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Sample records for a-1 reactor calder hall

  1. Calder Hall Cooling Tower Demolition: Landmark Milestone for Decommissioning at Sellafield

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, E.J.

    2008-07-01

    September 2007 saw a very visible change to the Sellafield site following the culmination of a major decommissioning project; the demolition of the four Calder Hall cooling towers. A key part of the UK's nuclear industrial heritage, Calder Hall, the world's first commercial nuclear power station, was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in October 1953 and continued to generate electricity until its closure in 2003. Following the decision to decommission the Calder Hall site, explosive demolition was identified as the safest and most cost effective route for the removal of the towers. The technique, involving the placement ofmore » explosive in 60% of the circumference of both shell and legs, is a tried and tested method which had already been used successfully in more than 200 cooling towers in the UK in the last 30 years. The location and composition of the four 88 metre high towers also created additional challenges. Situated only 40 metres away from the UK's only nuclear Fuel Handling Plant, as well as other sensitive structures on the Sellafield site, the project had to address the impact of a number of key areas, including dust, ground vibration and air over pressure, to ensure that the demolition could be carried out safely and without significant impact on other operational areas on the site. At the same time, the towers had to be prepared for demolition in a way that minimised the amounts of radioactive or hazardous waste materials arising. This paper follows the four year journey from the initial decision to demolish the towers right through to the demolition itself as well as the clean up of the site post demolition. It will also consider the massive programme of work necessary not only to carry out the physical work safely but also to gain regulatory confidence and stakeholder support to carry out the project successfully. In summary: The demolition of the four Calder Hall cooling towers was a highly visible symbol of the changes that are

  2. Spacecraft Interactions Studies with a 1 Kw Class Closed-Drift Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-31

    Closed Drift Hall thruster plume with spacecraft surfaces and systems. Two basic interaction modes were investigated: (1) the influence of the plume...Spectrometer (MBMS) capable of discerning both the mass and energy of Hall thruster plume species, and the ion acoustic wave probe to measure the drift velocity of the plume plasma.

  3. Metal Hall sensors for the new generation fusion reactors of DEMO scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Bulavin, M.; Kargin, N.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Radishevskiy, M.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Vasil'evskii, I.; Vasyliev, A.

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, the results of on-line testing of metal Hall sensors based on nano-thickness (50-70) nm gold films, which was conducted under irradiation by high-energy neutrons up to the high fluences of 1 · 1024 n · m-2, are presented. The testing has been carried out in the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in the neutron flux with the intensity of 1.5 · 1017 n · m-2 · s-1 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The energy spectrum of neutron flux was very close to that expected for the ex-vessel sensors locations in the ITER experimental reactor. The magnetic field sensitivity of the gold sensors was stable within the whole fluence range under research. Also, sensitivity values at the start and at the end of irradiation session were equal within the measurement error (<1%). The results obtained make it possible to recommend gold sensors for magnetic diagnostics in the new generation fusion reactors of DEMO scale.

  4. First Calderón Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundell, William; Somersalo, Erkki

    2008-07-01

    The Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) awarded the first Calderón Prize to Matti Lassas for his outstanding contributions to the field of inverse problems, especially in geometric inverse problems. The Calderón Prize is given to a researcher under the age of 40 who has made distinguished contributions to the field of inverse problems broadly defined. The first Calderón Prize Committee consisted of Professors Adrian Nachman, Lassi Päivärinta, William Rundell (chair), and Michael Vogelius. William Rundell For the Calderón Prize Committee Prize ceremony The ceremony awarding the Calderón Prize. Matti Lassas is on the left. He and William Rundell are on the right. Photos by P Stefanov. Brief Biography of Matti Lassas Matti Lassas was born in 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, and studied at the University of Helsinki. He finished his Master's studies in 1992 in three years and earned his PhD in 1996. His PhD thesis, written under the supervision of Professor Erkki Somersalo was entitled `Non-selfadjoint inverse spectral problems and their applications to random bodies'. Already in his thesis, Matti demonstrated a remarkable command of different fields of mathematics, bringing together the spectral theory of operators, geometry of Riemannian surfaces, Maxwell's equations and stochastic analysis. He has continued to develop all of these branches in the framework of inverse problems, the most remarkable results perhaps being in the field of differential geometry and inverse problems. Matti has always been a very generous researcher, sharing his ideas with his numerous collaborators. He has authored over sixty scientific articles, among which a monograph on inverse boundary spectral problems with Alexander Kachalov and Yaroslav Kurylev and over forty articles in peer reviewed journals of the highest standards. To get an idea of the wide range of Matti's interests, it is enough to say that he also has three US patents on medical imaging applications. Matti is

  5. Exponential instability in the fractional Calderón problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüland, Angkana; Salo, Mikko

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we prove the exponential instability of the fractional Calderón problem and thus prove the optimality of the logarithmic stability estimate from Rüland and Salo (2017 arXiv:1708.06294). In order to infer this result, we follow the strategy introduced by Mandache in (2001 Inverse Problems 17 1435) for the standard Calderón problem. Here we exploit a close relation between the fractional Calderón problem and the classical Poisson operator. Moreover, using the construction of a suitable orthonormal basis, we also prove (almost) optimality of the Runge approximation result for the fractional Laplacian, which was derived in Rüland and Salo (2017 arXiv:1708.06294). Finally, in one dimension, we show a close relation between the fractional Calderón problem and the truncated Hilbert transform.

  6. Rereading Ventura García Calderón

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Nancy Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Ventura García Calderón (1886-1959) was a Peruvian man of letters and a diplomat who was at the center of the hispanophone community in Paris in the first half of the twentieth century. Known as a proponent of Spanish American literature, García Calderón achieved a global celebrity for his dramatic, colorful, and ironic short stories. These…

  7. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domizio, S.; Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Martinez, M.; Minutolo, L.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-01-01

    CALDER is a R&D project for the development of cryogenic light detectors with an active surface of 5x5cm2 and an energy resolution of 20 eV RMS for visible and UV photons. These devices can enhance the sensitivity of next generation large mass bolometric detectors for rare event searches, providing an active background rejection method based on particle discrimination. A CALDER detector is composed by a large area Si absorber substrate with superconducting kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) deposited on it. The substrate converts the incoming light into athermal phonons, that are then sensed by the KIDs. KID technology combine fabrication simplicity with natural attitude to frequency-domain multiplexing, making it an ideal candidate for a large scale bolometric experiments. We will give an overview of the CALDER project and show the performances obtained with prototype detectors both in terms of energy resolution and efficiency.

  8. The Calderón problem with corrupted data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Pedro; Garcia, Andoni

    2017-08-01

    We consider the inverse Calderón problem consisting of determining the conductivity inside a medium by electrical measurements on its surface. Ideally, these measurements determine the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map and, therefore, one usually assumes the data to be given by such a map. This situation corresponds to having access to infinite-precision measurements, which is totally unrealistic. In this paper, we study the Calderón problem assuming the data to contain measurement errors and provide formulas to reconstruct the conductivity and its normal derivative on the surface. Additionally, we state the rate convergence of the method. Our approach is theoretical and has a stochastic flavour.

  9. Hall Thruster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-06

    NASA Glenn engineer Dr. Peter Peterson prepares a high-power Hall thruster for ground testing in a vacuum chamber that simulates the environment in space. This high-powered solar electric propulsion thruster has been identified as a critical part of NASA’s future deep space exploration plans.

  10. Posttest destructive examination of the steel liner in a 1:6-scale reactor containment model

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, L.D.

    A 1:6-scale model of a nuclear reactor containment model was built and tested at Sandia National Laboratories as part of research program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate containment overpressure test was terminated due to leakage from a large tear in the steel liner. A limited destructive examination of the liner and anchorage system was conducted to gain information about the failure mechanism and is described. Sections of liner were removed in areas where liner distress was evident or where large strains were indicated by instrumentation during the test. The condition of the liner, anchorage system, and concretemore » for each of the regions that were investigated are described. The probable cause of the observed posttest condition of the liner is discussed.« less

  11. Facility Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes residence halls seeking to meet needs beyond traditional mass housing for the 18- to 22-year-old students: Whittemore Hall at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College (for older students); Small Group Housing at Washington University (grouping students with common interests); and the renovation of the residence hall at Boston's…

  12. Concert hall acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Manfred

    2004-05-01

    I will review some work at Bell Laboratories on artificial reverberation and concert hall acoustics including Philharmonic Hall (Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York). I will also touch on sound diffusion by number-theoretic surfaces and the measurement of reverberation time using the music as played in the hall as a ``test'' signal.

  13. The reproductive morphology and physiological age grading of the female Salvinia Weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The morphology of female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic and composed of two ovaries each with two tube-like ovarioles where the follicles develop and mature. A physiological age-grading system was develop...

  14. 5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall on east side of building, facing southeast. Ticket booth center foreground, stairway to auditorium right foreground. - Community Hall, Rainier Avenue & View Drive, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Posttest analysis of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete reactor containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherby, J.R.

    In an experiment conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, 1:6-scale model of a reinforced concrete light water reactor containment building was pressurized with nitrogen gas to more than three times its design pressure. The pressurization produced one large tear and several smaller tears in the steel liner plate that functioned as the primary pneumatic seal for the structure. The data collected from the overpressurization test have been used to evaluate and further refine methods of structural analysis that can be used to predict the performance of containment buildings under conditions produced by a severe accident. This report describes posttest finite elementmore » analyses of the 1:6-scale model tests and compares pretest predictions of the structural response to the experimental results. Strain and displacements calculated in axisymmetric finite element analyses of the 1:6-scale model are compared to strains and displacement measured in the experiment. Detailed analyses of the liner plate are also described in the report. The region of the liner surrounding the large tear was analyzed using two different two-dimensional finite elements model. The results from these analyzed indicate that the primary mechanisms that initiated the tear can be captured in a two- dimensional finite element model. Furthermore, the analyses show that studs used to anchor the liner to the concrete wall, played an important role in initiating the liner tear. Three-dimensional finite element analyses of liner plates loaded by studs are also presented. Results from the three-dimensional analyses are compared to results from two-dimensional analyses of the same problems. 12 refs., 56 figs., 1 tab.« less

  16. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Kelvin Manning, associate director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, welcomes guests to the 2018 U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) Induction inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex (KSCVC). Two veteran space explorers were inducted into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. They are Scott D. Altman and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  17. Simmons Hall, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelar, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of Simmons Hall, an undergraduate dormitory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, as well as floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  18. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  19. Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.

    2014-03-01

    Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.

  20. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Scott D. Altman, second from left, is inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. At far left, Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF), inducts Altman into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At right is Hall of Famer John Grunsfeld, who spoke on Altman's behalf during the ceremony. At far right is Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., who also was inducted into the AHOF Class of 2018. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  1. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., in the center, is inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame (AHOF) during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. At left, Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (ASF), inducts Jones into the Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At right is Hall of Famer Storey Musgrave, who spoke on Jones behalf during the ceremony. Also inducted was retired astronaut Scott D. Altman. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  2. Effect of Neutron Absorbers Mixed in or Coating the Fuel of a 1-MWt Lithium-Cooled Space Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, Benjamin W.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Poston, David I.

    2005-02-06

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of various neutron poisons (boron, dysprosium, erbium, and gadolinium) on a 1-MWt, lithium-cooled liquid-metal reactor. The isotopes were considered to be in-fuel poisons, as well as poisons coating the fuel. One way to quantify the effectiveness of a poison in meeting accident-condition requirements is by defining the safety margin as the difference between keff at the beginning of life and keff during the accident scenarios. The isotope that showed the most potential in increasing the safety margin for the wet-sand/water case was 157Gd. The safety margin was 10%-20% greater usingmore » 157Gd as an in-fuel poison as opposed to a coating, depending on the poison quantity. However, the most limiting condition (i.e., the accident scenario with the highest keff, thus the lowest safety margin) is when the reactor is submerged in wet sand. None of the isotopes considered significantly affected the safety margin for the dry-sand case. However, the poison isotopes considered may have applicability for meeting the wet-sand/water keff requirements or as burnable poisons in a moderated system. The views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect agreement by the government.« less

  3. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  4. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  5. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, two space explorers, Scott D. Altman, second from left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., far right, are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018. At far left is Hall of Famer Curt Brown, board chairman, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation, who inducted Altman and Jones into the AHOF. Second from right is Hall of Famer John Grunsfeld, who spoke on behalf of Altman during the ceremony. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  6. NASA's Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Mason, Lee S.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hall thruster program has base research and focused development efforts in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program, Space-Based Program, and various other programs. The objective of the base research is to gain an improved understanding of the physical processes and engineering constraints of Hall thrusters to enable development of advanced Hall thruster designs. Specific technical questions that are current priorities of the base effort are: (1) How does thruster life vary with operating point? (2) How can thruster lifetime and wear rate be most efficiently evaluated? (3) What are the practical limitations for discharge voltage as it pertains to high specific impulse operation (high discharge voltage) and high thrust operation (low discharge voltage)? (4) What are the practical limits for extending Hall thrusters to very high input powers? and (5) What can be done during thruster design to reduce cost and integration concerns? The objective of the focused development effort is to develop a 50 kW-class Hall propulsion system, with a milestone of a 50 kW engineering model thruster/system by the end of program year 2006. Specific program wear 2001 efforts, along with the corporate and academic participation, are described.

  7. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  8. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  9. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  10. HEDSA Town Hall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2017-10-01

    HEDSA will hold its Town Hall meeting on Wednesday October 25 at 12:30pm in the Wisconsin Center. The new steering committee members and HEDSA leadership will be announced. A report will be given on 2017 HEDSA activities. Program Managers from Federal Funding Agencies such as OFES, NNSA, AFOSR and NSF will provide updates on the state of sponsored research in HED plasmas, and to engage the community in an open dialogue. The HEDSA Town Hall is a ``bring your own lunch'' meeting. Current members of HEDSA and all graduate students are strongly encouraged to attend. To join HEDSA please visit HEDSA.org

  11. Hall Sweet Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    Many urban and commuter universities have their sights set on students who are unlikely to connect with the college and likely to fail unless the right strategies are put in place to help them graduate. In efforts to improve retention rates, commuter colleges are looking to an unusual suspect: residence halls. The author discusses how these…

  12. Residence Hall Fires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how one college's experience with a tragic fire in one of its residence halls prompted a reevaluation of its fire-prevention-and-response strategies. Staff training, sprinkler installation, new alarm systems, and exit hardware to help make building exiting more efficient are discussed. (GR)

  13. Laurance David Hall.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers, Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., and Scott D. Altman, front row, center, left and right, respectively, were inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They are standing with previous Hall of Famers, including, Curt Brown, back row, far left, chairman of the board, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Brown performed the induction ceremony. Also in the group is former astronaut and NASA administrator Charlie Bolden, in the center, behind Jones and Altman. In the back row, second from left is John Grunsfeld, who spoke on behalf of Altman during the ceremony. Directly behind Altman is Storey Musgrave, who spoke on behalf of Jones during the ceremony. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  15. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers Scott D. Altman, at left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They unveiled their plaques, which will be placed in Hall of Fame at the visitor complex. At far right is Master of Ceremonies, John Zarella, former CNN space correspondent. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  16. Astronaut Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-21

    Former astronauts and space explorers Scott D. Altman, at left, and Thomas D. Jones, Ph.D., are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame Class of 2018 during a ceremony inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis attraction at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They unveiled their plaques, which will be placed in the Hall of Fame at the visitor complex. At far right is Master of Ceremonies, John Zarella, former CNN space correspondent. Inductees into the Hall of Fame are selected by a committee of Hall of Fame astronauts, former NASA officials, flight directors, historians and journalists. The process is administered by the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. To be eligible, an astronaut must have made his or her first flight at least 17 years before the induction. Candidates must be a U.S. citizen and a NASA-trained commander, pilot or mission specialist who has orbited the earth at least once. Including Altman and Jones, 97 astronauts have been inducted into the AHOF.

  17. Kids in the Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resident hall furniture design that meets student needs as well as the needs of administrators and parents. Furniture design issues examined include the higher expectations of students in their living environment, the need for greater flexibility in space utilization, and adaptability to technology. (GR)

  18. Hall Effect Spintronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy were examined, and finally, the magnetoresistance and Hall effect in Manganese- doped Germanium was...interest in ferromagnetic semiconductors. Germanium doped with Mn is particularly interesting Distribution A: Approved for public release...unavoidable, and doped films are strongly inhomogeneous with GexMny, metallic precipitates coexisting with Mn-rich regions and Mn dilute matrix

  19. End-hall thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Day, M. L.; Haag, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The end-Hall thruster can provide electric propulsion with fixed masses, specific impulses, and power-to-thrust ratios intermediate of an arcjet and a gridded (electrostatic) ion thruster. With these characteristics, this thruster is a candidate for missions of intermediate difficulty, such as the north-south stationkeeping of geostationary satellites.

  20. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The system conteraplates ohmically heating a gas to high temperatures such as are useful in thermonuclear reactors of the stellarator class. To this end the gas is ionized and an electric current is applied to the ionized gas ohmically to heat the gas while the ionized gas is confined to a central portion of a reaction chamber. Additionally, means are provided for pumping impurities from the gas and for further heating the gas. (AEC)

  1. NASA's 2004 Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Hall thruster research and development tasks conducted during fiscal year 2004 is presented. These tasks focus on: raising the technology readiness level of high power Hall thrusters, developing a moderate-power/ moderate specific impulse Hall thruster, demonstrating high-power/high specific impulse Hall thruster operation, and addressing the fundamental technical challenges of emerging Hall thruster concepts. Programmatic background information, technical accomplishments and out year plans for each program element performed under the sponsorship of the In-Space Transportation Program, Project Prometheus, and the Energetics Project are provided.

  2. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  3. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  4. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional non-magnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  5. Metallic Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan Michael (Inventor); Hofer, Richard Robert (Inventor); Mikellides, Ioannis G. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A Hall thruster apparatus having walls constructed from a conductive material, such as graphite, and having magnetic shielding of the walls from the ionized plasma has been demonstrated to operate with nearly the same efficiency as a conventional nonmagnetically shielded design using insulators as wall components. The new design is believed to provide the potential of higher power and uniform operation over the operating life of a thruster device.

  6. Quantum hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Akshay

    We study several quantum phases that are related to the quantum Hall effect. Our initial focus is on a pair of quantum Hall ferromagnets where the quantum Hall ordering occurs simultaneously with a spontaneous breaking of an internal symmetry associated with a semiconductor valley index. In our first example ---AlAs heterostructures--- we study domain wall structure, role of random-field disorder and dipole moment physics. Then in the second example ---Si(111)--- we show that symmetry breaking near several integer filling fractions involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also study ground state of such systems near filling factor one in the absence of valley Zeeman energy. We show that even though the lowest energy charged excitations are charge one skyrmions, the lowest energy skyrmion lattice has charge > 1 per unit cell. We then broaden our discussion to include lattice systems having multiple Chern number bands. We find analogs of quantum Hall ferromagnets in the menagerie of fractional Chern insulator phases. Unlike in the AlAs system, here the domain walls come naturally with gapped electronic excitations. We close with a result involving only topology: we show that ABC stacked multilayer graphene placed on boron nitride substrate has flat bands with non-zero local Berry curvature but zero Chern number. This allows access to an interaction dominated system with a non-trivial quantum distance metric but without the extra complication of a non-zero Chern number.

  7. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  8. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Lee; Johnson, Seth; Grodowitz, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance. High correlation occurred between the parous classes and number of eggs produced where the P3 class had over 9-fold higher number of eggs in comparison with the P1 class. Mean number of eggs produced for each parous class was significantly different, however, overlap occurred. Such a system enables a determination of the past, present, and future reproductive status of field populations and mass-rearing colonies. PMID:29371784

  9. Non-Euclidean Space, Movement and Astronomy in Modern Art: Alexander Calder's Mobiles and Ben Nicholson's Reliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Vanja

    2013-09-01

    John Keats once wrote that `there is no such thing as time and space' rather, believing that time and space are mental constructs that are subject to a variety of forms and as diverse as the human mind. In the 1920s through the 1930s, modern physics in many ways supported this idea through the various philosophical writings on the Theory of General Relativity to the masses by scientists such as Arthur Eddington and Albert Einstein. These new concepts of modern physics fundamentally changed our understanding of time and space and had substantial philosophical implications, which were absorbed by modern artists resulting in the 1936 Dimensionist Manifesto. Seeking to internalize the developments of modern science within modern art, this manifesto was widely endorsed by the most prominent figures of the avant-garde such as Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp, Naum Gabo, Joan Miró, László Moholy-Nagy, Wassily Kandinsky and Alexander Calder. Of particular interest to this manifesto was the new concept of the fourth-dimension, which in many ways revolutionized the arts. Importantly, its interpretation varied widely in the artistic community, ranging from a purely physical four-dimensional space, to a kinetic concept of space in which space and time are linked, to a metaphysical interest in a space that exists beyond the material realm. The impact of modern science and astronomy on avant-garde art is currently a bourgeoning area of research with considerable implications to our rethinking of substantial artistic figures of this era. Through a case study of Alexander Calder's Mobiles and Ben Nicholson's Reliefs, this paper explores how these artworks were informed by an interest in modern science.

  10. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  11. Quantum Hall Electron Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Allan

    In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.

  12. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    This document consists of two separate publications: (1) "The Power of Knowing", a brief 12-page description of the Chapin Hall Center for Children, and (2) "Projects and Publications", a 67-page list of the center's projects and publications as of Autumn 1997. "The Power of Knowing" describes the Chapin Hall Center…

  13. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  14. NASA's Hall Thruster Program 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hall thruster program currently supports a number of tasks related to high power thruster development for a number of customers including the Energetics Program (formerly called the Space-based Program), the Space Solar Power Program, and the In-space Propulsion Program. In program year 2002, two tasks were central to the NASA Hall thruster program: 1) the development of a laboratory Hall thruster capable of providing high thrust at high power-, and 2) investigations into operation of Hall thrusters at high specific impulse. In addition to these two primary thruster development activities, there are a number of other on-going activities supported by the NASA Hall thruster program. These additional activities are related to issues such as high-power power processor architecture, thruster lifetime, and spacecraft integration.

  15. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  16. A non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement system for Hall Effect thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Carl Raymond

    A direct, accurate method to measure thrust produced by a Hall Effect thruster on orbit does not currently exist. The ability to calculate produced thrust will enable timely and precise maneuvering of spacecraft---a capability particularly important to satellite formation flying. The means to determine thrust directly is achievable by remotely measuring the magnetic field of the thruster and solving the inverse magnetostatic problem for the Hall current density distribution. For this thesis, the magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned outside the channel of a 1.5 kW Colorado State University Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted electride cathode. In this location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 Gauss, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is greater than tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Due to the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field along with a non-negativity constraint and a zero boundary condition provides current density distributions. Our system measures the sensor outputs at 2 MHz allowing the determination of the Hall current density distribution as a function of time. These data are shown in contour plots in sequential frames. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the discharge current ranged from 0.1 to 10 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 2.0 kW exhibited a breathing mode of 37 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  17. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins; Manchon, Aurelien; Spintronics Theory Group Team

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for few atomic size-nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering. This work was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through the Award No OSR-CRG URF/1/1693-01 from the Office of Sponsored Research (OSR).

  18. Anomalous Hall resistance in bilayer quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Suzuki, S.; Tsitsishvili, G.

    2007-07-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the Hall current in the bilayer quantum Hall system on the basis of noncommutative geometry. By analyzing the Heisenberg equation of motion and the continuity equation of charge, we demonstrate the emergence of the phase current in a system where the interlayer phase coherence develops spontaneously. The phase current arranges itself to minimize the total energy of the system, as it induces certain anomalous behaviors in the Hall current in the counterflow geometry and also in the drag experiment. They explain the recent experimental data for anomalous Hall resistances due to Kellogg [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 126804 (2002); 93, 036801 (2004)] and Tutuc [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 036802 (2004)] at ν=1 .

  19. Semiclassical theory of Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Rudro

    2014-03-01

    Hall viscosity is an intriguing stress response in quantum Hall systems and is predicted to be observable via the conductivity in an inhomogeneous electric field. This has been studied extensively using a range of techniques, such as adiabatic transport, effective field theories, and Kubo formulae. All of these are, however, agnostic as to the distinction between strongly correlated quantum Hall states and non-interacting ones, where the effect arises due to the fundamental non-commuting nature of velocities and orbit positions in a magnetic field. In this talk I shall develop the semiclassical theory of quantized cyclotron orbits drifting in an applied inhomogeneous electric field and use it to provide a clear physical picture of how single particle properties in a magnetic field contribute to the Hall viscosity-dependence of the conductivity.

  20. Jefferson Lab Experimental Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlini, Roger D.

    1996-10-01

    Jefferson Lab's Hall C went into initial operation in November 1995. The hall has a short orbit spectrometer (SOS) for short-lived particles such as pions and kaons and a high-momentum spectrometer (HMS) usually used for electrons. The SOS can also be used for protons. The HMS can range to 7 GeV/c. Both the SOS and HMS have typical resolutions of (10-3). Experiments for this hall range from measuring the neutron electric form factor, to color transparency, to creating strange nuclei. This paper will present the optical capabilities of the spectrometers, the parameters of the detection systems, and the overall beam line characteristics of the hall as determined from the results from the recent physics experiments along with the upcoming experimental schedule. Additional information is available at URL http://www.cebaf.gov/hallc.html.

  1. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra.

    PubMed

    Ďuran, I; Bolshakova, I; Viererbl, L; Sentkerestiová, J; Holyaka, R; Lahodová, Z; Bém, P

    2010-10-01

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10(16) cm(-2) was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  2. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Carl R.; Farnell, Casey C.; Farnell, Cody C.; Martinez, Rafael A.; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D.; Williams, John D.

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  3. Non-invasive Hall current distribution measurement in a Hall effect thruster.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Carl R; Farnell, Casey C; Farnell, Cody C; Martinez, Rafael A; Liu, David; Branam, Richard D; Williams, John D

    2017-01-01

    A means is presented to determine the Hall current density distribution in a closed drift thruster by remotely measuring the magnetic field and solving the inverse problem for the current density. The magnetic field was measured by employing an array of eight tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR) sensors capable of milligauss sensitivity when placed in a high background field. The array was positioned just outside the thruster channel on a 1.5 kW Hall thruster equipped with a center-mounted hollow cathode. In the sensor array location, the static magnetic field is approximately 30 G, which is within the linear operating range of the TMR sensors. Furthermore, the induced field at this distance is approximately tens of milligauss, which is within the sensitivity range of the TMR sensors. Because of the nature of the inverse problem, the induced-field measurements do not provide the Hall current density by a simple inversion; however, a Tikhonov regularization of the induced field does provide the current density distributions. These distributions are shown as a function of time in contour plots. The measured ratios between the average Hall current and the average discharge current ranged from 6.1 to 7.3 over a range of operating conditions from 1.3 kW to 2.2 kW. The temporal inverse solution at 1.5 kW exhibited a breathing mode frequency of 24 kHz, which was in agreement with temporal measurements of the discharge current.

  4. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2004-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  5. Development Status of the Helicon Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-15

    Hall thruster , the Helicon Hall Thruster , is presented. The Helicon Hall Thruster combines the efficient ionization mechanism of a helicon source with the favorable plasma acceleration properties of a Hall thruster . Conventional Hall thrusters rely on direct current electron bombardment to ionize the flow in order to generate thrust. Electron bombardment typically results in an ionization cost that can be on the order of ten times the ionization potential, leading to reduced efficiency, particularly at low

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  7. Hall thruster with grooved walls

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hong; Ning Zhongxi; Yu Daren

    2013-02-28

    Axial-oriented and azimuthal-distributed grooves are formed on channel walls of a Hall thruster after the engine undergoes a long-term operation. Existing studies have demonstrated the relation between the grooves and the near-wall physics, such as sheath and electron near-wall transport. The idea to optimize the thruster performance with such grooves was also proposed. Therefore, this paper is devoted to explore the effects of wall grooves on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster. With experimental measurements, the variations on electron conductivity, ionization distribution, and integrated performance are obtained. The involved physical mechanisms are then analyzed and discussed. The findings helpmore » to not only better understand the working principle of Hall thruster discharge but also establish a physical fundamental for the subsequent optimization with artificial grooves.« less

  8. Hall mobility in multicrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, F.; Geilker, J.; Kwapil, W.; Warta, W.; Schubert, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of the carrier mobility in silicon is of utmost importance for photovoltaic applications, as it directly influences the diffusion length and thereby the cell efficiency. Moreover, its value is needed for a correct quantitative evaluation of a variety of lifetime measurements. However, models that describe the carrier mobility in silicon are based on theoretical calculations or fits to experimental data in monocrystalline silicon. Multicrystalline (mc) silicon features crystal defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries, with the latter possibly leading to potential barriers through the trapping of charge carriers and thereby influencing the mobility, as shown, for example, by Maruska et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 381 (1980)]. To quantify the mobilities in multicrystalline silicon, we performed Hall measurements in p-type mc-Si samples of various resistivities and different crystal structures and compared the data to majority carrier Hall mobilities in p-type monocrystalline floatzone (FZ) silicon. For lack of a model that provides reliable values of the Hall mobility in silicon, an empirical fit similar to existing models for conductivity mobilities is proposed based on Hall measurements of monocrystalline p-type FZ silicon. By comparing the measured Hall mobilities obtained from mc silicon with the corresponding Hall mobilities in monocrystalline silicon of the same resistivity, we found that the mobility reduction due to the presence of crystal defects in mc-Si ranges between 0% and 5% only. Mobility decreases of up to 30% as reported by Peter et al. [Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-5 September 2008], or even of a factor of 2 to 3 as detected by Palais et al. [Mater. Sci. Eng. B 102, 184 (2003)], in multicrystalline silicon were not observed.

  9. Atlanta's Own "Hall" of Famer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesil A.

    2008-01-01

    This article features Beverly L. Hall, poised to become one of the longest-serving superintendents of the Atlanta schools. When she came to Atlanta in 1999, student achievement was sliding downward, teacher morale was dismal, and enrollment was falling as parents pulled their children out of the school system. Under the superintendent's driving…

  10. Quantum anomalous Hall Majorana platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yongxin; Lei, Chao; Chaudhary, Gaurav; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2018-02-01

    We show that quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires can be written onto the surface of magnetic topological insulator (MTI) thin films by gate arrays. When the MTI is in a quantum anomalous Hall state, MTI/superconductor quantum wires have especially broad stability regions for both topological and nontopological states, facilitating creation and manipulation of Majorana particles on the MTI surface.

  11. Overview of Hall D Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    Hall D is a new experimental hall at Jefferson Lab, designed for experiments with a photon beam. The primary motivation for Hall D is the GlueX experiment [1,2], dedicated to meson spectroscopy. The Hall D complex consists of: An electron beam line used to extract the 5.5-pass electrons from the accelerator into the Tagger Hall. The designed beam energy is E e = 12 GeV;The Tagger Hall, where the electron beam passes through a thin radiator (~0.01% R.L.) and is deflected into the beam dump. The electrons that lost >30% of their energy in the radiator are detected with scintillatormore » hodoscopes providing a ~0.1% energy resolution for the tagged photons. Aligned diamond radiators allow to produce linearly polarized photons via the Coherent Bremsstrahlung. The beam dump is limited to 60 kW (5 µA at 12 GeV); The Collimator Cave contains a collimator for the photon beam and dipole magnets downstream in order to remove charged particles. The 3.4 mm diameter collimator, located about 75 m downstream of the radiator, selects the central cone of the photon beam increasing its average linear polarization, up to ~40%in the coherent peak at 9 GeV; Hall D contains several elements of the photon beam line, and themain spectrometer. A Pair Spectrometer consists of a thin converter, a dipole magnet, and a two-arm detector used to measure the energy spectrum of the photon beam. The main spectrometer is based on a 2-T superconducting solenoid, 4 m long and 1.85 m bore diameter. The liquid hydrogen target is located in the front part the solenoid. The charged tracks are detected with a set of drift chambers; photons are detected with two electromagnetic calorimeters. There are also scintillator hodoscopes for triggering and time-of-flight measurements. The spectrometer is nearly hermetic in an angular range of 1° < θ < 120 •. The momentum resolution is σ p /p ~ 1 ₋ ₋3% depending on the polar angle θ. The energy resolution of the electromagnetic calorimeters is about 7

  12. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  13. A Gift for Reading Hall No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Reading Hall No. 1 of the Russian State Library. He was placed in the first reading hall in the mid-1990s, when the Russian government still honored Soviet traditions of granting certain privileges to certain foreigners. In the first hall, the rules are different. He can request as many books as he wants. He…

  14. High Performance Power Module for Hall Effect Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Bowers, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to develop power electronics for Hall thruster systems have targeted the 1 to 5 kW power range and an output voltage of approximately 300 V. New Hall thrusters are being developed for higher power, higher specific impulse, and multi-mode operation. These thrusters require up to 50 kW of power and a discharge voltage in excess of 600 V. Modular power supplies can process more power with higher efficiency at the expense of complexity. A 1 kW discharge power module was designed, built and integrated with a Hall thruster. The breadboard module has a power conversion efficiency in excess of 96 percent and weighs only 0.765 kg. This module will be used to develop a kW, multi-kW, and high voltage power processors.

  15. Hall effect of copper nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. H.; Liu, J. Z.; Li, M.; Yuan, X. M.; Yan, P. X.; Liu, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The Hall effect of copper nitride (Cu3N) thin films was investigated in our work. Cu3N films were deposited on glass substrates by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at different temperatures using pure copper as the sputtering target. The Hall coefficients of the films are demonstrated to be dependent on the deposition gas flow rate and the measuring temperature. Both the Hall coefficient and resistance of the Cu3N films increase with the nitrogen gas flow rate at room temperature, while the Hall mobility and the carrier density of the films decrease. As the temperature changed from 100 K to 300 K, the Hall coefficient and the resistivity of the films decreased, while the carrier density increased and Hall mobility shows no great change. The energy band gap of the Cu3N films deduced from the curve of the common logarithm of the Hall coefficient against 1/T is 1.17-1.31 eV.

  16. Electron dynamics in Hall thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Samuel; Pakter, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Hall thrusters are plasma engines those use an electromagnetic fields combination to confine electrons, generate and accelerate ions. Widely used by aerospace industries those thrusters stand out for its simple geometry, high specific impulse and low demand for electric power. Propulsion generated by those systems is due to acceleration of ions produced in an acceleration channel. The ions are generated by collision of electrons with propellant gas atoms. In this context, we can realize how important is characterizing the electronic dynamics. Using Hamiltonian formalism, we derive the electron motion equation in a simplified electromagnetic fields configuration observed in hall thrusters. We found conditions those must be satisfied by electromagnetic fields to have electronic confinement in acceleration channel. We present configurations of electromagnetic fields those maximize propellant gas ionization and thus make propulsion more efficient. This work was supported by CNPq.

  17. Safety halls--an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Anders; Gregersen, Nils Petter; Nolén, Sixten; Engström, Inger

    2005-01-01

    In most countries, drivers licensing systems usually include teaching some aspects of using safety equipment (e.g., airbags and seat belts). However, there is now evidence worldwide that such education is inadequate, as indicated by, for example, the overrepresentation of young drivers who do not use seat belts. A randomized controlled study was conducted in Sweden to evaluate the effects of visiting a facility known as a "safety hall" in combination with the mandatory skid training. The results were assessed to determine the effects of the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers in the following subjects: airbags, securing loads, seat belts, sitting posture, speed, and tires. An experimental group and a control group comprising 658 and 668 learners, respectively, answered identical questionnaires on three different occasions (pretest, posttest 1, and posttest 2). The results show that, for most of the topics considered, knowledge and attitudes in both groups were better at posttest 2 than at the pretest, and in general, the best knowledge and attitudes were found in the experimental group. The combined safety/skid training seems to have had the greatest effect on seat belts and loads. The findings also indicate that the safety halls can be further improved to achieve an even better effect. The use of safety halls has improved the knowledge and attitudes of learner drivers concerning several important areas related to traffic safety. Since knowledge and attitudes are important predictors of behavior, implementing safety halls can be expected to lead to improvements, especially regarding the use of safety belts and securing loads.

  18. Ionization oscillations in Hall accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, S.; Peradzyński, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of low-frequency oscillations in Hall accelerators is investigated theoretically. It is shown that relaxation oscillations arise from a competition between avalanche ionization and the advective transport of the working gas. The model derived recovers the slow progression and fast recession of the ionization front. Analytical approximations of the shape of current pulses and of the oscillation frequency are provided for the case of large amplitude oscillations.

  19. L'effet Hall Quantique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Thomas

    Nous proposons une methode permettant d'obtenir une expression pour la conductivite de Hall de structures electroniques bidimensionnelles et nous examinons celle -ci a la limite d'une temperature nulle dans le but de verifier l'effet Hall quantique. Nous allons nous interesser essentiellement a l'effet Hall quantique entier et aux effets fractionnaires inferieurs a un. Le systeme considere est forme d'un gaz d'electrons en interaction faible avec les impuretes de l'echantillon. Le modele du gaz d'electrons consiste en un gaz bidimensionnel d'electrons sans spin expose perpendiculairement a un champ magnetique uniforme. Ce dernier est decrit par le potentiel vecteur vec{rm A} defini dans la jauge de Dingle ou jauge symetrique. Conformement au formalisme de la seconde quantification, l'hamiltonien de ce gaz est represente dans la base des etats a un-corps de Dingle |n,m> et exprime ainsi en terme des operateurs de creation et d'annihilation correspondants a_sp{ rm n m}{dag} et a _{rm n m}. Nous supposons de plus que les electrons du niveau fondamental de Dingle interagissent entre eux via le potentiel coulombien. La methode utilisee fait appel a une equation mai tresse a N-corps, de nature quantique et statistique, et verifiant le second principe de la thermodynamique. A partir de celle-ci, nous obtenons un systeme d'equations differentielles appele hierarchie d'equations quantique dont la resolution nous permet de determiner une equation a un-corps, dite de Boltzmann quantique, et dictant l'evolution de la moyenne statistique de l'operateur non-diagonal a _sp{rm n m}{dag } a_{rm n}, _{rm m}, sous l'action du champ electrique applique vec{rm E}(t). C'est sa solution Tr(p(t) a _sp{rm n m}{dag} a_{rm n},_ {rm m}), qui definit la relation de convolution entre la densite courant de Hall vec{rm J}_{rm H }(t) et le champ electrique vec {rm E}(t) dont la transformee de Laplace-Fourier du noyau nous fournit l'expression de la conductivite de Hall desiree. Pour une valeur de

  20. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    PubMed

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  1. Remote Diagnostic Measurements of Hall Thruster Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    This paper describes measurements of Hall thruster plumes that characterize ion energy distributions and charge state fractions using remotely...charge state. Next, energy and charge state measurements are described from testing of a 200 W Hall thruster at AFIT. Measurements showed variation in...position. Finally, ExB probe charge state measurements are presented from a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster operated at low discharge voltage levels at AFRL

  2. 2017 Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In the Space Shuttle Atlantis facility at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation Chairman Dan Brandenstein, left, also a Hall of Fame astronaut, presents inductee Michael Foale with his hall of fame medal. Former NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, right, a Hall of Fame member, presented Foale for induction. During this year's ceremonies, space shuttle astronaut Ellen Ochoa also was enshrined.

  3. 2017 Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In the Space Shuttle Atlantis facility at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, Astronaut Scholarship Foundation Chairman Dan Brandenstein, left, also a Hall of Fame astronaut, presents inductee Ellen Ochoa with her hall of fame medal. Former Johnson Space Center Director Mike Coats, right, a Hall of Fame member, presented Ochoa for induction. During this year's ceremonies, space shuttle astronaut Michael Foale also was enshrined.

  4. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to amore » quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.« less

  5. Hall Thruster Technology for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Oh, David; Aadland, Randall

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Hall thruster designed for Discovery-class NASA science mission applications was evaluated at input powers ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 kilowatts. These data were used to construct a throttle profile for a projected Hall thruster system based on this prototype thruster. The suitability of such a Hall thruster system to perform robotic exploration missions was evaluated through the analysis of a near Earth asteroid sample return mission. This analysis demonstrated that a propulsion system based on the prototype Hall thruster offers mission benefits compared to a propulsion system based on an existing ion thruster.

  6. Electron Transport in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael Sean

    Despite high technological maturity and a long flight heritage, computer models of Hall thrusters remain dependent on empirical inputs and a large part of thruster development to date has been heavily experimental in nature. This empirical approach will become increasingly unsustainable as new high-power thrusters tax existing ground test facilities and more exotic thruster designs stretch and strain the boundaries of existing design experience. The fundamental obstacle preventing predictive modeling of Hall thruster plasma properties and channel erosion is the lack of a first-principles description of electron transport across the strong magnetic fields between the cathode and anode. In spite of an abundance of proposed transport mechanisms, accurate assessments of the magnitude of electron current due to any one mechanism are scarce, and comparative studies of their relative influence on a single thruster platform simply do not exist. Lacking a clear idea of what mechanism(s) are primarily responsible for transport, it is understandably difficult for the electric propulsion scientist to focus his or her theoretical and computational tools on the right targets. This work presents a primarily experimental investigation of collisional and turbulent Hall thruster electron transport mechanisms. High-speed imaging of the thruster discharge channel at tens of thousands of frames per second reveals omnipresent rotating regions of elevated light emission, identified with a rotating spoke instability. This turbulent instability has been shown through construction of an azimuthally segmented anode to drive significant cross-field electron current in the discharge channel, and suggestive evidence points to its spatial extent into the thruster near-field plume as well. Electron trajectory simulations in experimentally measured thruster electromagnetic fields indicate that binary collisional transport mechanisms are not significant in the thruster plume, and experiments

  7. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Poneman, Daniel

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  8. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.A.; Kotter, D.K.

    1997-05-13

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored. 2 figs.

  9. Hall-effect arc protector

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard A.; Kotter, Dale K.

    1997-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Arc Protector is used to protect sensitive electronics from high energy arcs. The apparatus detects arcs by monitoring an electrical conductor, of the instrument, for changes in the electromagnetic field surrounding the conductor which would be indicative of a possible arcing condition. When the magnitude of the monitored electromagnetic field exceeds a predetermined threshold, the potential for an instrument damaging are exists and the control system logic activates a high speed circuit breaker. The activation of the breaker shunts the energy imparted to the input signal through a dummy load to the ground. After the arc condition is terminated, the normal signal path is restored.

  10. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Poneman, Daniel

    2018-04-16

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  11. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  12. 5. ROOFTOPS, ISHERWOOD HALL (BUILDING NO. 104), GRIFFIN (BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ROOFTOPS, ISHERWOOD HALL (BUILDING NO. 104), GRIFFIN (BUILDING NO. 110), MELVILLE HALL (BUILDING NO. 116) LOOKING WEST FROM CLOCK TOWER OF MAHAN HALL - U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  13. 27. FIRST FLOOR CENTRAL HALL, EAST WALL, DETAIL OF ENTABLATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. FIRST FLOOR CENTRAL HALL, EAST WALL, DETAIL OF ENTABLATURE SHOWING EGG AND DART OVOLO AND GUTTAE OF THE THIRD MUTULE FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Coping Behaviors of Residence Hall Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined tertiary-level residence-hall directors' reported coping behaviors for three systems of stress: environmental, personal, and work. It surveyed a convenience sample of 128 respondents using the Brief COPE scale (Carver, 1997). Reported length of service, genders, and hall populations were matched with 28 types of…

  15. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was…

  16. Training Top 10 Hall of Fame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft Corporation and SCC Soft Computer are the newest inductees into the Training Top 10 Hall of Fame, joining the ranks of the 11 companies named to the hall since its inception in 2008 (Wyeth Pharmaceuticals subsequently was acquired by Pfizer Inc. in 2009). These 11 companies held Top 10 spots in the Training Top 50, Top 100, and now Top…

  17. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  18. Reduced Spin Hall Effects from Magnetic Proximity.

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2015-03-26

    We investigate temperature-dependent spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in thin Pt and Pd in contact with Permalloy. Our experiments show a decrease of the spin Hall effect with decreasing temperature, which is attributed to a temperature-dependent proximity effect. The spin Hall angle decreases from 0.086 at room temperature to 0.042 at 10 K for Pt and is nearly negligible at 10 K for Pd. By first-principle calculations, we show that the spin Hall conductivity indeed reduces by increasing the proximity-induced spin magnetic moments for both Pt and Pd. This work highlights the important role of proximity-induced magnetic orderingmore » to spin Hall phenomena in Pt and Pd.« less

  19. View of north front and west sides of hall, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north front and west sides of hall, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  20. Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of dispatch boards in main hall, facing west - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  1. Plasma Instabilities in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Andrei A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2000-10-01

    We describe theoretically waves in the channel of a Hall thruster, propagating transversely to the accelerated ion flow. In slab geometry, a two-fluid hydrodynamic theory with collisional terms shows that azimuthal lower-hybrid and Alfven waves will be unstable due to electron collisions in the presence of ExB drift. In addition, plasma inhomogeneities can drive other instabilities that can be analyzed through a dispersion relation in the well-known form of the Rayleigh equation. An instability condition is derived for azimuthal electrostatic waves, synchronized with the electron drift flow. Propagation with nonzero wavenumber along the magnetic field is also studied. Thus, several different aspects of wave propagation during thruster operation are explored. These waves may be important to understand and possibly to control in view of the possible influence of thruster electromagnetic effects on communication signal propagation.

  2. Error modelling of quantum Hall array resistance standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzano, Martina; Oe, Takehiko; Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Hall array resistance standards (QHARSs) are integrated circuits composed of interconnected quantum Hall effect elements that allow the realization of virtually arbitrary resistance values. In recent years, techniques were presented to efficiently design QHARS networks. An open problem is that of the evaluation of the accuracy of a QHARS, which is affected by contact and wire resistances. In this work, we present a general and systematic procedure for the error modelling of QHARSs, which is based on modern circuit analysis techniques and Monte Carlo evaluation of the uncertainty. As a practical example, this method of analysis is applied to the characterization of a 1 MΩ QHARS developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Software tools are provided to apply the procedure to other arrays.

  3. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  4. Comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-20

    COVERED (FROM - TO) 20-04-2001 to 20-04-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Comparisons and Evaluation of Hall Thruster Models 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...evaluation of Hall thruster models G. J. M. Hagelaar, J. Bareilles, L. Garrigues, and J.-P. Boeuf CPAT, Bâtiment 3R2, Université Paul Sabatier 118 Route

  5. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  6. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  7. Protecting Your Residence Hall Furniture Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Asserting that residence hall furniture takes abuse simply through use, discusses a three-part approach--student involvement and education, creating the right environment, and ongoing maintenance--that helps reduce normal wear and tear. (EV)

  8. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, NASA's Chief Technologist, answers questions during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    NASA's Chief Technologists, Bobby Braun, hosts a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, right, NASA's Chief Technologist, answers questions during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Cabana inducted into Hall of Fame

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-03

    Former astronaut Al Worden (left) presents Stennis Space Center Director Bob Cabana with a gold medallion signifying his induction into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame at Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  12. Radiation Shielding Design and Orientation Considerations for a 1 kWe Heat Pipe Cooled Reactor Utilized to Bore Through the Ice Caps of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The goal in designing any space power system is to develop a system able to meet the mission requirements for success while minimizing the overall costs. The mission requirements for the this study was to develop a reactor (with Stirling engine power conversion) and shielding configuration able to fit, along with all the other necessary science equipment, in a Cryobot 3 m high with ~0.5 m diameter hull, produce 1 kWe for 5yrs, and not adversely affect the mission science by keeping the total integrated dose to the science equipment below 150 krad. Since in most space power missions the overall system mass dictates the mission cost, the shielding designs in this study incorporated Martian water extracted at the startup site in order to minimize the tungsten and LiH mass loading at launch. Different reliability and mass minimization concerns led to three design configuration evolutions. With the help of implementing Martian water and configuring the reactor as far from the science equipment as possible, the needed tungsten and LiH shield mass was minimized. This study further characterizes the startup dose and the necessary mission requirements in order to ensure integrity of the surface equipment during reactor startup phase.

  13. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  14. Establishment of a Hall Thruster Cluster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    DURIP funds were used to develop a Hall thruster cluster test facility centered around the University of Michigan Large Vacuum Test Facility and a 2x2 cluster of BUSEK 600 W BHT-600 Hall thrusters. This capability will facilitate our three-year program to address the issue of high-power CDT operation and to provide insight on how chamber effects influence CDT engine/cluster characteristics.

  15. Anomalous Hall Resistance in Bilayer Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Z. F.; Suzuki, S.; Tsitsishvili, G.

    2007-04-01

    Interlayer phase coherence has revealed various novel features in bilayer quantum Hall (QH) systems. It is shown to make the QH resistance vanish instead of developing a Hall plateau in a bilayer counterflow geometry. It also induces another anomalous QH resistance discovered in a drag experiment. These theoretical results explain recent experimental data due to Kellogg et al. [PRL 93 (2004) 036801;PRL 88 (2002) 126804] and Tutuc et al.[PRL 93 (2004) 036802].

  16. The Hall effect in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiding, C. R.; Wardle, M.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well studied. We present a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, and similarity solutions that demonstrate the profound influence of the Hall effect on the dynamics of collapse. The solutions show that the size and sign of the Hall parameter can change the size of the protostellar disc by up to an order of magnitude and the protostellar accretion rate by 50 per cent when the ratio of the Hall to ambipolar diffusivities is varied between -0.5 ≤ηH/ηA≤ 0.2. These changes depend upon the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the axis of rotation and create a preferred handedness to the solutions that could be observed in protostellar cores using next-generation instruments such as ALMA. Hall diffusion also determines the strength and position of the shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion on to the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating (not examined here), Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, which could give rise to disc formation and resolve the magnetic braking catastrophe. The Hall effect clearly influences the dynamics of gravitational collapse and its role in controlling the magnetic braking and radial diffusion of the field merits further exploration in numerical simulations of star formation.

  17. Star Formation and the Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiding, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. This thesis describes a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, presenting similarity solutions that demonstrate that the Hall effect has a profound influence on the dynamics of collapse. ... Hall diffusion also determines the strength of the magnetic diffusion and centrifugal shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally-supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion onto the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, which could give rise to disc formation and resolve the magnetic braking catastrophe. The Hall effect clearly influences the dynamics of gravitational collapse and its role in controlling the magnetic braking and radial diffusion of the field would be worth exploring in future numerical simulations of star formation.

  18. Observation of a superfluid Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-García, Karina; Williams, Ross A.; Beeler, Matthew C.; Perry, Abigail R.; Phillips, William D.; Spielman, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement techniques based upon the Hall effect are invaluable tools in condensed-matter physics. When an electric current flows perpendicular to a magnetic field, a Hall voltage develops in the direction transverse to both the current and the field. In semiconductors, this behavior is routinely used to measure the density and charge of the current carriers (electrons in conduction bands or holes in valence bands)—internal properties of the system that are not accessible from measurements of the conventional resistance. For strongly interacting electron systems, whose behavior can be very different from the free electron gas, the Hall effect’s sensitivity to internal properties makes it a powerful tool; indeed, the quantum Hall effects are named after the tool by which they are most distinctly measured instead of the physics from which the phenomena originate. Here we report the first observation of a Hall effect in an ultracold gas of neutral atoms, revealed by measuring a Bose–Einstein condensate’s transport properties perpendicular to a synthetic magnetic field. Our observations in this vortex-free superfluid are in good agreement with hydrodynamic predictions, demonstrating that the system’s global irrotationality influences this superfluid Hall signal. PMID:22699494

  19. Turbulence Measurements in a Tropical Zoo Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Werner; Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Masoala rainforest hall of the Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, covers a ground surface area of 10,856 m2 and reaches 30 m in height. With its transparent ETFE foiled roof it provides a tropical climate for a large diversity of plants and animals. In combination with an effort to estimate dry deposition of elemental mercury, we made an attempt to measure turbulent transfer velocity with an ultrasonic anemometer inside the hall. Not surprising, the largest turbulence elements were on the order of the hall dimension. Although the dimensions of the hall seem to be small (200,000 m3) for eddy covariance flux measurements and the air circulation inside the hall was extremely weak, the spectra of wind velocity components and virtual (sonic) temperature obeyed the general statistical description expected under unconstrained outdoor measurement conditions. We will present results from a two-week measurement campaign in the Masoala rainforest hall and make a suggestion for the deposition velocity to be used to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric components to the tropical vegetation surface.

  20. Preliminary Study of Arcjet Neutralization of Hall Thruster Clusters (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-18

    Clustered Hall thrusters have emerged as a favored choice for extending Hall thruster options to very high powers (50 kW - 150 kW). This paper...examines the possible use of an arcjet to neutralize clustered Hall thrusters, as the hybrid arcjet- Hall thruster concept can fill a performance niche...and helium, and then demonstrate the first successful operation of a low power Hall thruster -arcjet neutralizer package. In the surrogate anode studies

  1. Reactor Materials Program - Baseline Material Property Handbook - Mechanical Properties of 1950's Vintage Stainless Steel Weldment Components, Task Number 89-23-A-1

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, K.J.

    1999-11-05

    The Process Water System (primary coolant) piping of the nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950''s at Savannah River Site is comprised primarily of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. A program to measure the mechanical properties of archival PWS piping and weld materials (having approximately six years of service at temperatures between 25 and 100 degrees C) has been completed. The results from the mechanical testing has been synthesized to provide a mechanical properties database for structural analyses of the SRS piping.

  2. 75 FR 22770 - Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13652-000-Montana] Gary E. Hall and Rita Hall; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 22, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  4. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  5. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  6. Tutorial: Physics and modeling of Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Hall thrusters are very efficient and competitive electric propulsion devices for satellites and are currently in use in a number of telecommunications and government spacecraft. Their power spans from 100 W to 20 kW, with thrust between a few mN and 1 N and specific impulse values between 1000 and 3000 s. The basic idea of Hall thrusters consists in generating a large local electric field in a plasma by using a transverse magnetic field to reduce the electron conductivity. This electric field can extract positive ions from the plasma and accelerate them to high velocity without extracting grids, providing the thrust. These principles are simple in appearance but the physics of Hall thrusters is very intricate and non-linear because of the complex electron transport across the magnetic field and its coupling with the electric field and the neutral atom density. This paper describes the basic physics of Hall thrusters and gives a (non-exhaustive) summary of the research efforts that have been devoted to the modelling and understanding of these devices in the last 20 years. Although the predictive capabilities of the models are still not sufficient for a full computer aided design of Hall thrusters, significant progress has been made in the qualitative and quantitative understanding of these devices.

  7. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  8. Dr. Hall and the work cure.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kathlyn L

    2005-01-01

    Herbert James Hall, MD (1870-1923), was a pioneer in the systematic and organized study of occupation as therapy for persons with nervous and mental disorders that he called the "work cure." He began his work in 1904 during the early years of the Arts and Crafts Movement in the United States. His primary interest was the disorder neurasthenia, a condition with many symptoms including chronic fatigue, stress, and inability to work or perform everyday tasks. The prevailing treatment of the day was absolute bed rest known as the "rest cure." Hall believed that neurasthenia was not caused by overwork but by faulty living habits that could be corrected through an ordered life schedule and selected occupations. He identified several principles of therapy that are still used today including graded activity and energy conservation. Dr. Adolph Meyer credits Hall for organizing the ideas on the therapeutic use of occupation (Meyer, 1922). Hall also provided the name American Occupational Therapy Association for the professional organization and served as the fourth president. For his many contributions to the profession Hall deserves to be recognized as a major contributor to the development and organization of occupational therapy.

  9. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  10. Nonequilibrium Hall Response After a Topological Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, F. Nur; Mueller, Erich; Oktel, M. O.

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically study the Hall response of a lattice system following a quench where the topology of a filled band is suddenly changed. In the limit where the physics is dominated by a single Dirac cone, we find that the change in the Hall conductivity is two-thirds of the quantum of conductivity. We explore this universal behavior in the Haldane model, and discuss cold-atom experiments for its observation. Beyond linear response, the Hall effect crosses over from fractional to integer values. We investigate finite-size effects, and the role of the harmonic confinement. Furthermore, we explore the magnetic field quenches in ladders formed in synthetic dimensions. This work is supported by TUBITAK, NSFPHY-1508300, ARO-MURI W9111NF-14-1-0003.

  11. Optimum Design Rules for CMOS Hall Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Biondi, Michele; Romani, Aldo; Tartagni, Marco; Sangiorgi, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript analyzes the effects of design parameters, such as aspect ratio, doping concentration and bias, on the performance of a general CMOS Hall sensor, with insight on current-related sensitivity, power consumption, and bandwidth. The article focuses on rectangular-shaped Hall probes since this is the most general geometry leading to shape-independent results. The devices are analyzed by means of 3D-TCAD simulations embedding galvanomagnetic transport model, which takes into account the Lorentz force acting on carriers due to a magnetic field. Simulation results define a set of trade-offs and design rules that can be used by electronic designers to conceive their own Hall probes. PMID:28375191

  12. Optimum Design Rules for CMOS Hall Sensors.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Biondi, Michele; Romani, Aldo; Tartagni, Marco; Sangiorgi, Enrico

    2017-04-04

    This manuscript analyzes the effects of design parameters, such as aspect ratio, doping concentration and bias, on the performance of a general CMOS Hall sensor, with insight on current-related sensitivity, power consumption, and bandwidth. The article focuses on rectangular-shaped Hall probes since this is the most general geometry leading to shape-independent results. The devices are analyzed by means of 3D-TCAD simulations embedding galvanomagnetic transport model, which takes into account the Lorentz force acting on carriers due to a magnetic field. Simulation results define a set of trade-offs and design rules that can be used by electronic designers to conceive their own Hall probes.

  13. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-01-01

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials. PMID:27329068

  14. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, S.

    2006-02-01

    In this Letter we present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump and skew-scattering contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show that their effects scale as σxySJ/σxySS˜(ℏ/τ)/ɛF, with τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n- and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, where σs(c) is the spin Hall (charge) conductivity, which is in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1105514 in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  15. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show their effects scale as σxy^SJ/σxy^SS ˜(/τ)/ɛF, where τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n-doped and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining analytical formulas for the SJ and SS contributions. Moreover, the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity is found as σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  16. Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2007-02-16

    The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system.

  17. Hall Thruster With an External Acceleration Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-14

    Hall Thruster in a high vacuum environment. The ionized propellant velocities were measured using laser induced fluorescence of the excited state xenon ionic transition at 834.7 nm. Ion velocities were interrogated from the channel exit plane to a distance 30 mm from it. Both axial and cross-field (along the electron Hall current direction) velocities were measured. The results presented here, combined with those of previous work, highlight the high sensitivity of electron mobility inside and outside the channel, depending on the background gas density, type of wall

  18. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  19. Hall effect spintronics for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, A.; Kopnov, G.; Karpovski, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the concept of magnetic gas detection by the extraordinary Hall effect. The technique is compatible with the existing conductometric gas detection technologies and allows the simultaneous measurement of two independent parameters: resistivity and magnetization affected by the target gas. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by detecting low concentration hydrogen using thin CoPd films as the sensor material. The Hall effect sensitivity of the optimized samples exceeds 240% per 104 ppm at hydrogen concentrations below 0.5% in the hydrogen/nitrogen atmosphere, which is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of the conductance detection.

  20. Proton Knock-Out in Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    Proton knock-out is studied in a broad program in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The first experiment performed in Hall A studied the {sup 16}O(e,e'p) reaction. Since then proton knock-out experiments have studied a variety of aspects of that reaction, from single-nucleon properties to its mechanism, such as final-state interactions and two-body currents, in nuclei from {sup 2}H to {sup 16}O. In this review the results of this program will be summarized and an outlook given of future accomplishments.

  1. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  2. Astronaut Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-19

    In a ceremony set beneath Space Shuttle Atlantis, veteran astronauts C. Michael Foale and Ellen Ochoa are inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Foale and Ochoa make up the 16th group of space shuttle astronauts to be inducted into the Hall of Fame, and their addition to the group brings the total number of inductees to 95. More than 20 legendary astronauts were on hand to welcome the inductees, including: Robert Cabana, Dan Brandenstein, Al Worden, Charlie Duke, Charles Bolden, Michael Coats, Robert Crippen, Rhea Seddon, and Fred Gregory.

  3. 71. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 101, ENTRANCE HALL (SIDE WITH FIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. FIRST FLOOR, ROOM 101, ENTRANCE HALL (SIDE WITH FIRE DETECTOR), ARCHWAY TO STAIR HALL 100, LOOKING UP, DETAIL OF ARCHWAY SOFFIT. - Octagon House, 1799 (1741) New York Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Timber Creek bunkhouse and mess hall, Rocky Mountain National Park. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Timber Creek bunkhouse and mess hall, Rocky Mountain National Park. Interior, kitchen and dining area, viewing north. - Timber Creek Bunkhouse & Mess Hall, Trail Ridge Road, Grand Lake, Grand County, CO

  5. 5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 6. PHOTOCOPY, PLAN AND SCHEDULE DRAWING OF MESS HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, PLAN AND SCHEDULE DRAWING OF MESS HALL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 4. MESS HALL, FRONT DETAIL OVER DOOR, LOOKING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MESS HALL, FRONT DETAIL OVER DOOR, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Mess Hall, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, east of Officers' Quarters & Administration Building, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  8. Interior of Mess Hall, showing original columns and quarry tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Mess Hall, showing original columns and quarry tile floor - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Barracks & Mess Hall, Hornet Avenue between Liscome Bay & Enterprise Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION AND SECTION DRAWING OF MESS HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION AND SECTION DRAWING OF MESS HALL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. 3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. 2. MESS HALL, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING EAST. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MESS HALL, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. 4. MESS HALL, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MESS HALL, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. Interior view, groundfloor dining hall extending across the rotunda extension ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground-floor dining hall extending across the rotunda extension from it's northern exterior wall to its southern exterior wall, from the north. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 24. BEDROOM #1 INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO HALL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BEDROOM #1 INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO HALL WITH HALL LINEN CLOSETS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND, AND PARTIALLY OPEN DOOR TO CLOSET. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  15. Detail of main hall porch on east elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main hall porch on east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Wilderman Hall, Johnson Lane, north side adjacent to (south of) Hospital Complex, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. TURBINE HALL, LOOKING DOWN FROM THE CONTROL ROOM INTO TURBINE HALL AT UNITS 3, 5, AND 2) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  17. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing northwest with commercial port buildings visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  18. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing southsouthwest, with ocean bank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing south-southwest, with ocean bank visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  19. Interior detail of platform in main hall, with desk, flag, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of platform in main hall, with desk, flag, and banners, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  20. Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of ILWU Hall, facing east, with the city of Port Hueneme visible in the background - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  1. Fractional Quantization of the Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-02-27

    The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is caused by the condensation of a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field into a new type of macroscopic ground state, the elementary excitations of which are fermions of charge 1/m, where m is an odd integer. A mathematical description is presented.

  2. FORT HALL SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDY (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality monitoring on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation has revealed numerous exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 24-h averaged PM10 mass. Wind-directional analysis coupled with PM10 measurements have identified the FMC elemental phosphorus p...

  3. Direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Wanjun; Zhang, Xichao; Yu, Guoqiang; ...

    2016-09-19

    The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons/holes) as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin texture with a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. In spite of the recent progress made on investigating magnetic skyrmions, direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect has remained elusive. Here, by using a current-induced spin Hall spin torque, we experimentally demonstrate the skyrmion Hall effect, and the resultantmore » skyrmion accumulation, by driving skyrmions from the creep-motion regime (where their dynamics are influenced by pinning defects) into the steady-flow-motion regime. Lastly, the experimental observation of transverse transport of skyrmions due to topological charge may potentially create many exciting opportunities, such as topological selection.« less

  4. From the Bricks to the Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Mellie

    2009-01-01

    Situating herself on the cusp between life in her hometown of Newark, New Jersey, and her new world at Seton Hall University, Mellie Torres describes the painful awareness of a growing distance between herself, as the first to go to college, and her family. In so doing, she reveals the inherent losses of leaving home and the painful contrast…

  5. Numerical Modeling of the Hall Thruster Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    This collection of seven previously published papers performed under Grant No. FA8655-04-1-3003 provide the background for the development of a new version of the HPHall hybrid code (HPHallv.2) for the numerical modeling of Hall Thruster discharge and new insights on discharge physics obtained during the development.

  6. Towards Reduced Wall Effect Hall Plasma Accelerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Unpublished Conference Presentations E. Fernandez, N. Borelli , M. Cappelli, N. Gascon, "Investigation of Fluctuation-Induced Electron Transport in Hall...International Electric Propulsion Conference, Princeton University, October 31 November 4, 2005. 38. E. Fernandez, N. Borelli , M. Cappelli, N. Gascon

  7. Direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wanjun; Zhang, Xichao; Yu, Guoqiang

    The well-known Hall effect describes the transverse deflection of charged particles (electrons/holes) as a result of the Lorentz force. Similarly, it is intriguing to examine if quasi-particles without an electric charge, but with a topological charge, show related transverse motion. Magnetic skyrmions with a well-defined spin texture with a unit topological charge serve as good candidates to test this hypothesis. In spite of the recent progress made on investigating magnetic skyrmions, direct observation of the skyrmion Hall effect has remained elusive. Here, by using a current-induced spin Hall spin torque, we experimentally demonstrate the skyrmion Hall effect, and the resultantmore » skyrmion accumulation, by driving skyrmions from the creep-motion regime (where their dynamics are influenced by pinning defects) into the steady-flow-motion regime. Lastly, the experimental observation of transverse transport of skyrmions due to topological charge may potentially create many exciting opportunities, such as topological selection.« less

  8. Spin Hall Effects in Metallic Antiferromagnets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, we investigate four CuAu-I-type metallic antiferromagnets for their potential as spin current detectors using spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect. Nontrivial spin Hall effects were observed for FeMn, PdMn, and IrMn while a much higher effect was obtained for PtMn. Using thickness-dependent measurements, we determined the spin diffusion lengths of these materials to be short, on the order of 1 nm. The estimated spin Hall angles of the four materials follow the relationship PtMn > IrMn > PdMn > FeMn, highlighting the correlation between the spin-orbit coupling of nonmagnetic species and the magnitude of the spinmore » Hall effect in their antiferromagnetic alloys. These experiments are compared with first-principles calculations. Finally, engineering the properties of the antiferromagnets as well as their interfaces can pave the way for manipulation of the spin dependent transport properties in antiferromagnet-based spintronics.« less

  9. NASA Chief Technologist Hosts Town Hall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-24

    Bobby Braun, NASA's Chief Technologist, is seen on a video monitor during a Town Hall meeting to discuss agency-wide technology policy and programs at NASA Headquarters on Tuesday, May 25, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  10. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  11. Soaring Food Prices Squeeze Dining Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, JJ

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that students are likely to see a sharp increase in the cost of on-campus meal plans this fall, as rising food prices have sent some college food-service operations into deficits and have forced many to get creative with their fixed budgets. As the cost of food has soared, many dining halls have focused more on reducing…

  12. High-Temperature Hall-Effect Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Lockwood, R. A.; Chemielewski, A. B.; Parker, J. B.; Zoltan, A.

    1985-01-01

    Compact furnace minimizes thermal gradients and electrical noise. Semiautomatic Hall-effect apparatus takes measurements on refractory semiconductors at temperatures as high as 1,100 degrees C. Intended especially for use with samples of high conductivity and low chargecarrier mobility that exhibit low signal-to-noise ratios, apparatus carefully constructed to avoid spurious electromagnetic and thermoelectric effects that further degrade measurements.

  13. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  14. A Behavioral Weight Control Program for Residence Hall Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domke, Jane A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared a weight control treatment specifically tailored to the needs of residence hall students with a standardized behavioral procedure. Although posttreatment results indicated a very slight and nonsignificant advantage for the residence hall condition, this was not true at follow-up. Suggests the residence hall procedure may be overly…

  15. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Micro-Hall magnetometry on a Co-organic chain compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L.; Simonet, V.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Bogani, L.; Sessoli, R.

    2004-05-01

    The static and dynamical properties of Co-organic chains, with strong magnetic anisotropy, are studied by micro-Hall magnetometry. The low-temperature hysteresis cycles are discussed with respect to the helical structure of the chains. Thermally activated relaxation of the magnetization is observed, compatible with the Glauber model for a 1D Ising system.

  17. Impact of the Hall effect on high-energy-density plasma jets.

    PubMed

    Gourdain, P-A; Seyler, C E

    2013-01-04

    Using a 1-MA, 100 ns-rise-time pulsed power generator, radial foil configurations can produce strongly collimated plasma jets. The resulting jets have electron densities on the order of 10(20) cm(-3), temperatures above 50 eV and plasma velocities on the order of 100 km/s, giving Reynolds numbers of the order of 10(3), magnetic Reynolds and Péclet numbers on the order of 1. While Hall physics does not dominate jet dynamics due to the large particle density and flow inside, it strongly impacts flows in the jet periphery where plasma density is low. As a result, Hall physics affects indirectly the geometrical shape of the jet and its density profile. The comparison between experiments and numerical simulations demonstrates that the Hall term enhances the jet density when the plasma current flows away from the jet compared to the case where the plasma current flows towards it.

  18. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  19. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  20. Judy Estes Hall (1940-2015).

    PubMed

    Sammons, Morgan T; Boucher, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Judy Estes Hall, who passed away on November 24, 2015. Hall served as the Executive Officer of the National Register of Health Service Psychologists until her retirement in 2013. She is a recognized expert in the development of education and training standards for the profession of psychology, she also made significant contributions in the field of international psychology, where she was a renowned expert in cross-national credentialing and an advocate for commonality in licensing standards. She was the coauthor of one edited volume and author of more than 60 journal articles, book chapters, and professional publications. A passionate advocate for the advancement of women in psychology, a devoted mother and grandmother, a connoisseur of wine and international traveler extraordinaire, she touched the personal and professional lives of many. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The ``cinquefoil" resistive/Hall measurement geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2000-03-01

    This talk begins by analyzing the charge transport weighting functions -- the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local macroscopic inhomogeneities -- of bridge-shaped transport specimens. As expected, such measurements sample only that region of the specimen between the central voltage electrodes, in the limit of narrow current channels connected by even narrower arms to the voltage electrodes. The bridge geometry has a few advantages over the van der Pauw cloverleaf geometry -- including ease in zeroing out the null-field Hall voltage -- but also some disadvantages. The talk concludes with an analysis of a hybrid geometry, the “cinquefoil” or five-leafed clover, which combines the best features of both.

  2. Giant photonic Hall effect in magnetophotonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Merzlikin, A M; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Granovsky, A B

    2005-10-01

    We have considered a simple, square, two-dimensional (2D) PC built of a magneto-optic matrix with square holes. It is shown that using such a magnetophotonic crystal it is possible to deflect a light beam at very large angles by applying a nonzero external magnetic field. The effect is called the giant photonic Hall effect (GPHE) or the magnetic superprism effect. The GPHE is based on magneto-optical properties, as is the photonic Hall effect [B. A. van Tiggelen and G. L. J. A. Rikken, in, edited by V. M. Shalaev (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 275]; however GPHE is not caused by asymmetrical light scattering but rather by the influence of an external magnetic field on the photonic band structure.

  3. Quantum Hall signatures of dipolar Mahan excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinner, G. J.; Repp, J.; Kowalik-Seidl, K.; Schubert, E.; Stallhofer, M. P.; Rai, A. K.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Govorov, A. O.; Holleitner, A. W.; Kotthaus, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the photoluminescence of spatially indirect, dipolar Mahan excitons in a gated double quantum well diode containing a mesoscopic electrostatic trap for neutral dipolar excitons at low temperatures down to 250 mK and in quantizing magnetic fields. Mahan excitons in the surrounding of the trap, consisting of individual holes interacting with a degenerate two-dimensional electron system confined in one of the quantum wells, exhibit strong quantum Hall signatures at integer filling factors and related anomalies around filling factor ν=(2)/(3),(3)/(5), and (1)/(2), reflecting the formation of composite fermions. Interactions across the trap perimeter are found to influence the energy of the confined neutral dipolar excitons by the presence of the quantum Hall effects in the two-dimensional electron system surrounding the trap.

  4. Advanced Hybrid Modeling of Hall Thruster Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    Hall thruster operated in the Large Vacuum Test Facility at the University of Michigan. The approach utilizes the direct simulation Monte Carlo method and the Particle-in-Cell method to simulate the collision and plasma dynamics of xenon neutrals and ions. The electrons are modeled as a fluid using conservation equations. A second code is employed to model discharge chamber behavior to provide improved input conditions at the thruster exit for the plume simulation. Simulation accuracy is assessed using experimental data previously

  5. Eight Kilowatt Hall Thruster System Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    divergence13,14 and maximize thrust efficiency. Electrical isolation of the anode from the propellant line is achieved with a custom high voltage ceramic ... Electric Co., Inc. 55 A, 730 V (40 kW) (+) (-) Hall Effect Thruster Hollow Cathode b h k Figure 4. T8 test facility and nominal power supply diagram...may be 700-V or higher. Electrical isolation of the anode from the propellant line is provided by a custom ceramic break developed by Busek. The

  6. Familial Pallister-Hall in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Talsania, Mitali; Sharma, Rohan; Sughrue, Michael E; Scofield, R Hal; Lim, Jonea

    2017-10-01

    Pallister Hall syndrome is autosomal dominant disorder usually diagnosed in infants and children. Current diagnostic criteria include presence of hypothalamic hamartoma, post axial polydactyly and positive family history, but the disease has variable manifestations. Herein we report Pallister Hall syndrome diagnosed in a family where both patients were adults. A 59 year old man developed seizures 4 years prior to our evaluation of him, at which time imaging showed a hypothalamic hamartoma. The seizures were controlled medically. He did well until he had visual changes after a traumatic head injury. Repeat MRI showed slight expansion of the mass with formal visual field testing demonstrating bitemporal hemianopsia. There was no evidence of pituitary dysfunction except for large urine volume. He underwent surgery to debulk the hamartoma and the visual field defects improved. There was no hypopituitarism post-operatively, and the polydyspia resolved. His 29 year old daughter also had seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma. Both patients had had polydactyly with prior surgical correction in childhood. The daughter underwent genetic testing, which revealed a previously undescribed heterozygous single base pair deletion in exon 13 of the GLI3 gene causing a frameshift mutation. Further investigation into family history revealed multiple members in previous generations with polydactyly and/or seizures. Pallister-Hall syndrome is caused by an inherited autosomal dominant or de novo mutation in GLI3 gene. This rare syndrome has not had prevalence defined, however. Generally, diagnoses are made in the pediatric population. Our report adds to the few cases detected in adulthood.

  7. On channel interactions in nested Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusson, S. E.; Georgin, M. P.; Dragnea, H. C.; Dale, E. T.; Dhaliwal, V.; Boyd, I. D.; Gallimore, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    Nested Hall thrusters use multiple, concentric discharge channels to increase thrust density. They have shown enhanced performance in multi-channel operation relative to the superposition of individual channels. The X2, a two-channel nested Hall thruster, was used to investigate the mechanism behind this improved performance. It is shown that the local pressure near the thruster exit plane is an order of magnitude higher in two-channel operation. This is due to the increased neutral flow inherent to the multi-channel operation. Due to the proximity of the discharge channels in nested Hall thrusters, these local pressure effects are shown to be responsible for the enhanced production of thrust during multi-channel operation via two mechanisms. The first mechanism is the reduction of the divergence angle due to an upstream shift of the acceleration region. The displacement of the acceleration region was detected using laser induced fluorescence measurements of the ion velocity profile. Analysis of the change in beam divergence indicates that, at an operating condition of 150 V and 30 A, this effect increases the thrust by 8.7 ± 1.2 mN. The second mechanism is neutral ingestion from the adjacent channel resulting in a 2.0 + 0/-0.2 mN increase in thrust. Combined, these mechanisms are shown to explain, within uncertainty, the 17 ± 6.2 mN improvement in thrust during dual channel operation of the X2.

  8. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  9. [Epidemiological profile of traumatic brain injury at the Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia Hospital, Neurosurgery Department, during the period from 2007 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Petgrave-Pérez, Alexander; Padilla, Juan I; Díaz, José; Chacón, Rosarito; Chaves, Carlos; Torres, Héctor; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile of the patients who suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI) and were treated at the Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia Hospital (HCG) Neurosurgery department, during the period from 2007 to 2012. An observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross section study was performed on all the patients with TBI and who were admitted to the emergency room of the HCG during the period 2007 to 2012. There were a total of 721 cases, of which 566 records were obtained of patients who had the variables established in this study, excluding those with incomplete or inconsistent information. The present study established the epidemiological profile of the TBI in the population seen during the period 2007 to 2012 at the HCG. It was determined that the male sex made up the majority of the cases were male, with mean age of 46 years. The mortality rate was 12.69% (n=69). Car accidents were the most frequent cause of TBI (n=259 persons) in the age group of 25 to 44 years, followed by falls (n=174). It was observed that the majority were farmers, followed by students, and then construction workers. No chronic illnesses were recorded in 71.6% of the medical charts. No alcohol or other drugs were reported in 74.9% of the cases, while there was evidence of the presence of alcohol recorded in 22.8%. The clinical and laboratory parameters that had statistical significance (P<.05) were GCS equal to less than 8 (P=.035), presence of mydriasis (P=.00), deviation of the LM (P=.006), cranial fracture (P=.04), lack of endotracheal intubation on admission (P=.007), prolonged PT (P=.04), prolonged PTT (P=.025), and MAP<60 (P=.002). The most frequent surgical procedure in the study population was craniotomy with hematoma drainage alone or associated with some other procedure (esquillectomy or monitoring of PIC) (n=298). There is great difficulty in determining the epidemiology of TBI worldwide, due to the lack of standardisation of the international studies. From

  10. Experimental test of 200 W Hall thruster with titanium wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Yu, Daren

    2017-05-01

    We designed a 200 W Hall thruster based on the technology of pushing down a magnetic field with two permanent magnetic rings. Boron nitride (BN) is an important insulating wall material for Hall thrusters. The discharge characteristics of the designed Hall thruster were studied by replacing BN with titanium (Ti). Experimental results show that the designed Hall thruster can discharge stably for a long time under a Ti channel. Experiments were performed to determine whether the channel and cathode are electrically connected. When the channel wall and cathode are insulated, the divergence angle of the plume increases, but the performance of the Hall thruster is improved in terms of thrust, specific impulse, anode efficiency, and thrust-to-power ratio. Ti exhibits a powerful antisputtering capability, a low emanation rate of gas, and a large structural strength, making it a potential candidate wall material in the design of low-power Hall thrusters.

  11. Thermally driven anomalous Hall effect transitions in FeRh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Adrian; Rodriguez-Lopez, Pablo; Haney, Paul M.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2018-04-01

    Materials exhibiting controllable magnetic phase transitions are currently in demand for many spintronics applications. Here, we investigate from first principles the electronic structure and intrinsic anomalous Hall, spin Hall, and anomalous Nernst response properties of the FeRh metallic alloy which undergoes a thermally driven antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition. We show that the energy band structures and underlying Berry curvatures have important signatures in the various Hall effects. Specifically, the suppression of the anomalous Hall and Nernst effects in the antiferromagnetic state and a sign change in the spin Hall conductivity across the transition are found. It is suggested that the FeRh can be used as a spin current detector capable of differentiating the spin Hall effect from other anomalous transverse effects. The implications of this material and its thermally driven phases as a spin current detection scheme are also discussed.

  12. Nonlinearity in the effect of an inhomogeneous Hall angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    2007-03-01

    The differential equation for the electric potential in a conducting material with an inhomogeneous Hall angle is extended to the large-field limit. This equation is solved for a square specimen, using a successive over-relaxation [SOR] technique for matrices of up to 101x101 size, and the Hall weighting function -- the effect of local pointlike perturbations on the measured Hall angle -- is calculated as both the unperturbed Hall angle, θH, and the perturbation, δθH, exceed the linear, small angle limit. Preliminary results show that the Hall angle varies by no more than 5% if both | θH |<1 and | δθH |<1. Thus, previously calculated results for the Hall weighting function can be used for most materials in all but the most extreme magnetic fields.

  13. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  14. Performance of an 8 kW Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-12

    For the purpose of either orbit raising and/or repositioning the Hall thruster must be capable of delivering sufficient thrust to minimize transfer...time. This coupled with the increasing on-board electric power capacity of military and commercial satellites, requires a high power Hall thruster that...development of a novel, high power Hall thruster , capable of efficient operation over a broad range of Isp and thrust. We call such a thruster the bi

  15. Performance Potential of Plasma Thrusters: Arcjet and Hall Thruster Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-17

    FUNDING NUMBERS Performance Potential of Plasma Thrusters: \\ Arcjet and Hall Thruster Modeling FQ 8671-9300908 S ,,G-AFOSR-91-0256 6. AUTHOR(S) Manuel...models for the internal physics and the performance of hydrogen arcjets and Hall thrusters , respectively. These are thought to represent the state of...work. 93-24268 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PAGES Electric Propulsion, Arcjets, Hall Thrusters 15 16. PRICE COOE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION I18

  16. Topological Hall Effect in Skyrmions: A Nonequilibrium Coherent Transport Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Gen; Zang, Jiadong; Lake, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Skyrmion is a topological spin texture recently observed in many materials with broken inversion symmetry. In experiments, one effective method to detect the skyrmion crystal phase is the topological Hall measurement. At adiabatic approximation, previous theoretical studies show that the Hall signal is provided by an emergent magnetic field, which explains the topological Hall effect in the classical level. Motivated by the potential device application of skyrmions as digital bits, it is important to understand the topological Hall effect in the mesoscopic level, where the electron coherence should be considered. In this talk, we will discuss the quantum aspects of the topological Hall effect on a tight binding setup solved by nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF). The charge distribution, Hall potential distribution, thermal broadening effect and the Hall resistivity are investigated in detail. The relation between the Hall resistance and the DM interaction is investigated. Driven by the spin transferred torque (SST), Skyrmion dynamics is previously studied within the adiabatic approximation. At the quantum transport level, this talk will also discuss the non-adiabatic effect in the skyrmion motion with the presence of the topological Hall effect. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. NSF 1128304 and NSF 1124733. It was also supported in part by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet, an SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  17. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    DOE PAGES

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force actingmore » on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Lastly, our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.« less

  18. 16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. ENTRANCE HALL, VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD STAIR, NOTE PEDIMENTED DOORWAYS, CHINESE WALLPAPER, DENTICULATED CORNICE, PANELED DADO - Mt. Harmon Plantation at World's End, Earleville, Cecil County, MD

  19. Hall number across a van Hove singularity

    DOE PAGES

    Maharaj, Akash V.; Esterlis, Ilya; Zhang, Yi; ...

    2017-07-24

    In this paper, in the context of the relaxation time approximation to Boltzmann transport theory, we examine the behavior of the Hall number n H of a metal in the neighborhood of a Lifshitz transition from a closed Fermi surface to open sheets. We find a universal nonanalytic dependence of n H on the electron density in the high-field limit, but a nonsingular dependence at low fields. Finally, the existence of an assumed nematic transition produces a doping dependent n H similar to that observed in recent experiments in the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x.

  20. Geometric Defects in Quantum Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Andrey

    I will describe a geometric analogue of Laughlin quasiholes in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. These ``quasiholes'' are generated by an insertion of quantized fluxes of curvature - which can be modeled by branch points of a certain Riemann surface - and, consequently, are related to genons. Unlike quasiholes, the genons are not excitations, but extrinsic defects. Fusion of genons describes the response of an FQH state to a process that changes (effective) topology of the physical space. These defects are abelian for IQH states and non-abelian for FQH states. I will explain how to calculate an electric charge, geometric spin and adiabatic mutual statistics of the these defects. Leo Kadanoff Fellowship.

  1. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  2. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  3. TOWN HALL MEETING-SCCM 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2009-12-28

    The following article contains the summary of the discussion held at the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Town Hall Meeting. This was held on Tuesday afternoon of the meeting and attracted 100+ attendees. This meeting, chaired by John Eggert, was planned to introduce challenges in selected topics relevant to shock wave science. The three subjects and speakers were: space research introduced by Shannon Ryan, nanotechnology presented by Kaliat T. Ramesh, and compression tools delivered by Dave Funk. After each presentation there were a number of questions.

  4. Nuclear fission: the interplay of science and technology.

    PubMed

    Stoneham, A M

    2010-07-28

    When the UK's Calder Hall nuclear power station was connected to the grid in 1956, the programmes that made this possible involved a powerful combination of basic and applied research. Both the science and the engineering were novel, addressing new and challenging problems. That the last Calder Hall reactor was shut down only in 2003 attests to the success of the work. The strengths of bringing basic science to bear on applications continued to be recognized until the 1980s, when government and management fashions changed. This paper identifies a few of the technology challenges, and shows how novel basic science emerged from them and proved essential in their resolution. Today, as the threat of climate change becomes accepted, it has become clear that there is no credible solution without nuclear energy. The design and construction of new fission reactors will need continuing innovation, with the interplay between the science and technology being a crucial component.

  5. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  6. Synchronization of spin-transfer torque oscillators by spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects

    SciTech Connect

    Elyasi, Mehrdad; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg

    2015-02-14

    We have proposed a method to synchronize multiple spin-transfer torque oscillators based on spin pumping, inverse spin Hall, and spin Hall effects. The proposed oscillator system consists of a series of nano-magnets in junction with a normal metal with high spin-orbit coupling, and an accumulative feedback loop. We conduct simulations to demonstrate the effect of modulated charge currents in the normal metal due to spin pumping from each nano-magnet. We show that the interplay between the spin Hall effect and inverse spin Hall effect results in synchronization of the nano-magnets.

  7. Repurposing the Caltech Robinson Hall Coelostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treffers, Richard R.; Loisos, G.; Ubbelohde, M.; Douglas, S.; Martinez, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the repurposing of the historic coelostat atop Caltech’s Robinson Hall for building lighting, public education and scientific research. The coelostat was originally part of George Ellery Hale’s vision of the Astrophysical Laboratory on the Caltech campus in 1932. The coelostat, designed by Russell Porter, has a 36 inch diameter primary mirror a 30 inch diameter secondary mirror and provides a 24 inch un-vignetted beam of sunlight into the building. Although constructed in the 1930s, due to wartime pressures and other projects, it was used only briefly in the 1970s and never fully realized. Recently Robinson Hall has been fully renovated to house the Ronald and Maxine Linde Center for Global Environmental Science. The coelostat operation was modernized replacing the old motors and automating all the motions. Each morning, if the weather cooperates, the dome slit opens, the mirrors configured and sunlight pours into the building. The beam of sunlight is divided into three parts. One part goes into a refracting telescope which projects a ten inch diameter of the sun onto a ground glass screen visible to the public. A second fraction is distributed to fiber optic fixtures that illuminate some of the basement rooms. The final fraction goes into two laboratories where it is used in experiments monitoring trace constituents of our atmosphere and for solar catalysis experiments. The instrument as originally conceived required at least two human operators. Now it is fully automatic and doing real science

  8. Spin Hall effect originated from fractal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajzadeh, I.; Mohseni, S. M.; Movahed, S. M. S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2018-05-01

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) has shown promising impact in the field of spintronics and magnonics from fundamental and practical points of view. This effect originates from several mechanisms of spin scatterers based on spin–orbit coupling (SOC) and also can be manipulated through the surface roughness. Here, the effect of correlated surface roughness on the SHE in metallic thin films with small SOC is investigated theoretically. Toward this, the self-affine fractal surface in the framework of the Born approximation is exploited. The surface roughness is described by the k-correlation model and is characterized by the roughness exponent H , the in-plane correlation length ξ and the rms roughness amplitude δ. It is found that the spin Hall angle in metallic thin film increases by two orders of magnitude when H decreases from H  =  1 to H  =  0. In addition, the source of SHE for surface roughness with Gaussian profile distribution function is found to be mainly the side jump scattering while that with a non-Gaussian profile suggests both of the side jump and skew scatterings are present. Our achievements address how details of the surface roughness profile can adjust the SHE in non-heavy metals.

  9. Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at JLab Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, O.; Chiba, A.; Doi, D.; Fujii, Y.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kawama, D.; Maeda, K.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Shichijo, A.; Tamura, H.; Taniya, N.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokota, K.; Kato, S.; Sato, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Noumi, H.; Motoba, T.; Hiyama, E.; Albayrak, I.; Ates, O.; Chen, C.; Christy, M.; Keppel, C.; Kohl, M.; Li, Y.; Liyanage, A.; Tang, L.; Walton, T.; Ye, Z.; Yuan, L.; Zhu, L.; Baturin, P.; Boeglin, W.; Dhamija, S.; Markowitz, P.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gaskell, D.; Horn, T.; Jones, M.; Smith, G.; Vulcan, W.; Wood, S. A.; Johnston, C.; Simicevic, N.; Wells, S.; Samanta, C.; Hu, B.; Shen, J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, J.; Fu, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, S.; Jiang, Y.; Lu, H.; Yan, X.; Ye, Y.; Gan, L.; Ahmidouch, A.; Danagoulian, S.; Gasparian, A.; Elaasar, M.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Asaturyan, A.; Margaryan, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Tadevosyan, V.; Androic, D.; Furic, M.; Petkovic, T.; Seva, T.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Cisbani, E.; Cusanno, F.; Garibaldi, F.; Uuciuoli, G. M.; De Leo, R.; Maronne, S.; Achenback, P.; Pochodzala, J.

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1st generation experiment, E89-009, which was successfully carried out as a pilot experiment of (e,e'K+) hypernuclear spectroscopy at JLab Hall C in 2000, precision hypernuclear spectroscopy by the (e,e'K+) reactions made considerable progress. It has evolved to the 2nd generation experiment, E01-011, in which a newly constructed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) was installed and the "Tilt method" was adopted in order to suppress large electromagnetic background and to run with high luminosity. Preliminary high-resolution spectra of 7ΛHe and 28ΛAl together with that of 12ΛB that achieved resolution better than 500 keV(FWHM) were obtained. The third generation experiment, E05-115, has completed data taking with an experimental setup combining a new splitter magnet, high resolution electron spectrometer (HES) and the HKS used in the 2nd generation experiment. The data were accumulated with targets of 7Li, 9Be, 10B, 12C and 52Cr as well as with those of CH 2 and H 2O for calibration. The analysis is under way with particular emphasis of determining precision absolute hypernuclear masses. In this article, hypernuclear spectroscopy program in the wide mass range at JLab Hall C that has undergone three generation is described.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: (1) Characterized Hall thruster (and arcjet) performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions; (2) Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e) ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential; (3) Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures. A key and unique feature of our research was our collaboration with Russian Hall thruster researcher Dr. Sergey A Khartov, Deputy Dean of International Relations at the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). His activities in this program included consulting on and participation in research at PEPL through use of a MAI-built SPT and ion energy probe.

  11. Implementing Proactive Network Management Solutions in the Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedi, Param

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how to implement networking solutions in residence halls at Arcadia University in Philadelphia. Sections of the paper include: (1) About Arcadia University; (2) Residence Halls Network; (3) How Campus Manager Helped Arcadia University; (4) What Is Campus Manager; (5) How Campus Manager Works; (6) Campus Manager Remediation…

  12. Residence Hall Discipline as a Function of Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, W. C.; Nelson, Susan Innmon

    1986-01-01

    Administered personality measures to residence hall personnel (N=48) to test assertive, nonassertive, or hostile responses to describe residence hall disciplinary situations. Found that not all personnel were well suited to college student disciplining and that the personality tests could be used to identify individuals who may be best suited for…

  13. A Residential Paradox?: Residence Hall Attributes and College Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronkema, Ryan; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2017-01-01

    The researchers of this brief observed that few environments have the potential to shape the outcomes of college students as much as residence halls. As a result, residence halls have the capacity to foster a strong sense of community as well as other important outcomes such as college satisfaction and academic achievement. However, given the high…

  14. An End-to-End Model of a Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    and deposition of sputtered material, simulation of the operator of a Hall Thruster in a vacuum tank and the extension to the near-plume of a...sophisticated Hall thruster transient hybrid PlC model which had been previously used only to describe the internal flow. The first two items have been

  15. Plasma Properties in the Plume of a Hall Thruster Cluster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-04

    The Hall thruster cluster is an attractive propulsion approach for spacecraft requiring very high-power electric propulsion systems. This article...probes in the plume of a low-power, four-engine Hall thruster cluster. Simple analytical formulas are introduced that allow these quantities to be

  16. Very-Near-Field Plume Model of a Hall Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014988 TITLE: Very-Near-Field Plume Model of a Hall Thruster DISTRIBUTION...numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP014936 thru ADP015049 UNCLASSIFIED am 46 Very-Near-Field Plume Model of a Hall Thruster F. Taccogna’, S. LongoŖ

  17. Modeling a Hall Thruster from Anode to Plume Far Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-31

    Two dimensional ax symmetric simulations of xenon plasma plume flow fields from a D55 Anode layer Hall thruster is performed. A hybrid particle-fluid...method is used for the Simulations. The magnetic field surrounding the Hall thruster exit is included in the Calculation. The plasma properties

  18. Contextual view of the Hall of Transportation from Yerba Buena ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of the Hall of Transportation from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3) at far right, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Hall of Transportation, 440 California Avenue, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the Teaching of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelsch, William A.

    2002-01-01

    G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924), founding president of Clark University, was a leader in the child study movement and a significant figure in psychology and education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hall had pronounced opinions on many educational subjects, including the teaching of geography. His criticisms and program for the…

  20. Stuart Hall on Racism and the Importance of Diasporic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I want to show how my initial encounter with the work of Stuart Hall was grounded in my reading of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and was shaped by my interest in understanding the nature of racism across the three countries in which I had lived. Over the years, Hall's various writings have helped me to make sense of…

  1. 12. BUILDING 324, INTERIOR, ENTRY HALL AND STAIRWAY, FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING 324, INTERIOR, ENTRY HALL AND STAIRWAY, FROM SOUTH ENTRY, LOOKING NORTH, WITH HALL LEADING TO GARAGE TO RIGHT OF STAIRWAY. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Commanding Officers Residences, Between E & F Streets, West of Fourth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. High Life: 17th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Residence hall construction continues to be a priority for colleges and universities. With enrollments on the upswing, higher-education institutions are spending more and building larger facilities to entice students to live on campus. This article presents the findings of "American School & University's" 17th annual Residence Hall Construction…

  3. Hall viscosity and electromagnetic response of electrons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherafati, Mohammad; Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni

    The Hall viscosity is a dissipationless component of the viscosity tensor of an electron liquid with broken time- reversal symmetry, such as a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall state. Similar to the Hall conductivity, the Hall viscosity is an anomalous transport coefficient; however, while the former is connected with the current response, the latter stems from the stress response to a geometric deformation. For a Galilean-invariant system such as 2DEG, the current density is indeed the generator of the geometric deformation: therefore a connection between the Hall connectivity and viscosity is expected and by now well established. In the case of graphene, a non-Galilean-invariant system, the existence of such a connection is far from obvious, as the current operator is essentially different from the momentum operator. In this talk, I will first present our results of the geometric Hall viscosity of electrons in single-layer graphene. Then, from the expansion of the nonlocal Hall conductivity for small wave vectors, I demonstrate that, in spite of the lack of Galilean invariance, an effective mass can be defined such that the relationship between the Hall conductivity and the viscosity retains the form it has in Galilean-invariant systems, not only for a large number of occupied Landau levels, but also, with very high accuracy, for the undoped system.

  4. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  5. 30. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM SECOND FLOOR EAST BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM SECOND FLOOR EAST BALCONY FACING WEST. SHOWS ALTERNATE BAY X BRACING OF ROOF TRUSSES. ALSO SHOWS TRUSSES, WINDOWS IN THE MONITOR, STAIRWAY AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL HALL AND THE THREE LEVELS OF BENCHES ON THE BALCONY. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. Mary E. Hall: Dawn of the Professional School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alto, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, a woman named Mary E. Hall convinced school leaders of the need for the professional school librarian--a librarian who cultivated a love of reading, academic achievement, and independent learning skills. After graduating from New York City's Pratt Institute Library School in 1895, Hall developed her vision for the high school…

  7. Acoustic Requirements for a Multi-Purpose Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, W. Allen

    2002-01-01

    This case study examines the proposed design of a new lecture/recital hall in Centennial Hall at Lynchburg College that will be used for lectures, public events, a film studies course, and musical recitals. It explores the audio-visual challenges presented by the differing acoustical requirements for the building. (EV)

  8. Pair spectrometer hodoscope for Hall D at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGES

    Barbosa, Fernando J.; Hutton, Charles L.; Sitnikov, Alexandre; ...

    2015-09-21

    We present the design of the pair spectrometer hodoscope fabricated at Jefferson Lab and installed in the experimental Hall D. The hodoscope consists of thin scintillator tiles; the light from each tile is collected using wave-length shifting fibers and detected using a Hamamatsu silicon photomultiplier. Light collection was measured using relativistic electrons produced in the tagger area of the experimental Hall B.

  9. Pair spectrometer hodoscope for Hall D at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Fernando J.; Hutton, Charles L.; Sitnikov, Alexandre

    We present the design of the pair spectrometer hodoscope fabricated at Jefferson Lab and installed in the experimental Hall D. The hodoscope consists of thin scintillator tiles; the light from each tile is collected using wave-length shifting fibers and detected using a Hamamatsu silicon photomultiplier. Light collection was measured using relativistic electrons produced in the tagger area of the experimental Hall B.

  10. Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  12. Roles of nonlocal conductivity on spin Hall angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shufeng

    2017-10-01

    Spin Hall angle characterizes the rate of spin-charge current conversion and it has become one of the most important material parameters for spintronics physics and device application. A long-standing controversy is that the spin Hall angles for a given material measured by spin pumping and by spin Hall torque experiments are inconsistent and they could differ by as much as an order of magnitude. By using the linear response spin transport theory, we explicitly formulate the relation between the spin Hall angle and measured variables in different experiments. We find that the nonlocal conductivity inherited in the layered structure plays a key role to resolve conflicting values of the spin Hall angle. We provide a generalized scheme for extracting spin transport coefficients from experimental data.

  13. Formulation of the relativistic quantum Hall effect and parity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonaga, Kouki; Hasebe, Kazuki; Shibata, Naokazu

    2016-06-01

    We present a relativistic formulation of the quantum Hall effect on Haldane sphere. An explicit form of the pseudopotential is derived for the relativistic quantum Hall effect with/without mass term. We clarify particular features of the relativistic quantum Hall states with the use of the exact diagonalization study of the pseudopotential Hamiltonian. Physical effects of the mass term to the relativistic quantum Hall states are investigated in detail. The mass term acts as an interpolating parameter between the relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum Hall effects. It is pointed out that the mass term unevenly affects the many-body physics of the positive and negative Landau levels as a manifestation of the "parity anomaly." In particular, we explicitly demonstrate the instability of the Laughlin state of the positive first relativistic Landau level with the reduction of the charge gap.

  14. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, A. C.; Colless, J. I.; Pauka, S. J.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Doherty, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1 /1000 th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, "slow-light" response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330 μ m diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  15. OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco

    2015-06-26

    Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Propulsion Instruments for Small Hall Thruster Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee K.; Conroy, David G.; Spanjers, Greg G.; Bromaghim, Daron R.

    2001-01-01

    Planning and development are underway for the propulsion instrumentation necessary for the next AFRL electric propulsion flight project, which includes both a small Hall thruster and a micro-PPT. These instruments characterize the environment induced by the thruster and the associated data constitute part of a 'user's manual' for these thrusters. Several instruments probe the back-flow region of the thruster plume, and the data are intended for comparison with detailed numerical models in this region. Specifically, an ion probe is under development to determine the energy and species distributions, and a Langmuir probe will be employed to characterize the electron density and temperature. Other instruments directly measure the effects of thruster operation on spacecraft thermal control surfaces, optical surfaces, and solar arrays. Specifically, radiometric, photometric, and solar-cell-based sensors are under development. Prototype test data for most sensors should be available, together with details of the instrumentation subsystem and spacecraft interface.

  17. Magnon Hall effect on the Lieb lattice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaodong; Chen, Kai; He, Dahai

    2015-04-29

    Ferromagnetic insulators without inversion symmetry may show magnon Hall effect (MHE) in the presence of a temperature gradient due to the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In this theoretical study, we investigate MHE on a lattice with inversion symmetry, namely the Lieb lattice, where the DMI is introduced by adding an external electric field. We show the nontrivial topology of this model by examining the existence of edge states and computing the topological phase diagram characterized by the Chern numbers of different bands. Together with the topological phase diagram, we can further determine the sign and magnitude of the transverse thermal conductivity. The impact of the flat band possessed by this model on the thermal conductivity is discussed by computing the Berry curvature analytically.

  18. High-resolution scanning Hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallen, Hans D.; Hess, H. F.; Chang, A. M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Mitzi, David B.

    1993-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Hall probe microscope is used to spatially resolve vortices in high temperature superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+(delta) crystals. We observe a partially ordered vortex lattice at several different applied magnetic fields and temperatures. At higher temperatures, a limited amount of vortex re-arrangement is observed, but most vortices remain fixed for periods long compared to the imaging time of several hours even at temperatures as high as 75 degree(s)K (the superconducting transition temperature for these crystals is approximately 84 degree(s)K). A measure of these local magnetic penetration depth can be obtained from a fit to the surface field of several neighboring vortices, and has been measured as a function of temperature. In particular, we have measured the zero temperature penetration depth and found it to be 275 +/- 40 nm.

  19. Cyclotron resonance of interacting quantum Hall droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, M.; Merkt, U.; Cortés, M.; Häusler, W.; Eberl, K.

    1998-06-01

    The line shape and position of cyclotron resonance in gated GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunctions with δ-doped layers of negatively charged beryllium acceptors, that provide strong potential fluctuations in the channels of the quasi-two-dimensional electron systems, are examined. Specifically, the magnetic quantum limit is considered when the electrons are localized in separate quantum Hall droplets in the valleys of the disorder potential. A model treating disorder and electron-electron interaction on an equal footing accounts for all of the principal experimental findings: blue shifts from the unperturbed cyclotron frequency that decrease when the electron density is reduced, surprisingly narrow lines in the magnetic quantum limit, and asymmetric lines due to additional oscillator strength on their high-frequency sides.

  20. Tuning energy relaxation along quantum Hall channels.

    PubMed

    Altimiras, C; le Sueur, H; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Mailly, D; Pierre, F

    2010-11-26

    The chiral edge channels in the quantum Hall regime are considered ideal ballistic quantum channels, and have quantum information processing potentialities. Here, we demonstrate experimentally, at a filling factor of ν(L)=2, the efficient tuning of the energy relaxation that limits quantum coherence and permits the return toward equilibrium. Energy relaxation along an edge channel is controllably enhanced by increasing its transmission toward a floating Ohmic contact, in quantitative agreement with predictions. Moreover, by forming a closed inner edge channel loop, we freeze energy exchanges in the outer channel. This result also elucidates the inelastic mechanisms at work at ν(L)=2, informing us, in particular, that those within the outer edge channel are negligible.

  1. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-06-01

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.

  2. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Moll, Philip; Kushwaha, Pallavi; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; MacKenzie, Andrew; Moore, Joel

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong electron-electron scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory for which bounds on diffusion were conjectured based on an holographic correspondence. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry can lead to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity which has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  3. Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P; Moore, Joel E

    2017-06-02

    In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.

  4. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Hall Thruster Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year, NASA/BMDO-sponsored experimental program to conduct performance and plume plasma property measurements on two Russian Stationary Plasma Thrusters (SPTs) has been completed. The program utilized experimental facilitates at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL). The main features of the proposed effort were as follows: We Characterized Hall thruster [and arcjet] performance by measuring ion exhaust velocity with probes at various thruster conditions. Used a variety of probe diagnostics in the thruster plume to measure plasma properties and flow properties including T(sub e) and n(sub e), ion current density and ion energy distribution, and electric fields by mapping plasma potential. Used emission spectroscopy to identify species within the plume and to measure electron temperatures.

  6. Classical Hall Effect without Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Nicholas; Tao, Chiao-Yu; Schuster, David; Nagel, Sidney

    We show that the sign and density of charge carriers in a material can be obtained without the presence of a magnetic field. This effect, analogous to the classical Hall effect, is due solely to the geometry of the current-carrying wire. When current flows, surface charges along the wire create small electric fields that direct the current to follow the path of the conductor. In a curved wire, the charge carriers must experience a centripetal force, which arises from an electric field perpendicular to the drift velocity. This electric field produces a potential difference between the sides of the wire that depends on the sign and density of the charge carriers. We experimentally investigate circuits made from superconductors or graphene to find evidence for this effect.

  7. Hall effect in a moving liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lieto, Alberto; Giuliano, Alessia; Maccarrone, Francesco; Paffuti, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment, suitable for performing in an undergraduate physics laboratory, illustrates electromagnetic induction through the water entering into a cylindrical rubber tube by detecting the voltage developed across the tube in the direction transverse both to the flow velocity and to the magnetic field. The apparatus is a very simple example of an electromagnetic flowmeter, a device which is commonly used both in industrial and physiological techniques. The phenomenology observed is similar to that of the Hall effect in the absence of an electric current in the direction of motion of the carriers. The experimental results show a dependence on the intensity of the magnetic field and on the carrier velocity, in good agreement with the theory. Discussion of the system, based on classical electromagnetism, indicates that the effect depends only on the flow rate, and is independent both of the velocity profile and of the electrical conductivity of the medium.

  8. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of −, and Rashba heavy hole instead of −. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity. PMID:26689260

  9. Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.

  10. 50 KW Class Krypton Hall Thruster Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a 50-kilowatt-class Hall thruster designed for operation on xenon propellant was measured using kryton propellant. The thruster was operated at discharge power levels ranging from 6.4 to 72.5 kilowatts. The device produced thrust ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 newtons. The thruster was operated at discharge voltages between 250 and 1000 volts. At the highest anode mass flow rate and discharge voltage and assuming a 100 percent singly charged condition, the discharge specific impulse approached the theoretical value. Discharge specific impulse of 4500 seconds was demonstrated at a discharge voltage of 1000 volts. The peak discharge efficiency was 64 percent at 650 volts.

  11. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  12. Spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Masashige; Sigrist, Manfred

    2001-08-01

    In a chiral superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry a ``spontaneous Hall effect'' may be observed. We analyze this phenomenon by taking into account the surface properties of a chiral superconductor. We identify two main contributions to the spontaneous Hall effect. One contribution originates from the Bernoulli (or Lorentz) force due to spontaneous currents running along the surfaces of the superconductor. The other contribution has a topological origin and is related to the intrinsic angular momentum of Cooper pairs. The latter can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons-like term in the low-energy field theory of the superconductor and has some similarities with the quantum Hall effect. The spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral superconductor is, however, nonuniversal. Our analysis is based on three approaches to the problem: a self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory, and a hydrodynamic formulation. All three methods consistently lead to the same conclusion that the spontaneous Hall resistance of a two-dimensional superconducting Hall bar is of order h/(ekFλ)2, where kF is the Fermi wave vector and λ is the London penetration depth; the Hall resistance is substantially suppressed from a quantum unit of resistance. Experimental issues in measuring this effect are briefly discussed.

  13. The shear-Hall instability in newborn neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondić, T.; Rüdiger, G.; Hollerbach, R.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: In the first few minutes of a newborn neutron star's life the Hall effect and differential rotation may both be important. We demonstrate that these two ingredients are sufficient for generating a "shear-Hall instability" and for studying its excitation conditions, growth rates, and characteristic magnetic field patterns. Methods: We numerically solve the induction equation in a spherical shell, with a kinematically prescribed differential rotation profile Ω(s), where s is the cylindrical radius. The Hall term is linearized about an imposed uniform axial field. The linear stability of individual azimuthal modes, both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric, is then investigated. Results: For the shear-Hall instability to occur, the axial field must be parallel to the rotation axis if Ω(s) decreases outward, whereas if Ω(s) increases outward it must be anti-parallel. The instability draws its energy from the differential rotation, and occurs on the short rotational timescale rather than on the much longer Hall timescale. It operates most efficiently if the Hall time is comparable to the diffusion time. Depending on the precise field strengths B0, either axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric modes may be the most unstable. Conclusions: Even if the differential rotation in newborn neutron stars is quenched within minutes, the shear-Hall instability may nevertheless amplify any seed magnetic fields by many orders of magnitude.

  14. Kelvin-Helmholtz versus Hall magnetoshear instability in astrophysical flows.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniel O; Bejarano, Cecilia; Mininni, Pablo D

    2014-05-01

    We study the stability of shear flows in a fully ionized plasma. Kelvin-Helmholtz is a well-known macroscopic and ideal shear-driven instability. In sufficiently low-density plasmas, also the microscopic Hall magnetoshear instability can take place. We performed three-dimensional simulations of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic equations where these two instabilities are present, and carried out a comparative study. We find that when the shear flow is so intense that its vorticity surpasses the ion-cyclotron frequency of the plasma, the Hall magnetoshear instability is not only non-negligible, but it actually displays growth rates larger than those of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  15. Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2014-10-13

    The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.

  16. Magnet/Hall-Effect Random-Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed magnet/Hall-effect random-access memory (MHRAM), bits of data stored magnetically in Perm-alloy (or equivalent)-film memory elements and read out by using Hall-effect sensors to detect magnetization. Value of each bit represented by polarity of magnetization. Retains data for indefinite time or until data rewritten. Speed of Hall-effect sensors in MHRAM results in readout times of about 100 nanoseconds. Other characteristics include high immunity to ionizing radiation and storage densities of order 10(Sup6)bits/cm(Sup 2) or more.

  17. Properties of Nonabelian Quantum Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    The quantum statistics of particles refers to the behavior of a multiparticle wavefunction under adiabatic interchange of two identical particles. While a three dimensional world affords the possibilities of Bosons or Fermions, the two dimensional world has more exotic possibilities such as Fractional and Nonabelian statistics (J. Frölich, in ``Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory", ed, G. t'Hooft. 1988). The latter is perhaps the most interesting where the wavefunction obeys a ``nonabelian'' representation of the braid group - meaning that braiding A around B then B around C is not the same as braiding B around C then A around B. This property enables one to think about using these exotic systems for robust topological quantum computation (M. Freedman, A. Kitaev, et al, Bull Am Math Soc 40, 31 (2003)). Surprisingly, it is thought that quasiparticles excitations with such nonabelian statistics may actually exist in certain quantum Hall states that have already been observed. The most likely such candidate is the quantum Hall ν=5/2 state(R. L. Willett et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1776-1779 (1987)), thought to be a so-called Moore-Read Pfaffian state(G. Moore and N. Read, Nucl Phys. B360 362 (1991)), which can be thought of as a p-wave paired superconducting state of composite fermions(M. Greiter, X. G. Wen, and F. Wilczek, PRL 66, 3205 (1991)). Using this superconducting analogy, we use a Chern-Simons field theory approach to make a number of predictions as to what experimental signatures one should expect for this state if it really is this Moore-Read state(K. Foster, N. Bonesteel, and S. H. Simon, PRL 91 046804 (2003)). We will then discuss how the nonabelian statistics can be explored in detail using a quantum monte-carlo approach (Y. Tserkovnyak and S. H. Simon, PRL 90 106802 (2003)), (I. Finkler, Y. Tserkovnyak, and S. H. Simon, work in progress.) that allows one to explicitly drag one particle around another and observe the change in the wavefunctions

  18. Direct Drive Hall Thruster System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoskins, W. Andrew; Homiak, Daniel; Cassady, R. Joseph; Kerslake, Tom; Peterson, Todd; Ferguson, Dale; Snyder, Dave; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Schneider, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The sta:us of development of a Direct Drive Ha!! Thruster System is presented. 13 the first part. a s:udy of the impacts to spacecraft systems and mass benefits of a direct-drive architecture is reviewed. The study initially examines four cases of SPT-100 and BPT-4000 Hall thrusters used for north-south station keeping on an EXPRESS-like geosynchronous spacecraft and for primary propulsion for a Deep Space- 1 based science spacecraft. The study is also extended the impact of direct drive on orbit raising for higher power geosynchronous spacecraft and on other deep space missions as a function of power and delta velocity. The major system considerations for accommodating a direct drive Hall thruster are discussed, including array regulation, system grounding, distribution of power to the spacecraft bus, and interactions between current-voltage characteristics for the arrays and thrusters. The mass benefit analysis shows that, for the initial cases, up to 42 kg of dry mass savings is attributable directly to changes in the propulsion hardware. When projected mass impacts of operating the arrays and the electric power system at 300V are included, up to 63 kg is saved for the four initial cases. Adoption of high voltage lithium ion battery technology is projected to further improve these savings. Orbit raising of higher powered geosynchronous spacecraft, is the mission for which direct drive provides the most benefit, allowing higher efficiency electric orbit raising to be accomplished in a limited period of time, as well as nearly eliminating significant power processing heat rejection mass. The total increase in useful payload to orbit ranges up to 278 kg for a 25 kW spacecraft, launched from an Atlas IIA. For deep space missions, direct drive is found to be most applicable to higher power missions with delta velocities up to several km/s , typical of several Discovery-class missions. In the second part, the status of development of direct drive propulsion power

  19. BOILING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  2. View of attic space above the former Gothic Hall Banquet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of attic space above the former Gothic Hall Banquet Room. The monitors originally conveyed light from roof skylights (no longer extant) into the room below. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 8. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM OF THREE FIGURES IN BOLD RELIEF ABOVE FIREPLACE - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  5. 9. Front door, central hall interior view, cross and open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Front door, central hall interior view, cross and open bible configuration, with transom and sidelights, facing south. - Landers-Cain House, 915 Pleasant Hill Road, Lawrenceville, Gwinnett County, GA

  6. Batch-fabricated high-performance graphene Hall elements

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Shi, Runbo; Liu, Honggang; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2013-01-01

    Hall elements are by far the most widely used magnetic sensor. In general, the higher the mobility and the thinner the active region of the semiconductor used, the better the Hall device. While most common magnetic field sensors are Si-based Hall sensors, devices made from III-V compounds tend to favor over that based on Si. However these devices are more expensive and difficult to manufacture than Si, and hard to be integrated with signal-processing circuits for extending function and enforcing performance. In this article we show that graphene is intrinsically an ideal material for Hall elements which may harness the remarkable properties of graphene, i.e. extremely high carrier mobility and atomically thin active body, to create ideal magnetic sensors with high sensitivity, excellent linearity and remarkable thermal stability. PMID:23383375

  7. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR ENTRY HALL, DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR ENTRY HALL, DOOR TO LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM AT RIGHT, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, ELECTRONIC FLASH ILLUMINATION. - Le Fevre House, 1444 Moore, Campbell, Santa Clara County, CA

  8. 37. Hall of Dwing looking to cafeteria doors at end, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Hall of D-wing looking to cafeteria doors at end, from A-wing, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 9. Interior of Building 1009, view of central hall, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1009, view of central hall, looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1009, Essex Street, .68 mile South-southeast of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  10. 10. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY WITH DOOR PARTIALLY CLOSED TO SHOWS ITS RAISED PANEL CONSTRUCTION AND STRAP HINGES - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  11. 9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARDS FRONT ENTRY WITH OPEN DOORWAY TO WINDER STAIRWAY ON RIGHT - Open Gate Farm, House, Ridge Road, 1 mile East of Elephant Road, Perkasie, Bucks County, PA

  12. INTERIOR; VIEW OF ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Naval Computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; VIEW OF ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  14. 11. Interior view of former mess hall; showing closed doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of former mess hall; showing closed doorway to former food storage; near northwest corner of building on main floor; view to east. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Mess & Administration Building, 1561 Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  15. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. 36. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF MAIN STAIR HALL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF MAIN STAIR HALL SHOWING STAIRWAY, NORTH SCULPTURE PANEL, AND CEILING VAULT; LOOKING NORTHEAST (Harms & Wieskamp) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  17. Nonlinear excitation of long-wavelength modes in Hall plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    Hall plasmas with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions exhibit a wide range of small scale fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range as well as low-frequency large scale modes. Modulational instability of lower-hybrid frequency modes is investigated in this work for typical conditions in Hall plasma devices such as magnetrons and Hall thrusters. In these conditions, the dispersion of the waves in the lower-hybrid frequency range propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field is due to the gradients of the magnetic field and the plasma density. It is shown that such lower-hybrid modes are unstable with respect to the secondary instability of the large scale quasimode perturbations. It is suggested that the large scale slow coherent modes observed in a number of Hall plasma devices may be explained as a result of such secondary instabilities.

  18. 50. THIRD FLOOR, HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Note ceiling extends down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. THIRD FLOOR, HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Note ceiling extends down over window case and exterior frieze extends halfway down top light of sash - Robinson-Aiken House, 48 Elizabeth Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  19. Measuring the Hall weighting function for square and cloverleaf geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherschligt, Julia K.; Koon, Daniel W.

    2000-02-01

    We have directly measured the Hall weighting function—the sensitivity of a four-wire Hall measurement to the position of macroscopic inhomogeneities in Hall angle—for both a square shaped and a cloverleaf specimen. Comparison with the measured resistivity weighting function for a square geometry [D. W. Koon and W. K. Chan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 12 (1998)] proves that the two measurements sample the same specimen differently. For Hall measurements on both a square and a cloverleaf, the function is nonnegative with its maximum in the center and its minimum of zero at the edges of the square. Converting a square into a cloverleaf is shown to dramatically focus the measurement process onto a much smaller portion of the specimen. While our results agree qualitatively with theory, details are washed out, owing to the finite size of the magnetic probe used.

  20. What do you measure when you measure the Hall effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Knickerbocker, C. J.

    1993-02-01

    A formalism for calculating the sensitivity of Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities of the sample material or the magnetic field is developed. This Hall weighting function g(x,y) is calculated for various placements of current and voltage probes on square and circular laminar samples. Unlike the resistivity weighting function, it is nonnegative throughout the entire sample, provided all probes lie at the edge of the sample. Singularities arise in the Hall weighting function near the current and voltage probes except in the case where these probes are located at the corners of a square. Implications of the results for cross, clover, and bridge samples, and the implications of our results for metal-insulator transition and quantum Hall studies are discussed.

  1. 13. OBSERVATION HALL ALONG WEST SIDE. DOUBLE DOORS LEAD TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBSERVATION HALL ALONG WEST SIDE. DOUBLE DOORS LEAD TO MAIN ROOM. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 14. OBSERVATION HALL ALONG WEST SIDE. Looking south to escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OBSERVATION HALL ALONG WEST SIDE. Looking south to escape ladder. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Observation hall along west side. Looking south to escape ladder. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Observation hall along west side. Looking south to escape ladder. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Instrumentation & Control Building, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 21. INTERIOR, DOUBLE STAIRWAY LEADING TO MODEL HALL, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR, DOUBLE STAIRWAY LEADING TO MODEL HALL, DETAIL OF ONE FLIGHT (5 x 7 negative; 8 x 10 print) - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 18. VIEW OF STAIRCASE LEADING TO SOCIAL HALL ON CABIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF STAIRCASE LEADING TO SOCIAL HALL ON CABIN (POOP) DECK, LOCATED IN CENTER OF FORWARD END OF DINING SALOON - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. DETAIL OF ENTRY HALL AND STAIR ON SOUTH SIDE, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ENTRY HALL AND STAIR ON SOUTH SIDE, VIEW FACING NORTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Telephone Exchange, Coral Sea Road north of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note Boardman Roberts's painting, Great Codifers of Law) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, VIEW SHOWING MAIN STAIRWAY AND ENTRY HALL THROUGH ENTRY INTO PARLOR. TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PARLOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Farquhar House, 1601 Sandy Spring Road (Route 108), Sandy Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. Interior view of entry hall in Communication Center (now Break ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of entry hall in Communication Center (now Break Room and Storage Area), facing north - MacDill Air Force Base, Fire & Guard House, 2709 Florida Keys Avenue, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  10. 40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSEPARSONS TURBINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT WESTINGHOUSE-PARSONS TURBINE NUMBER 2. THIS UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1925. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. TURBINE HALL, UNIT 2 SHOWING BOTH TURBINE AND CONDENSER (SEE ALSO, DRAWING No. 12 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  12. Quantum Hall Ferroelectrics and Nematics in Multivalley Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, Inti; Zhu, Zheng; Fu, Liang

    2017-10-01

    We study broken symmetry states at integer Landau-level fillings in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low-energy dispersions are anisotropic. When the Fermi surface of individual pockets lacks twofold rotational symmetry, like in bismuth (111) [Feldman et al. , Observation of a Nematic Quantum Hall Liquid on the Surface of Bismuth, Science 354, 316 (2016), 10.1126/science.aag1715] and in Sn1 -xPbxSe (001) [Dziawa et al., Topological Crystalline Insulator States in Pb1 -xSnxSe , Nat. Mater. 11, 1023 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3449] surfaces, interactions tend to drive the formation of quantum Hall ferroelectric states. We demonstrate that the dipole moment in these states has an intimate relation to the Fermi surface geometry of the parent metal. In quantum Hall nematic states, like those arising in AlAs quantum wells, we demonstrate the existence of unusually robust Skyrmion quasiparticles.

  13. VIEW OF DINING ROOM DOORWAY, FIRST FLOOR HALL, LIVING ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DINING ROOM DOORWAY, FIRST FLOOR HALL, LIVING ROOM DOORWAY, AND FIREPLACE OF PAULINE KILKER HOUSE, FACING EAST. - Pauline Kilker House, 1410 North Lincoln Avenue-3300 West Laurel Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL OF PAULINE KILKER HOUSE SHOWING ARCHED OPENING IN FOREGROUND, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Pauline Kilker House, 1410 North Lincoln Avenue-3300 West Laurel Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  15. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR HALL AND STAIRS LEADING TO SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR HALL AND STAIRS LEADING TO SECOND FLOOR OF PAULINE KILKER HOUSE, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Pauline Kilker House, 1410 North Lincoln Avenue-3300 West Laurel Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  16. VIEW OF NORTH WALL OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH WALL OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL OF PAULINE KILKER HOUSE SHOWING DETAIL OF CLOSET DOOR, FACING NORTH. - Pauline Kilker House, 1410 North Lincoln Avenue-3300 West Laurel Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  17. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Town Hall - Panel question and

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-02

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Town Hall - Panel question and answer - Bill Ochs; Dr. John Mather; Dr. Eric Smith; Thomas Zurbuchen; Center Director Chris Scolese; NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden.

  18. Basement hall under the northeast part of the building. Live ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement hall under the northeast part of the building. Live animal cages and dissection rooms are to the right. Note concrete footings. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. West room, second floor. View looking southeast. Center hall visible through doorway. - Fort Hill Farm, Mansion, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  1. 31. HALL INTERIOR SHOWING SINGLE FRENCH DOOR TO NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. HALL INTERIOR SHOWING SINGLE FRENCH DOOR TO NORTH SIDE SCREENED PORCH, AND TRAP-DOOR ACCESS TO ATTIC. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  2. 261. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES HALL AT 1718, NORTH FRONT AND EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    261. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES HALL AT 1718, NORTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, TOWARD SOUTHWEST, RUSSELL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (RUSSELL APARTMENTS) IN BACKGROUND - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. 20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF SOUTHERN ROOM. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD HALL CONNECTING WITH CENTRAL ROOM. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. Quantum Hall bilayer as pseudospin magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriienko, O.; Wierschem, K.; Sengupta, P.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2015-03-01

    We revisit the physics of electron gas bilayers in the quantum Hall regime (MacDonald A. and Eisenstein J., Nature, 432 (2004) 691; Eisenstein J., Science, 305 (2004) 950), where transport and tunneling measurements provided evidence of a superfluid phase being present in the system. Previously, this behavior was explained by the possible formation of a BEC of excitons in the half-filled electron bilayers, where empty states play the role of holes. We discuss the fundamental difficulties with this scenario, and propose an alternative approach based on a treatment of the system as a pseudospin magnet. We show that the experimentally observed tunneling peak can be linked to the XY ferromagnet (FM) to Ising antiferromagnet (AFM) phase transition of the S = 1/2 XXZ pseudospin model, driven by the change in total electron density. This transition is accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the low-energy spin wave dispersion from a gapless linear mode in the XY-FM phase to a gapped, quadratic mode in the Ising AFM phase.

  5. Acoustics in Halls for Speech and Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Anders C.

    This chapter deals specifically with concepts, tools, and architectural variables of importance when designing auditoria for speech and music. The focus will be on cultivating the useful components of the sound in the room rather than on avoiding noise from outside or from installations, which is dealt with in Chap. 11. The chapter starts by presenting the subjective aspects of the room acoustic experience according to consensus at the time of writing. Then follows a description of their objective counterparts, the objective room acoustic parameters, among which the classical reverberation time measure is only one of many, but still of fundamental value. After explanations on how these parameters can be measured and predicted during the design phase, the remainder of the chapter deals with how the acoustic properties can be controlled by the architectural design of auditoria. This is done by presenting the influence of individual design elements as well as brief descriptions of halls designed for specific purposes, such as drama, opera, and symphonic concerts. Finally, some important aspects of loudspeaker installations in auditoria are briefly touched upon.

  6. Geometric construction of quantum hall clustering Hamiltonians

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Ching Hua; Papić, Zlatko; Thomale, Ronny

    2015-10-08

    In this study, many fractional quantum Hall wave functions are known to be unique highest-density zero modes of certain “pseudopotential” Hamiltonians. While a systematic method to construct such parent Hamiltonians has been available for the infinite plane and sphere geometries, the generalization to manifolds where relative angular momentum is not an exact quantum number, i.e., the cylinder or torus, remains an open problem. This is particularly true for non-Abelian states, such as the Read-Rezayi series (in particular, the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi Z 3 states) and more exotic nonunitary (Haldane-Rezayi and Gaffnian) or irrational (Haffnian) states, whose parent Hamiltonians involve complicatedmore » many-body interactions. Here, we develop a universal geometric approach for constructing pseudopotential Hamiltonians that is applicable to all geometries. Our method straightforwardly generalizes to the multicomponent SU(n) cases with a combination of spin or pseudospin (layer, subband, or valley) degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the utility of our approach through several examples, some of which involve non-Abelian multicomponent states whose parent Hamiltonians were previously unknown, and we verify the results by numerically computing their entanglement properties.« less

  7. Evaluation of Low Power Hall Thruster Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David; Oleson, Steve; Sankovic, John; Haag, Tom; Semenkin, Alexander; Kim, Vladimir

    1996-01-01

    Hall thruster systems based on the SPT-50 and the TAL D-38 were evaluated and mission studies were performed. The 0.3 kilowatt SPT-50 operated with a specific impulse of 1160 seconds and an efficiency of 0.32. The 0.8 kilowatt D-38 provided a specific impulse above 1700 seconds at an efficiency of 0.5. The D-38 system was shown to offer a 56 kilogram propulsion system mass savings over a 101 kilogram hydrazine monopropellant system designed to perform North-South station keeping maneuvers on board a 430 kilogram geostationary satellite. The SPIT-50 system offered a greater than 50% propulsion system mass reduction in comparison to the chemical system on board a 200 kilogram low Earth orbit spacecraft performing two orbit raises and drag makeup over two years. The performance characteristics of the SPF-50 were experimentally evaluated at a number of operating conditions. The ion current density distribution of this engine was measured. The performance and system mass benefits of advanced systems based on both engines were considered.

  8. 6D fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tizzano, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    We present a 6D generalization of the fractional quantum Hall effect involving membranes coupled to a three-form potential in the presence of a large background four-form flux. The low energy physics is governed by a bulk 7D topological field theory of abelian three-form potentials with a single derivative Chern-Simons-like action coupled to a 6D anti-chiral theory of Euclidean effective strings. We derive the fractional conductivity, and explain how continued fractions which figure prominently in the classification of 6D superconformal field theories correspond to a hierarchy of excited states. Using methods from conformal field theory we also compute the analog of the Laughlin wavefunction. Compactification of the 7D theory provides a uniform perspective on various lower-dimensional gapped systems coupled to boundary degrees of freedom. We also show that a supersymmetric version of the 7D theory embeds in M-theory, and can be decoupled from gravity. Encouraged by this, we present a conjecture in which IIB string theory is an edge mode of a 10 + 2-dimensional bulk topological theory, thus placing all twelve dimensions of F-theory on a physical footing.

  9. Following the Path Blazed by Jan Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollberg, Leo

    It was a great pleasure to gather with friends in August 2004 for the symposium honoring Jan Hall and celebrating his 70th birthday, and this book provides a unique opportunity to record some words commemorating Jan's incredible contributions to science and to our lives. At best, my recollections are a faded, myopic snapshot of some events that come to mind after many years of association with Jan. Reflecting on the years that have passed since I first entered Jan's lab, I see that many things have changed, technology has advanced (mostly for the better), the world has evolved in dramatic and significant ways (some good and some not), and I have grown older (but unfortunately not wiser as one might have hoped). Nonetheless, after many years, I find myself still following the path pointed out by Jan's visions and investing most of my productive time and energy working as a scientist trying to get atoms, lasers, electronics, (and the institutional bureaucracy that comes along with them) to work in some kind of harmony…

  10. High-performance LED luminaire for sports hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.

  11. Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.

  12. Microwave Interferometry (90 GHz) for Hall Thruster Plume Density Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Hall thruster . The interferometer has been modified to overcome initial difficulties encountered during the preliminary testing. The modifications include the ability to perform remote and automated calibrations as well as an aluminum enclosure to shield the interferometer from the Hall thruster plume. With these modifications, it will be possible to make unambiguous electron density measurements of the thruster plume as well as to rapidly and automatically calibrate the interferometer to eliminate the effects of signal drift. Due to the versatility

  13. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  14. The Hall Effect in Hydrided Rare Earth Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Clark, N.

    We describe two new techniques for measuring the Hall effect in capped rare earth films during hydriding. In one, we simultaneously measure resistivity and the Hall coefficient for a rare earth film covered with four different thicknesses of Pd, recovering the charge transport quantities for both materials. In the second technique, we replace Pd with Mn as the covering layer. We will present results from both techniques.

  15. Hall-effect Thruster Channel Surface Properties Investigation (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Hall-effect Thruster Channel Surface Properties Investigation 5b...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For publication in the AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power. 14. ABSTRACT Surface properties of Hall-effect thruster...incorporated into thruster simulations, and these models must account for evolution of channel surface properties due to thruster operation. Results from

  16. New pathways towards efficient metallic spin Hall spintronics

    DOE PAGES

    Jungfleisch, Matthias Benjamin; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Wanjun; ...

    2015-11-16

    Spin Hall effects (SHEs) interconvert spin- and charge currents due to spin- orbit interaction, which enables convenient electrical generation and detection of diffusive spin currents and even collective spin excitations in magnetic solids. Here, we review recent experimental efforts exploring efficient spin Hall detector materials as well as new approaches to drive collective magnetization dynamics and to manipulate spin textures by SHEs. As a result, these studies are also expected to impact practical spintronics applications beyond their significance in fundamental research.

  17. Group Γ (2) and the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgelin, Yvon; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    1997-02-01

    We analyze the action of the inhomogeneous modular group Γ (2) on the three cusps of its principal fundamental domain in the Poincaré half plane. From this, we obtain an exhaustive classification of the fractional quantum Hall numbers. This classification, in which the integer and the fractional states appear on an equal level, is somehow similar to the one given by Jain. We also present some resulting remarks concerning direct phase transitions between the different quantum Hall states.

  18. 2. EXTERIOR OF RUSIN HALL, THE ONLY STRUCTURE TO PREDATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF RUSIN HALL, THE ONLY STRUCTURE TO PRE-DATED THE WORLD WAR II EXPANSION THAT LED TO THE DEMOLITION OF THE FIRST WARD OF HOMESTEAD, AN AREA KNOWN AS BELOW THE TRACKS. THE BUILDING WAS ORIGINALLY BUILT AS A FRATERNAL HALL FOR RUTHENIAN IMMIGRANTS BY THE RUSSKY-NARODNY-DOM, INC. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  19. AGU Position Statements Addressed at Fall Meeting Town Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The AGU Outreach Committee and Public Affairs staff held a town hall at the 2012 Fall Meeting to discuss AGU position statements. The town hall, "AGU Position Statements: Announcing New Submission and Review Methods," held on Monday, 3 December, provided background on AGU position statements, recent changes to the review and writing processes, updates on statements under revision, and ways for members to utilize and impact position statements.

  20. Study of electron transport in a Hall thruster by axial–radial fully kinetic particle simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Shinatora, E-mail: choh.shinatora@jaxa.jp; Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh

    2015-10-15

    Electron transport across a magnetic field in a magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster was numerically investigated for the future predictive modeling of Hall thrusters. The discharge of a 1-kW-class magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster designed for high-specific-impulse operation was modeled using an r-z two-dimensional fully kinetic particle code with and without artificial electron-diffusion models. The thruster performance results showed that both electron transport models captured the experimental result within discrepancies less than 20% in thrust and discharge current for all the simulated operation conditions. The electron cross-field transport mechanism of the so-called anomalous diffusion was self-consistently observed in the simulation without artificial diffusion models;more » the effective electron mobility was two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained using the classical diffusion theory. To account for the self-consistently observed anomalous transport, the oscillation of plasma properties was speculated. It was suggested that the enhanced random-walk diffusion due to the velocity oscillation of low-frequency electron flow could explain the observed anomalous diffusion within an order of magnitude. The dominant oscillation mode of the electron flow velocity was found to be 20 kHz, which was coupled to electrostatic oscillation excited by global ionization instability.« less

  1. A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.

  2. Giant Hall Photoconductivity in Narrow-Gapped Dirac Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Justin C. W.; Kats, Mikhail A.

    2016-12-01

    Carrier dynamics acquire a new character in the presence of Bloch-band Berry curvature, which naturally arises in gapped Dirac materials (GDMs). Here we argue that photoresponse in GDMs with small band gaps is dramatically enhanced by Berry curvature. This manifests in a giant and saturable Hall photoconductivity when illuminated by circularly polarized light. Unlike Hall motion arising from a Lorentz force in a magnetic field, which impedes longitudinal carrier motion, Hall photoconductivity arising from Berry curvature can boost longitudinal carrier transport. In GDMs, this results in a helicity-dependent photoresponse in the Hall regime, where photoconductivity is dominated by its Hall component. We find that the induced Hall conductivity per incident irradiance is enhanced by up to six orders of magnitude when moving from the visible regime (with corresponding band gaps) to the far infrared. These results suggest that narrow-gap GDMs are an ideal test-bed for the unique physics that arise in the presence of Berry curvature, and open a new avenue for infrared and terahertz optoelectronics.

  3. Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).

  4. Magnetometry of micro-magnets with electrostatically defined Hall bars

    SciTech Connect

    Lachance-Quirion, Dany; Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Bergeron, Laurent

    2015-11-30

    Micro-magnets are key components for quantum information processing with individual spins, enabling arbitrary rotations and addressability. In this work, characterization of sub-micrometer sized CoFe ferromagnets is performed with Hall bars electrostatically defined in a two-dimensional electron gas. Due to the ballistic nature of electron transport in the cross junction of the Hall bar, anomalies such as the quenched Hall effect appear near zero external magnetic field, thus hindering the sensitivity of the magnetometer to small magnetic fields. However, it is shown that the sensitivity of the diffusive limit can be almost completely restored at low temperatures using a large currentmore » density in the Hall bar of about 10 A/m. Overcoming the size limitation of conventional etched Hall bars with electrostatic gating enables the measurement of magnetization curves of 440 nm wide micro-magnets with a signal-to-noise ratio above 10{sup 3}. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity of the stray magnetic field created by the micro-magnets is directly measured using the gate-voltage-dependent width of the sensitive area of the Hall bar.« less

  5. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  6. Calculated organ doses for Mayak production association central hall using ICRP and MCNP.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Ok; Shelkey, Brenda N; Wilde, Justin L; Walk, Heidi A; Slaughter, David M

    2003-03-01

    As part of an ongoing dose reconstruction project, equivalent organ dose rates from photons and neutrons were estimated using the energy spectra measured in the central hall above the graphite reactor core located in the Russian Mayak Production Association facility. Reconstruction of the work environment was necessary due to the lack of personal dosimeter data for neutrons in the time period prior to 1987. A typical worker scenario for the central hall was developed for the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon-4B (MCNP) code. The resultant equivalent dose rates for neutrons and photons were compared with the equivalent dose rates derived from calculations using the conversion coefficients in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publications 51 and 74 in order to validate the model scenario for this Russian facility. The MCNP results were in good agreement with the results of the ICRP publications indicating the modeling scenario was consistent with actual work conditions given the spectra provided. The MCNP code will allow for additional orientations to accurately reflect source locations.

  7. Numerical analysis of Hall effect on the performance of magnetohydrodynamic heat shield system based on nonequilibrium Hall parameter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat shield system, a novel thermal protection technique in the hypersonic field, has been paid much attention in recent years. In the real flight condition, not only the Lorentz force but also the Hall electric field is induced by the interaction between ionized air post shock and magnetic field. In order to analyze the action mechanisms of the Hall effect, numerical methods of coupling thermochemical nonequilibrium flow field with externally applied magnetic field as well as the induced electric field are constructed and validated. Based on the nonequilibrium model of Hall parameter, numerical simulations of the MHD heat shield system is conducted under two different magnetic induction strengths (B0=0.2 T, 0.5 T) on a reentry capsule forebody. Results show that, the Hall effect is the same under the two magnetic induction strengths when the wall is assumed to be conductive. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the Lorentz force counter stream diminishes a lot and the circumferential component dominates, resulting that the heat flux and shock-off distance approach the case without MHD control. However, for the insulating wall, the Hall effect acts in different ways under these two magnetic induction strengths. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the performance of MHD heat shield system approaches the case neglecting the Hall effect when B0 equals 0.2 T. Such performance becomes worse when B0 equals 0.5 T and the aerothermal environment on the capsule shoulder is even worse than the case without MHD control.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  9. Thermos reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Labrousse, M.; Lerouge, B.; Dupuy, G.

    1978-04-01

    THERMOS is a water reactor designed to provide hot water up to 120/sup 0/C for district heating or for desalination applications. It is a 100-MW reactor based on proven technology: oxide fuel plate elements, integrated primary circuit, and reactor vessel located in the bottom of a pool. As in swimming pool reactors, the pool is used for biological shielding, emergency core cooling, and fission product filtering (in case of an accident). Before economics, safety is the main characteristic of the concept: no fuel failure admitted, core under water in any accidental configuration, inspection of every ''nuclear'' component, and double-wall containment.

  10. Concert halls with strong lateral reflections enhance musical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Robinson, Philip W; Lokki, Tapio

    2014-03-25

    One of the most thrilling cultural experiences is to hear live symphony-orchestra music build up from a whispering passage to a monumental fortissimo. The impact of such a crescendo has been thought to depend only on the musicians' skill, but here we show that interactions between the concert-hall acoustics and listeners' hearing also play a major role in musical dynamics. These interactions contribute to the shoebox-type concert hall's established success, but little prior research has been devoted to dynamic expression in this three-part transmission chain as a complete system. More forceful orchestral playing disproportionately excites high frequency harmonics more than those near the note's fundamental. This effect results in not only more sound energy, but also a different tone color. The concert hall transmits this sound, and the room geometry defines from which directions acoustic reflections arrive at the listener. Binaural directional hearing emphasizes high frequencies more when sound arrives from the sides of the head rather than from the median plane. Simultaneously, these same frequencies are emphasized by higher orchestral-playing dynamics. When the room geometry provides reflections from these directions, the perceived dynamic range is enhanced. Current room-acoustic evaluation methods assume linear behavior and thus neglect this effect. The hypothesis presented here is that the auditory excitation by reflections is emphasized with an orchestra forte most in concert halls with strong lateral reflections. The enhanced dynamic range provides an explanation for the success of rectangularly shaped concert-hall geometry.

  11. Higher (odd) dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Kazuki

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S 2 k - 1 in the SO (2 k - 1) monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S 2 k - 1 to the one-dimension higher SO (2 k) gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.

  12. Coupling intensity between discharge and magnetic circuit in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqiu; Yang, Xinyong; Ding, Yongjie; Yu, Daren; Zhang, Chaohai

    2017-03-01

    Coupling oscillation is a newly discovered plasma oscillation mode that utilizes the coupling between the discharge circuit and magnetic circuit, whose oscillation frequency spectrum ranges from several kilohertz to megahertz. The coupling coefficient parameter represents the intensity of coupling between the discharge and magnetic circuits. According to previous studies, the coupling coefficient is related to the material and the cross-sectional area of the magnetic coils, and the magnetic circuit of the Hall thruster. However, in our recent study on coupling oscillations, it was found that the Hall current equivalent position and radius have important effects on the coupling intensity between the discharge and magnetic circuits. This causes a difference in the coupling coefficient for different operating conditions of Hall thrusters. Through non-intrusive methods for measuring the Hall current equivalent radius and the axial position, it is found that with an increase in the discharge voltage and magnetic field intensity, the Hall current equivalent radius increases and its axial position moves towards the exit plane. Thus, both the coupling coefficient and the coupling intensity between the discharge and magnetic circuits increase. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ion Beam Sources", edited by Holger Kersten and Horst Neumann.

  13. Suitable reverberation times for halls for rock and pop music.

    PubMed

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric R; Gade, Anders C

    2010-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of popular music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of 20 rock music venues in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers as expert listeners. Correlations between the measurements show that clarity, including bass frequencies down to 63 Hz, is important for the general impression of the acoustics of the hall. The best-rated halls in the study have reverberation times that are approximately frequency independent from 0.6 to 1.2 s for hall volumes from 1000 to 6000 m(3). The worst rated halls in the study had significantly higher reverberation times in the 63 and 125 Hz bands. Since most audiences at rock concerts are standing, absorption coefficients were measured with a standing audience from 63 Hz to 4 kHz. These measurements showed that a standing audience absorbs about five times as much energy in mid-/high-frequency bands as in low-frequency bands.

  14. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the American Public.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacy L

    2016-01-01

    In the final decades of the 19th century psychologist Granville Stanley Hall was among the most prominent pedagogical experts in the nation. The author explores Hall's carefully crafted persona as an educational expert, and his engagements with the American public, from 1880 to 1900, arguably the height of his influence. Drawing from accounts of Hall's lecture circuit in the popular press, a map of his talks across the nation is constructed to assess the geographic scope of his influence. These talks to educators on the psychology underlying childhood and pedagogy, and his views and research on child life more generally, were regularly discussed in newspapers and popular periodicals. The venues in which Hall's ideas were disseminated, discussed, and in some cases, dismissed are described. His efforts to mobilize popular support for, and assistance with, his research endeavors in child study are also discussed. Such efforts were controversial both within the burgeoning field of psychology and among the public. Through his various involvements in pedagogy, and concerted efforts to engage with the American public, Hall helped establish psychology's relevance to parenting and educational practices.

  15. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in-space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This paper describes the electrical configuration testing of the HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Center's Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined were 1) thruster body tied to facility ground, 2) thruster floating, and 3) thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The HERMeS TDU-1 Hall thruster was also configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  16. Remnant Geometric Hall Response in a Quantum Quench.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Justin H; Song, Justin C W; Refael, Gil

    2016-12-02

    Out-of-equilibrium systems can host phenomena that transcend the usual restrictions of equilibrium systems. Here, we unveil how out-of-equilibrium states, prepared via a quantum quench in a two-band system, can exhibit a nonzero Hall-type current-a remnant Hall response-even when the instantaneous Hamiltonian is time reversal symmetric (in contrast to equilibrium Hall currents). Interestingly, the remnant Hall response arises from the coherent dynamics of the wave function that retain a remnant of its quantum geometry postquench, and can be traced to processes beyond linear response. Quenches in two-band Dirac systems are natural venues for realizing remnant Hall currents, which exist when either mirror or time-reversal symmetry are broken (before or after the quench). Its long time persistence, sensitivity to symmetry breaking, and decoherence-type relaxation processes allow it to be used as a sensitive diagnostic of the complex out-of-equilibrium dynamics readily controlled and probed in cold-atomic optical lattice experiments.

  17. Perception of music dynamics in concert hall acoustics.

    PubMed

    Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array. By paired comparison, naive subjects selected the stimuli that they considered to change more during the music. Furthermore, the subjects described their foremost perceptual criteria for each selection. The most distinct perceptual factors differentiating the rendering of music dynamics between halls include the dynamic range, and varying width of sound and reverberance. The results confirm the hypothesis that the concert halls render the performed music dynamics differently, and with various perceptual aspects. The analysis against objective room acoustic parameters suggests that the perceived dynamic contrasts are pronounced by acoustics that provide stronger sound and more binaural incoherence by a lateral sound field. Concert halls that enhance the dynamics have been found earlier to elicit high subjective preference.

  18. Quantum Hall ferromagnets and transport properties of buckled Dirac materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenchen; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2015-10-01

    We study the ground states and low-energy excitations of a generic Dirac material with spin-orbit coupling and a buckling structure in the presence of a magnetic field. The ground states can be classified into three types under different conditions: SU(2), easy-plane, and Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets. For the SU(2) and the easy-plane quantum Hall ferromagnets there are goldstone modes in the collective excitations, while all the modes are gapped in an Ising-type ground state. We compare the Ising quantum Hall ferromagnet with that of bilayer graphene and present the domain-wall solution at finite temperatures. We then specify the phase transitions and transport gaps in silicene in Landau levels 0 and 1. The phase diagram depends strongly on the magnetic field and the dielectric constant. We note that there exist triple points in the phase diagrams in Landau level N =1 that could be observed in experiments.

  19. Hydrodynamic Model for Density Gradients Instability in Hall Plasmas Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhmander

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing interest for a correct understanding of purely growing electromagnetic and electrostatic instabilities driven by a plasma gradient in a Hall thruster devices. In Hall thrusters, which are typically operated with xenon, the thrust is provided by the acceleration of ions in the plasma generated in a discharge chamber. The goal of this paper is to study the instabilities due to gradients of plasma density and conditions for the growth rate and real part of the frequency for Hall thruster plasmas. Inhomogeneous plasmas prone a wide class of eigen modes induced by inhomogeneities of plasma density and called drift waves and instabilities. The growth rate of the instability has a dependences on the magnetic field, plasma density, ion temperature and wave numbers and initial drift velocities of the plasma species.

  20. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C., E-mail: christophe.chaubet@univ-montp2.fr

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In thismore » case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.« less

  1. Carl Gustav Jung and Granville Stanley Hall on Religious Experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae Young

    2016-08-01

    Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) with William James (1842-1910) is the key founder of psychology of religion movement and the first American experimental or genetic psychologist, and Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) is the founder of the analytical psychology concerned sympathetically about the religious dimension rooted in the human subject. Their fundamental works are mutually connected. Among other things, both Hall and Jung were deeply interested in how the study of religious experience is indispensable for the depth understanding of human subject. Nevertheless, except for the slight indication, this common interest between them has not yet been examined in academic research paper. So this paper aims to articulate preliminary evidence of affinities focusing on the locus and its function of the inner deep psychic dimension as the religious in the work of Hall and Jung.

  2. Nonequilibrium Fractional Hall Response After a Topological Quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Nur; Mueller, Erich; Oktel, M. O.

    When a system is suddenly driven between two topologically different phases, aspects of the original topology survive the quench, but most physical observables (edge currents, Hall conductivity) appear to be non-universal. I will present the non-equilibrium Hall response of a Chern insulator following a quench where the mass term of a single Dirac cone changes sign. In the limit where the physics is dominated by a single Dirac cone, we theoretically find that the Hall conductivity universally changes by two-thirds of the quantum of conductivity. I will analyze this universal behavior by considering the Haldane model, and discuss experimental aspects for its observation in cold atoms. This work is supported by TUBITAK, NSFPHY-1508300, ARO-MURI W9111NF-14-1-0003.

  3. Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James

    2016-01-01

    NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.

  4. Topological Phase Transitions in the Photonic Spin Hall Effect

    DOE PAGES

    Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior de Melo

    2017-10-04

    The recent synthesis of two-dimensional staggered materials opens up burgeoning opportunities to study optical spin-orbit interactions in semiconducting Dirac-like systems. In this work, we unveil topological phase transitions in the photonic spin Hall effect in the graphene family materials. It is shown that an external static electric field and a high frequency circularly polarized laser allow for active on-demand manipulation of electromagnetic beam shifts. The spin Hall effect of light presents a rich dependence with radiation degrees of freedom, and material properties, and features nontrivial topological properties. Finally, we discover that photonic Hall shifts are sensitive to spin and valleymore » properties of the charge carriers, providing an unprecedented pathway to investigate spintronics and valleytronics in staggered 2D semiconductors.« less

  5. Performance of a Low-Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Raitses, Yevgeny; Smirnov, Artem; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent mission studies have shown that a Hall thruster which operates at relatively constant thrust efficiency (45-55%) over a broad power range (300W - 3kW) is enabling for deep space science missions when compared with slate-of-the-art ion thrusters. While conventional (annular) Hall thrusters can operate at high thrust efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad power envelope down to 0 (100 W) while maintaining relatively high efficiency. In this note we report the measured performance (I(sub sp), thrust and efficiency) of a cylindrical Hall thruster operating at 0 (100 W) input power.

  6. Spin torque efficiency of Ta, W, and Pt in metallic bilayers evaluated by harmonic Hall and spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the efficiency of current-induced torque, i.e., the spin torque efficiency, in in-plane magnetized heavy metal/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures (heavy metals = Pt, W, and Ta) using the harmonic Hall technique and the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We find that the amplitude of the external magnetic field has a strong influence on the spin torque efficiency evaluation by the harmonic Hall measurements. This can be corrected by measuring the corresponding Hall resistance susceptibility. The sign and magnitude of the resulting Slonczewski-like spin torque efficiencies are in agreement with previous reports and the measurements utilizing the spin Hall magnetoresistance, except for the Pt underlayer films. The origin of the discrepancy for the Pt underlayer films is unclear. The field like torque efficiencies, upon subtracting the Oersted field contribution, are quite low or negligible. This is in significant contrast to what has been found for the field like torque in heterostructures with perpendicular magnetization. These results suggest that a more advanced model is required in order to describe accurately spin transport and momentum transfer at metallic interfaces.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  9. Scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) using quartz crystal AFM feedback.

    PubMed

    Dede, M; Urkmen, K; Girişen, O; Atabak, M; Oral, A; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D

    2008-02-01

    Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy (SHPM) is a quantitative and non-invasive technique for imaging localized surface magnetic field fluctuations such as ferromagnetic domains with high spatial and magnetic field resolution of approximately 50 nm and 7 mG/Hz(1/2) at room temperature. In the SHPM technique, scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) feedback is used to keep the Hall sensor in close proximity of the sample surface. However, STM tracking SHPM requires conductive samples; therefore the insulating substrates have to be coated with a thin layer of gold. This constraint can be eliminated with the AFM feedback using sophisticated Hall probes that are integrated with AFM cantilevers. However it is very difficult to micro fabricate these sensors. In this work, we have eliminated the difficulty in the cantilever-Hall probe integration process, just by gluing a Hall Probe chip to a quartz crystal tuning fork force sensor. The Hall sensor chip is simply glued at the end of a 32.768 kHz or 100 kHz Quartz crystal, which is used as force sensor. An LT-SHPM system is used to scan the samples. The sensor assembly is dithered at the resonance frequency using a digital Phase Locked Loop circuit and frequency shifts are used for AFM tracking. SHPM electronics is modified to detect AFM topography and the frequency shift, along with the magnetic field image. Magnetic domains and topography of an Iron Garnet thin film crystal, NdFeB demagnetised magnet and hard disk samples are presented at room temperature. The performance is found to be comparable with the SHPM using STM feedback.

  10. Hall Effect–Mediated Magnetic Flux Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2017-02-10

    The global evolution of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) has recently been shown to be largely controlled by the amount of poloidal magnetic flux threading the disk. The amount of magnetic flux must also coevolve with the disk, as a result of magnetic flux transport, a process that is poorly understood. In weakly ionized gas as in PPDs, magnetic flux is largely frozen in the electron fluid, except when resistivity is large. When the disk is largely laminar, we show that the relative drift between the electrons and ions (the Hall drift), and the ions and neutral fluids (ambipolar drift) can playmore » a dominant role on the transport of magnetic flux. Using two-dimensional simulations that incorporate the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion (AD) with prescribed diffusivities, we show that when large-scale poloidal field is aligned with disk rotation, the Hall effect rapidly drags magnetic flux inward at the midplane region, while it slowly pushes flux outward above/below the midplane. This leads to a highly radially elongated field configuration as a global manifestation of the Hall-shear instability. This field configuration further promotes rapid outward flux transport by AD at the midplane, leading to instability saturation. In quasi-steady state, magnetic flux is transported outward at approximately the same rate at all heights, and the rate is comparable to the Hall-free case. For anti-aligned field polarity, the Hall effect consistently transports magnetic flux outward, leading to a largely vertical field configuration in the midplane region. The field lines in the upper layer first bend radially inward and then outward to launch a disk wind. Overall, the net rate of outward flux transport is about twice as fast as that of the aligned case. In addition, the rate of flux transport increases with increasing disk magnetization. The absolute rate of transport is sensitive to disk microphysics, which remains to be explored in future studies.« less

  11. Hall station and camera system operation and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Strader, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    The major components of the Hall station and camera system are described. The Hall film record of an event provides the time of flight of the projectile between the slits. A time mark generator is used to supply extremely short pulses of light at a known frequency. These pulses of light are used to produce timing marks on the edge of the film. Comparison of these marks with the spacing of the projectile images provides the information necessary to determine the time of flight of the projectile. Since the slits are installed with a known separation distance, calculation of the velocity of any object passing both slits is a simple matter.

  12. Enhanced thermoelectric response in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura-Bas, Pablo; Arrachea, Liliana; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    We study the linear thermoelectric response of a quantum dot embedded in a constriction of a quantum Hall bar with fractional filling factors ν =1 /m within Laughlin series. We calculate the figure of merit Z T for the maximum efficiency at a fixed temperature difference. We find a significant enhancement of this quantity in the fractional filling in relation to the integer-filling case, which is a direct consequence of the fractionalization of the electron in the fractional quantum Hall state. We present simple theoretical expressions for the Onsager coefficients at low temperatures, which explicitly show that Z T and the Seebeck coefficient increase with m .

  13. Modeling of Hall Thruster Lifetime and Erosion Mechanisms (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Hall thruster plasma discharge has been upgraded to simulate the erosion of the thruster acceleration channel, the degradation of which is the main life-limiting factor of the propulsion system. Evolution of the thruster geometry as a result of material removal due to sputtering is modeled by calculating wall erosion rates, stepping the grid boundary by a chosen time step and altering the computational mesh between simulation runs. The code is first tuned to predict the nose cone erosion of a 200 W Busek Hall thruster , the BHT-200. Simulated erosion

  14. Modeling a Hall Thruster from Anode to Plume Far Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Hall thruster simulation capability that begins with propellant injection at the thruster anode, and ends in the plume far field. The development of a comprehensive simulation capability is critical for a number of reasons. The main motivation stems from the need to directly couple simulation of the plasma discharge processes inside the thruster and the transport of the plasma to the plume far field. The simulation strategy will employ two existing codes, one for the Hall thruster device and one for the plume. The coupling will take place in the plume

  15. Ion Velocity Measurements in a Linear Hall Thruster (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-14

    Hall Thruster in a high vacuum environment. The ionized propellant velocities were measured using laser induced fluorescence of the excited state xenon ionic transition at 834.7 nm. Ion velocities were interrogated from the channel exit plane to a distance 30 mm from it. Both axial and cross-field (along the electron Hall current direction) velocities were measured. The results presented here, combined with those of previous work, highlight the high sensitivity of electron mobility inside and outside the channel, depending on the background gas density, type of wall

  16. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Feromagnetic Rare-Earth Cobalite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoilov, A. V.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Rare-Earth manganites and cobalites with the perovskite structure have been a subject of great recent interest because their electrical resistance changes significantly when a magnetic field is applied...we have studied the Hall effect in thin film La(sub 0.5)Ca(sub 0.5)CoO(sub 3) material and have obtained convincing evidence fo the so called anomalous Hall effect, typical for magnetic metals...Our results suggest that near the ferromagnetic ordering temperature, the dominant electron scattering mechanism is the spin fluctuation.

  17. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  18. Hall effect at a tunable metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teizer, W.; Hellman, F.; Dynes, R. C.

    2003-03-01

    Using a rotating magnetic field, the Hall effect in three-dimensional amorphous GdxSi1-x has been measured in the critical regime of the metal-insulator transition for a constant total magnetic field. The Hall coefficient R0 is negative, indicating electronlike conductivity, with a magnitude that increases with decreasing conductivity. R0 diverges at the metal-insulator transition, and displays critical behavior with exponent -1 [R0˜(H-HC)-1]. This dependence is interpreted as a linear decrease in the density of mobile carriers n˜R-10˜H-HC, indicative of the dominant influence of interaction effects.

  19. Resistive and Hall weighting functions in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, D. W.; Knickerbocker, C. J.

    1998-10-01

    The authors extend their study of the effect of macroscopic impurities on resistive and Hall measurements to include objects of finite thickness. The effect of such impurities is calculated for a series of rectangular parallelepipeds with two current and two voltage contacts on the corners of one square face. The weighting functions display singularities near these contacts, but these are shown to vanish in the two-dimensional limit, in agreement with previous results. Finally, it is shown that while Hall measurements principally sample the plane of the electrodes, resistivity measurements sample more of the interior of an object of finite thickness.

  20. Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.

    We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.

  1. Porting a Hall MHD Code to a Graphic Processing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorelli, John C.

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience porting a Hall MHD code to a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The code is a 2nd order accurate MUSCL-Hancock scheme which makes use of an HLL Riemann solver to compute numerical fluxes and second-order finite differences to compute the Hall contribution to the electric field. The divergence of the magnetic field is controlled with Dedner?s hyperbolic divergence cleaning method. Preliminary benchmark tests indicate a speedup (relative to a single Nehalem core) of 58x for a double precision calculation. We discuss scaling issues which arise when distributing work across multiple GPUs in a CPU-GPU cluster.

  2. Moiré assisted fractional quantum Hall state spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fengcheng; MacDonald, A. H.

    2016-12-14

    Intra-Landau level excitations in the fractional quantum Hall regime are not accessible via optical absorption measurements. Here we point out that optical probes are enabled by the periodic potentials produced by a moire pattern. Our observation is motivated by the recent observations of fractional quantum Hall incompressible states in moire-patterned graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, and is theoretically based on f-sum rule considerations supplemented by a perturbative analysis of the influence of the moire potential on many-body states.

  3. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  4. MAGNETAR OUTBURSTS FROM AVALANCHES OF HALL WAVES AND CRUSTAL FAILURES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinyu; Levin, Yuri; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-12-20

    We explore the interaction between Hall waves and mechanical failures inside a magnetar crust, using detailed one-dimensional models that consider temperature-sensitive plastic flow, heat transport, and cooling by neutrino emission, as well as the coupling of the crustal motion to the magnetosphere. We find that the dynamics is enriched and accelerated by the fast, short-wavelength Hall waves that are emitted by each failure. The waves propagate and cause failures elsewhere, triggering avalanches. We argue that these avalanches are the likely sources of outbursts in transient magnetars.

  5. Bingo halls and smoking: perspectives of First Nations women.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Carey, Joanne; Mowatt, Roberta; Varcoe, Colleen; Johnson, Joy L; Hutchinson, Peter; Sullivan, Debbie; Williams, Wanda; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine bingo halls as a frequent site for exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke for First Nations women in rural communities. Thematic analysis of interviews with key informants, group discussions with young women, and observations in the study communities revealed that smoky bingo halls provided an important refuge from everyday experiences of stress and trauma, as well as increased women's risk for addiction, marginalization, and criticism. The findings illustrate how the bingo economy in isolated, rural First Nation communities influences tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, and how efforts to establish smoke-free bingos can be supported.

  6. Modeling an anode layer Hall thruster and its plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongjun

    This thesis consists of two parts: a study of the D55 Hall thruster channel using a hydrodynamic model; and particle simulations of plasma plume flow from the D55 Hall thruster. The first part of this thesis investigates the xenon plasma properties within the D55 thruster channel using a hydrodynamic model. The discharge voltage (V) and current (I) characteristic of the D55 Hall thruster are studied. The hydrodynamic model fails to accurately predict the V-I characteristics. This analysis shows that the model needs to be improved. Also, the hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the plasma flow within the D55 Hall thruster. This analysis is performed to investigate the plasma properties of the channel exit. It is found that the hydrodynamic model is very sensitive to initial conditions, and fails to simulate the complete domain of the D55 Hall thruster. However, the model successfully calculates the channel domain of the D55 Hall thruster. The results show that, at the thruster exit, the plasma density has a maximum value while the ion velocity has a minimum at the channel center. Also, the results show that the flow angle varies almost linearly across the exit plane and increases from the center to the walls. Finally, the hydrodynamic model results are used to estimate the plasma properties at the thruster nozzle exit. The second part of the thesis presents two dimensional axisymmetric simulations of xenon plasma plume flow fields from the D55 anode layer Hall thruster. A hybrid particle-fluid method is used for the simulations. The magnetic field near the Hall thruster exit is included in the calculation. The plasma properties obtained from the hydrodynamic model are used to determine boundary conditions for the simulations. In these simulations, the Boltzmann model and a detailed fluid model are used to compute the electron properties, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method models the collisions of heavy particles, and the Particle-In-Cell method models the

  7. Are quantum spin Hall edge modes more resilient to disorder, sample geometry and inelastic scattering than quantum Hall edge modes?

    PubMed

    Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-04-13

    On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin-orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible--the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case.

  8. On the feasibility to perform integral transmission experiments in the GELINA target hall at IRMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Pierre; Jean, Cyrille De Saint; Geslot, Benoit; Plompen, Arjan; Belloni, Francesca; Nyman, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Shielding experiments are relevant to validate elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections in the fast energy range. In this paper, we are focusing on the possibility to use the pulsed white neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA to perform this kind of measurement. Several issues need to be addressed: neutron source intensity, room return effect, distance of the materials to be irradiated from the source, and the sensitivity of various reaction rate distributions through the material to different input cross sections. MCNP6 and TRIPOLI4 calculations of the outgoing neutron spectrum are compared, based on electron/positron/gamma/neutron simulations. A first guess of an integral transmission experiment through a 238U slab is considered. It shows that a 10 cm thickness of uranium is sufficient to reach a high sensitivity to the 238U inelastic scattering cross section in the [2-5 MeV] energy range, with small contributions from elastic and fission cross sections. This experiment would contribute to reduce the uncertainty on this nuclear data, which has a significant impact on the power distribution in large commercial reactors. Other materials that would be relevant for the ASTRID 4th generation prototype reactor are also tested, showing that a sufficient sensitivity to nuclear data would be obtained by using a 50 to 100cm thick slab of side 60x60cm. This study concludes on the feasibility and interest of such experiments in the target hall of the GELINA facility.

  9. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  11. 5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. UNIT VENTILATOR, MEN'S BATH HALL, SHOWING POSITION AGAINST WALL ABOVE THE BATHS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Kirill I; Ghahari, Fereshte; Shulman, Michael D; Stormer, Horst L; Kim, Philip

    2009-11-12

    When electrons are confined in two dimensions and subject to strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb interactions between them can become very strong, leading to the formation of correlated states of matter, such as the fractional quantum Hall liquid. In this strong quantum regime, electrons and magnetic flux quanta bind to form complex composite quasiparticles with fractional electronic charge; these are manifest in transport measurements of the Hall conductivity as rational fractions of the elementary conductance quantum. The experimental discovery of an anomalous integer quantum Hall effect in graphene has enabled the study of a correlated two-dimensional electronic system, in which the interacting electrons behave like massless chiral fermions. However, owing to the prevailing disorder, graphene has so far exhibited only weak signatures of correlated electron phenomena, despite intense experimental and theoretical efforts. Here we report the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene. In addition, we show that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. These newly discovered quantum states offer the opportunity to study correlated Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of large magnetic fields.

  13. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.

    2016-05-07

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R{sub H,2} at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed thatmore » the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R{sub H,2} = 2 h/e{sup 2} was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10{sup −7}) limited by the used resistance bridge.« less

  14. Nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We uncover an alternative mechanism for anomalous Hall effect. In particular, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics of an insulating ferromagnet (FM) deposited on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), subject to an external voltage. The spin-polarised current on the TI surface induces a spin-transfer torque on the magnetisation of the top FM while its dynamics can change the transmission probability of the surface electrons through the exchange coupling and hence the current. We find a host of nonlinear dynamical behaviors including multistability, chaos, and phase synchronisation. Strikingly, a dynamics mediated Hall-like current can arise, which exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the channel conductance. We develop a physical understanding of the mechanism that leads to the anomalous Hall effect. The nonlinear dynamical origin of the effect stipulates that a rich variety of final states exist, implying that the associated Hall current can be controlled to yield desirable behaviors. The phenomenon can find applications in Dirac-material based spintronics. PMID:26819223

  15. Nonlinear dynamics induced anomalous Hall effect in topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-28

    We uncover an alternative mechanism for anomalous Hall effect. In particular, we investigate the magnetisation dynamics of an insulating ferromagnet (FM) deposited on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), subject to an external voltage. The spin-polarised current on the TI surface induces a spin-transfer torque on the magnetisation of the top FM while its dynamics can change the transmission probability of the surface electrons through the exchange coupling and hence the current. We find a host of nonlinear dynamical behaviors including multistability, chaos, and phase synchronisation. Strikingly, a dynamics mediated Hall-like current can arise, which exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the channel conductance. We develop a physical understanding of the mechanism that leads to the anomalous Hall effect. The nonlinear dynamical origin of the effect stipulates that a rich variety of final states exist, implying that the associated Hall current can be controlled to yield desirable behaviors. The phenomenon can find applications in Dirac-material based spintronics.

  16. Results and comparison of Hall and DW duct experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Morgan, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data from recent tests of a 45 deg diagonal wall duct are presented and compared with the results of a similar Hall duct. It is shown that while the peak power density of the two devices is approximately equal that the diagonal wall duct produces greater total power output due to its ability to better utilize the available magnetic field.

  17. The Virtual Lecture Hall: Utilisation, Effectiveness and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kenneth M.; Collins, Kandice R.; Snider, Don; Fawcett, Graham

    2007-01-01

    We presently introduce the Virtual Lecture Hall (VLH), an instructional computer-based platform for delivering Microsoft PowerPoint slides threaded with audio clips for later review. There were 839 male and female university students enrolled in an introductory psychology class who had access to review class lectures via the VLH. This tool was…

  18. Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system

    SciTech Connect

    Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro

    2011-09-15

    We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.

  19. The Residence Hall as a Community in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Walter B.

    The University of Denver has developed an approach to residence hall living that is designed to significantly increase the positive effect of the environment on the student. Two residential programs complement the classroom environment by housing students with like or related academic interests and providing equipment related to the students'…

  20. FLYING CADET MESS HALL, FOR 250 MEN, PLANS & DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLYING CADET MESS HALL, FOR 250 MEN, PLANS & DETAILS. Sheet No. 1 of 6, dated March 30, 1942. U.S. Engineer Office, San Francisco, California - Hamilton Field, Airmen's Open Mess, First cul-de-sac on F Street, Novato, Marin County, CA

  1. FLYING CADET MESS HALL, FOR 250 MEN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION, & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLYING CADET MESS HALL, FOR 250 MEN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION, & DETAILS. Sheet No. 2 of 6, dated March 30, 1942. U.S. Engineer Office, San Francisco, California - Hamilton Field, Airmen's Open Mess, First cul-de-sac on F Street, Novato, Marin County, CA

  2. Electrochemistry of the Hall-Heroult Process for Aluminum Smelting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupin, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all aluminum is produced by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten cryolite-based electrolyte, the Hall-Heroult Process. Various aspects of the procedure are discussed, focusing on electrolyte chemistry, dissolution of alumina, electrode reactions, current efficiency, and cell voltage. Suggestions for graduate study related to…

  3. Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov Websites

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Tsui discovered the effect. In 1983, Laughlin, then at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , provided the theoretical explanation of the effect in terms of fractionally charged particles. It was a

  4. FOYER SHOWING WOOD GRILLE AT THE LIVING ROOM AND HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FOYER SHOWING WOOD GRILLE AT THE LIVING ROOM AND HALL TO BEDROOMS. VIEW FACING SOUTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Four-Bedroom, Single-Family Type 10, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. HALL WITH FOYER IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HALL WITH FOYER IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. LINEN CLOSET IN THE HALL SHOWING THE BUILT IN SHELVES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LINEN CLOSET IN THE HALL SHOWING THE BUILT IN SHELVES. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. LIVING ROOM WITH HALL TO BEDROOMS AT FAR WALL. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIVING ROOM WITH HALL TO BEDROOMS AT FAR WALL. NOTE FLOOR TO CEILING WINDOWS ON RIGHT AND SLIDING DOORS TO DINING ROOM ON LEFT. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 7, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. A Spreadsheet Simulation of the Monty Hall Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Mike C.; Harmel, Bob; Friesen, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The "Monty Hall" problem or "Three Door" problem--where a person chooses one of three doors in hope of winning a valuable prize but is subsequently offered the choice of changing his or her selection--is a well known and often discussed probability problem. In this paper, the structure, history, and ultimate solution of the…

  9. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Peter; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This presentation will cover the electrical configuration testing of the TDU-1 HERMeS Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined are the thruster body tied to facility ground, thruster floating, and finally the thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The TDU-1 HERMeS was configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  10. Student Satisfaction and Quality of Life Survey: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Kenneth L.

    The attitudes and level of satisfaction with residence hall life of University of Tennessee students were surveyed in 1981. Responses of the 500 students to 17 satisfaction questions were correlated with six demographic variables. When academic classification was analyzed, it was found that freshmen were significantly less satisfied with the…

  11. Involving Students in Residence Halls in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, S. Raymond; Chan, Rebecca; Lee, Esther

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study based on A. W. Astin's (1984) involvement theory applied in residence halls at a public university in Hong Kong, China. The resident students who were involved as participants or student leaders in this study were found to be better developed in terms of leadership, career development, multicultural experience,…

  12. Hall Thruster Thermal Modeling and Test Data Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, James; Kamhawi, Hani; Yim, John; Clayman, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The life of Hall Effect thrusters are primarily limited by plasma erosion and thermal related failures. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have recently completed development of a Hall thruster with specific emphasis to mitigate these limitations. Extending the operational life of Hall thursters makes them more suitable for some of NASA's longer duration interplanetary missions. This paper documents the thermal model development, refinement and correlation of results with thruster test data. Correlation was achieved by minimizing uncertainties in model input and recognizing the relevant parameters for effective model tuning. Throughout the thruster design phase the model was used to evaluate design options and systematically reduce component temperatures. Hall thrusters are inherently complex assemblies of high temperature components relying on internal conduction and external radiation for heat dispersion and rejection. System solutions are necessary in most cases to fully assess the benefits and/or consequences of any potential design change. Thermal model correlation is critical since thruster operational parameters can push some components/materials beyond their temperature limits. This thruster incorporates a state-of-the-art magnetic shielding system to reduce plasma erosion and to a lesser extend power/heat deposition. Additionally a comprehensive thermal design strategy was employed to reduce temperatures of critical thruster components (primarily the magnet coils and the discharge channel). Long term wear testing is currently underway to assess the effectiveness of these systems and consequently thruster longevity.

  13. Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.

  14. The Marketing of Residence Halls: A Question of Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, R. Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 343 college residence hall directors revealed percentages of private and public institutions offering different amenities, main selling points in promotional brochures, and the most common resident complaints. Results were compared with those of a resident survey concerning the importance of various housing attributes. Implications for…

  15. 12. INTERIOR OF HALL SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF HALL SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER TWO AT PHOTO CENTER, AND OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. The Hall-induced stability of gravitating fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Goutam, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the stability behavior of low-density partially ionized self-gravitating magnetized unbounded dusty plasma fluid in the presence of the Hall diffusion effects (HDEs) in the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium framework. The effects of inhomogeneous self-gravity are methodically included in the basic model tapestry. Application of the Fourier plane-wave perturbative treatment decouples the structuration representative parameters into a linear generalized dispersion relation (sextic) in a judicious mean-fluid approximation. The dispersion analysis shows that the normal mode, termed as the gravito-magneto-acoustic (GMA) mode, is drastically modified due to the HDEs. This mode is highly dispersive, and driven unstable by the Hall current resulting from the symmetry-breaking of electrons and ions relative to the magnetic field. The mode feature, which is derived from a modified induction with the positive Hall, is against the ideal MHD. It is further demonstrated that the HDEs play stabilizing roles by supporting the cloud against gravitational collapse. Provided that the HDEs are concurrently switched off, the collapse occurs on the global spatial scale due to enhanced inward accretion of the gravitating dust constituents. It is seen explicitly that the enhanced dust-charge leads to stabilizing effects. Besides, the Hall-induced fluctuations, as propagatory wave modes, exhibit both normal and anomalous dispersions. The reliability checkup of the entailed results as diverse corollaries and special cases are illustratively discussed in the panoptic light of the earlier paradigmatic predictions available in the literature.

  17. The Challenges and Opportunities of Residence Hall Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the challenges facing college and university residence hall facility managers and how different schools address these issues in diverse ways. Ongoing concerns involving funding needs and maintenance are examined followed by discussions on the new challenges in managing student life, health, and safety. Concluding comments reveal where…

  18. Outdoor concert hall sound design: idea and possible solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Wanjung; Kim, Hwan; Choi, Jung-Woo; Wang, Semyung

    Sound design of outdoor concert halls needs to satisfy two contradictory objectives: good sound reproduction within the hall, as well as the minimization of external sound radiation. Outdoor concert hall usually has open space, therefore good sound for the listeners can be bad sound for its neighborhood. It would be a good attempt to have a virtual sound wall that can reflect all sound, therefore making a relatively quiet zone in the outside. This attempt can be possible if we could produce invisible but very high impedance mismatch around the hall, for a selected frequency band. This can be possible if we can generate an acoustically bright zone inside and a dark (quite) zone outside. Earlier work [Choi, J.-W. and Kim, Y.-H. (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1695-1700], at least, assures it is possible for a selected region and frequencies. Simulations show that it is possible for a two-dimensional case. Experimental verification has been also tried. The discrepancies have been explained in terms of the number of loudspeakers, their spatial distributions, spacing with regard to wavelength. The dependency of its performances with respect to the size of bright and dark zone scaled by wavelength of interest has also been explained.

  19. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  20. Iconicity as Empowerment: Angelina Grimke at Pennsylvania Hall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daughton, Suzanne M.

    Abolitionist-feminist Angelina Grimke's "Pennsylvania Hall" address in 1838 is more than an important early feminist document. Through the use of rhetorical techniques (such as those known to contemporary feminists as elements of "consciousness raising"), Grimke empowers herself and her women listeners through the act of…

  1. 42. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST FROM THE MEZZANINE. TURBOGENERATORS 1, 2 AND 3 ARE IN THE FOREGROUND. UNITS IN THE BACKGROUND ARE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS WHICH SUPPLIED 25 CYCLE POER DURING THE TRANSITION FROM COS COB POWER TO UTILITIES POWER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process. PMID:24998222

  3. Anomalous Nernst and Hall effects in magnetized platinum and palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, G. Y.; Niu, Q.; Nagaosa, N.

    2014-06-01

    We study the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in proximity-induced ferromagnetic palladium and platinum which is widely used in spintronics, within the Berry phase formalism based on the relativistic band-structure calculations. We find that both the anomalous Hall (σxyA) and Nernst (αxyA) conductivities can be related to the spin Hall conductivity (σxyS) and band exchange splitting (Δex) by relations σxyA=ΔexeℏσxyS(EF)' and αxyA=-π23kB2TΔexℏσxys(μ )'', respectively. In particular, these relations would predict that the σxyA in the magnetized Pt (Pd) would be positive (negative) since the σxyS(EF)' is positive (negative). Furthermore, both σxyA and αxyA are approximately proportional to the induced spin magnetic moment (ms) because the Δex is a linear function of ms. Using the reported ms in the magnetized Pt and Pd, we predict that the intrinsic anomalous Nernst conductivity (ANC) in the magnetic platinum and palladium would be gigantic, being up to ten times larger than, e.g., iron, while the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) would also be significant.

  4. Particle-in-cell simulations of Hall plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Hall plasma thrusters can be modelled using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In these simulations, the plasma is described by a set of equations which represent a coupled system of charged particles and electromagnetic fields. The fields are computed using a spatial grid (i.e., a discretization in space), whereas the particles can move continuously in space. Briefly, the particle and fields dynamics are computed as follows. First, forces due to electric and magnetic fields are employed to calculate the velocities and positions of particles. Next, the velocities and positions of particles are used to compute the charge and current densities at discrete positions in space. Finally, these densities are used to solve the electromagnetic field equations in the grid, which are interpolated at the position of the particles to obtain the acting forces, and restart this cycle. We will present numerical simulations using software for PIC simulations to study turbulence, wave and instabilities that arise in Hall plasma thrusters. We have sucessfully reproduced a numerical simulation of a SPT-100 Hall thruster using a two-dimensional (2D) model. In addition, we are developing a 2D model of a cylindrical Hall thruster. The results of these simulations will contribute to improve the performance of plasma thrusters to be used in Cubesats satellites currenty in development at the Plasma Laboratory at University of Brasília.

  5. 12. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL WALL ON WEST ELEVATION, DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIRST FLOOR, ENTRY HALL WALL ON WEST ELEVATION, DETAIL OF NOGGING AND FRAMING OF WEST WALL AND FRONT DOOR, LOOKING WEST - Stiegel House, East side State Route 419, North of intersection of State Route 419 & State Route 897 (Heidelberg Township), Schaefferstown, Lebanon County, PA

  6. Graphene/Si CMOS hybrid hall integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-07-07

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal amplifying/process ICs are manufactured via commercial 0.18 um silicon CMOS technology, and graphene Hall elements (GHEs) are fabricated on top of the passivation layer of the CMOS chip via a low-temperature micro-fabrication process. The sensitivity of the GHE on CMOS chip is further improved by integrating the GHE with the CMOS amplifier on the Si chip. This work not only paves the way to fabricate graphene/Si CMOS Hall ICs with much higher performance than that of conventional Hall ICs, but also provides a general method for scalable integration of graphene devices with silicon CMOS ICs via a low-temperature process.

  7. Improving Homework Completion of Students through Tutored Study Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicken, Kori S.; Foreman, Carol D.; Jensen, Robin L.; Sherwood, Justin A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a guided study hall on homework completion. Two groups of students were analyzed in their homework completion rates. Homework completion rates of the students that participated in Site A were reviewed in their five core subjects, while the homework completion rates of the students at Site B…

  8. The Hall Instability of Weakly Ionized, Radially Stratified, Rotating Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Edward; Mond, Michael; Chernin, Arthur D.

    2007-09-01

    Cool weakly ionized gaseous rotating disks are considered by many models to be the origin of the evolution of protoplanetary clouds. Instabilities against perturbations in such disks play an important role in the theory of the formation of stars and planets. Thus, a hierarchy of successive fragmentations into smaller and smaller pieces as a part of the Kant-Laplace theory of formation of the planetary system remains valid also for contemporary cosmogony. Traditionally, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and, recently, Hall-MHD instabilities have been thoroughly studied as providers of an efficient mechanism for radial transfer of angular momentum and of radial density stratification. In the current work, the Hall instability against nonaxisymmetric perturbations in compressible rotating fluid in external magnetic field is proposed as a viable mechanism for the azimuthal fragmentation of the protoplanetary disk and, thus, perhaps initiates the road to planet formation. The Hall instability is excited due to the combined effect of the radial stratification of the disk and the Hall electric field, and its growth rate is of the order of the rotation period. This family of instabilities is introduced here for the first time in an astrophysical context.

  9. Quantum Hall physics: Hierarchies and conformal field theory techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, T. H.; Hermanns, M.; Simon, S. H.; Viefers, S. F.

    2017-04-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect, being one of the most studied phenomena in condensed matter physics during the past 30 years, has generated many ground-breaking new ideas and concepts. Very early on it was realized that the zoo of emerging states of matter would need to be understood in a systematic manner. The first attempts to do this, by Haldane and Halperin, set an agenda for further work which has continued to this day. Since that time the idea of hierarchies of quasiparticles condensing to form new states has been a pillar of our understanding of fractional quantum Hall physics. In the 30 years that have passed since then, a number of new directions of thought have advanced our understanding of fractional quantum Hall states and have extended it in new and unexpected ways. Among these directions is the extensive use of topological quantum field theories and conformal field theories, the application of the ideas of composite bosons and fermions, and the study of non-Abelian quantum Hall liquids. This article aims to present a comprehensive overview of this field, including the most recent developments.

  10. Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, WINDOW BOW IN EAST WALL OF SERVANTS’ HALL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WINDOW BOW IN EAST WALL OF SERVANTS’ HALL. THE STEEL BEAMS (COLORED WHITE) EXTENDING ACROSS THE SPACE UNDER THE JOISTS WERE PART OF A RECENT INTERVENTION TO COUNTERACT DEFLECTION IN THE FLOORS OF THE PRINCIPAL STORY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Democratic Education in an Era of Town Hall Protests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    One central aspect of a healthy democracy is the practice of democratic dissent. For the first time in many years, dissent is being widely practiced in town hall meetings and on street corners across the United States. Despite this presence, dissent is often suppressed or omitted in the prescribed, tested, hidden, and external curriculum of US…

  13. Investigating Black Gay Male Undergraduates' Experiences in Campus Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.; Mullins, Taris G.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the challenges that Black gay male undergraduates confront in campus residence halls and the supports that enabled their success in facing them. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 29 participants, we found that Black gay men report varied encounters with subtle and overt forms of racism among White…

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ENTRY HALL AND STAIRS TO SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ENTRY HALL AND STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR. TAKEN FROM THE DINING ROOM. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND THE TELEPHONE NICHE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON STAIR RAILS AND NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Hall Mobilities in GaNxAs1-x

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Status Solidi C 7, No. 7–8, 1890–1893 (2010) / DOI 10.1002/pssc.200983569 Hall mobilities in GaNxAs1-x Javier Olea *,1, Kin Man Yu**,2, Wladek...in Fig. 1. Figure 2 shows the calculated carrier concentration dependence of the mobility for different N concentrations, at 1892 J. Olea et al

  17. 7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View into Building 802, front entry hall to "U" turn. Light and shower spigot seen through chain-link fence, facing east. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  18. 37. May 1985. LOOKING SOUTH DOWN HALL FROM PANTRY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. May 1985. LOOKING SOUTH DOWN HALL FROM PANTRY TO SITTING ROOM (Door in foreground was exterior door in 1821 before addition of pantry; note wear in stone threshold) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  19. An evaluation of krypton propellant in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, Jesse Allen

    Due to its high specific impulse and low price, krypton has long sparked interest as an alternate Hall thruster propellant. Unfortunately at the moment, krypton's relatively poor performance precludes it as a legitimate option. This thesis presents a detailed investigation into krypton operation in Hall thrusters. These findings suggest that the performance gap can be decreased to 4% and krypton can finally become a realistic propellant option. Although krypton has demonstrated superior specific impulse, the xenon-krypton absolute efficiency gap ranges between 2 and 15%. A phenomenological performance model indicates that the main contributors to the efficiency gap are propellant utilization and beam divergence. Propellant utilization and beam divergence have relative efficiency deficits of 5 and 8%, respectively. A detailed characterization of internal phenomena is conducted to better understand the xenon-krypton efficiency gap. Krypton's large beam divergence is found to be related to a defocusing equipotential structure and a weaker magnetic field topology. Ionization processes are shown to be linked to the Hall current, the magnetic mirror topology, and the perpendicular gradient of the magnetic field. Several thruster design and operational suggestions are made to optimize krypton efficiency. Krypton performance is optimized for discharge voltages above 500 V and flow rates corresponding to an a greater than 0.015 mg/(mm-s), where alpha is a function of flow rate and discharge channel dimensions (alpha = m˙alphab/Ach). Performance can be further improved by increasing channel length or decreasing channel width for a given flow rate. Also, several magnetic field design suggestions are made to enhance ionization and beam focusing. Several findings are presented that improve the understanding of general Hall thruster physics. Excellent agreement is shown between equipotential lines and magnetic field lines. The trim coil is shown to enhance beam focusing

  20. Dismantling the nuclear research reactor Thetis

    SciTech Connect

    Michiels, P.

    The research reactor Thetis, in service since 1967 and stopped in 2003, is part of the laboratories of the institution of nuclear science of the University of Ghent. The reactor, of the pool-type, was used as a neutron-source for the production of radio-isotopes and for activation analyses. The reactor is situated in a water pool with inner diameter of 3 m. and a depth of 7.5 m. The reactor core is situated 5.3 m under water level. Besides the reactor, the pool contains pneumatic loops, handling tools, graphite blocks for neutron moderation and other experimental equipment. The building houses storagemore » rooms for fissile material and sources, a pneumatic circuit for transportation of samples, primary and secondary cooling circuits, water cleaning resin circuits, a ventilation system and other necessary devices. Because of the experimental character of the reactor, laboratories with glove boxes and other tools were needed and are included in the dismantling program. The building is in 3 levels with a crawl-space. The ground-floor contains the ventilation installation, the purification circuits with tanks, cooling circuits and pneumatic transport system. On the first floor, around the reactor hall, the control-room, visiting area, end-station for pneumatic transport, waste-storage room, fuel storage room and the labs are located. The second floor contains a few laboratories and end stations of the two high speed transfer tubes. The lowest level of the pool is situated under ground level. The reactor has been operated at a power of 150 kW and had a max operating power of 250 kW. Belgoprocess has been selected to decommission the reactor, the labs, storage halls and associated circuits to free release the building for conventional reuse and for the removal of all its internals as legal defined. Besides the dose-rate risk and contamination risk, there is also an asbestos risk of contamination. During construction of the installation, asbestos-containing materials

  1. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  3. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  5. Reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  9. Interior and Exterior Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Plasma Measurements within a Hall Thruster (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    ionized xenon in the plume and interior portions of the acceleration channel of a Hall thruster plasma discharge operating at powers ranging from 250...performed in the interior of the Hall thruster with resonance fluorescence collection. Optical access to the interior of the Hall thruster is

  10. A New Definition in Atlanta: Q&A with Beverly Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Beverly Hall has been superintendent of Atlanta Public Schools since 1999. Before coming to Atlanta, Hall was state district superintendent of Newark Public Schools, deputy chancellor for instruction of New York City Public Schools, superintendent of Community School District 27 in New York City, and a principal in Brooklyn. Hall chairs Harvard…

  11. 78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice, correction. SUMMARY: On... determinations made by the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The... additional objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...

  12. Perceived Effectiveness of Hall Director Leadership Style on the Satisfaction of Resident Assistants in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rheo Joelyn Avorice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain which leadership style correlates most with RA satisfaction in residence halls at three public universities in Mississippi. When satisfied, RAs will be more efficient in their roles and this will transfer to students residing in the halls. As a result more students in the residence halls will become more…

  13. Realizing the Educational Potential of Residence Halls. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles C.; Mable, Phyllis

    This book addresses the need for integrating students' formal academic experiences with their informal out-of-class life in their residence halls. Organized in three parts, Part 1 focuses on the role of residence halls in educating students. Part 2 describes a variety of initiatives for promoting student learning in college residence halls. Part 3…

  14. Health Physics State of the RA-1 Reactor, Period Between 1-1-62 and 10-8- 62. Report No. 87; ESTADO RADIOSANIT ARIO DEL REACTOR R.A. 1, PERIODO COMPRENDIDO ENTRE EL 1-1-62 Y EL 10-8-62. Informe No. 87

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, R.; Moll, O.; Hermelo, C.

    1963-01-01

    The methods used to measure the irradiation levels and the radiation exposure of personnel of the RA-1 reactor are described. The criteria used to evaluate the risks from this exposure are reported. Typical graphs are shown of the radiation levels measured in the control room. (J.S.R.)

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  18. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-30

    17394 4 / 13 HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Hall Effect Thrusters (HET): Traditionally Modeled in R-Z Named for Hall Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid...HET): Traditionally Modeled in R-Z Named for Hall Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid Solve Ohm’s Law→ No e−-momentum Zθ Unrolled to YZ...Current in θ Uses Quasi -1D Electron Fluid Solve Ohm’s Law→ No e−-momentum Zθ Unrolled to YZ Electron ExB Drift Unmagnetized Ions Results in Hall Current

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  20. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  1. Catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Aaron, Timothy Mark [East Amherst, NY; Shah, Minish Mahendra [East Amherst, NY; Jibb, Richard John [Amherst, NY

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  2. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  5. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  6. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  10. Towards Thermal Reading of Magnetic States in Hall Crosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Petit-Watelot, S.; Polewczyk, V.; Parent, G.; Montaigne, F.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Mangin, S.; Lacroix, D.; Hehn, M.; Lacour, D.

    2018-03-01

    The 3 ω method is a standard way to measure the thermal conductivity of thin films. In this study, we apply the method to read the magnetic state of a perpendicularly magnetized CoTb ferrimagnetic Hall cross using a thermal excitation. In order to generate the thermal excitation, an oscillating current at an ω frequency is applied to the Hall cross using different geometries. The magnetic signals oscillating at ω , 2 ω , and 3 ω are probed using a lock-in technique. From the analysis of the power dependence, we can attribute the 3 ω response to the temperature oscillation and the 2 ω to the temperature-gradient oscillation. Finally, the frequency dependence of the magnetic signals can be understood by considering the heat diffusion in a two-dimensional model.

  11. Anomalous Hall effect in ZrTe 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Tian; Lin, Jingjing; Gibson, Quinn

    Research in topological matter has expanded to include the Dirac and Weyl semimetals which feature three-dimensional Dirac states protected by symmetry. Zirconium pentatelluride has been of recent interest as a potential Dirac or Weyl semimetal material. Here, we report the results of experiments performed by in situ three-dimensional double-axis rotation to extract the full 4π solid angular dependence of the transport properties. A clear anomalous Hall effect is detected in every sample studied, with no magnetic ordering observed in the system to the experimental sensitivity of torque magnetometry. Large anomalous Hall signals develop when the magnetic field is rotated inmore » the plane of the stacked quasi-two-dimensional layers, with the values vanishing above about 60 K, where the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance also disappears. Finally, this suggests a close relation in their origins, which we attribute to the Berry curvature generated by the Weyl nodes.« less

  12. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, F D; Cazimajou, T; Sekine, Y; Hibino, H; Irie, H; Glattli, D C; Kumada, N; Roulleau, P

    2016-12-06

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  13. Termination of the spin-resolved integer quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L. W.; Jiang, H. W.; Palm, E.; Schaff, W. J.

    1997-03-01

    We report a magnetotransport study of the termination of the spin-resolved integer quantum Hall effect by controlled disorder in a gated GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure. We have found that, for a given Nth Landau level, the difference in filling factors of a pair of spin-split resistivity peaks δνN=\\|νN↑-νN↓\\| changes rapidly from one to zero near a critical density nc. Scaling analysis shows that δνN collapses onto a single curve independent of N when plotted against the parameter (n-nc)/nc for five Landau levels. The effect of increasing the Zeeman energy is also examined by tilting the direction of magnetic field relative to the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas. Our experiment suggests the termination of the spin-resolved quantum Hall effect is a phase transition.

  14. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  15. Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz-1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer-Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.

  16. Basic instrumentation for Hall A at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K. A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Auerbach, L.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baker, F. T.; Baylac, M.; Beise, E. J.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P. Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Bimbot, L.; Black, T.; Boeglin, W. U.; Boykin, D. V.; Brash, E. J.; Breton, V.; Breuer, H.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J. R.; Cardman, L. S.; Carr, R.; Cates, G. D.; Cavata, C.; Chai, Z.; Chang, C. C.; Chant, N. S.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Coman, M.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Colombel, N.; Crateri, R.; Dale, D. S.; Degrande, N.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deur, A.; Dezern, G.; Diederich, B.; Dieterich, S.; di Salvo, R.; Djawotho, P.; Domingo, J.; Ducret, J.-E.; Dutta, D.; Egiyan, K.; Epstein, M. B.; Escoffier, S.; Esp, S.; Ewell, L. A.; Finn, J. M.; Fissum, K. G.; Folts, E.; Fonvieille, H.; Frois, B.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gavalya, A.; Gayou, O.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Giuliani, F.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Gorringe, T.; Gricia, M.; Griffioen, K.; Hamilton, D.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, F. W.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmgren, H.; Holtrop, M.; d'Hose, N.; Hovhannisyan, E.; Howell, C.; Huber, G. M.; Hughes, E.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Iommi, R.; Ireland, D.; Jaminion, S.; Jardillier, J.; Jensen, S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C. E.; Jones, M. K.; Joo, K.; Jutier, C.; Kahl, W.; Kato, S.; Katramatou, A. T.; Kelly, J. J.; Kerhoas, S.; Ketikyan, A.; Khandaker, M.; Khayat, M.; Kino, K.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kox, S.; Kramer, K.; Kumar, K. S.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lagamba, L.; Laveissière, G.; Leone, A.; LeRose, J. J.; Marie, F.; Levchuk, L.; Leuschner, M.; Lhuillier, D.; Liang, M.; Livingston, K.; Lindgren, R. A.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G. J.; Lourie, R. W.; Lucentini, M.; Madey, R.; Maeda, K.; Malov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marroncle, J.; Martine, J.; Mayilyan, S.; McCarthy, J. S.; McCormick, K.; Mclntyre, J.; McKeown, R. D.; Meekins, D.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Milbrath, B.; Miller, J. A.; Miller, W.; Mitchell, J.; Mougey, J.; Nanda, S.; Nathan, A.; Neyret, D.; Offermann, E. A. J. M.; Papandreou, Z.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Perrino, R.; Petratos, G. G.; Petrosyan, A.; Pierangeli, L.; Platchkov, S.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D. L.; Punjabi, V. A.; Pussieux, T.; Quéméner, G.; Ransomez, R. D.; Ravel, O.; Reitz, B.; Roblin, Y.; Roche, R.; Roedelbronn, M.; Rondon-Aramayo, O. A.; Roos, P. G.; Rosner, G.; Rowntree, D.; Rutledge, G. A.; Rutt, P. M.; Rvachev, M.; Sabatavenere, F.; Saha, A.; Saito, T.; Santavenere, F.; Sarty, A. J.; Schneider, W. J.; Segal, J. P.; Serdarevic-Offermann, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Slifer, K.; Smith, T. P.; Soldi, A.; Sorokin, P.; Souder, P.; Spiegel, S. L.; Stevens, M. A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Templon, J. A.; Terasawa, T.; Todor, L.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Van de Vyver, R.; van Verst, S.; Vernin, P.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walter, R.; Watson, J. W.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wijesooriya, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiang, H.; Xiong, F.; Xu, W.; Zainea, D. G.; Zeps, V.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, X.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Zhu, L.; Zolnierczuk, P. A.

    2004-04-01

    The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electro- and photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity and good momentum and angular resolution for at least one of the reaction products. The central components of Hall A are two identical high resolution spectrometers, which allow the vertical drift chambers in the focal plane to provide a momentum resolution of better than 2×10 -4. A variety of Cherenkov counters, scintillators and lead-glass calorimeters provide excellent particle identification. The facility has been operated successfully at a luminosity well in excess of 10 38 cm-2 s-1. The research program is aimed at a variety of subjects, including nucleon structure functions, nucleon form factors and properties of the nuclear medium.

  17. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Xiao, Jiang; Wang, Xuhui; Xia, Ke

    2017-10-01

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  18. Optical Radiation from Integer Quantum Hall States in Dirac Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullans, Michael; Taylor, Jacob; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Hafezi, Mohammad

    Quantum Hall systems exhibit topologically protected edge states, which can have a macroscopic spatial extent. Such edge states provide a unique opportunity to study a quantum emitter whose size far exceeds the wavelength of emitted light. To better understand this limit, we theoretically characterize the optical radiation from integer quantum Hall states in two-dimensional Dirac materials. We show that the scattered light from the bulk reflects the spatial profile of the wavefunctions, enabling spatial imaging of the disorder landscape. We find that the radiation from the edge states are characterized by the presence of large multipole moments in the far-field. This multipole radiation arises from the transfer of angular momentum from the electrons into the scattered light, enabling the generation of coherent light with high orbital angular momentum.

  19. Elastic gauge fields and Hall viscosity of Dirac magnons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreiros, Yago; Vozmediano, María A. H.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the coupling of elastic lattice deformations to the magnon degrees of freedom of magnon Dirac materials. For a honeycomb ferromagnet we find that, as happens in the case of graphene, elastic gauge fields appear coupled to the magnon pseudospinors. For deformations that induce constant pseudomagnetic fields, the spectrum around the Dirac nodes splits into pseudo-Landau levels. We show that when a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is considered, a topological gap opens in the system and a Chern-Simons effective action for the elastic degrees of freedom is generated. Such a term encodes a phonon Hall viscosity response, entirely generated by quantum fluctuations of magnons living in the vicinity of the Dirac points. The magnon Hall viscosity vanishes at zero temperature, and grows as temperature is raised and the states around the Dirac points are increasingly populated.

  20. Carbon Back Sputter Modeling for Hall Thruster Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Yim, John T.

    2016-01-01

    In support of wear testing for the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) program, the back sputter from a Hall effect thruster plume has been modeled for the NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The predicted wear at a near-worst case condition of 600 V, 12.5 kW was found to be on the order of 3 4 mkhour in a fully carbon-lined chamber. A more detailed numerical monte carlo code was also modified to estimate back sputter for a detailed facility and pumping configuration. This code demonstrated similar back sputter rate distributions, but is not yet accurately modeling the magnitudes. The modeling has been benchmarked to recent HERMeS wear testing, using multiple microbalance measurements. These recent measurements have yielded values, on the order of 1.5- 2 microns/khour.

  1. The Hall Technique for managing carious primary molars.

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola; Evans, Dafydd; Hall, Norna

    2009-10-01

    The Hall Technique, a method of managing carious primary molars effectively with preformed metal crowns, without the use of local anaesthesia, caries removal or tooth preparation of any kind, is described.The technique is illustrated with a case report.The evidence underpinning the technique is discussed, along with indications and contra-indications for its use, and details of where clinicians can obtain further information on the technique if they are considering using it. Research evidence has indicated that the Hall Technique is effective in managing dental caries in primary molar teeth when used by General Dental Practitioners, and is preferred by them, their child patients and the children's parents to conventional restorative methods for these teeth.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a 50kW Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on a laboratory model Hall thruster designed to operate at power levels up to 50 kW. During this investigation the engine's performance was characterized over a range of discharge currents from 10 to 36 A and a range of discharge voltages from 200 to 800 V Operating on the Russian cathode a maximum thrust of 966 mN was measured at 35.6 A and 713.0 V. This corresponded to a specific impulse of 3325 s and an efficiency of 62%. The maximum power the engine was operated at was 25 kW. Additional testing was conducted using a NASA cathode designed for higher current operation. During this testing, thrust over 1 N was measured at 40.2 A and 548.9 V. Several issues related to operation of Hall thrusters at these high powers were encountered.

  3. From rotating atomic rings to quantum Hall states.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia, M; Rizzi, M; Dalibard, J

    2011-01-01

    Considerable efforts are currently devoted to the preparation of ultracold neutral atoms in the strongly correlated quantum Hall regime. However, the necessary angular momentum is very large and in experiments with rotating traps this means spinning frequencies extremely near to the deconfinement limit; consequently, the required control on parameters turns out to be too stringent. Here we propose instead to follow a dynamic path starting from the gas initially confined in a rotating ring. The large moment of inertia of the ring-shaped fluid facilitates the access to large angular momenta, corresponding to giant vortex states. The trapping potential is then adiabatically transformed into a harmonic confinement, which brings the interacting atomic gas in the desired quantum-Hall regime. We provide numerical evidence that for a broad range of initial angular frequencies, the giant-vortex state is adiabatically connected to the bosonic ν = 1/2 Laughlin state.

  4. Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah

    There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall inter-plateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponentmore » $$\

  5. Non-Abelian fermionization and fractional quantum Hall transitions

    DOE PAGES

    Hui, Aaron; Mulligan, Michael; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2018-02-08

    There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall interplateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length There has been a recent surge of interest in dualities relating theories of Chern-Simons gauge fields coupled to either bosons or fermions within the condensed matter community, particularly in the context of topological insulators and the half-filled Landau level. Here, we study the application of one such duality to the long-standing problem of quantum Hall inter-plateaux transitions. The key motivating experimental observations are the anomalously large value of the correlation length exponentmore » $$\

  6. Anomalous Hall effect in ZrTe 5

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Tian; Lin, Jingjing; Gibson, Quinn; ...

    2018-03-19

    Research in topological matter has expanded to include the Dirac and Weyl semimetals which feature three-dimensional Dirac states protected by symmetry. Zirconium pentatelluride has been of recent interest as a potential Dirac or Weyl semimetal material. Here, we report the results of experiments performed by in situ three-dimensional double-axis rotation to extract the full 4π solid angular dependence of the transport properties. A clear anomalous Hall effect is detected in every sample studied, with no magnetic ordering observed in the system to the experimental sensitivity of torque magnetometry. Large anomalous Hall signals develop when the magnetic field is rotated inmore » the plane of the stacked quasi-two-dimensional layers, with the values vanishing above about 60 K, where the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance also disappears. Finally, this suggests a close relation in their origins, which we attribute to the Berry curvature generated by the Weyl nodes.« less

  7. Anomalous Hall effect in ZrTe5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tian; Lin, Jingjing; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Xiong, Hongyu; Sobota, Jonathan A.; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kirchmann, Patrick S.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    Research in topological matter has expanded to include the Dirac and Weyl semimetals1-10, which feature three-dimensional Dirac states protected by symmetry. Zirconium pentatelluride has been of recent interest as a potential Dirac or Weyl semimetal material. Here, we report the results of experiments performed by in situ three-dimensional double-axis rotation to extract the full 4π solid angular dependence of the transport properties. A clear anomalous Hall effect is detected in every sample studied, with no magnetic ordering observed in the system to the experimental sensitivity of torque magnetometry. Large anomalous Hall signals develop when the magnetic field is rotated in the plane of the stacked quasi-two-dimensional layers, with the values vanishing above about 60 K, where the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance also disappears. This suggests a close relation in their origins, which we attribute to the Berry curvature generated by the Weyl nodes.

  8. Quantum Hall ferroelectrics and nematics in multivalley systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodemann, I.; Zhu, Zheng; Fu, Liang

    We study broken symmetry states in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low energy dispersions are anisotropic. Interactions tend to select states that are maximally valley polarized and have nematic character. Interestingly, in certain systems like the recently studied Bismuth (111) surfaces, the formation of these nematic states can be accompanied by appearance of an spontaneous dipole moment, leading to formation of a quantum Hall ferroelectric state. We study these states combining mean field calculations with state of the art DMRG numerical approach, and demonstrate that skyrmion-type charged excitations are extremely robust to the presence of nematic anisotropy. Supported by DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Award DE-SC0010526. IS. supported by Pappalardo Fellowship. We used Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) under NSF Grant ACI-1053575.

  9. Large quantum rings in the ν > 1 quantum Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, E; Aichinger, M

    2009-01-14

    We study computationally the ground-state properties of large quantum rings in the filling-factor ν>1 quantum Hall regime. We show that the arrangement of electrons into different Landau levels leads to clear signatures in the total energies as a function of the magnetic field. In this context, we discuss possible approximations for the filling factor ν in the system. We are able to characterize integer-ν states in quantum rings in an analogy with conventional quantum Hall droplets. We also find a partially spin-polarized state between ν = 2 and 3. Despite the specific topology of a quantum ring, this state is strikingly reminiscent of the recently found ν = 5/2 state in a quantum dot.

  10. Quantum Hall Valley Nematics: From Field Theories to Microscopic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, Siddharth

    The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken ``internal'' symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. I will discuss a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue is a point-group element that combines a spatial rotation with a permutation of valley indices. I will explore its ramifications for the phase diagram of a variety of experimental systems, such as AlAs and Si quantum wells and the surface states of bismuth. I will also discuss unconventional transport phenomena in these phases in the presence of quenched randomness, and the possible mechanisms of selection between degenerate broken-symmetry phases in clean systems. I acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1455366.

  11. Modulated phases of graphene quantum Hall polariton fluids

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Francesco M. D.; Giovannetti, Vittorio; MacDonald, Allan H.; Polini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing experimental interest in coupling cavity photons to the cyclotron resonance excitations of electron liquids in high-mobility semiconductor quantum wells or graphene sheets. These media offer unique platforms to carry out fundamental studies of exciton-polariton condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a regime, in which electron–electron interactions are expected to play a pivotal role. Here, focusing on graphene, we present a theoretical study of the impact of electron–electron interactions on a quantum Hall polariton fluid, that is a fluid of magneto-excitons resonantly coupled to cavity photons. We show that electron–electron interactions are responsible for an instability of graphene integer quantum Hall polariton fluids towards a modulated phase. We demonstrate that this phase can be detected by measuring the collective excitation spectra, which is often at a characteristic wave vector of the order of the inverse magnetic length. PMID:27841346

  12. Topological Hall Effect from Strong to Weak Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Kazuki; Bibes, Manuel; Kohno, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons coupled to a noncoplanar spin texture has been studied so far for the strong- and weak-coupling regimes separately; the former in terms of the Berry phase and the latter by perturbation theory. In this letter, we present a unified treatment in terms of spin gauge field by considering not only the adiabatic (Berry phase) component of the gauge field but also the nonadiabatic component. While only the adiabatic contribution is important in the strong-coupling regime, it is completely canceled by a part of the nonadiabatic contribution in the weak-coupling regime, where the THE is governed by the remaining nonadiabatic terms. We found a new weak-coupling region that cannot be accessed by a simple perturbation theory, where the Hall conductivity is proportional to M, with 2M being the exchange splitting of the electron spectrum.

  13. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxial permalloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Sun, N. Y.; Shan, R.

    2013-10-28

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of epitaxial permalloy thin films grown on MgO (001) substrates is investigated. The longitudinal conductivity independent term (i.e., the sum of intrinsic and side-jump contributions) of the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) is found to be much smaller than those of Fe and Ni films. Band theoretical calculations of the intrinsic AHC as a function of the number of valence electrons (band filling) indicate that the AHC of the permalloy is in the vicinity of sign change, thus resulting in the smallness of the intrinsic AHC. The contribution of the phonon scattering is found to be comparablemore » to that of the impurity scattering. This work suggests that the permalloy films are ideal systems to understand the AHE mechanisms induced by impurity scattering.« less

  14. Exact law for homogeneous compressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, N.; Galtier, S.; Sahraoui, F.

    2018-01-01

    We derive an exact law for three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous compressible isothermal Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, without the assumption of isotropy. The Hall current is shown to introduce new flux and source terms that act at the small scales (comparable or smaller than the ion skin depth) to significantly impact the turbulence dynamics. The law provides an accurate means to estimate the energy cascade rate over a broad range of scales covering the magnetohydrodynamic inertial range and the sub-ion dispersive range in 3D numerical simulations and in in situ spacecraft observations of compressible turbulence. This work is particularly relevant to astrophysical flows in which small-scale density fluctuations cannot be ignored such as the solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the interstellar medium.

  15. Fractionally charged skyrmions in fractional quantum Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Ajit C.; Wurstbauer, U.; Wójs, A.; Pinczuk, A.; Jain, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect has inspired searches for exotic emergent topological particles, such as fractionally charged excitations, composite fermions, abelian and nonabelian anyons and Majorana fermions. Fractionally charged skyrmions, which support both topological charge and topological vortex-like spin structure, have also been predicted to occur in the vicinity of 1/3 filling of the lowest Landau level. The fractional skyrmions, however, are anticipated to be exceedingly fragile, suppressed by very small Zeeman energies. Here we show that, slightly away from 1/3 filling, the smallest manifestations of the fractional skyrmion exist in the excitation spectrum for a broad range of Zeeman energies, and appear in resonant inelastic light scattering experiments as well-defined resonances slightly below the long wavelength spin wave mode. The spectroscopy of these exotic bound states serves as a sensitive tool for investigating the residual interaction between composite fermions, responsible for delicate new fractional quantum Hall states in this filling factor region. PMID:26608906

  16. Interaction-induced interference in the integer quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, I.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Choi, H. K.; Heiblum, M.; Feldman, D. E.; Mahalu, D.; Umansky, V.

    2018-03-01

    In recent interference experiments with an electronic Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI), implemented in the integer quantum Hall effect regime, a flux periodicity of h /2 e was observed at bulk fillings νB>2.5 . The halved periodicity was accompanied by an interfering charge e*=2 e , determined by shot-noise measurements. Here, we present measurements demonstrating that, counterintuitively, the coherence and the interference periodicity of the interfering chiral edge channel are solely determined by the coherence and the enclosed flux of the adjacent edge channel. Our results elucidate the important role of the latter and suggest that a neutral chiral edge mode plays a crucial role in the pairing phenomenon. Our findings reveal that the observed pairing of electrons is not a curious isolated phenomenon, but one of many manifestations of unexpected edge physics in the quantum Hall effect regime.

  17. Interlayer tunneling in double-layer quantum hall pseudoferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Balents, L; Radzihovsky, L

    2001-02-26

    We show that the interlayer tunneling I-V in double-layer quantum Hall states displays a rich behavior which depends on the relative magnitude of sample size, voltage length scale, current screening, disorder, and thermal lengths. For weak tunneling, we predict a negative differential conductance of a power-law shape crossing over to a sharp zero-bias peak. An in-plane magnetic field splits this zero-bias peak, leading instead to a "derivative" feature at V(B)(B(parallel)) = 2 pi Planck's over 2 pi upsilon B(parallel)d/e phi(0), which gives a direct measurement of the dispersion of the Goldstone mode corresponding to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the double-layer Hall state.

  18. Effect of quantum tunneling on spin Hall magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Seulgi; Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    We present a formalism that simultaneously incorporates the effect of quantum tunneling and spin diffusion on the spin Hall magnetoresistance observed in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator bilayers (such as Pt/Y3Fe5O12) and normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayers (such as Pt/Co), in which the angle of magnetization influences the magnetoresistance of the normal metal. In the normal metal side the spin diffusion is known to affect the landscape of the spin accumulation caused by spin Hall effect and subsequently the magnetoresistance, while on the ferromagnet side the quantum tunneling effect is detrimental to the interface spin current which also affects the spin accumulation. The influence of generic material properties such as spin diffusion length, layer thickness, interface coupling, and insulating gap can be quantified in a unified manner, and experiments that reveal the quantum feature of the magnetoresistance are suggested.

  19. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers. PMID:27098387

  20. Interaction driven quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Siddique, Salma; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Nam, Jungtae; Kim, Keun Soo; Eom, Jonghwa

    2016-04-21

    The honeycomb lattice structure of graphene gives rise to its exceptional electronic properties of linear dispersion relation and its chiral nature of charge carriers. The exceptional electronic properties of graphene stem from linear dispersion relation and chiral nature of charge carries, originating from its honeycomb lattice structure. Here, we address the quantum Hall effect in artificially stacked graphene bilayers and single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The quantum Hall plateaus started to appear more than 3 T and became clearer at higher magnetic fields up to 9 T. Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations were manifestly observed in graphene bilayers texture. These unusual plateaus may have been due to the layers interaction in artificially stacked graphene bilayers. Our study initiates the understanding of interactions between artificially stacked graphene layers.

  1. Recent Results of TMD Measurements from Jefferson Lab Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiaodong

    2013-10-01

    This slide-show presents results on transverse momentum distributions. The presentation covers: target single-spin asymmetry (SSA) (in parity conserving interactions); • Results of JLab Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target TMD measurement; • Semi-­inclusive deep-inelastic scattering channels (E06-010); • Target single-spin asymmetry A{sub UT}, Collins and Sivers SSA on neutron; • Double-spin asymmetry A{sub LT}, extract TMD g{sub 1T} on neutron; • Inclusive channels SSA (E06-010, E05-015, E07-013) • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) quasi-elastic scattering; • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) deep inelastic-elastic scattering; • New SIDIS experiments planned in Hall-A for JLab-12 GeV.

  2. Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-10-10

    Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)

  3. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T.; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point at x ∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear below TCG ∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps, Δx ∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state. PMID:27044081

  4. Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan

    2016-04-19

    Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.

  5. Spectroscopic Research of Lambda Hypdernuclei at JLab Hall C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogami, T.; Achenbach, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Albayrak, I.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Ates, O.; Baturin, P.; Badui, R.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Brash, E.; Carter, P.; Chen, C.; Chiba, A.; Christy, E.; Dalton, M.; Danagoulian, S.; De Leo, R.; Doi, D.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Fujii, Y.; Furic, M.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gasparian, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Horn, T.; Hu, B.; Hungerford, Ed. V.; Jones, M.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kato, S.; Kawai, M.; Kawama, D.; Khanal, H.; Kohl, M.; Liyanage, A.; Luo, W.; Maeda, K.; Margaryan, A.; Markowitz, P.; Maruta, T.; Matsumura, A.; Maxwell, V.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Narayan, A.; Neville, C.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, M. I.; Nunez, A.; Nuruzzaman; Okayasu, Y.; Petkovic, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Qiu, X.; Reinhold, J.; Rodriguez, V. M.; Samanta, C.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shichijo, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tang, L.; Taniya, N.; Tsukada, K.; Veilleux, M.; Vulcan, W.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Wood, S. A.; Yamamoto, T.; Ya, L.; Ye, Z.; Yokota, K.; Yuan, L.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zhu, L.

    A Λ hyperon which has a strangeness can be bound in deep inside of a nucleus since a Λ does not suffer from the Pauli exclusion principle from nucleons. Thus, a Λ could be a useful tool to investigate inside of a nucleus. Since 2000, Λ hypernuclear spectroscopic experiments by the (e,e'k) reaction have been performed at the experimental hall C in Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab Hall C). An experiment, JLab E05-115 was carried out to investigate Λ hypernuclei with a wide mass range (the mass number, A = 7, 9, 10, 12, 52). The latest analysis status of JLab E05-115 experiment is discussed in the present article.

  6. Tunneling Spectroscopy of Quantum Hall States in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Harzheim, Achim; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Philip

    In the quantum Hall (QH) regime, ballistic conducting paths along the physical edges of a sample appear, leading to quantized Hall conductance and vanishing longitudinal magnetoconductance. These QH edge states are often described as ballistic compressible strips separated by insulating incompressible strips, the spatial profiles of which can be crucial in understanding the stability and emergence of interaction driven QH states. In this work, we present tunneling transport between two QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Employing locally gated device structure, we guide and control the separation between the QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Using resonant Landau level tunneling as a spectroscopy tool, we measure the energy gap in bilayer graphene as a function of displacement field and probe the emergence and evolution of incompressible strips.

  7. Local Thermometry of Neutral Modes on the Quantum Hall Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Sean; Venkatachalam, Vivek; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Yacoby, Amir

    2012-02-01

    A system of electrons in two dimensions and strong magnetic fields can be tuned to create a gapped 2D system with one dimensional channels along the edge. Interactions among these edge modes can lead to independent transport of charge and heat, even in opposite directions. Measuring the chirality and transport properties of these charge and heat modes can reveal otherwise hidden structure in the edge. Here, we heat the outer edge of such a quantum Hall system using a quantum point contact. By placing quantum dots upstream and downstream along the edge of the heater, we can measure both the chemical potential and temperature of that edge to study charge and heat transport, respectively. We find that charge is transported exclusively downstream, but heat can be transported upstream when the edge has additional structure related to fractional quantum Hall physics.

  8. Multi-region relaxed Hall magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    DOE PAGES

    Lingam, Manasvi; Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Hudson, Stuart R.

    2016-08-03

    The recent formulations of multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) have generalized the famous Woltjer-Taylor states by incorporating a collection of “ideal barriers” that prevent global relaxation and flow. In this paper, we generalize MRxMHD with flow to include Hall effects, and thereby obtain the partially relaxed counterparts of the famous double Beltrami states as a special subset. The physical and mathematical consequences arising from the introduction of the Hall term are also presented. We demonstrate that our results (in the ideal MHD limit) constitute an important subset of ideal MHD equilibria, and we compare our approach against other variational principles proposedmore » for deriving the partially relaxed states.« less

  9. Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.

  10. Spectroscopic Research of Lambda Hypdernuclei at JLab Hall C

    SciTech Connect

    Gogami, Toshiyuki; et. al.,

    2014-03-01

    A Lambda hyperon which has a strangeness can be bound in deep inside of a nucleus since a Λ does not suffer from the Pauli exclusion principle from nucleons. Thus, a Λ could be a useful tool to investigate inside of a nucleus. Since 2000, Lambda hypernuclear spectroscopic experiments by the (e,e'k) reaction have been performed at the experimental hall C in Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab Hall C). An experiment, JLab E05-115 was carried out to investigate Lambda hypernuclei with a wide mass range (the mass number, A = 7, 9, 10, 12, 52). The latest analysis statusmore » of JLab E05-115 experiment is discussed in the present article.« less

  11. Nanoconstriction spin-Hall oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divinskiy, B.; Demidov, V. E.; Kozhanov, A.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Demokritov, S. O.; Urazhdin, S.

    2017-07-01

    We experimentally study spin-Hall nano-oscillators based on [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We show that these devices exhibit single-frequency auto-oscillations at current densities comparable to those for in-plane magnetized oscillators. The demonstrated oscillators exhibit large magnetization precession amplitudes, and their oscillation frequency is highly tunable by the electric current. These features make them promising for applications in high-speed integrated microwave circuits.

  12. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  13. Another Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thibodeau, Phillip E.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power circuit provides noncontact measurement of alternating or direct current of many ampheres in main conductor. Advantages of circuit over other nulling Hall-effect current-measuring circuits is stability and accuracy increased by putting both analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters in nulling feedback loop. Converters and rest of circuit designed for operation at sampling rate of 100 kHz, but rate changed to alter time or frequency response of circuit.

  14. Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and Fernandez6 (hybrid- PIC ). This work follows the example of Lam and Fernandez but substitutes a spectral description in the azimuthal direction to...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulationect...of a pseudospectral azimuthal-axial hybrid- PIC HET code which is designed to explicitly resolve and filter azimuthal fluctuations in the

  15. Surface Depletion Correction to Carrier Profiles by Hall Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    deviations much larger than those predicted by the LSS theory. There are several advantages of the differential Hall method over the C-V method. For...3Y 2 ) bo A’ 64 b -- (2j8 3 2 -6) 2 A where A = 10$ - 12)Y2 -18. Equation (3) may now be integrated to obtain an analitic V.-’.4 function, in terms of

  16. Mode transition of a Hall thruster discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Kentaro, E-mail: kenhara@umich.edu; Sekerak, Michael J., E-mail: msekerak@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D.

    2014-05-28

    A Hall thruster is a cross-field plasma device used for spacecraft propulsion. An important unresolved issue in the development of Hall thrusters concerns the effect of discharge oscillations in the range of 10–30 kHz on their performance. The use of a high speed Langmuir probe system and ultra-fast imaging of the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster suggests that the discharge oscillation mode, often called the breathing mode, is strongly correlated to an axial global ionization mode. Stabilization of the global oscillation mode is achieved as the magnetic field is increased and azimuthally rotating spokes are observed. A hybrid-direct kinetic simulationmore » that takes into account the transport of electronically excited atoms is used to model the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster. The predicted mode transition agrees with experiments in terms of the mean discharge current, the amplitude of discharge current oscillation, and the breathing mode frequency. It is observed that the stabilization of the global oscillation mode is associated with reduced electron transport that suppresses the ionization process inside the channel. As the Joule heating balances the other loss terms including the effects of wall loss and inelastic collisions, the ionization oscillation is damped, and the discharge oscillation stabilizes. A wide range of the stable operation is supported by the formation of a space charge saturated sheath that stabilizes the electron axial drift and balances the Joule heating as the magnetic field increases. Finally, it is indicated from the numerical results that there is a strong correlation between the emitted light intensity and the discharge current.« less

  17. Comparison of Hall Thruster Plume Expansion Model with Experimental Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-23

    focus of this study, is a hybrid particle- in-cell ( PIC ) model that tracks particles along an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. * Research Engineer...measurements of the ion current density profile, ion energy distributions, and ion species fraction distributions using a nude Faraday probe, retarding...Vol.37 No.1. 6 Oh, D. and Hastings, D., “Three Dimensional PIC -DSMC Simulations of Hall Thruster Plumes and Analysis for Realistic Spacecraft

  18. 43. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VIEW OF TURBINE HALL LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST FROM THE MEZZANINE. IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS ARE THREE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS INSTALLED IN 1983. THE FREQUENCY CONVERTERS SUPPLEMENTED COS COB POWER. DURING THE TRANSITION TO UTILITY POWER CONVERTERS USED UTILITY INPUT POWER AT 60 CYCLES TO OUTPUT 25 CYCLE POWER FOR RAILROAD OPERATIONS. THE INTERIM SYSTEM INCREASED RELIABILITY AND ALLOWED COMPLIANCE WITH BOILER EMISSION LIMITATIONS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    direction f = species fraction 0g = gravitational constant at Earth’s surface, 9.81 m/s 2 I = current, subscripts b for beam, c for cathode, d for...Hall effect thruster uses crossed electric and magnetic fields to generate and accelerate ions. The gas in the discharge is partially ionized, although...early 1960s.10 Ions are weakly magnetized and most are accelerated directly out of the channel, forming the ion beam. The bulk of the cathode

  20. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA