps for the moon-free periods between 30 August 1967 and 10 January 1968 The longitudinal and local time variations which occur during the northern fall-winter season are indicated. The northern tropical arc is more widespread while the southern arc is not present at all longitudes. The conditions under which the observations were made are described, and four airglow maps were selected to show the local time variations.

  14. MO-D-16A-01: International Day of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, K; Damilakis, J

    2014-06-15

    International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) which represents medical physicists in more than 80 countries decided to celebrate 7th November, birth date of the Polish and naturalized-French physicist Marie Sklodowska-Curie, as International Day of Medical Physics (IDMP). The main purpose of the initiative is to raise the visibility and awareness of medical physicist in the global community, to introduce ourselves to the general public, and bring a message to the community that a group of health professionals, the medical physicists are there to help the patients and other health professionals. First celebration was done in 2013 and now IDMP will be celebrated every year. The theme of IDMP will be different each year. The theme for 2013 was ‘Radiation exposure from medical procedures, ask the Medical Physicist’. The inaugural event was celebrated in 23 countries and the amount of attention gained was remarkable. Main IDMP events were held in Poland, birthplace of Marie Curie, and France, workplace of Marie Curie. This year IOMP celebrates the 2nd IDMP and theme will be ‘Looking into the body-Advancement in Imaging through Medical Physics’ to draw attention to the profound contributions Medical Physics has made to the use of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation for the imaging of human body. A number of countries have informed about events that they are going to organize on IDMP. This gives wide attention to medical physics globally. AAPM is a major and important member of IOMP. It is hoped that AAPM will join in organizing activities. Learning Objectives: To learn about International Day of Medical Physics To become familiar with how first IDMP was celebrated in 2013 and learning achieved To understand on future plans for IDMPs.

  15. TU-C-9A-01: IROC Organization and Clinical Trial Credentialing

    SciTech Connect

    Followill, D; Molineu, A; Xiao, Y

    2014-06-15

    As a response to recommendations from a report from the Institute of Medicine, NCI is reorganizing it clinical trial groups into a National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) that consists of four adult groups (Alliance, ECOGACRIN, NRG, and SWOG) and one children’s group (COG). NRG will house CIRO, a center to promote innovative radiation therapy research and intergroup collaboration in radiation. The quality assurance groups that support clinical trials have also been restructured. ITC, OSU Imaging corelab, Philadelphia Imaging core-lab, QARC, RPC, and RTOGQA have joined together to create the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Group. IROC’s mission is to provide integrated radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging quality control programs in support of the NCI’s NCTN thereby assuring high quality data for clinical trials designed to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients worldwide. This will be accomplished through five core services: site qualification, trial design support, credentialing, data management, case review.These changes are important for physicist participating in NCI clinical trials to understand. We will describe in detail the IROC’s activities and five core services so that as a user, the medical physicist can learn how to efficiently utilize this group. We will describe common pitfalls encountered in credentialing for current protocols and present methods to avoid them. These may include the which benchmarks are required for NSABP B-51/RTOG 1304 and how to plan them as well as tips for phantom planning. We will explain how to submit patient and phantom cases in the TRIAD system used by IROC. Learning Objectives: To understand the basic organization of IROC, its mission and five core services To learn how to use TRIAD for patient and phantom data submission To learn how to avoid common pitfalls in credentialing for current trials.

  16. MO-G-18A-01: Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mahesh, M; Gingold, E; Jones, A

    2014-06-15

    Advances in medical x-ray imaging have provided significant benefits to patient care. According to NCRP 160, there are more than 400 million x-ray procedures performed annually in the United States alone that contributes to nearly half of all the radiation exposure to the US population. Similar growth trends in medical x-ray imaging are observed worldwide. Apparent increase in number of medical x-ray imaging procedures, new protocols and the associated radiation dose and risk has drawn considerable attention. This has led to a number of technological innovations such as tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dose alerts, dose displays, flat panel digital detectors, high efficient digital detectors, storage phosphor radiography, variable filters, etc. that are enabling users to acquire medical x-ray images at a much lower radiation dose. Along with these, there are number of radiation dose optimization strategies that users can adapt to effectively lower radiation dose in medical x-ray procedures. The main objectives of this SAM course are to provide information and how to implement the various radiation dose optimization strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography. Learning Objectives: To update impact of technological advances on dose optimization in medical imaging. To identify radiation optimization strategies in computed tomography. To describe strategies for configuring fluoroscopic equipment that yields optimal images at reasonable radiation dose. To assess ways to configure digital radiography systems and recommend ways to improve image quality at optimal dose.

  17. MO-G-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging Metrology: What Should Be Assessed and How?

    SciTech Connect

    Giger, M; Petrick, N; Obuchowski, N; Kinahan, P

    2014-06-15

    The first two symposia in the Quantitative Imaging Track focused on 1) the introduction of quantitative imaging (QI) challenges and opportunities, and QI efforts of agencies and organizations such as the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST, and 2) the techniques, applications, and challenges of QI, with specific examples from CT, PET/CT, and MR. This third symposium in the QI Track will focus on metrology and its importance in successfully advancing the QI field. While the specific focus will be on QI, many of the concepts presented are more broadly applicable to many areas of medical physics research and applications. As such, the topics discussed should be of interest to medical physicists involved in imaging as well as therapy. The first talk of the session will focus on the introduction to metrology and why it is critically important in QI. The second talk will focus on appropriate methods for technical performance assessment. The third talk will address statistically valid methods for algorithm comparison, a common problem not only in QI but also in other areas of medical physics. The final talk in the session will address strategies for publication of results that will allow statistically valid meta-analyses, which is critical for combining results of individual studies with typically small sample sizes in a manner that can best inform decisions and advance the field. Learning Objectives: Understand the importance of metrology in the QI efforts. Understand appropriate methods for technical performance assessment. Understand methods for comparing algorithms with or without reference data (i.e., “ground truth”). Understand the challenges and importance of reporting results in a manner that allows for statistically valid meta-analyses.

  18. MO-C-9A-01: Effective Medical Physics Educational Activities: Models and Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sprawls, P

    2014-06-15

    Medical physics is learned in a combination of activities including classroom sessions, individual study, small-group collaborative problem solving, and direct experience in the laboratory or clinical environment. Each type of learning activity is characterized by its effectiveness in producing the desired knowledge for the learner and the cost in terms of resources and human effort required providing it. While learning and teaching is a human activity, modern technology provides a variety of tools that can be used to enhance human performance. The class or conference room is the common setting for educational sessions in both academic institutions and continuing education conferences and programs such as those sponsored by the AAPM. A major value of a class/conference room program is efficiency by bringing a group of learners together to share in a common learning experience under the guidance of one or more experienced learning facilitators (lecturers or presenters). A major challenge is that the class/conference room is separated from the real world of medical physics. The design of an educational activity needs to take into consideration the desired outcomes with respect to what the learners should be able to do. The distinction is that of being able to apply the knowledge to perform specific physics functions rather than just knowing and being able to recall facts, and perhaps do well on written examinations. These are different types of knowledge structures within the human brain and distinctly different learning activities to develop each. Much of medical physics education, especially at the post-graduate and continuing education level, is for the purpose of enhancing the ability of physicists and other related professionals to perform applied procedures and tasks and requires specific types of knowledge.In this session we will analyze various learning activity models, the values and limitations of each, and how they can be used in medical physics education. An example we will use is optimizing CT image quality and dose which is an important topic for medical physicists, radiologists and residents, along with technologists. The knowledge structure for this is best developed by a combination of learning activities including class/conference discussions, individual study and review, and direct observation and interaction in the clinical setting under the direction of a knowledgeable leader.The function of the human brain will be considered with respect to learning experiences that contribute to effective medical physics knowledge structures. The characteristics of various types of educational activities will be compared with respect to their effectiveness for producing desired outcomes along with their limitations. Emphasis will be given to the design of highly-effective classroom/conference presentations, and activities will be demonstrated with an emphasis on using technology to enhance human performance of both learners and the learning facilitators. Learning Objectives: Develop and provide highly effective medical physics educational sessions. Use technology to enhance human performance in the educational process. Identify and analyze various models of educational activities Select and use educational activities that contribute value to the medical physics profession.

  19. TU-F-9A-01: Balancing Image Quality and Dose in Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, D; Pasciak, A

    2014-06-15

    Emphasis is often placed on minimizing radiation dose in diagnostic imaging without a complete consideration of the effect on image quality, especially those that affect diagnostic accuracy. This session will include a patient image-based review of diagnostic quantities important to radiologists in conventional radiography, including the effects of body habitus, age, positioning, and the clinical indication of the exam. The relationships between image quality, radiation dose, and radiation risk will be discussed, specifically addressing how these factors are affected by image protocols and acquisition parameters and techniques. This session will also discuss some of the actual and perceived radiation risk associated with diagnostic imaging. Regardless if the probability for radiation-induced cancer is small, the fear associated with radiation persists. Also when a risk has a benefit to an individual or to society, the risk may be justified with respect to the benefit. But how do you convey the risks and the benefits to people? This requires knowledge of how people perceive risk and how to communicate the risk and the benefit to different populations. In this presentation the sources of errors in estimating risk from radiation and some methods used to convey risks are reviewed. Learning Objectives: Understand the image quality metrics that are clinically relevant to radiologists. Understand how acquisition parameters and techniques affect image quality and radiation dose in conventional radiology. Understand the uncertainties in estimates of radiation risk from imaging exams. Learn some methods for effectively communicating radiation risk to the public.

  20. WE-D-9A-01: A Novel Mesh-Based Deformable Surface-Contour Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z; Cai, Y; Guo, X; Jia, X; Chiu, T; Kearney, V; Liu, H; Jiang, L; Chen, S; Yordy, J; Nedzi, L; Mao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Initial guess is vital for 3D-2D deformable image registration (DIR) while dealing with large deformations for adaptive radiation therapy. A fast procedure has been developed to deform body surface to match 2D body contour on projections. This surface-contour DIR will provide an initial deformation for further complete 3D DIR or image reconstruction. Methods: Both planning CT images and come-beam CT (CBCT) projections are preprocessed to create 0–1 binary mask. Then the body surface and CBCT projection body contours are extracted by Canny edge detector. A finite element modeling system was developed to automatically generate adaptive meshes based on the image surface. After that, the projections of the CT surface voxels are computed and compared with corresponding 2D projection contours from CBCT scans. As a result, the displacement vector field (DVF) on mesh vertices around the surface was optimized iteratively until the shortest Euclidean distance between the pixels on the projections of the deformed CT surface and the corresponding CBCT projection contour is minimized. With the help of the tetrahedral meshes, we can smoothly diffuse the deformation from the surface into the interior of the volume. Finally, the deformed CT images are obtained by the optimal DVF applied on the original planning CT images. Results: The accuracy of the surface-contour registration is evaluated by 3D normalized cross correlation increased from 0.9176 to 0.9957 (sphere-ellipsoid phantom) and from 0.7627 to 0.7919 (H and N cancer patient data). Under the GPU-based implementation, our surface-contour-guided method on H and N cancer patient data takes 8 seconds/iteration, about 7.5 times faster than direct 3D method (60 seconds/iteration), and it needs fewer optimization iterations (30 iterations vs 50 iterations). Conclusion: The proposed surface-contour DIR method can substantially improve both the accuracy and the speed of reconstructing volumetric images, which is helpful for applying in adaptive radiotherapy. This research is supported by CPRIT individual investigator award RP110329.

  1. MO-E-18A-01: Imaging: Best Practices In Pediatric Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, C; Strauss, K; MacDougall, R; Sammet, C

    2014-06-15

    This imaging educational program will focus on solutions to common pediatric imaging challenges. The speakers will present collective knowledge on best practices in pediatric imaging from their experience at dedicated children's hospitals. Areas of focus will include general radiography, the use of manual and automatic dose management in computed tomography, and enterprise-wide radiation dose management in the pediatric practice. The educational program will begin with a discussion of the complexities of exposure factor control in pediatric projection radiography. Following this introduction will be two lectures addressing the challenges of computed tomography (CT) protocol optimization in the pediatric population. The first will address manual CT protocol design in order to establish a managed radiation dose for any pediatric exam on any CT scanner. The second CT lecture will focus on the intricacies of automatic dose modulation in pediatric imaging with an emphasis on getting reliable results in algorithmbased technique selection. The fourth and final lecture will address the key elements needed to developing a comprehensive radiation dose management program for the pediatric environment with particular attention paid to new regulations and obligations of practicing medical physicists. Learning Objectives: To understand how general radiographic techniques can be optimized using exposure indices in order to improve pediatric radiography. To learn how to establish diagnostic dose reference levels for pediatric patients as a function of the type of examination, patient size, and individual design characteristics of the CT scanner. To learn how to predict the patient's radiation dose prior to the exam and manually adjust technique factors if necessary to match the patient's dose to the department's established dose reference levels. To learn how to utilize manufacturer-provided automatic dose modulation technology to consistently achieve patient doses within the department's established size-based diagnostic reference range. To understand the key components of an enterprise-wide pediatric dose management program that integrates the expanding responsibilities of medial physicists in the new era of dose monitoring.

  2. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B; Yang, K; Yaffe, M; Chen, J

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  3. WE-G-19A-01: Radiologists and Medical Physicists: Working Together to Achieve Common Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Ma, J; Steele, J; Choi, H

    2014-06-15

    It is vitally important that medical physicists understand the clinical questions that radiologists are trying to answer with patient images. Knowledge of the types of information the radiologist needs helps medical physicists configure imaging protocols that appropriately balance radiation dose, time, and image quality. The ability to communicate with radiologists and understand medical terminology, anatomy, and physiology is key to creating such imaging protocols. In this session, radiologists will present clinical cases and describe the information they are seeking in the clinical images. Medical physicists will then discuss how imaging protocols are configured. Learning Objectives: Understand the types of information that radiologists seek in medical images. Apply this understanding in configuring the imaging equipment to deliver this information. Develop strategies for working with physician colleagues.

  4. SU-C-17A-01: MRI-Based Radiotherapy Treatment Planning In Pelvis

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S; Cao, Y; Jolly, S; Balter, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To support radiotherapy dose calculation, synthetic CT (MRCT) image volumes need to represent the electron density of tissues with sufficient accuracy. This study compares CT and MRCT for pelvic radiotherapy. Methods: CT and multi-contrast MRI acquired using T1- based Dixon, T2 TSE, and PETRA sequences were acquired on an IRBapproved protocol patient. A previously published method was used to create a MRCT image volume by applying fuzzy classification on T1- weighted and calculated water image volumes (air and fluid voxels were excluded using thresholds applied to PETRA and T2-weighted images). The correlation of pelvic bone intensity between CT and MRCT was investigated. Two treatment plans, based on CT and MRCT, were performed to mimic treatment for: (a) pelvic bone metastasis with a 16MV parallel beam arrangement, and (b) gynecological cancer with 6MV volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using two full arcs. The CT-calculated fluence maps were used to recalculate doses using the MRCT-derived density grid. The dose-volume histograms and dose distributions were compared. Results: Bone intensities in the MRCT volume correlated linearly with CT intensities up to 800 HU (containing 96% of the bone volume), and then decreased with CT intensity increase (4% volume). There was no significant difference in dose distributions between CT- and MRCTbased plans, except for the rectum and bladder, for which the V45 differed by 15% and 9%, respectively. These differences may be attributed to normal and visualized organ movement and volume variations between CT and MR scans. Conclusion: While MRCT had lower bone intensity in highly-dense bone, this did not cause significant dose deviations from CT due to its small percentage of volume. These results indicate that treatment planning using MRCT could generate comparable dose distributions to that using CT, and further demonstrate the feasibility of using MRI-alone to support Radiation Oncology workflow. NIH R01EB016079.

  5. TH-E-18A-01: Developments in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Badal, A; Zbijewski, W; Bolch, W; Sechopoulos, I

    2014-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are widely used in medical physics research and are starting to be implemented in clinical applications such as radiation therapy planning systems. Monte Carlo simulations offer the capability to accurately estimate quantities of interest that are challenging to measure experimentally while taking into account the realistic anatomy of an individual patient. Traditionally, practical application of Monte Carlo simulation codes in diagnostic imaging was limited by the need for large computational resources or long execution times. However, recent advancements in high-performance computing hardware, combined with a new generation of Monte Carlo simulation algorithms and novel postprocessing methods, are allowing for the computation of relevant imaging parameters of interest such as patient organ doses and scatter-to-primaryratios in radiographic projections in just a few seconds using affordable computational resources. Programmable Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), for example, provide a convenient, affordable platform for parallelized Monte Carlo executions that yield simulation times on the order of 10{sup 7} xray/ s. Even with GPU acceleration, however, Monte Carlo simulation times can be prohibitive for routine clinical practice. To reduce simulation times further, variance reduction techniques can be used to alter the probabilistic models underlying the x-ray tracking process, resulting in lower variance in the results without biasing the estimates. Other complementary strategies for further reductions in computation time are denoising of the Monte Carlo estimates and estimating (scoring) the quantity of interest at a sparse set of sampling locations (e.g. at a small number of detector pixels in a scatter simulation) followed by interpolation. Beyond reduction of the computational resources required for performing Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging, the use of accurate representations of patient anatomy is crucial to the virtual generation of medical images and accurate estimation of radiation dose and other imaging parameters. For this, detailed computational phantoms of the patient anatomy must be utilized and implemented within the radiation transport code. Computational phantoms presently come in one of three format types, and in one of four morphometric categories. Format types include stylized (mathematical equation-based), voxel (segmented CT/MR images), and hybrid (NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces). Morphometric categories include reference (small library of phantoms by age at 50th height/weight percentile), patient-dependent (larger library of phantoms at various combinations of height/weight percentiles), patient-sculpted (phantoms altered to match the patient's unique outer body contour), and finally, patient-specific (an exact representation of the patient with respect to both body contour and internal anatomy). The existence and availability of these phantoms represents a very important advance for the simulation of realistic medical imaging applications using Monte Carlo methods. New Monte Carlo simulation codes need to be thoroughly validated before they can be used to perform novel research. Ideally, the validation process would involve comparison of results with those of an experimental measurement, but accurate replication of experimental conditions can be very challenging. It is very common to validate new Monte Carlo simulations by replicating previously published simulation results of similar experiments. This process, however, is commonly problematic due to the lack of sufficient information in the published reports of previous work so as to be able to replicate the simulation in detail. To aid in this process, the AAPM Task Group 195 prepared a report in which six different imaging research experiments commonly performed using Monte Carlo simulations are described and their results provided. The simulation conditions of all six cases are provided in full detail, with all necessary data on material composition, source, geometry, scoring and other parameters provided. The results of these simulations when performed with the four most common publicly available Monte Carlo packages are also provided in tabular form. The Task Group 195 Report will be useful for researchers needing to validate their Monte Carlo work, and for trainees needing to learn Monte Carlo simulation methods. In this symposium we will review the recent advancements in highperformance computing hardware enabling the reduction in computational resources needed for Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging. We will review variance reduction techniques commonly applied in Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging systems and present implementation strategies for efficient combination of these techniques with GPU acceleration. Trade-offs involved in Monte Carlo acceleration by means of denoising and “sparse sampling” will be discussed. A method for rapid scatter correction in cone-beam CT (<5 min/scan) will be presented as an illustration of the simulation speeds achievable with optimized Monte Carlo simulations. We will also discuss the development, availability, and capability of the various combinations of computational phantoms for Monte Carlo simulation of medical imaging systems. Finally, we will review some examples of experimental validation of Monte Carlo simulations and will present the AAPM Task Group 195 Report. Learning Objectives: Describe the advances in hardware available for performing Monte Carlo simulations in high performance computing environments. Explain variance reduction, denoising and sparse sampling techniques available for reduction of computational time needed for Monte Carlo simulations of medical imaging. List and compare the computational anthropomorphic phantoms currently available for more accurate assessment of medical imaging parameters in Monte Carlo simulations. Describe experimental methods used for validation of Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging. Describe the AAPM Task Group 195 Report and its use for validation and teaching of Monte Carlo simulations in medical imaging.

  6. TU-AB-207A-01: Image Acquisition Physics and Hardware.

    PubMed

    Li, B

    2016-06-01

    Practicing medical physicists are often time charged with the tasks of evaluating and troubleshooting complex image quality issues related to CT scanners. This course will equip them with a solid and practical understanding of common CT imaging chain and its major components with emphasis on acquisition physics and hardware, reconstruction, artifacts, image quality, dose, and advanced clinical applications. The core objective is to explain the effects of these major system components on the image quality. This course will not focus on the rapid-changing advanced technologies given the two-hour time limit, but the fundamental principles discussed in this course may facilitate better understanding of those more complicated technologies. The course will begin with an overview of CT acquisition physics and geometry. X-ray tube and CT detector are important acquisition hardware critical to the overall image quality. Each of these two subsystems consists of several major components. An in-depth description of the function and failure modes of these components will be provided. Examples of artifacts related to these failure modes will be presented: off-focal radiation, tube arcing, heel effect, oil bubble, offset drift effect, cross-talk effect, and bad pixels. The fundamentals of CT image reconstruction will first be discussed on an intuitive level. Approaches that do not require rigorous derivation of mathematical formulations will be presented. This is followed by a detailed derivation of the Fourier slice theorem: the foundation of the FBP algorithm. FBP for parallel-beam, fan-beam, and cone-beam geometries will be discussed. To address the issue of radiation dose related to x-ray CT, recent advances in iterative reconstruction, their advantages, and clinical applications will also be described. Because of the nature of fundamental physics and mathematics, limitations in data acquisition, and non-ideal conditions of major system components, image artifact often arise in the reconstructed images. Because of the limited scope of this course, only major imaging artifacts, their appearance, and possible mitigation and corrections will be discussed. Assessment of the performance of a CT scanner is a complicated subject. Procedures to measure common image quality metrics such as high contrast spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, and slice profile will be described. The reason why these metrics used for FBP may not be sufficient for statistical iterative reconstruction will be explained. Optimizing radiation dose requires comprehension of CT dose metrics. This course will briefly describe various dose metrics, and interaction with acquisition parameters and patient habitus. CT is among the most frequently used imaging tools due to its superior image quality, easy to operate, and a broad range of applications. This course will present several interesting CT applications such as a mobile CT unit on an ambulance for stroke patients, low dose lung cancer screening, and single heartbeat cardiac CT.

  7. MO-C-18A-01: Advances in Model-Based 3D Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G; Pan, X; Stayman, J; Samei, E

    2014-06-15

    Recent years have seen the emergence of CT image reconstruction techniques that exploit physical models of the imaging system, photon statistics, and even the patient to achieve improved 3D image quality and/or reduction of radiation dose. With numerous advantages in comparison to conventional 3D filtered backprojection, such techniques bring a variety of challenges as well, including: a demanding computational load associated with sophisticated forward models and iterative optimization methods; nonlinearity and nonstationarity in image quality characteristics; a complex dependency on multiple free parameters; and the need to understand how best to incorporate prior information (including patient-specific prior images) within the reconstruction process. The advantages, however, are even greater – for example: improved image quality; reduced dose; robustness to noise and artifacts; task-specific reconstruction protocols; suitability to novel CT imaging platforms and noncircular orbits; and incorporation of known characteristics of the imager and patient that are conventionally discarded. This symposium features experts in 3D image reconstruction, image quality assessment, and the translation of such methods to emerging clinical applications. Dr. Chen will address novel methods for the incorporation of prior information in 3D and 4D CT reconstruction techniques. Dr. Pan will show recent advances in optimization-based reconstruction that enable potential reduction of dose and sampling requirements. Dr. Stayman will describe a “task-based imaging” approach that leverages models of the imaging system and patient in combination with a specification of the imaging task to optimize both the acquisition and reconstruction process. Dr. Samei will describe the development of methods for image quality assessment in such nonlinear reconstruction techniques and the use of these methods to characterize and optimize image quality and dose in a spectrum of clinical applications. Learning Objectives: Learn the general methodologies associated with model-based 3D image reconstruction. Learn the potential advantages in image quality and dose associated with model-based image reconstruction. Learn the challenges associated with computational load and image quality assessment for such reconstruction methods. Learn how imaging task can be incorporated as a means to drive optimal image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. Learn how model-based reconstruction methods can incorporate prior information to improve image quality, ease sampling requirements, and reduce dose.

  8. MO-G-9A-01: Imaging Refresher for Standard of Care Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Labby, Z; Sensakovic, W; Hipp, E; Altman, M

    2014-06-15

    Imaging techniques and technology which were previously the domain of diagnostic medicine are becoming increasingly integrated and utilized in radiation therapy (RT) clinical practice. As such, there are a number of specific imaging topics that are highly applicable to modern radiation therapy physics. As imaging becomes more widely integrated into standard clinical radiation oncology practice, the impetus is on RT physicists to be informed and up-to-date on those imaging modalities relevant to the design and delivery of therapeutic radiation treatments. For example, knowing that, for a given situation, a fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image set is most likely what the physician would like to import and contour is helpful, but may not be sufficient to providing the best quality of care. Understanding the physics of how that pulse sequence works and why it is used could help assess its utility and determine if it is the optimal sequence for aiding in that specific clinical situation. It is thus important that clinical medical physicists be able to understand and explain the physics behind the imaging techniques used in all aspects of clinical radiation oncology practice. This session will provide the basic physics for a variety of imaging modalities for applications that are highly relevant to radiation oncology practice: computed tomography (CT) (including kV, MV, cone beam CT [CBCT], and 4DCT), positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and imaging specific to brachytherapy (including ultrasound and some brachytherapy specific topics in MR). For each unique modality, the image formation process will be reviewed, trade-offs between image quality and other factors (e.g. imaging time or radiation dose) will be clarified, and typically used cases for each modality will be introduced. The current and near-future uses of these modalities and techniques in radiation oncology clinical practice will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review the basic physical science principles of CT, PET, MR, and ultrasound imaging. To understand how the images are created, and present their specific role in patient management and treatment planning for therapeutic radiation (both external beam and brachytherapy). To discuss when and how each specific imaging modality is currently used in clinical practice, as well as how they may come to be used in the near future.

  9. MO-B-16A-01: Memorial to Donald D. Tolbert - Memorial Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R

    2014-06-15

    The Medical Physics community lost one of its prominent leaders in April, 2013 with the passing of Donald D. Tolbert, PhD. He received his Doctorate at the University of Kansas followed by post Doctoral training at Florida State University and the University of Wisconsin. He was Chief of Radiation Therapy Medical Physics at the University of Wisconsin Hospital for 7 years before relocating to Honolulu Hawaii, where he founded the consulting group Mid-Pacific Medical Physics. Don was a leader in both the AAPM and the ACR, chairing the Professional Council and the Commission on Medical Physics. He was active on the AAPM Board of Directors and a member of the ACR Board of Chancellors. Dr. Tolbert's approach to the difficult problems of the times was admired and respected by colleagues in Medical Physics, Radiation Oncology, and Diagnostic Radiology. He always rose above the heated political rhetoric and led the discussion to higher ground. His wisdom was continually sought to solve complicated problems. Following retirement, he returned to homes in Kansas and Colorado, devoting his time to writing about coping with diabetes and providing support for Seniors in Beloit Kansas. Don is survived by his wife, Mattie, his 3 children and 5 grandchildren. He will be greatly missed.

  10. TU-A-17A-01: Memorial to Benjamin M. Galkin - Memorial Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Suntharalingam, N

    2014-06-15

    This past year Medical Physics lost one of its active members, Benjamin M. Galkin. Ben Galkin was a Past-Treasurer of the AAPM. During his leadership role he played an important part in Securing membership, for the AAPM, in the American Institute of physics. As Treasurer he was also a prime mover in starting the journal, Medical Physics, and served as its business manager in the formative years.Ben Galkin received his Masters Degree at Columbia University in New York, under the mentorship of Dr. Edith Quimby, one of the pioneer Hospital Radiation Physicists in the country. He started his professional career at Jefferson Hospital in Philadelphia, joining Robert Gorson, and remained there until retirement. He served as the institution’s Radiation Safety Officer throughout his career. His research interest was Breast Imaging. He held joint faculty appointments in the Department of Radiology and the Department of Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine, rising up to the rank of Full professor. He was a well respected teacher for the residents in Radiology.

  11. WE-G-12A-01: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery and Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Farahani, K; O'Neill, B

    2014-06-15

    More and more emphasis is being made on alternatives to invasive surgery and the use of ionizing radiation to treat various diseases including cancer. Novel screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of response to treatment are also hot areas of research and new clinical technologies. Ultrasound(US) has gained traction in all of the aforementioned areas of focus. Especially with recent advances in the use of ultrasound to noninvasively treat various diseases/organ systems. This session will focus on covering MR-guided focused ultrasound and the state of the art clinical applications, and the second speaker will survey the more cutting edge technologies e.g. Focused Ultrasound (FUS) mediated drug delivery, principles of cavitation and US guided FUS. Learning Objectives: Fundamental physics and physical limitations of US interaction with tissue and nanoparticles The alteration of tissue transport using focused ultrasound US control of nanoparticle drug carriers for targeted release The basic principles of MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery and therapy the current state of the art clinical applications of MRgFUS requirements for quality assurance and treatment planning.

  12. MO-C-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging Initiatives: Why, Who, What, and How?

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D; Jackson, E; Clarke, L; Petrick, N; Russek, S

    2014-06-15

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing focus on quantitative imaging (QI), which, according to one definition, is “the extraction of quantifiable features from medical images for the assessment of normal or the severity, degree of change, or status of a disease, injury, or chronic condition relative to normal” ( www.rsna.org/QIBA ). To achieve the goals of QI requires the development and standardization of data acquisition, data analysis, and data display techniques, as well as appropriate reporting structures. As such, successful implementation of QI relies heavily on expertise from the fields of medical physics, radiology, statistics, and informatics as well as collaboration from vendors of imaging acquisition, analysis, and reporting systems. When successfully implemented, QI techniques will provide image-derived metrics with known bias and variance that can be validated with anatomically and physiologically relevant measures, including treatment response, and the heterogeneity of that response, and outcome. Such non-invasive measures can then be used effectively in clinical and translational research as well as patient care. In addition to modality-specific QI efforts implemented by individual scientific organizations, national and international organizations, including the NCI, RSNA, FDA, and NIST, appreciating the tremendous potential of QI but also understanding the associated challenges, have become increasingly involved. This symposium session will focus on 1) introducing QI and illustrating why it is important, even though challenging, in both research and clinical applications, and 2) providing overviews of QI efforts from national and international organizations, including the RSNA, NCI, FDA, and NIST. Learning Objectives: Understand the importance and potential of QI in research and clinical applications. Understand key challenges of QI and current barriers to implementation. Understand the current QI efforts of several national and international agencies and organizations, including the FDA, NCI, NIST, and RSNA.

  13. SU-F-19A-01: APBI Brachytherapy Treatment Planning: The Impact of Heterogeneous Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Loupot, S; Han, T; Salehpour, M; Gifford, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the difference in dose to PTV-EVAL and OARs (skin and rib) as calculated by (TG43) and heterogeneous calculations (CCC). Methods: 25 patient plans (5 Contura and 20 SAVI) were selected for analysis. Clinical dose distributions were computed with a commercially available treatment planning algorithm (TG43-D-(w,w)) and then recomputed with a pre-clinical collapsed cone convolution algorithm (CCCD-( m,m)). PTV-EVAL coverage (V90%, V95%), and rib and skin maximum dose were compared via percent difference. Differences in dose to normal tissue (V150cc, V200cc of PTV-EVAL) were also compared. Changes in coverage and maximum dose to organs at risk are reported in percent change, (100*(TG43 − CCC) / TG43)), and changes in maximum dose to normal tissue are absolute change in cc (TG43 − CCC). Results: Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the SAVI cases were −0.2%, −0.4%, −0.03cc, and −0.14cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −0.78%, −1.7%, 1.28cc, and 1.01cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −1.4% and −0.22%, respectively, with maximum differences of −4.5% and 16%, respectively. Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the Contura cases were −1.2%, −2.1%, −1.8cc, and −0.59cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −2.0%, −3.16%, −2.9cc, and −0.76cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −2.6% and −3.9%, respectively, with maximum differences of −3.2% and −5.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of translating clinical knowledge based on D-(w,w) to plans reported in D-(m,m) are minimal (2% or less) on average, but vary based on the type and placement of the device, source, and heterogeneity information.

  14. TU-D-9A-01: TG176: Dosimetric Effects of Couch Tops and Immobilization Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, A

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices are often overlooked. These devices also increase surface dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased surface dose compared to the ‘tennis racket’ style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations we make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of skin dose and attenuation, how to report these values, and for the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top models in planning systems. Learning Objectives: What are the dosimetric effects of couch tops What are the dosimetric effects of immobilization devices How can one model couch tops in the treatment planning system How can one measure attenuation and surface dose changes due to external devices.

  15. SU-C-12A-01: Primary Vs. Scatter Contribution to Body CTDI: Experiment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Senan, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify experimentally scatter contribution to CTDI in center and peripheral holes of the body (32-cm) phantom. Methods: All experiments were performed in Service Mode of 750CT-Discovery with both tube and table were in stationary position, and with large filter and 40- mm collimation. First, transmission through acrylic was measured using acrylic rods of various lengths (1-cm to 33-cm), at 80, 120, and 140 kVp. These data were utilized to obtain dose from primary beam at different depths of acrylic. Thus, scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) was determined for center-hole by measuring exposure with a pencil chamber. For peripheral hole SPR, dose was measured at eight different tube angles from 0° to 180°. Change in primary dose with tube angle due to both shape of bowtie filter and distance from tube was measured in air; hence, dose from primary from each of the 8 phantom measurements was determined and SPR was calculated by integrating the fitted models for primary and scatter distributions as a function of distance from tube. Also, scatter contribution from different segments of phantom to center-hole dose was measured using a custom-built acrylic phantom, which had similar SPR at the center-hole to that of standard body phantom. Results: After correcting for stray radiation (off-focus, scatter from collimators, etc.) for primary measurements, preliminary results of SPRs in center-hole dose of the body phantom for 80, 120, and 140 kVp were 6.8, 6.2, and 6.0, respectively, and for peripheral hole were 1.45, 1.44, and 1.39. Forward-scatter and backscatter contributions to center dose, at any point during tube rotation, were respectively, 62% and 38% with 80 kVp, and 60% and 40% with 120 and 140 kVp. Conclusion: SPR in both center and peripheral holes of body CTDI phantom was determined experimentally. Also, distribution of contributing scatter to center hole was estimated.

  16. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, S

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1-8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography. In diagnostic studies, the median MGD from BCT and mammography were 12.6 and 11.1 mGy, respectively [Vedantham et al., Phys Med Biol. 58: 7921-36, 2013]. Moreover, in diagnostic imaging of the breast the location of the lesion is known and therefore characterization and not detection is by far the primary consideration. The role of bCT is particularly compelling for diagnostic imaging of the breast because it may replace in part the multiple mammographic views of the breast under vigorous compression. Other non-screening potential applications of bCT include the assessment of response to neoadjuvant therapy [Vedantham et al., J Clin Imaging Sci 4, 64, 2014] and pre-surgical evaluation.

  17. MO-E-12A-01: Quantitative Imaging: Techniques, Applications, and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, E; Jeraj, R; McNitt-Gray, M; Cao, Y

    2014-06-15

    The first symposium in the Quantitative Imaging Track focused on the introduction of quantitative imaging (QI) by illustrating the potential of QI in diagnostic and therapeutic applications in research and patient care, highlighting key challenges in implementation of such QI applications, and reviewing QI efforts of selected national and international agencies and organizations, including the FDA, NCI, NIST, and RSNA. This second QI symposium will focus more specifically on the techniques, applications, and challenges of QI. The first talk of the session will focus on modalityagnostic challenges of QI, beginning with challenges of the development and implementation of QI applications in single-center, single-vendor settings and progressing to the challenges encountered in the most general setting of multi-center, multi-vendor settings. The subsequent three talks will focus on specific QI challenges and opportunities in the modalityspecific settings of CT, PET/CT, and MR. Each talk will provide information on modality-specific QI techniques, applications, and challenges, including current efforts focused on solutions to such challenges. Learning Objectives: Understand key general challenges of QI application development and implementation, regardless of modality. Understand selected QI techniques and applications in CT, PET/CT, and MR. Understand challenges, and potential solutions for such challenges, for the applications presented for each modality.

  18. TU-B-16A-01: To Which Journal Should I Submit My Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J; Mills, M; Klein, E; Pawlicki, T

    2014-06-15

    Research papers authored by Medical Physicists address a large spectrum of oncologic, imaging, or basic research problems; exploit a wide range of physical and engineering methodologies; and often describe the efforts of a multidisciplinary research team. Given the large number (about 100) competing journals accepting medical physics articles, it may not be clear to an individual author which journal is the best venue for disseminating their work to the scientific community. Relevant factors usually include the Journal’s audience and scientific impact, but also such factors as perceived acceptance rate, interest in their topic, and quality of service. The purpose of this symposium is to provide the medical physics community with an overview of scope, review processes, and article guidelines for the following journals: Medical Physics, International Journal of Radiation Biology and Physics, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, and Practical Radiation Oncology. The senior editors for each journal will provide details as to the journals review process, for example: single blind versus double blind reviews; the hierarchy of the review process in terms of editorial board structure; the reality of acceptance, in terms of acceptance rate; and the types of research the journal prefers to publish. The goal is to provide for authors guidance before they begin to write their papers, not only for proper formatting, but also that the readership is appropriate for the particular paper, hopefully increasing the likelihood of publication. Learning Objectives: To review each Journal’s submission and review process Guidance as to how to increase chances of acceptance To help decipher which journal is appropriate for a given work.

  19. MO-A-9A-01: Innovation in Medical Physics Practice: 3D Printing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ehler, E; Perks, J; Rasmussen, K; Bakic, P

    2014-06-15

    3D printing, also called additive manufacturing, has great potential to advance the field of medicine. Many medical uses have been exhibited from facial reconstruction to the repair of pulmonary obstructions. The strength of 3D printing is to quickly convert a 3D computer model into a physical object. Medical use of 3D models is already ubiquitous with technologies such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Thus tailoring 3D printing technology to medical functions has the potential to impact patient care. This session will discuss applications to the field of Medical Physics. Topics discussed will include introduction to 3D printing methods as well as examples of real-world uses of 3D printing spanning clinical and research practice in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. The session will also compare 3D printing to other manufacturing processes and discuss a variety of uses of 3D printing technology outside the field of Medical Physics. Learning Objectives: Understand the technologies available for 3D Printing Understand methods to generate 3D models Identify the benefits and drawbacks to rapid prototyping / 3D Printing Understand the potential issues related to clinical use of 3D Printing.

  20. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8, located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Actual sampling locations on EFPC may differ slightly by task according to specific requirements of the task. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 and Hinds Creek at kilometer (HCK) 20.6 are the most commonly used reference sites for the Y-12 BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Cox Creek, and Paint Rock Creek (Fig. 1.2). Summaries of the sampling designs for the three primary tasks of the Y-12 Complex BMAP for EFPC are presented in Tables 1.1-1.3. This report covers the 2008 period, although data collected outside this time period are included as appropriate. To address the biological monitoring requirements for Bear Creek and McCoy Branch, CERLCA-funded programs, data are summarized in Appendix A and Appendix B respectively. Data for these two watersheds are provided herein to address Section IX of the NPDES Permit for Y-12, where 'Results of these CERCLA programs can be used to meet the biological monitoring requirements of this permit...'. A summary of the toxicity testing results for Y-12 outfalls into upper EFPC is provided in Appendix C (these results have been previously reported) to provide a more thorough perspective of conditions in the stream. Data summarized in this report are available from the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) in an Arc-GIS usable format (http://www-oreis.bechteljacobs.org/oreis/help/oreishome.html). Per requirements specified in the NPDES permit, data collected following TDEC monitoring protocols (TDEC 2006) is also submitted directly to TDEC in Excel format.

  1. Proposed Use of a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Metals in the S-04 Outfall of the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, T.

    1999-11-23

    The DWPF is part of an integrated waste treatment system at the SRS to treat wastes containing radioactive contaminants. In the early 1980s the DOE recognized that there would be significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the radioactive waste in a stable solid form. The Defense Waste Processing Facility was designed and constructed to accomplish this task.

  2. John Day Lock and Dam Juvenile Fish Bypass System, Columbia River, Oregon-Washington. Supplement No. 3 to General Letter Report, Transportation Conduit and Outfall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    orifice flow) of the drilled holes. The gate frame and guides will not disturb flow approaching 5-2 • • • • • • the orifices. Details of the...integral with the chute section. The chute section is supported vertically by a column and beam frame and is connected horizon- tally to existing...approx. sta. 17+85 to sta. 18+25) will be open at the top and up to 20-feet deep. The side walls will be braced with reinforced concrete compression

  3. Hydraulic Model Investigation. Effects of Wave Action on a Hurricane Protection Structure for London Avenue Outfall Canal, Lake Pontchartrain New Orleans, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Information Technology Laboratory, WES. COL D. G. Lee, CE, was Commander and Director of WES during the prepara- tion and publication of the report. Dr... MOBL LANPOI Al NE CHADELEUR )$EN OORLEANS 1 I.’ 3* i-I T 0A’M x INOEX --. LI~iTS I I * AI Figure~~~~~~~ 2. LoainoWodnAeu ufl aaI 5I.N RT f~~~C wraft

  4. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  5. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  6. 77 FR 16834 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... PCS and ICIS-NPDES. This change could reflect more accurate data rather than a significant change in... estimates; whereas, for this ICR, the Agency has real inventory numbers from PCS and ICIS-NPDES. All...

  7. 77 FR 29757 - Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, issue permits with conditions designed to ensure compliance... Standards and Technology NPDES: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System QA: Quality Assurance QC... Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued under section 402 of the Act. Section 304(h) of the Act requires...

  8. 40 CFR 124.56 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fact sheets. 124.56 Section 124.56... DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits § 124.56 Fact sheets. (Applicable to State programs, see § 123.25 (NPDES).) In addition to meeting the requirements of § 124.8, NPDES fact...

  9. 40 CFR 124.56 - Fact sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fact sheets. 124.56 Section 124.56... DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits § 124.56 Fact sheets. (Applicable to State programs, see § 123.25 (NPDES).) In addition to meeting the requirements of § 124.8, NPDES fact...

  10. An Assessment of the Bioaccumulation of PCBs and Chloridane Near the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.

    2003-12-30

    Studies conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation in the late 1980s found high levels of PCBs and chlordane in fish from the Blue River near the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Follow-on biomonitoring studies by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff from 1991-1993 (Southworth et al. 1992, Ashwood et al. 1993, Ashwood and Peterson 1994), and again on a more limited basis in 1998 (Ashwood 1998), were conducted for the KCP. The studies in the early 1990s characterized concentrations of PCBs and chlordane in fish from Indian Creek, Boone Creek, and the Blue River. These studies concluded that the KCP appears to be one of multiple sources of PCBs to both Indian Creek and the Blue River. There continues to be interest in the potential role of KCP discharges on PCB concentrations in local fish. Elevated PCB concentrations in Indian Creek fish have consistently been found at the location downstream of the NPDES-permitted 002 discharge, which drains a section of the KCP complex. A risk evaluation conducted during 2001 found that some local fish exceeded risk-based guidelines for PCBs. It has been nearly a decade since intensive sampling of fish was conducted within all waters near the KCP (the 1998 study included Indian Creek only); therefore, an update study was warranted. The purpose of the present study is to provide PCB and chlordane concentrations in fish useful in determining the potential human health risks associated with fish in waters near the KCP, to evaluate the relative significance of KCP discharges relative to other inputs on fish levels, and to determine if levels have changed in the years since fish were last analyzed. Fish were collected near the KCP for PCB and chlordane analyses in October and November of 2002. Although chlordane does not appear to be associated with the KCP (it was most commonly used to treat household termite infestations until 1988), it is of interest from an overall risk standpoint. Because monitoring change over time is an

  11. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    SciTech Connect

    Osteen, D.V.

    1999-12-17

    position that the EPA test is neither reasonable nor accurate and thus cannot adequately establish the impact of NPDES outfall discharges on receiving streams.

  12. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... storm water management program. (4) Guidance: In referencing an MS4's storm water management program... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT... management practices and measurable goals required by § 122.34(d). You may file your own NOI, or you...

  13. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... permit issuance for you to develop and implement your program. (b) Minimum control measures—(1) Public... targeted groups of commercial, industrial, and institutional entities likely to have significant...

  14. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... permit issuance for you to develop and implement your program. (b) Minimum control measures—(1) Public... targeted groups of commercial, industrial, and institutional entities likely to have significant...

  15. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... permit issuance for you to develop and implement your program. (b) Minimum control measures—(1) Public... targeted groups of commercial, industrial, and institutional entities likely to have significant...

  16. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act. Your storm water management program must include the minimum control measures described... permit issuance for you to develop and implement your program. (b) Minimum control measures—(1) Public... targeted groups of commercial, industrial, and institutional entities likely to have significant...

  17. 40 CFR 122.33 - If I am an operator of a regulated small MS4, how do I apply for an NPDES permit and when do I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... storm water management program. (4) Guidance: In referencing an MS4's storm water management program... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT... management practices and measurable goals required by § 122.34(d). You may file your own NOI, or you...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-chloroethylvinyl ether Chloroform Dichlorobromomethane 1,1-dichloroethane 1,2-dichloroethane Trans-1,2...)fluoranthene Bis (2-chloroethoxy) methane Bis (2-chloroethyl) ether Bis (2-chloroisopropyl) ether Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether Butyl benzyl phthalate 2-chloronaphthalene...

  19. 75 FR 3731 - Proposed Issuance of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging-Permit Number IDG-37-0000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... based on existing national effluent guidelines, the State of Idaho's Water Quality Standards and... pm. ADDRESSES: Comments on the proposed general permit should be sent to Director, Office of Water... workshop will be held at Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Officer, Conference Room C, 1410...

  20. Establishing Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Wasteload Allocations (WLAs) for Storm Water Sources and NPDES Permit Requirements Based on Those WLAs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The memoranda clarify existing EPA regulatory requirements for, and provide guidance on, establishing wasteload allocations (WLAs) for storm water discharges in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) approved or established by EPA.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recoverable), cyanide and total phenols Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Zinc Cyanide Total phenolic compounds Volatile organic compounds Acrolein...,2-trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Vinyl chloride Acid-extractable compounds P-chloro-m-creso...

  2. 78 FR 77122 - Proposed Modification of a General NPDES Permit for Small Suction Dredging-Permit Number IDG-37-0000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... issued for Mores Creek. The GP did not include any reference to the tributaries of Mores, Elk or Grimes..., Grimes and Elk creeks and listing the tributaries in Appendix F to the GP. Other parts of the GP are...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Anthracene Benzidine Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene 3,4 benzofluoranthene Benzo(ghi)perylene Benzo(k... solids Table 1—Effluent Parameters for All POTWS With a Flow Equal to or Greater Than 0.1 MGD Ammonia (as... phenyl ether Chrysene Di-n-butyl phthalate Di-n-octyl phthalate Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Anthracene Benzidine Benzo(a)anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene 3,4 benzofluoranthene Benzo(ghi)perylene Benzo(k... solids Table 1—Effluent Parameters for All POTWS With a Flow Equal to or Greater Than 0.1 MGD Ammonia (as... phenyl ether Chrysene Di-n-butyl phthalate Di-n-octyl phthalate Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene...

  5. 40 CFR 122.34 - As an operator of a regulated small MS4, what will my NPDES MS4 storm water permit require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water pollution, such as ensuring proper septic system maintenance, ensuring the proper use and disposal...-term operation and maintenance of BMPs. (iii) Guidance: If water quality impacts are considered from... water pollution from activities such as park and open space maintenance, fleet and building...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recoverable), cyanide and total phenols Antimony Arsenic Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Selenium Silver Thallium Zinc Cyanide Total phenolic compounds Volatile organic compounds...

  7. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8, located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Actual sampling locations on EFPC may differ slightly by task according to specific requirements of the task. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 and Hinds Creek at kilometer (HCK) 20.6 are the most commonly used reference sites for the Y-12 BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Cox Creek, and Paint Rock Creek (Fig. 1.2). Summaries of the sampling designs for the three primary tasks of the Y-12 Complex BMAP for EFPC are presented in Tables 1.1-1.3. This report covers the 2007 study period, although data collected outside this time period are included as appropriate. To address the biological monitoring requirements for Bear Creek and McCoy Branch, CERCLA-funded data is summarized in Appendix A (for Bear Creek) and Appendix B (for McCoy Branch). Data for these two watersheds is provided herein to address Section IX of the NPDES Permit for Y-12, where 'Results of these CERCLA programs can be used to meet the biological monitoring requirements of this permit'. For potential comparison with instream biological measures, a summary of the toxicity testing results for Y-12 outfalls into upper EFPC is provided in Appendix C (these results have been previously reported).

  8. TU-C-18A-01: Models of Risk From Low-Dose Radiation Exposures: What Does the Evidence Say?

    SciTech Connect

    Bushberg, J; Boreham, D; Ulsh, B

    2014-06-15

    At dose levels of (approximately) 500 mSv or more, increased cancer incidence and mortality have been clearly demonstrated. However, at the low doses of radiation used in medical imaging, the relationship between dose and cancer risk is not well established. As such, assumptions about the shape of the dose-response curve are made. These assumptions, or risk models, are used to estimate potential long term effects. Common models include 1) the linear non-threshold (LNT) model, 2) threshold models with either a linear or curvilinear dose response above the threshold, and 3) a hormetic model, where the risk is initially decreased below background levels before increasing. The choice of model used when making radiation risk or protection calculations and decisions can have significant implications on public policy and health care decisions. However, the ongoing debate about which risk model best describes the dose-response relationship at low doses of radiation makes informed decision making difficult. This symposium will review the two fundamental approaches to determining the risk associated with low doses of ionizing radiation, namely radiation epidemiology and radiation biology. The strengths and limitations of each approach will be reviewed, the results of recent studies presented, and the appropriateness of different risk models for various real world scenarios discussed. Examples of well-designed and poorly-designed studies will be provided to assist medical physicists in 1) critically evaluating publications in the field and 2) communicating accurate information to medical professionals, patients, and members of the general public. Equipped with the best information that radiation epidemiology and radiation biology can currently provide, and an understanding of the limitations of such information, individuals and organizations will be able to make more informed decisions regarding questions such as 1) how much shielding to install at medical facilities, 2) at what dose level are risk vs. benefit discussions with patients appropriate, 3) at what dose level should we tell a pregnant woman that the baby’s health risk from a prenatal radiation exposure is “significant”, 4) is informed consent needed for patients undergoing medical imaging, and 5) at what dose level is evacuation appropriate after a radiological accident. Examples of the tremendous impact that choosing different risks models can have on the answers to these types of questions will be given.A moderated panel discussion will allow audience members to pose questions to the faculty members, each of whom is an established expert in his respective discipline. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamental principles, strengths and limitations of radiation epidemiology and radiation biology for determining the risk from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation Become familiar with common models of risk used to describe the dose-response relationship at low dose levels Learn to identify strengths and weaknesses in studies designed to measure the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation Understand the implications of different risk models on public policy and health care decisions.

  9. TU-C-17A-01: A Data-Based Development for Pratical Pareto Optimality Assessment and Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, D; Qi, S; DeMarco, J; Kupelian, P; Low, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an efficient Pareto optimality assessment scheme to support plan comparison and practical determination of best-achievable practical treatment plan goals. Methods: Pareto efficiency reflects the tradeoffs among competing target coverage and normal tissue sparing in multi-criterion optimization (MCO) based treatment planning. Assessing and understanding Pareto optimality provides insightful guidance for future planning. However, current MCO-driven Pareto estimation makes relaxed assumptions about the Pareto structure and insufficiently account for practical limitations in beam complexity, leading to performance upper bounds that may be unachievable. This work proposed an alternative data-driven approach that implicitly incorporates the practical limitations, and identifies the Pareto frontier subset by eliminating dominated plans incrementally using the Edgeworth Pareto hull (EPH). The exactness of this elimination process also permits the development of a hierarchical procedure for speedup when the plan cohort size is large, by partitioning the cohort and performing elimination in each subset before a final aggregated elimination. The developed algorithm was first tested on 2D and 3D where accuracy can be reliably assessed. As a specific application, the algorithm was applied to compare systematic plan quality for lower head-and-neck, amongst 4 competing treatment modalities. Results: The algorithm agrees exactly with brute-force pairwise comparison and visual inspection in low dimensions. The hierarchical algorithm shows sqrt(k) folds speedup with k being the number of data points in the plan cohort, demonstrating good efficiency enhancement for heavy testing tasks. Application to plan performance comparison showed superiority of tomotherapy plans for the lower head-and-neck, and revealed a potential nonconvex Pareto frontier structure. Conclusion: An accurate and efficient scheme to identify Pareto frontier from a plan cohort has been developed. This implementation would guide generating good yet practically achievable plan quality goals for further planning. The observation of a systematic performance bias and a nonconvex Pareto frontier warrants further investigation.

  10. MO-G-17A-01: Innovative High-Performance PET Imaging System for Preclinical Imaging and Translational Researches

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X; Lou, K; Deng, Z; Shao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical and compact preclinical PET with innovative technologies for substantially improved imaging performance required for the advanced imaging applications. Methods: Several key components of detector, readout electronics and data acquisition have been developed and evaluated for achieving leapfrogged imaging performance over a prototype animal PET we had developed. The new detector module consists of an 8×8 array of 1.5×1.5×30 mm{sup 3} LYSO scintillators with each end coupled to a latest 4×4 array of 3×3 mm{sup 2} Silicon Photomultipliers (with ∼0.2 mm insensitive gap between pixels) through a 2.0 mm thick transparent light spreader. Scintillator surface and reflector/coupling were designed and fabricated to reserve air-gap to achieve higher depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and other detector performance. Front-end readout electronics with upgraded 16-ch ASIC was newly developed and tested, so as the compact and high density FPGA based data acquisition and transfer system targeting 10M/s coincidence counting rate with low power consumption. The new detector module performance of energy, timing and DOI resolutions with the data acquisition system were evaluated. Initial Na-22 point source image was acquired with 2 rotating detectors to assess the system imaging capability. Results: No insensitive gaps at the detector edge and thus it is capable for tiling to a large-scale detector panel. All 64 crystals inside the detector were clearly separated from a flood-source image. Measured energy, timing, and DOI resolutions are around 17%, 2.7 ns and 1.96 mm (mean value). Point source image is acquired successfully without detector/electronics calibration and data correction. Conclusion: Newly developed advanced detector and readout electronics will be enable achieving targeted scalable and compact PET system in stationary configuration with >15% sensitivity, ∼1.3 mm uniform imaging resolution, and fast acquisition counting rate capability for substantially improved imaging and quantification performance for small animal imaging and image-guided radiotherapy applications. This work was supported by a research award RP120326 from Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.

  11. TH-A-16A-01: Image Quality for the Radiation Oncology Physicist: Review of the Fundamentals and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J; Imbergamo, P

    2014-06-15

    The expansion and integration of diagnostic imaging technologies such as On Board Imaging (OBI) and Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) into radiation oncology has required radiation oncology physicists to be responsible for and become familiar with assessing image quality. Unfortunately many radiation oncology physicists have had little or no training or experience in measuring and assessing image quality. Many physicists have turned to automated QA analysis software without having a fundamental understanding of image quality measures. This session will review the basic image quality measures of imaging technologies used in the radiation oncology clinic, such as low contrast resolution, high contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, and contrast scale, and how to measure and assess them in a meaningful way. Additionally a discussion of the implementation of an image quality assurance program in compliance with Task Group recommendations will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of automated analysis methods. Learning Objectives: Review and understanding of the fundamentals of image quality. Review and understanding of the basic image quality measures of imaging modalities used in the radiation oncology clinic. Understand how to implement an image quality assurance program and to assess basic image quality measures in a meaningful way.

  12. WE-E-12A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0: MRI, Displays, Informatics

    SciTech Connect

    Pickens, D; Flynn, M; Peck, D

    2014-06-15

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidence-based medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. MRI 2.0: This presentation will look into the future of clinical MR imaging and what the clinical medical physicist will need to be doing as the technology of MR imaging evolves. Many of the measurement techniques used today will need to be expanded to address the advent of higher field imaging systems and dedicated imagers for specialty applications. Included will be the need to address quality assurance and testing metrics for multi-channel MR imagers and hybrid devices such as MR/PET systems. New pulse sequences and acquisition methods, increasing use of MR spectroscopy, and real-time guidance procedures will place the burden on the medical physicist to define and use new tools to properly evaluate these systems, but the clinical applications must be understood so that these tools are use correctly. Finally, new rules, clinical requirements, and regulations will mean that the medical physicist must actively work to keep her/his sites compliant and must work closely with physicians to ensure best performance of these systems. Informatics Display 1.0 to 2.0: Medical displays are an integral part of medical imaging operation. The DICOM and AAPM (TG18) efforts have led to clear definitions of performance requirements of monochrome medical displays that can be followed by medical physicists to ensure proper performance. However, effective implementation of that oversight has been challenging due to the number and extend of medical displays in use at a facility. The advent of color display and mobile displays has added additional challenges to the task of the medical physicist. This informatics display lecture first addresses the current display guidelines (the 1.0 paradigm) and further outlines the initiatives and prospects for color and mobile displays (the 2.0 paradigm). Informatics Management 1.0 to 2.0: Imaging informatics is part of every radiology practice today. Imaging informatics covers everything from the ordering of a study, through the data acquisition and processing, display and archiving, reporting of findings and the billing for the services performed. The standardization of the processes used to manage the information and methodologies to integrate these standards is being developed and advanced continuously. These developments are done in an open forum and imaging organizations and professionals all have a part in the process. In the Informatics Management presentation, the flow of information and the integration of the standards used in the processes will be reviewed. The role of radiologists and physicists in the process will be discussed. Current methods (the 1.0 paradigm) and evolving methods (the 2.0 paradigm) for validation of informatics systems function will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: Identify requirements for improving quality assurance and compliance tools for advanced and hybrid MRI systems. Identify the need for new quality assurance metrics and testing procedures for advanced systems. Identify new hardware systems and new procedures needed to evaluate MRI systems. Understand the components of current medical physics expectation for medical displays. Understand the role and prospect fo medical physics for color and mobile display devices. Understand different areas of imaging informatics and the methodology for developing informatics standards. Understand the current status of informatics standards and the role of physicists and radiologists in the process, and the current technology for validating the function of these systems.

  13. TU-A-12A-01: Consistency of Lung Expansion and Contraction During Respiration: Implications for Quantitative Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T; Du, K; Bayouth, J; Christensen, G; Reinhardt, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in pulmonary function. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify function change may be improved with reproducible breathing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine if inhale was more consistent than exhale, i.e., lung expansion during inhalation compared to lung contraction during exhalation. Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 8 patients. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. Equivalent lung volumes (ELV) were used for 5 subjects and equivalent title volumes (ETV) for the 3 subjects who experienced a baseline shift between scans. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference. The gamma pass rates were then compared using paired t-test to determine if there was a significant difference. Results: Inhalation was more reproducible than exhalation. In the 5 ELV subjects 78.5% of the lung voxels met the gamma criteria for expansion during inhalation when comparing the two scans, while significantly fewer (70.9% of the lung voxels) met the gamma criteria for contraction during exhalation (p = .027). In the 8 total subjects analyzed the average gamma pass rate for expansion during inhalation was 75.2% while for contraction during exhalation it was 70.3%; which trended towards significant (p = .064). Conclusion: This work implies inhalation is more reproducible than exhalation, when equivalent respiratory volumes are considered. The reason for this difference is unknown. Longitudinal investigation of pulmonary function change based on inhalation images appears appropriate for Jacobian-based measure of lung tissue expansion. NIH Grant: R01 CA166703.

  14. TH-A-12A-01: Medical Physicist's Role in Digital Information Security: Threats, Vulnerabilities and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K; Curran, B

    2014-06-15

    I. Information Security Background (Speaker = Kevin McDonald) Evolution of Medical Devices Living and Working in a Hostile Environment Attack Motivations Attack Vectors Simple Safety Strategies Medical Device Security in the News Medical Devices and Vendors Summary II. Keeping Radiation Oncology IT Systems Secure (Speaker = Bruce Curran) Hardware Security Double-lock Requirements “Foreign” computer systems Portable Device Encryption Patient Data Storage System Requirements Network Configuration Isolating Critical Devices Isolating Clinical Networks Remote Access Considerations Software Applications / Configuration Passwords / Screen Savers Restricted Services / access Software Configuration Restriction Use of DNS to restrict accesse. Patches / Upgrades Awareness Intrusion Prevention Intrusion Detection Threat Risk Analysis Conclusion Learning Objectives: Understanding how Hospital IT Requirements affect Radiation Oncology IT Systems. Illustrating sample practices for hardware, network, and software security. Discussing implementation of good IT security practices in radiation oncology. Understand overall risk and threats scenario in a networked environment.

  15. TU-F-18A-01: Preliminary Results of a Prototype Quality Control Process for Spectral CT

    SciTech Connect

    Nute, J; Jacobsen, M; Pennington, J; Cody, D; Chandler, A; Imai, Y; Baiu, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A prototype quality control (QC) phantom and analysis process has been designed specifically to monitor dual-energy CT and address the current lack of quantitative oversight of the spectral capabilities of these scanners. Methods: A prototype solid water phantom was designed with multiple material inserts, and to support both head and body protocols. Inserts included tissue equivalent and material rods (iodine, iron, calcium) at various concentrations. The oval body phantom, measuring 30cm×40cm×15cm, was scanned using four dual-energy protocols with CTDIvol ranges of 19.6–62mGy (0.516 pitch) and 10.3–32.5mGy (0.984 pitch), and rotation times ranging from 0.5-1sec. The circular head phantom, measuring 22cm in diameter by 15cm, was scanned using three dual-energy protocols with CTDIvol ranges of 67–132.6mGy (0.531 pitch) and 36.7–72.7mGy (0.969 pitch), and rotation times ranging from 0.5–0.9sec. All images were reconstructed at 50, 70, 110 and 140 keV, and using a water-iodine material basis pair. The images were evaluated for iodine quantification accuracy and stability of monoenergetic reconstructions. The phantom was scanned twice on ten GE 750HD CT scanners to evaluate inter-scanner agreement, as well as ten times on a single scanner over a oneweek period to evaluate intra-scanner repeatability. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed consistent (inter- and intra-scanner) iodine quantification accuracy within 10% was only achieved for protocols in the upper half of dose levels assessed when grouped by pitch. Although all scanners undergo rigorous daily single-energy QC, iodine quantification accuracy from one scanner unexpectedly deviated from the other nine substantially. In general, inter-scanner agreement and intra-scanner repeatability varied with dose, rotation time and reconstructed keV. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicate the need for a dual-energy QC process to ensure inter-scanner agreement and intra-scanner repeatability. In particular, iodine quantification accuracy within 10% may not be achievable using lower dose techniques. Future plans include longer term dual-energy CT QC data collection. In-kind financial support was provided by GE Healthcare.

  16. TU-A-19A-01: Image Registration I: Deformable Image Registration, Contour Propagation and Dose Mapping: 101 and 201

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, M

    2014-06-15

    Deformable image registration, contour propagation and dose mapping have become common, possibly essential tools for modern image-guided radiation therapy. Historically, these tools have been largely developed at academic medical centers and used in a rather limited and well controlled fashion. Today these tools are now available to the radiotherapy community at large, both as stand-alone applications and as integrated components of both treatment planning and treatment delivery systems. Unfortunately, the details of how these tools work and their limitations are not generally documented or described by the vendors that provide them. Although “it looks right”, determining that unphysical deformations may have occurred is crucial. Because of this, understanding how and when to use, and not use these tools to support everyday clinical decisions is far from straight forward. The goal of this session will be to present both the theory (basic and advanced) and practical clinical use of deformable image registration, contour propagation and dose mapping. To the extent possible, the “secret sauce” that different vendor use to produce reasonable/acceptable results will be described. A detailed explanation of the possible sources of errors and actual examples of these will be presented. Knowing the underlying principles of the process and understanding the confounding factors will help the practicing medical physicist be better able to make decisions (about making decisions) using these tools available. Learning Objectives: Understand the basic (101) and advanced (201) principles of deformable image registration, contour propagation and dose mapping data mapping. Understand the sources and impact of errors in registration and data mapping and the methods for evaluating the performance of these tools. Understand the clinical use and value of these tools, especially when used as a “black box”.

  17. TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier Transform and Anatomical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C; Suh, Y; Robertson, D; Pan, T; Das, P; Crane, C; Beddar, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm to generate internal respiratory signals for sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm extracted multiple time resolved features as potential respiratory signals. These features were taken from the 4D CT images and its Fourier transformed space. Several low-frequency locations in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features from the images were used as potential respiratory signals. A clustering algorithm was then used to search for the group of appropriate potential respiratory signals. The chosen signals were then normalized and averaged to form the final internal respiratory signal. Performance of the algorithm was tested in 50 4D CT data sets and results were compared with external signals from the real-time position management (RPM) system. Results: In almost all cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that visibly matched the external respiratory signals from the RPM system. On average, the end inspiration times calculated by the proposed algorithm were within 0.1 s of those given by the RPM system. Less than 3% of the calculated end inspiration times were more than one time frame away from those given by the RPM system. In 3 out of the 50 cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that were significantly smoother than the RPM signals. In these cases, images sorted using the internal respiratory signals showed fewer artifacts in locations corresponding to the discrepancy in the internal and external respiratory signals. Conclusion: We developed a robust algorithm that generates internal respiratory signals from 4D CT images. In some cases, it even showed the potential to outperform the RPM system. The proposed algorithm is completely automatic and generally takes less than 2 min to process. It can be easily implemented into the clinic and can potentially replace the use of external surrogates.

  18. WE-D-17A-01: A Dynamic Collimation System for Spot Scanned Proton Therapy: Conceptual Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, D; Hill, P; Wang, D; Smith, B; Flynn, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In the absence of a collimation system, the lateral penumbra in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy delivered at low energies is highly dependent on the spot size. This dependence, coupled with the fact that spot sizes increase with decreasing energy, reduces the benefit of the PBS technique for treating shallow tumors such as those found in the head and neck region. In order to overcome this limitation, a dynamic collimation system (DCS) was developed for sharpening the lateral penumbra of low energy proton therapy dose distributions delivered by PBS. Methods: The proposed DCS consists of two pairs of orthogonal trimmer blades which intercept the edges of the proton beam near the target edge in the beam's eye view. Each trimmer blade is capable of rapid motion in the direction perpendicular to the central beam axis by means of a linear motor, with maximum velocity and acceleration of 2.5 m/s and 19.6 m/s{sup 2}, respectively. Two-dimensional treatment plans were created both with and without the DCS for in-air spot sizes (σ-air) of 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm, representing a wide array of clinically available equipment. Results: In its current configuration, the snout of the DCS has outer dimensions of 22.6 × 22.6 cm{sup 2} and is capable of delivering a minimum treatment field size of 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}. Using off the shelf components, the constructed system would weigh less than 20 kg. The treatment plans created with the DCS yielded a reduction in the mean dose to normal tissue surrounding the target of 26.2–40.6% for spot sizes of 3–9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The DCS can be integrated with current or future proton therapy equipment and we believe it will serve as a useful tool to further improve the next generation of proton therapy delivery.

  19. TH-D-16A-01: Medical Physics Workshop: Editorial Vision and Guidance On Writing and Reviewing Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J; Das, S; Goodsitt, M

    2014-06-15

    On January 1, 2014, editorial leadership of Medical Physics passed from esteemed long-time Editor Bill Hendee to a collective editorial group composed of the three presenters listed above. In this presentation, we would like to outline our vision for the future of Medical Physics and review recent work-in-progress initiatives to implement this vision. Finally, we will close with guidance to authors on how to write a good Medical Physics paper. Vision for Medical Physics and current initiatives: Jeff Williamson, Editor-in-Chief We cannot improve on Dr. Hendee's succinct vision statement “to continue the Journal's tradition of publishing the very best science that propels our discipline forward and improves our contribution to patient care.” More concretely, the Journal should be s the preeminent forum for electronic exchange of cutting edge medical physics science. We seek to identify the best contributions in (a) high impact clinical physics innovations; (b) clinical translation and validation of basic science innovations; or (c) cutting edge basic science developments with potential for patient care improvements. Among the challenges and opportunities we face are: are electronic-only and open access publishing; trends towards more interactive, social-media based scientific communities; and diversification of the medical physics research, authorship, and readership domains, including clinical applications quite foreign to core ABR clinical competencies. To address these issues over the next 3 years, we have reduced the size of our Editorial Board and focused its efforts on improving the Journal's impact through 4 working groups (WGs): WG-1: Review process quality and selectivity Creation of 120 member Board of Associate Editors to improve review uniformity by placing Ms. management in fewer hands New reviewer guidelines and templates Answer: “what is the scope of medical physics research?” Recursive taxonomy for tagging review expertise and article contents WG-2 Improving reader experience Redesigning http://MedPhys.org to host interactive features and gateway to electronic issue archive Experimentation with interactive features beginning with “Point/Counterpoint” Data mining and Journal quality evaluation Find out who are audiences are Identify characteristics of high impact articles Measure effectiveness of innovations Outreach to related communities Special issues presenting high-impact work in designated subcommunities Addressing the needs of new research constituencies: engineers, biophysicists, clinicians Guidelines and templates for reviewers and associate editors: Shiva Das, Therapy Physics Editor We will discuss the Med. Phys. review process and a new initiative to create review templates that attempts to address current shortcomings. Template design is informed by the literature on of the review process effectiveness and practices of other journals. Its goals are to provide authors more constructive criticism to improve the manuscript; quantifying perceived importance and potential impact; and providing structured sections that prompt the reviewer to addresses important technical and editorial elements. While the template is recommended to be used, reviewers could alternatively enter their comments in the older free-form style. The expectations of the template are that it will enable consistently thorough, high quality reviews that accurately separate acceptable vs. substandard submissions but continue our tradition of helping authors to enhance papers with high potential. Ultimately, the goal is to reduce variability and subjectivity in the peer-review process, in turn leading to articles with higher research and clinical impact. We will also discuss interesting perspectives from several journals on aspects of the peer-review process such as public input via comments, influence of author-suggested reviewers, and bias in reviewer selection. Writing good scientific papers and responding to critiques: Mitch Goodsitt, Imaging Physics Editor The essential components of the abstract, introduction, methods, discussion and conclusion sections, as well as the desired writing style and style of the figures and tables will be reviewed. Publishable Medical Physics Ms. must include a clear and concise statement of the novelty and clinical and/or scientific importance of their work. Examples of novelty include: new technical solution to an important clinical problem; new generalizable knowledge; or first demonstration that an existing engineering solution solves a clinical problem. Authors must also include: sufficient background information and rationale; enough detail that the work can be reproduced by others; sufficient statistical analysis to refute or validate their hypothesis, how it compares to; is distinct from, and improves upon others' work; and the limitations of their study. When the authors receive critiques from the referees and associate editor, the authors should provide a detailed point-bypoint response to each comment. We now ask that the authors' rebuttal include the text of the original criticism, the authors' response, and the modified text along with the line numbers in the revised article. We also ask that the new text be highlighted in a different font color in the revised submission. These changes and others will be discussed. Their purpose is to facilitate the review process.

  20. SU-C-9A-01: Parameter Optimization in Adaptive Region-Growing for Tumor Segmentation in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S; Xue, M; Chen, W; D'Souza, W; Lu, W; Li, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To design a reliable method to determine the optimal parameter in the adaptive region-growing (ARG) algorithm for tumor segmentation in PET. Methods: The ARG uses an adaptive similarity criterion m - fσ ≤ I-PET ≤ m + fσ, so that a neighboring voxel is appended to the region based on its similarity to the current region. When increasing the relaxing factor f (f ≥ 0), the resulting volumes monotonically increased with a sharp increase when the region just grew into the background. The optimal f that separates the tumor from the background is defined as the first point with the local maximum curvature on an Error function fitted to the f-volume curve. The ARG was tested on a tumor segmentation Benchmark that includes ten lung cancer patients with 3D pathologic tumor volume as ground truth. For comparison, the widely used 42% and 50% SUVmax thresholding, Otsu optimal thresholding, Active Contours (AC), Geodesic Active Contours (GAC), and Graph Cuts (GC) methods were tested. The dice similarity index (DSI), volume error (VE), and maximum axis length error (MALE) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. Results: The ARG provided the highest accuracy among all tested methods. Specifically, the ARG has an average DSI, VE, and MALE of 0.71, 0.29, and 0.16, respectively, better than the absolute 42% thresholding (DSI=0.67, VE= 0.57, and MALE=0.23), the relative 42% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE= 0.41, and MALE=0.23), the absolute 50% thresholding (DSI=0.62, VE=0.48, and MALE=0.21), the relative 50% thresholding (DSI=0.48, VE=0.54, and MALE=0.26), OTSU (DSI=0.44, VE=0.63, and MALE=0.30), AC (DSI=0.46, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.47), GAC (DSI=0.40, VE= 0.85, and MALE=0.46) and GC (DSI=0.66, VE= 0.54, and MALE=0.21) methods. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed method reliably identified the optimal relaxing factor in ARG for tumor segmentation in PET. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R01 CA172638; The dataset is provided by AAPM TG211.