Science.gov

Sample records for a-1 water hammer

  1. Water hammer simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison`s central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison`s central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included.

  2. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  3. Water Hammer Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    This video shows the propulsion system on an engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander being successfully tested. Instead of fuel, water is run through the propulsion system to make sure that the spacecraft holds up to vibrations caused by pressure oscillations.

    The test was performed very early in the development of the mission, in 2005, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. Early testing was possible because Phoenix's main structure was already in place from the 2001 Mars Surveyor program.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Water Hammer Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation

    This video shows the propulsion system on an engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander being successfully tested. Instead of fuel, water is run through the propulsion system to make sure that the spacecraft holds up to vibrations caused by pressure oscillations.

    The test was performed very early in the development of the mission, in 2005, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. Early testing was possible because Phoenix's main structure was already in place from the 2001 Mars Surveyor program.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Modeling of water hammer with column separation

    SciTech Connect

    Cerne, G.; Tiselj, C.I.; Petelin, S.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to compare the accuracy of different two-phase flow codes and their capability of fast transient prediction. Water-hammer transient following instantaneous closure of a valve is a useful benchmark for two-phase flow codes for comparison with the available experimental results. Important phenomena are pressure waves, flashing near the valve, and condensation of the steam.

  6. 242-A Evaporator water hammer event investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, D.L.

    1992-04-01

    On February 28, 1992, at approximately 1053 hours, a water hammer occurred at the 242-A Evaporator Facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facility's Raw Water/Used Raw Water (RW/URW) system was undergoing operational testing at the time of the event. While trying to establish system water pressure, a downstream pressure control valve was overcome by water pressure and abruptly shut. Approximately 2300 gal/min of raw water flow was established before the valve closed. Supply water pressure was determined to be approximately 105 psig. During preliminary damage assessments a pressure gauge was found overranged and water was observed leaking from various components. Detailed evaluations are being conducted to assess potential damage to the EC-1 Condenser and other equipment associated with the RW/URW systems.

  7. 242-A Evaporator water hammer event investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, D.L.

    1992-04-01

    On February 28, 1992, at approximately 1053 hours, a water hammer occurred at the 242-A Evaporator Facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facility`s Raw Water/Used Raw Water (RW/URW) system was undergoing operational testing at the time of the event. While trying to establish system water pressure, a downstream pressure control valve was overcome by water pressure and abruptly shut. Approximately 2300 gal/min of raw water flow was established before the valve closed. Supply water pressure was determined to be approximately 105 psig. During preliminary damage assessments a pressure gauge was found overranged and water was observed leaking from various components. Detailed evaluations are being conducted to assess potential damage to the EC-1 Condenser and other equipment associated with the RW/URW systems.

  8. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

  9. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  10. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  11. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejović, S.; Mazij, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

  12. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  13. Influences on water-hammer wave shape: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traudt, T.; Bombardieri, C.; Manfletti, C.

    2016-09-01

    Water-hammer phenomena are of strong interest in a number of different industrial fields, amongst which the space industry. Here the priming of feedlines during start-up of an engine as well as the rapid closing of valves upon shutdown may lead to pressure peaks symptomatic of a water-hammer wave. Test benches used to conduct tests on future as well as current engines are also sensitive to water-hammer waves traveling along their feedlines. To enhance the understanding of water-hammer, we investigated different configurations and their influence on the wave shape in the frequency domain. The configurations feature a coiled pipe setup with a support structure and without a support structure. Two other phenomena will be presented. We found a beat phenomenon which is likely to be the so called Poisson-coupling beat. Finally we will show that the second water-hammer peak can reach pressures a lot higher than the first peak by additive interference of the primary and secondary water-hammer wave.

  14. Cavitation luminescence in a water hammer: Upscaling sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C.-K.; Camara, C.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S. J.

    2003-06-01

    Oscillatory acceleration and deceleration of a column of water leads to a pipe hammer as well as cavitation. With a small amount of xenon gas dissolved in the water, we can detect a stream of predominantly ultraviolet subnanosecond flashes of light which are attributed to collapsing bubbles. The observed emission can exceed 108 photons for a single collapse and has a peak power over 0.4 W.

  15. Water hammer with column separation: A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A. R.; Tijsseling, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water-hammer event when the pressure in a pipeline drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). The liquid columns are separated by a vapor cavity that grows and diminishes according to the dynamics of the system. The collision of two liquid columns, or of one liquid column with a closed end, may cause a large and nearly instantaneous rise in pressure. This pressure rise travels through the entire pipeline and forms a severe load for hydraulic machinery, individual pipes and supporting structures. The situation is even worse: in one water-hammer event many repetitions of cavity formation and collapse may occur. This paper reviews water hammer with column separation from the discovery of the phenomenon in the late 19th century, the recognition of its danger in the 1930s, the development of numerical methods in the 1960s and 1970s, to the standard models used in commercial software packages in the late 20th century. A comprehensive survey of laboratory tests and field measurements is given. The review focuses on transient vaporous cavitation. Gaseous cavitation and steam condensation are beyond the scope of the paper.

  16. Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia Induced Hydrocephalus: the Water-Hammer Effect

    PubMed Central

    Zisimopoulou, Vaso; Ntouniadaki, Aikaterini; Aggelidakis, Panagiotis; Siatouni, Anna; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Tavernarakis, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications. PMID:26236456

  17. Water hammer caused by closure of turbine safety spherical valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadžić, U.; Bergant, A.; Vukoslavčević, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates water hammer effects caused by closure of spherical valves against the discharge. During the first phase of modernisation of Perućica high-head hydropower plant (HPP), Montenegro, safety spherical valves (inlet turbine valves) have been refurbished on the first two Pelton turbine units. The valve closure is controlled by the valve actuator (hydraulic servomotor). Because the torque acting on the valve body is dependent on flow conditions the valve closing time may vary significantly for different flow velocities (passive valve). For the passive valve the torques acting on the valve body should be considered in the valve model. The valve closing time results from numerical simulation. On the contrary, for the active valve the valve closing time is assumed prior to simulation. The spherical valve boundary condition is incorporated into the method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm. The staggered (diamond) grid in applying the MOC is used in this paper. The passive valve boundary condition is described by the water hammer equations, the valve equation that relates discharge to pressure head drop and the dynamic equation of the valve body motion (torque equation). The active valve boundary condition is described by the first two equations, respectively. Standard quasi-steady friction model is used for estimating friction losses in plant's tunnel and penstocks. Numerical results using both the active and the passive spherical valve models are compared with results of measurements. It has been found that the influence of flow conditions on the spherical valve closing time is minor for the cases considered. Computed and measured results agree reasonably well.

  18. STUDY ON OPERATING CHARACTERISTECS OF WATER HAMMER GENERATING DEVICE FOR TREATMENT OF MICROORGANISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Tatsuhisa; Endo, Shigekatsu; Oda, Akira; Shimizu, Yasushi

    The phenomenon that has been actualized due to the water quality deterioration because of the inflow of drainage and the industrial wastewater includes the phenomenon that is called water-bloom generated in the freshwater environment made a eutrophic. This is becoming a serious problem to secure the water.Mixing with the drinking water has already been confirmed, and the generation of water-bloom is becoming a big social problem, and fundamental measures have not been established yet.On the other hand, authors are proving the pressure to be a fast the pressure speed of the impact pressure by the water hammer and effective in the destruction of the blue-green algae.In this studies, the hydraulics flow characteristics of an effective water hammer pressure generator to the shredding of the water-bloom cell were examined.As a result, there was a boundary in the region where the water hammer was generated by length and the water supply head of conduit, and the water hammer pressure was able to be understood to be influenced according to the angle of the valve that generated the water hammer in addition in the water hammer generator.The demonstration in the locale was confirmed based on these and the scale etc. of an effective device to the doing water-bloom processing were able to be confirmed by continuous running.

  19. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  20. An Analysis of the Impact of Valve Closure Time on the Course of Water Hammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodura, Apoloniusz

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of transient flow in pressure pipelines is very important for the designing and describing of pressure networks. The water hammer is the most common example of transient flow in pressure pipelines. During this phenomenon, the transformation of kinetic energy into pressure energy causes significant changes in pressure, which can lead to serious problems in the management of pressure networks. The phenomenon is very complex, and a large number of different factors influence its course. In the case of a water hammer caused by valve closing, the characteristic of gate closure is one of the most important factors. However, this factor is rarely investigated. In this paper, the results of physical experiments with water hammer in steel and PE pipelines are described and analyzed. For each water hammer, characteristics of pressure change and valve closing were recorded. The measurements were compared with the results of calculations perfomed by common methods used by engineers - Michaud's equation and Wood and Jones's method. The comparison revealed very significant differences between the results of calculations and the results of experiments. In addition, it was shown that, the characteristic of butterfly valve closure has a significant influence on water hammer, which should be taken into account in analyzing this phenomenon. Comparison of the results of experiments with the results of calculations? may lead to new, improved calculation methods and to new methods to describe transient flow.

  1. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Hammered Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    In the next three chapters we consider the science of hammered string instruments. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of vibrating strings excited by a hard or soft hammer. Chapter 20 discusses the most important hammered string instrument, the piano - probably the most versatile and popular of all musical instruments. Chapter 21 discusses hammered dulcimers, especially the American folk dulcimer.

  4. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  5. Erosion and water hammer testing of glass reinforced plastic pipework for topside seawater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boothby, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Resistance to internal erosion, and tolerance to water hammer are two aspects of performance that need to be quantified to permit the cost effective use of glass reinforced plastics for offshore topside seawater piping. Testing has therefore been conducted at the British Gas Research and Technology sub-sea test facility, using purpose designed test rigs, to generate data on these topics. The erosion tests comprised 50mm nominal internal diameter GRP pipework loops, exposed to a range of seawater flow velocities from 3 to 23 m/s. Water hammer testing involved 150mm nominal internal diameter GRP pipe spools containing a variety of adhesively bonded joints, and subjected to multiple cycles involving surge pressures of up to 3 times the recommended design pressure. This paper presents the results obtained and discusses the practical implications of the findings.

  6. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  7. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  8. Water hammer due to the sudden stopping of a flashing flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.J.; Griffith, P.

    1991-08-01

    Measurements of the peak pressure occurring when a valve at the end of a pipe passing a flashing flow is slammed shut have been made. Scatter is considerable. The pressure trace indicates that condensing of the vapor occurs at essentially constant pressure after which a single phase liquid water hammer occurs. A simplified hand calculation and a more elaborate computer calculation are both shown to bound the data. For designing pipe supports, the peak pressure can be conservatively estimated assuming the flow is pure liquid. Before the spike is experienced, however, a delay, while the pipe is being filled, ensues. What constitutes a rapid valve closure in this problem, compared to single phase liquid rapid valve closure, is quite different. To avoid the waterhammer, a much slower stroking of the valve is needed.

  9. Hammered Dulcimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David

    The hammered dulcimer, a direct ancestor of the clavichord and the pianoforte, is a folk instrument that developed from eleventh-century antecedents such as the psaltery. They are trapezoidal in shape, with a long base of 40-45 in. and height of 15-18 in. Two bridges, treble and bass, each support 11-16 courses of strings, which are struck with light wooden hammers. The treble bridge divides the strings into a musical fifth, which facilitates the fast playing of diatonic melodies. Historically, the instrument was used as a rhythmic back-up for fiddles and other lead instruments, but since being popularized in the 1970s folk revival, it has become a solo or lead instrument in ensembles. The hammered dulcimer shares many acoustic properties with the piano except that the dulcimer is smaller and undamped, and the lighter, harder hammers give a more percussive sound. A hammered dulcimer player can also play double strokes and can alter instrument timbre by changing strike location. Current instruments are lightweight, 13-30 lb, and reasonably stable, but temperature and humidity changes cause tuning problems which are related to the linear scaling that is intrinsic to the trapezoidal design.

  10. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  11. Fluid-structure interaction in case of water hammer with cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijsseling, A. S.

    1993-06-01

    The transient behavior of liquid-filled pipe systems is studied. The time scale is acoustic. Pressure waves in the liquid, and axial, lateral, and torsional stress waves in the pipes are the dominant phenomena. The phenomena in the liquid (water hammer) and the phenomena in the pipe system (structural dynamic) influence each other if significant radial and axial pipe motions occur. When, in addition, the dynamic pressure drops to the vapor pressure, vapor bubbles will form in the liquid (cavitation). The major new element of the present work is in the simultaneous occurrence of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and cavitation, which is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. An extensive review of literature on the subject is given. One dimensional basic equations are obtained by integration of general three dimensional equations for fluid dynamics and structural linear elasticity. Three FSI-mechanisms (junction, Poisson, and friction-coupling) are taken into account. The governing equations, formulated as a hyperbolic set of fourteen first-order partial differential equations, are solved by the method of characteristics. Vapor cavitation is numerically simulated by the relatively simple concentrated cavity model.

  12. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  13. Investigation and mitigation of condensation induced water hammer by stratified flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Hiral J.

    This research primarily focuses on the possibility of using stratified flow in preventing an occurrence of condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) in horizontal pipe involving steam and subcooled water. A two-phase flow loop simulating the passive safety systems of an advanced light water reactor was constructed and a series of stratified flow experiments were carried out involving a system of subcooled water, saturated water, and steam. Special instruments were designed to measure steam flow rate and subcooled liquid velocity. These experiments showed that when flow field conditions meet certain criteria CIWH does occur. Flow conditions used in experiments were typically observed in passive safety systems of an advanced light water cooled reactor. This research summarizes a) literature research and other experimental data that signify an occurrence of CIWH, b) experiments in an effort to show an occurrence of CIWH and the ability to prevent CIWH, c) qualitative and quantitative results to underline the mechanism of CIWH, d) experiments that show CIWH can be prevented under certain conditions, and e) guidelines for the safe operating conditions. Based on initial experiment results it was observed that Bernoulli's effect can play an important role in wave formation and instability. A separate effect table top experiment was constructed with plexi-glass. A series of entrance effect tests and stratified experiments were carried out with different fluids to study wave formation and wave bridging. Special test series experiments were carried out to investigate the presence of a saturated layer. The effect of subcooled water and steam flow on wedge length and depth were recorded. These experiments helped create a model which calculates wedge and depth of wedge for a given condition of steam and subcooled water. A very good comparison between the experiment results and the model was obtained. These experiments also showed that the presence of saturated layer can mitigate

  14. Comparison of Amplitudes and Frequencies of Explosive vs. Hammer Seismic Sources for a 1-km Seismic Line in West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.; Karplus, M. S.; Vennemann, A.

    2016-12-01

    In May 2016, the National Seismic Source Facility (NSSF) located at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Department of Geological Sciences collected seismic data at the Indio Ranch located 30 km southwest of Van Horn, Texas. Both hammer on an aluminum plate and explosive sources were used. The project objective was to image subsurface structures at the ranch, owned by UTEP. Selecting the appropriate seismic source is important to reach project objectives. We compare seismic sources between explosions and hammer on plate, focusing on amplitude and frequency. The seismic line was 1 km long, trending WSW to ENE, with 200 4.5 Hz geophones at 5m spacing and shot locations at 10m spacing. Clay slurry was used in shot holes to increase shot coupling around booster. Trojan Spartan cast boosters (150g) were used in explosive sources in each shot hole (1 hole per station). The end of line shots had 5 shot holes instead of 1 (750g total). The hammer source utilized a 5.5 kg hammer and an aluminum plate. Five hammer blows were stacked at each location to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Explosive sources yield higher amplitude, but lower frequency content. The explosions exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to recognize seismic energy deeper and farther from the source. Hammer sources yield higher frequencies, allowing better resolution at shallower depths but have a lower signal-to-noise ratio and lower amplitudes, even with source stacking. We analyze the details of the shot spectra from the different types of sources. A combination of source types can improve data resolution and amplitude, thereby improving imaging potential. However, cost, logistics, and complexities also have a large influence on source selection.

  15. Assessment on Integrity of BWR Internals Against Impact Load by Water Hammer Under Conditions of Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Mie; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2005-03-15

    The integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head and reactor internals was assessed by means of fluid and fluid-structural coupled analyses to evaluate the water hammer phenomenon arising from postulated high burnup fuel failure under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. The fluid viscosity effect on the water column burst as well as the complex three-dimensional flow paths caused by a core shroud and standpipes were considered in this study. It is shown that fluid viscosity becomes an influential factor to dissipate impacting kinetic energy. Integrity of the RPV head and the shroud head was ensured with a sufficient level of margin even under these excessively conservative RIA conditions.

  16. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  17. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  18. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; Nameth, P.; Okelly, K.; Phillips, H.; Rollo, J.; Rupert, E.; Sykes, H.; Vitrano, E.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  19. Aortic hammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Komen, Niels; Vercauteren, Sven; de Roover, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    To present a case of penetrating aortic ulcer with extraordinary etiology. A 57-year-old man was admitted with acute retrosternal and interscapular pain. He was a demolition worker and often used a pneumatic drill to which he pressed his chest as he drilled. Clinical examination showed previously undiagnosed hypertension. Computed tomographic angiography disclosed a penetrating aortic ulcer in the descending thoracic aorta without any sign of atherosclerosis. Initial treatment consisted of blood pressure control. However, due to progression of the lesion, endovascular treatment was performed to implant a covered endoprosthesis. We hypothesize that the etiology of the ulcer was the shear forces developed by incorrect, repetitive use of the pneumatic hammer in combination with the untreated hypertension. This is analogous to the hypothenar hammer syndrome, and we propose naming this the "aortic hammer syndrome."

  20. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  1. Bilateral thenar hammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Plat, Emmanuel; Guias, Bruno; D'agostino, Maria Antonietta; Bressollette, Luc; Saraux, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Thenar hammer syndrome is a very rare condition that mimics rheumatic diseases such as carpal syndrome tunnel, Raynaud's phenomenon, and hand synovitis. To describe the sonographic presentation of thenar hammer syndrome in a typical patient. Grey-scale sonography and colour Doppler imaging of the hands with an iU22 scanner (Philips) were performed. In B mode, the lesion was seen as a large, rounded, heterogeneous area combining hypoechoic and echogenic components. Pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed based on presence of a cystic saccular formation arising directly from the adjacent artery and exhibiting an irregular thick wall with turbulent blood flow in the lumen. Colour Doppler showed blood flow in part of the lumen, the rest of which was filled with a thrombus seen as echogenic tissue. Sonography can help to diagnose thenar hammer syndrome. Angiography may be unnecessary in patients with normal colour Doppler findings. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of titanium alloys for details of downhole hammers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelyukh, A. I.; Repin, A. A.; Alekseev, S. E.; Martyushev, N. V.; Drozdov, Yu Yu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of cementation technology of titanium alloy Ti-Al-Mn on its wear resistance is studied. It is established that after lubrication a friction pair with mineral oil the wear resistance of the cemented titanium alloy is comparable to wear resistance of the tempered steel 12HN3A, and in water medium surpasses it by 1.5 times. Decrease in the tendency to seizure with steel is the main reason for increase of wear resistance of titanium alloy. Industrial tests of the ASH43 hammer have shown that the use of titanium alloys for the manufacture of hammer strikers allows to increase impact capacity by 1.5 times and to increase drilling rate by 30 % compared to hammers with steel strikers.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arniz Judzis

    2001-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting April 2001 through June 2001. Accomplishments to date include the following: (1) DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory highlighted the Mud Hammer Project at an exhibit at the Offshore Technology Conference April 30 through May 3. TerraTek assisted NETL personnel with presentation materials appropriate for the project and a demonstration sample of ''hard rock'' drilled in TerraTek's wellbore simulator. (2) TerraTek has completed 13 drilling tests in Carthage Marble and hard Crab Orchard Sandstone with the SDS Digger Tool, Novatek tool, and a conventional rock bit. After some initial mud pump and flow line problems at TerraTek, we completed the testing matrix for the SDS Digger Tool and the Novatek hammer on 27 June 2001. Overall the hammers functioned properly at ''borehole'' pressures up to 3,000 psi with weighted water based mud. The Department of Energy goals to determine hammer benchmark rates of penetration and ability to function at depth are being met. Additionally data on drilling intervals and rates of penetration specific to flow rates, pressure drops, rotary speed, and weights-on-bit have been given to the Industry Partners for detailed analysis. SDS and Novatek have gained considerable experience on the operation of their tools at simulated depth conditions. Some optimization has already started and has been identified as a result of these first tests.

  4. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Bilby J.

    1987-01-01

    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  5. Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.; Radtke, Dean B.; Gibs, Jacob; Iwatsubo, Rick T.

    1998-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) provides guidelines and standard procedures for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses field-trip preparations, including selection of sample-collection sites for studies of surface-water quality, site reconnaissance and well selection for studies of groundwater quality, and the establishment of electronic files and field files and folders for a sampling site. Each chapter of the National Field Manual is published separately and revised periodically. Newly published and revised chapters are posted on the World Wide Web on the USGS page 'National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data.' The URL for this page is http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/ (accessed Jan. 31, 2005).

  6. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  7. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    PubMed

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  9. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  10. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in an office worker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Weerakkody, Yuranga; Tosenovsky, Patrik

    2017-09-13

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon cause of unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon, splinter haemorrhages and hypothenar weakness. The typical patient is a male blue-collar worker who uses their hypothenar eminence to hammer objects as part of their work. The distal ulnar artery beyond Guyon's canal is superficial and vulnerable to blunt trauma. CTA and MRA are common initial investigations and can suggest the diagnosis. DSA is the gold standard imaging modality and offers therapeutic opportunities. Management is controversial, but unless there is critical digital ischaemia, conservative treatment is first line. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  12. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  13. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  14. View of hammer nameplate (Chambersburg Engineering Company, Chambersburg, Penna USA) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hammer nameplate (Chambersburg Engineering Company, Chambersburg, Penna USA) and view north of Tony Talotta (heavy forger), Paul Azcharka (hammer operator), and Morty Hoffman (hammer operator helper) forging eyebolts. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Rare SLC1A1 variants in hot water epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karan, Kalpita Rashimi; Satishchandra, P; Sinha, Sanjib; Anand, Anuranjan

    2017-03-21

    Hot water epilepsy is sensory epilepsy, wherein seizures are triggered by an unusual stimulus: contact with hot water. Although genetic factors contribute to the etiology of hot water epilepsy, molecular underpinnings of the disorder remain largely unknown. We aimed to identify the molecular genetic basis of the disorder by studying families with two or more of their members affected with hot water epilepsy. Using a combination of genome-wide linkage mapping and whole exome sequencing, a missense variant was identified in SLC1A1 in a three-generation family. Further, we examined SLC1A1in probands of 98 apparently unrelated HWE families with positive histories of seizures provoked by contact with hot water. In doing so, we found three rare variants, p.Asp174Asn, p.Val251Ile and p.Ile304Met in the gene. SLC1A1 is a neuronal glutamate transporter which limits excitotoxicity and its loss-of-function leads to age-dependent neurodegeneration. We examined functional attributes of the variants in cultured mammalian cells. All three non-synonymous variants affected glutamate uptake, exhibited altered glutamate kinetics and anion conductance properties of SLC1A1. These observations provide insights into the molecular basis of hot water epilepsy and show the role of SLC1A1 variants in this intriguing neurobehavioral disorder.

  16. Muffling Hammer Blows In A Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Alfred W.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Sound-deadening bags placed on hammered workpieces. Useful in many workshop situations. Fabricated easily and inexpensively. Bags filled with particles of sand, metal shot, plastic, or glass, then sewn or molded shut. Tailored to fit special configurations of some workpieces. Devices used to deaden print rollers and to reduce vibrations in main-injector inlet manifold of rocket engine.

  17. Automated Welding of Rotary Forge Hammers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) Welding. Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, 34 Metal Powder, Rotary Forge Hammers. Hardfacing 16. PRICE CODE 17...filled with required hardfacing materials ............................................... 26 8. Top and side schematic views, respectively, of forging...superalloy hardfacing deposit. In addition to the hardfacing layer, an underlying layer of buffer material must first be deposited to minimize cracking

  18. Muffling Hammer Blows In A Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Alfred W.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Sound-deadening bags placed on hammered workpieces. Useful in many workshop situations. Fabricated easily and inexpensively. Bags filled with particles of sand, metal shot, plastic, or glass, then sewn or molded shut. Tailored to fit special configurations of some workpieces. Devices used to deaden print rollers and to reduce vibrations in main-injector inlet manifold of rocket engine.

  19. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  20. Muscle Fibre Type Composition and Body Composition in Hammer Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key points Well-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls. Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance. The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation. PMID:24149393

  1. Water Hammer Simulations of Monomethylhydrazine Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Zachary; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK do not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine(MMH). This work illustrates the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight.

  2. Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Kullberg, Craig M.

    2004-05-11

    A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.

  3. Hammering Does Not Fit Fitts' Law.

    PubMed

    Petrič, Tadej; Simpson, Cole S; Ude, Aleš; Ijspeert, Auke J

    2017-01-01

    While movement is essential to human wellbeing, we are still unable to reproduce the deftness and robustness of human movement in automatons or completely restore function to individuals with many types of motor impairment. To better understand how the human nervous system plans and controls movements, neuromechanists employ simple tasks such as upper extremity reaches and isometric force tasks. However, these simple tasks rarely consider impacts and may not capture aspects of motor control that arise from real-world complexity. Here we compared existing models of motor control with the results of a periodic targeted impact task extended from Bernstein's seminal work: hammering a nail into wood. We recorded impact forces and kinematics from 10 subjects hammering at different frequencies and with hammers with different physical properties (mass and face area). We found few statistical differences in most measures between different types of hammer, demonstrating human robustness to minor changes in dynamics. Because human motor control is thought to obey optimality principles, we also developed a feedforward optimal simulation with a neuromechanically inspired cost function that reproduces the experimental data. However, Fitts' Law, which relates movement time to distance traveled and target size, did not match our experimental data. We therefore propose a new model in which the distance moved is a logarithmic function of the time to move that yields better results (R(2) ≥ 0.99 compared to R(2) ≥ 0.88). These results support the argument that humans control movement in an optimal way, but suggest that Fitts' Law may not generalize to periodic impact tasks.

  4. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  5. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-22

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  6. Break-dance: an unusual cause of hammer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Frédéric; Milesi, Ilaria; Haesler, Erik; Wicky, Stephan; Schnyder, P; Denys, Alban

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a young break-dancer presenting with hammer syndrome. This syndrome has been correlated with many professional and recreational activities but this is, to our knowledge, the first description of hammer syndrome caused by break-dancing. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment modalities of this rare syndrome are considered.

  7. Break-Dance: An Unusual Cause of Hammer Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Frederic; Milesi, Ilaria; Haesler, Erik; Wicky, Stephan; Schnyder, P.; Denys, Alban

    2002-08-15

    We report the case of a young break-dancer presenting with hammer syndrome. This syndrome has been correlated with many professional and recreational activities but this is, to our knowledge, the first description of hammer syndrome caused by break-dancing. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment modalities of this rare syndrome are considered.

  8. Electromagnetic hammer removes weld distortions from aluminum tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1965-01-01

    Distortions around weld areas on sheet-aluminum tanks and other structures are removed with a portable electromagnetic hammer. The hammer incorporates a coil that generates a controlled high-energy pulsed magnetic field over localized areas on the metal surface.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  10. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  11. Effect of moisture on hammer-milled glass-fiber-reinforced polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mateen, A.; Siddiqi, S.A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of moisture on the dynamic properties of hammer-milled glass-fiber-reinforced polyurethane was investigated. Similar investigations were also made on an unfilled polyurethane matrix for comparison. Moisture was found to increase the shear modulus at lower temperature due to the formation of ice. At higher temperatures, however, shear modulus decreased due to the plasticizing effect of water. Moisture also modified the damping properties of the material.

  12. Effect of hammer mass on upper extremity joint moments.

    PubMed

    Balendra, Nilanthy; Langenderfer, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    This study used an OpenSim inverse-dynamics musculoskeletal model scaled to subject-specific anthropometrics to calculate three-dimensional intersegmental moments at the shoulder, elbow and wrist while 10 subjects used 1 and 2 lb hammers to drive nails. Motion data were collected via an optoelectronic system and the interaction of the hammer with nails was recorded with a force plate. The larger hammer caused substantial increases (50-150%) in moments, although increases differed by joint, anatomical component, and significance of the effect. Moment increases were greater in cocking and strike/follow-through phases as opposed to swinging and may indicate greater potential for injury. Compared to shoulder, absolute increases in peak moments were smaller for elbow and wrist, but there was a trend toward larger relative increases for distal joints. Shoulder rotation, elbow varus-valgus and pronation-supination, and wrist radial-ulnar deviation and rotation demonstrated large relative moment increases. Trial and phase durations were greater for the larger hammer. Changes in moments and timing indicate greater loads on musculoskeletal tissues for an extended period with the larger hammer. Additionally, greater variability in timing with the larger hammer, particularly for cocking phase, suggests differences in control of the motion. Increased relative moments for distal joints may be particularly important for understanding disorders of the elbow and wrist associated with hammer use.

  13. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A.; Gelfgat, M.; Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J.

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2002-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-04-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting January 2004 through March 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 3Q 2004. Smith International's hammer will be tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek presented a paper for publication in conjunction with a peer review at the GTI Natural Gas Technologies Conference February 10, 2004. Manuscripts and associated presentation material were delivered on schedule. The paper was entitled ''Mud Hammer Performance Optimization''. (2) Shell Exploration and Production continued to express high interest in the ''cutter impact'' testing program Task 8. Hughes Christensen supplied inserts for this testing program. (3) TerraTek hosted an Industry/DOE planning meeting to finalize a testing program for ''Cutter Impact Testing--Understanding Rock Breakage with Bits'' on February 13, 2004. (4) Formal dialogue with Terralog was initiated. Terralog has recently been awarded a DOE contract to model hammer mechanics with TerraTek as a sub-contractor. (5) Novatek provided the DOE with a schedule to complete their new fluid hammer and test it at TerraTek.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2003 through June 2003. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). Accomplishments included the following: (1) Hughes Christensen has recently expressed interest in the possibility of a program to examine cutter impact testing, which would be useful in a better understanding of the physics of rock impact. Their interest however is not necessarily fluid hammers, but to use the information for drilling bit development. (2) Novatek (cost sharing supplier of tools) has informed the DOE project manager that their tool may not be ready for ''optimization'' testing late summer 2003 (August-September timeframe) as originally anticipated. During 3Q Novatek plans to meet with TerraTek to discuss progress with their tool for 4Q 2003 testing. (3) A task for an addendum to the hammer project related to cutter impact studies was written during 2Q 2003. (4) Smith International internally is upgrading their hammer for the optimization testing phase. One currently known area of improvement is their development program to significantly increase the hammer blow energy.

  17. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  18. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  19. 18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Blacksmith Shop (first floor): view looking north; trip hammer and coal bin in background, shears and swage block in foreground - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  20. 9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., Chicago, Illinois), LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE BASEMENT, WAS ADDED IN THE EARLY 1930s. THIS WAS THE MILL'S FIRST ELECTRIC-POWERED MACHINERY. THE HAMMER MILL WAS USED TO PULVERIZE OATS, ALFALFA MEAL, AND CORN. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Subsurface sediment contamination during borehole drilling with an air-actuated down-hole hammer.

    PubMed

    Malard, Florian; Datry, Thibault; Gibert, Janine

    2005-10-01

    Drilling methods can severely alter physical, chemical, and biological properties of aquifers, thereby influencing the reliability of water samples collected from groundwater monitoring wells. Because of their fast drilling rate, air-actuated hammers are increasingly used for the installation of groundwater monitoring wells in unconsolidated sediments. However, oil entrained in the air stream to lubricate the hammer-actuating device can contaminate subsurface sediments. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons, heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd), and nutrients (particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) were measured in continuous sediment cores recovered during the completion of a 26-m deep borehole drilled with a down-hole hammer in glaciofluvial deposits. Total hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr and particulate organic carbon (POC) were all measured at concentrations far exceeding background levels in most sediment cores. Hydrocarbon concentration averaged 124 +/- 118 mg kg(-1) dry sediment (n = 78 samples) with peaks at depths of 8, 14, and 20 m below the soil surface (maximum concentration: 606 mg kg(-1)). The concentrations of hydrocarbons, Cu, Ni, Cr, and POC were positively correlated and exhibited a highly irregular vertical pattern, that probably reflected variations in air loss within glaciofluvial deposits during drilling. Because the penetration of contaminated air into the formation is unpreventable, the representativeness of groundwater samples collected may be questioned. It is concluded that air percussion drilling has strong limitations for well installation in groundwater quality monitoring surveys.

  2. Auto-Gopher: A Wire-Line Rotary-Hammer Ultrasonic Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaogi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-01-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as, the search for water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary-hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper

  3. Auto-Gopher: a wire-line rotary-hammer ultrasonic drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-04-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as the search of water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary- hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper.

  4. Auto-Gopher: A Wire-Line Rotary-Hammer Ultrasonic Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaogi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-01-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as, the search for water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary-hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the testing vessel with a reconfigured flow system on Novatek's collar.

  6. Thenar hammer syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Youakim, Sami

    2006-10-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon occurs among automobile mechanics secondary to long-term use of vibrating hand-held tools. It can also occur from traumatic injury to the upper extremity. This report describes a case of single digit Raynaud's phenomenon in an automobile mechanic due to focal arterial impact trauma. A 38-year-old right-handed transmission mechanic complained of paraesthesia and blanching of the right index finger on exposure to cold and eventually developed a transient necrotic ulcer at the tip of the digit. He had a long history of occupational exposure to vibrating hand-held power tools. Evaluation for common causes of Raymond's phenomenon was negative. The diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) was rejected because of the rapidity of progression and severity of the symptoms restricted only to the index finger without corresponding symptoms of the other digits of the right hand as would be expected. Angiography revealed an obstructive lesion of the distal right radial artery at the wrist and he was diagnosed with thenar hammer syndrome. This uncommon condition was due to focal injury of the distal radial artery caused by repeated slamming of transmission parts on a work table. Not all cases of Raynaud's phenomenon in workers using vibrating hand-held tools are due to HAVS. Alternative aetiologies should be considered especially if symptoms are asymmetrical and unilateral.

  7. Carpal and Forearm Kinematics During a Simulated Hammering Task

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Evan L.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Hammering is a functional task in which the wrist generally follows a path of motion from a position of combined radial deviation and extension to combined ulnar deviation and flexion, colloquially referred to as a dart thrower's motion (DTM). The purpose of this study was to measure wrist and forearm motion and scaphoid and lunate kinematics during a simulated hammering task. We hypothesized that the wrist follows an oblique path from radial extension to ulnar flexion and that there would be minimal radiocarpal motion during the hammering task. Methods 13 healthy volunteers consented to have their wrist and distal forearm imaged with computed tomography at five positions in a simulated hammering task. The kinematics of the carpus and distal radial ulnar joint were calculated using established markerless bone registration methods. The path of wrist motion was described relative to the sagittal plane. Forearm rotation and radioscaphoid and radiolunate motion were computed as a function wrist position. Results All volunteers performed the simulated hammering task using a path of wrist motion from radial extension to ulnar flexion that was oriented an average 41 ± 3° from the sagittal plane. These paths did not pass through the anatomic neutral wrist position; rather they passed through the neutral hammering position, which was offset by 36° ± 8° in extension. Rotations of the scaphoid and lunate were not minimal but averaged 40% and 41% respectively of total wrist motion. The range of forearm pronosupination during the task averaged 12 ± 8°. Conclusions The simulated hammering task was performed using a wrist motion that followed an oblique path, from radial extension to ulnar flexion. Scaphoid and lunate rotations were significantly reduced, but not minimized, when compared with rotations during pure wrist flexion/extension. This is likely due to the fact that an extended wrist position was maintained throughout the entire task studied. PMID:20610055

  8. Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.

    PubMed

    Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.

  9. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ster, Daniel C.; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Úbeda García, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  10. 36. SOUTHWEST TO BELTPOWERED CIRCA 1900 DROP HAMMER IN NORTHEASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. SOUTHWEST TO BELT-POWERED CIRCA 1900 DROP HAMMER IN NORTHEASTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY OPPOSITE FROM THE BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO SHAPE THE STEEL VANE HINGE PART AFTER IT WAS HEATED IN THE FORGE IN THE ADJACENT BLACKSMITH SHOP AREA. USE OF THE ROTATING POWER OF THE PULLEY AT THE TO MADE LIFTING THE HAMMER COMPARATIVELY QUICK AND EASY. AROUND THE MACHINE ARE WHEEL PARTS FOR ELI WINDMILLS. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 FOUR-SPINDLE PRODUCTION DRILL PRESS WHICH WAS RELOCATED TO THIS AREA APPARENTLY AFTER THE END OF WINDMILL MANUFACTURE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  11. Enhancing down-the-hole air hammer capacity in directional drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, V. I.; Timonin, V. V.; Kokoulin, D. I.; Alekseev, S. E.; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-09-01

    The authors discuss the issue connected with drilling trajectory deviation and present the technique of rotary–percussion drilling with a down-the-hole air hammer. The article describes pilot testing of the air hammer drill PNB76 in Berezovskaya Mine. The ways of improving the air hammer drill are identified, and the basic diagram and R&D test data are given.

  12. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arnis Judzis

    2002-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting April 2002 through June 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Presentation material was provided to the DOE/NETL project manager (Dr. John Rogers) for the DOE exhibit at the 2002 Offshore Technology Conference. (2) Two meeting at Smith International and one at Andergauge in Houston were held to investigate their interest in joining the Mud Hammer Performance study. (3) SDS Digger Tools (Task 3 Benchmarking participant) apparently has not negotiated a commercial deal with Halliburton on the supply of fluid hammers to the oil and gas business. (4) TerraTek is awaiting progress by Novatek (a DOE contractor) on the redesign and development of their next hammer tool. Their delay will require an extension to TerraTek's contracted program. (5) Smith International has sufficient interest in the program to start engineering and chroming of collars for testing at TerraTek. (6) Shell's Brian Tarr has agreed to join the Industry Advisory Group for the DOE project. The addition of Brian Tarr is welcomed as he has numerous years of experience with the Novatek tool and was involved in the early tests in Europe while with Mobil Oil. (7) Conoco's field trial of the Smith fluid hammer for an application in Vietnam was organized and has contributed to the increased interest in their tool.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    Progress during current reporting year 2002 by quarter--Progress during Q1 2002: (1) In accordance to Task 7.0 (D. No.2 Technical Publications) TerraTek, NETL, and the Industry Contributors successfully presented a paper detailing Phase 1 testing results at the February 2002 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, a prestigious venue for presenting DOE and private sector drilling technology advances. The full reference is as follows: IADC/SPE 74540 ''World's First Benchmarking of Drilling Mud Hammer Performance at Depth Conditions'' authored by Gordon A. Tibbitts, TerraTek; Roy C. Long, US Department of Energy, Brian E. Miller, BP America, Inc.; Arnis Judzis, TerraTek; and Alan D. Black, TerraTek. Gordon Tibbitts, TerraTek, will presented the well-attended paper in February of 2002. The full text of the Mud Hammer paper was included in the last quarterly report. (2) The Phase 2 project planning meeting (Task 6) was held at ExxonMobil's Houston Greenspoint offices on February 22, 2002. In attendance were representatives from TerraTek, DOE, BP, ExxonMobil, PDVSA, Novatek, and SDS Digger Tools. (3) PDVSA has joined the advisory board to this DOE mud hammer project. PDVSA's commitment of cash and in-kind contributions were reported during the last quarter. (4) Strong Industry support remains for the DOE project. Both Andergauge and Smith Tools have expressed an interest in participating in the ''optimization'' phase of the program. The potential for increased testing with additional Industry cash support was discussed at the planning meeting in February 2002. Progress during Q2 2002: (1) Presentation material was provided to the DOE/NETL project manager (Dr. John Rogers) for the DOE exhibit at the 2002 Offshore Technology Conference. (2) Two meeting at Smith International and one at Andergauge in Houston were held to investigate their interest in joining the Mud Hammer Performance study. (3) SDS Digger Tools (Task 3 Benchmarking participant) apparently has not negotiated a

  15. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  16. 7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF HYDRAULIC HAMMER STAMPING PRESS ON SIDE A OF BUILDING 883. THIS TYPE OF PRESS WAS USED FOR BOTH STAINLESS STEEL AND FOR DEPLETED URANIUM. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered...

  18. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered...

  19. Optimizing Hammermill Performance Through Screen Selection and Hammer Design

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Tyler L. Westover; Christopher T. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanical preprocessing, which includes particle size reduction and mechanical separation, is one of the primary operations in the feedstock supply system for a lignocellulosic biorefinery. It is the means by which raw biomass from the field or forest is mechanically transformed into an on-spec feedstock with characteristics better suited for the fuel conversion process. Results: This work provides a general overview of the objectives and methodologies of mechanical preprocessing and then presents experimental results illustrating (1) improved size reduction via optimization of hammer mill configuration, (2) improved size reduction via pneumatic-assisted hammer milling, and (3) improved control of particle size and particle size distribution through proper selection of grinder process parameters. Conclusion: Optimal grinder configuration for maximal process throughput and efficiency is strongly dependent on feedstock type and properties, such moisture content. Tests conducted using a HG200 hammer grinder indicate that increasing the tip speed, optimizing hammer geometry, and adding pneumatic assist can increase grinder throughput as much as 400%.

  20. View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the oldest piece of equipment in the yard, originally powered by steam) nameplate: United Engineers and FDRY. Co. Pittsburgh, Pa, USA Davy Brothers LTD. Patents - Aug 1, 1905, Feb, 1901, Sept 8, 1908 - 10000 lbs. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. HAMMER COURSEWARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, P.R.

    2006-04-28

    HAMMER Courseware Management System (HAMMERCMS) is the official name of the system Fluor Hanford, Inc., uses to facilitate development of, deliver, and track training presented in some electronic form (mainly, web-based training) to Hanford Site employees, subcontractors, and vendors.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arnis Judzis

    2001-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2001 through September 2001. Accomplishments to date include the following: TerraTek highlighted DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory effort on Mud Hammer Optimization at the recent Annual Conference and Exhibition for the Society of Petroleum Engineers. The original exhibit scheduled by NETL was canceled due to events surrounding the September tragedies in the US. TerraTek has completed analysis of drilling performance (rates of penetration, hydraulics, etc.) for the Phase One testing which was completed at the beginning of July. TerraTek jointly with the Industry Advisory Board for this project and DOE/NETL conducted a lessons learned meeting to transfer technology vital for the next series of performance tests. Both hammer suppliers benefited from the testing program and are committed to pursue equipment improvements and ''optimization'' in accordance with the scope of work. An abstract for a proposed publication by the society of Petroleum Engineers/International Association of Drilling Contractors jointly sponsored Drilling Conference was accepted as an alternate paper. Technology transfer is encouraged by the DOE in this program, thus plans are underway to prepare the paper for this prestigious venue.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arnis Judzis

    2002-04-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting January 2002 through March 2002. Accomplishments include the following: In accordance to Task 7.0 (D. No.2 Technical Publications) TerraTek, NETL, and the Industry Contributors successfully presented a paper detailing Phase 1 testing results at the February 2002 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, a prestigious venue for presenting DOE and private sector drilling technology advances. The full reference is as follows: (1) IADC/SPE 74540 ''World's First Benchmarking of Drilling Mud Hammer Performance at Depth Conditions'' authored by Gordon A. Tibbitts, TerraTek; Roy C. Long, US Department of Energy, Brian E. Miller, BP America, Inc.; Arnis Judzis, TerraTek; and Alan D. Black, TerraTek. Gordon Tibbitts, TerraTek, will presented the well-attended paper in February of 2002. The full text of the Mud Hammer paper was included in the last quarterly report. (2) The Phase 2 project planning meeting (Task 6) was held at ExxonMobil's Houston Greenspoint offices on February 22, 2002. In attendance were representatives from TerraTek, DOE, BP, ExxonMobil, PDVSA, Novatek, and SDS Digger Tools. (3) PDVSA has joined the advisory board to this DOE mud hammer project. PDVSA's commitment of cash and in-kind contributions were reported during the last quarter. (4) Strong Industry support remains for the DOE project. Both Andergauge and Smith Tools have expressed an interest in participating in the ''optimization'' phase of the program. The potential for increased testing with additional Industry cash support was discussed at the planning meeting in February 2002.

  4. An analysis of the relationship between the linear hammer speed and the thrower applied forces during the hammer throw for male and female throwers.

    PubMed

    Brice, Sara M; Ness, Kevin F; Rosemond, Doug

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cable force and linear hammer speed in the hammer throw and to identify how the magnitude and direction of the cable force affects the fluctuations in linear hammer speed. Five male (height: 1.88 +/- 0.06 m; body mass: 106.23 +/- 4.83 kg) and five female (height: 1.69 +/- 0.05 m; body mass: 101.60 +/- 20.92 kg) throwers participated and were required to perform 10 throws each. The hammer's linear velocity and the cable force and its tangential component were calculated via hammer head positional data. As expected, a strong correlation was observed between decreases in the linear hammer speed and decreases in the cable force (normalised for hammer weight). A strong correlation was also found to exist between the angle by which the cable force lags the radius of rotation at its maximum (when tangential force is at its most negative) and the size of the decreases in hammer speed. These findings indicate that the most effective way to minimise the effect of the negative tangential force is to reduce the size of the lag angle.

  5. Insertion of K-wires by hammer generates less heat. A study of drilling and hammering K-wires into bone.

    PubMed

    Zegunis, V; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Tikuisis, R

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out on cadaver animal bones to evaluate the thermal effect of inserting K-wires with a pneumatic hammer as compared to drilling. The mean maximum bone temperature 0.5 mm from the K-wires was 34 (22-72) degrees C using the hammer and 54 (19-100) degrees C for drilling, 1.0 mm from the K-wire the mean maximum temperature was 31 (19-52) degrees C for hammering and 47 (17-91) degrees C for drilling. The mean time for the temperature exposure in the cases of drilling was 50 s and for hammering 41 s. The hammering device may reduce the risk of heat-induced injury.

  6. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Cigna, Emanuele; Spagnoli, Anna Maria; Tarallo, Mauro; De Santo, Liliana; Monacelli, Giampaolo; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery. PMID:22567229

  7. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    SciTech Connect

    Picraux, Samuel T; Romano, Lucia; Rudawski, Nicholas G; Holzworth, Monta R; Jones, Kevin S; Choi, S G

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  8. ["Progressive" hypothenar hammer syndrome Indication for operative treatment].

    PubMed

    Klitscher, D; Müller, L P; Rudig, L; Simiantonaki, N; Arnold, G; Rommens, P M

    2005-12-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is ischemia of the distal ulnar artery caused by injury to the ulnar part of the palmar arch. This disease often involves workers who frequently use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer. The aneurysmatic form of HHS represents an indication for operative treatment; the thrombotic form is treated mainly conservatively. In our opinion, the symptomatic thrombotic form represents an indication for operation if symptoms persist during conservative therapy, particularly if symptoms progress. In fresh embolic occlusions, regional thrombolysis is usually successful. We present here the symptomatic treatment and course in two patients with complaints increasing during conservative therapy. The patients reported progressive Raynaud's phenomenon of the fingers. Angiography confirmed corkscrew-like aneurysmatic configuration of the distal ulnar artery and subsequent embolization of digital arteries. In both cases, we removed the source of the embolism with resection of the involved arterial segment and anastomosis with autologous vein grafts.

  9. Enlisting CFD to fight hammer shock in jets

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.N.; Hamstra, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes how computational fluid dynamics can predict inlet hammer-shock loads for advanced tactical aircraft, a complex and costly task that has left existing methods grounded. The current strategy for tactical-aircraft development is directed toward reducing life-cycle cost with little or no compromise to aircraft performance. This strategy may be extended down to the component level, where the goal of future engine-inlet designs is to maintain aeroperformance and survivability while structural weight is reduced, thereby lowering costs. To address these goals, new design methods must evolve to minimize weight yet maintain necessary margins of structural safety. The ultimate loads for inlet structures are set by the peak pressures associated with hammer shocks induced by engine surge. Existing techniques for predicting peak pressure load are based on an empirical approach using flight-test data from F-111 jets, and have proven adequate for the F-016 normal-shock inlet (NSI). Current inlet designs differ significantly, however, featuring serpentine inlet ducts, swept aperture shapes, and composite structural materials. Consequently, a new approach is required to predict inlet hammer-shock loads for advanced inlets.

  10. Hammering versus drilling of sharp and obtuse trocar-point k-wires.

    PubMed

    Franssen, B B G M; Schuurman, A H; Mink Van Der Molen, A B; Kon, M

    2009-04-01

    Kirschner wire characteristics affect the heating of bone during insertion and the subsequent strength of fixation. We inserted 90 sharp and 90 obtuse trocar-tip K-wires into 90 fresh frozen human cadaver metacarpals using either a drill or a pneumatic hammer. The temperature elevation, insertion time and extraction force were measured for four K-wire insertion combinations: drilling sharp; drilling obtuse; hammering sharp; hammering obtuse. Hammering resulted in significantly lower temperature elevations than drilling. Hammering sharp K-wires resulted in the highest extraction forces. The first and fifth metacarpals showed significantly lower temperature elevations than the other metacarpals, while the insertion time was significantly higher in the second and third metacarpal than in the other metacarpals. Hammering sharp trocar-tip K-wires minimises thermal damage to bone and gives the strongest fixation.

  11. HAMMER FY 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.2

    SciTech Connect

    Mcginnis, K.A.

    1996-09-23

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Program is a Congressionally funded National Program line item which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate new approaches to health and safety training and to use occupational health medical surveillance and risk analysis information to enhance the HAMMER training programs. Hanford is the pilot for this program with the HAMMER user facility as the major component.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon Tibbitts; Arnis Judzis

    2001-04-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting January 2001 through March 2001. Accomplishments to date include the following: (1) On January 9th of 2001, details of the Mud Hammer Drilling Performance Testing Project were presented at a ''kick-off'' meeting held in Morgantown. (2) A preliminary test program was formulated and prepared for presentation at a meeting of the advisory board in Houston on the 8th of February. (3) The meeting was held with the advisory board reviewing the test program in detail. (4) Consensus was achieved and the approved test program was initiated after thorough discussion. (5) This new program outlined the details of the drilling tests as well as scheduling the test program for the weeks of 14th and 21st of May 2001. (6) All the tasks were initiated for a completion to coincide with the test schedule. (7) By the end of March the hardware had been designed and the majority was either being fabricated or completed. (8) The rock was received and cored into cylinders.

  13. Hammering sound frequency analysis and prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rina; Kikuchi, Aki; Morita, Towa; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Takeaki; Moriya, Mistutoshi; Uchida, Kentaro; Fukushima, Kensuke; Tanaka, Kensei; Takaso, Masashi; Itoman, Moritoshi; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Adequate fixation at the time of cementless stem implantation depends on the operator's experience. An objective evaluation method to determine whether the stem has been appropriately implanted may be helpful. We studied the relationship between the hammering sound frequency during stem implantation and internal stress in a femoral model, and evaluated the possible usefulness of hammering sound frequency analysis for preventing intraoperative fracture. Three types of cementless stem (BiCONTACT®, SL-PLUS®, and AI-Hip®) were used. Surgeons performed stem insertion using a procedure similar to that employed in a routine operation. Stress was estimated by finite element analysis, the hammering force was measured, and frequency analysis of hammering sound data obtained using a microphone. Finite element analysis showed a decrease in the hammering sound frequency with an increase in the estimated maximum stress. When a decrease in frequency was observed, adequate hammering had occurred, and the continuation of hammering risked fracture. Based on the relationship between stress and frequency, the evaluation of changes in frequency may be useful for preventing the development of intraoperative fractures. Using our method, when a decrease in frequency is observed, the hammering force should be reduced. Hammering sound frequency analysis may allow the prediction of bone fractures that can be visually confirmed, and may be a useful objective evaluation method for the prevention of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures during stem insertion.

  14. Vibration control in forge hammers. [by shock wave damping in foundation platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moise, F.; Lazarescu, C.

    1974-01-01

    Special measures are discussed for calculating, designing and executing a forge hammer foundation, so that the vibrations that occur during its working will not be transmitted to neighboring machinery, workrooms and offices. These vibrations are harmful to the workers near the forge hammer.

  15. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method.

    PubMed

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M

    1993-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  16. Effects of Working Angle on Pneumatic Down-the-hole Hammer Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Yongjie; Shi, Xiangchao; Xiang, Chengliao

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the wor king angle on pneumatic down-the-hole (DTH) hammer drilling was investigated since these hammers were developed for vertical drilling and their performances in inclined positions need to be tested. The investigation begins by establishing a calculation model with which to simulate the percussive drilling of the hammer. The model consists of two parts. The first gives the kinetic energy of the piston at impact by simulating the thermodynamic cycle of the DTH hammer, and the second simulates the percussive drilling process according to the analyses of stress-wave propagation. In the meantime, a laboratory-scale test device was made for multi-angle hammer drilling tests. This device is based on a small pneumatic DTH hammer used in deep well drilling. By analyzing the force acting on the rock during impact at different angles, the percussive drilling process is carefully examined. Theoretical predictions and experimental results appear in fairly good agreement. The hammer's working performance in inclined positions can be obtained directly using the proposed model. Furthermore, when detailed evaluation is required, the hammer can be tested using the method proposed in this paper.

  17. When Does Tool Use Become Distinctively Human? Hammering in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Jung, Wendy P.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of hammering within an ontogenetic and evolutionary framework using motion-capture technology. Twenty-four right-handed toddlers (19-35 months) wore reflective markers while hammering a peg into a peg-board. The study focuses on the motor characteristics that make tool use uniquely human: wrist involvement,…

  18. When Does Tool Use Become Distinctively Human? Hammering in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Jung, Wendy P.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of hammering within an ontogenetic and evolutionary framework using motion-capture technology. Twenty-four right-handed toddlers (19-35 months) wore reflective markers while hammering a peg into a peg-board. The study focuses on the motor characteristics that make tool use uniquely human: wrist involvement,…

  19. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  20. When does tool use become distinctively human?: Hammering in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn; Lockman, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of hammering within an ontogenetic and evolutionary framework using motion-capture technology. Twenty-four right-handed toddlers (19–35 months) wore reflective markers while hammering a peg into a peg-board. The study focuses on the motor characteristics that make tool use uniquely human: wrist involvement, lateralization, and handle use. Older children showed more distally controlled movements, characterized by relatively more reliance on the wrist, but only when hammering with their right hand. Greater age, use of the right hand, and more wrist involvement were associated with higher accuracy; handle use did not systematically change with age. Collectively, the results provide new insights about the emergence of hammering in young children and when hammering begins to manifest distinctively human characteristics. PMID:24128178

  1. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Barrand, Quentin; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements. The first section will review the architectural changes that a service running in the cloud needs, such an orchestration service or new storage requirements in order to provide functional and stress testing. The second section will review the first tests of infrastructure providers on the perspective of the challenges discovered from the architectural point of view. Finally, the third section will evaluate future requirements of scalability and features to increase testing productivity.

  2. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Keith E; Bartholomew, John R; Paulson, Rolf

    2012-04-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is an uncommon cause of upper-extremity ischemia that is often overlooked in the absence of a thorough occupational and recreational history. Importantly, it is a reversible cause of hand ischemia that, if missed, can lead to significant morbidity and even amputation. The occupational ramifications and quality of life of those affected can be significant. Its relative rarity, set against the ubiquitous use of the hand as a 'hammer' is noteworthy. Several other causes of hand ischemia can present similarly; therefore, consideration of other etiologies must be thoroughly investigated. Key distinguishing clinical features, in addition to a detailed occupational and recreational history, may include characteristic sparing of the thumb, the absence of a hyperemic phase in 'Raynaud's phenomenon', and a positive Allen's sign. Both non-invasive and invasive diagnostic studies, including bilateral upper-limb segmental pulse volume recordings (PVR), arterial duplex examination, and upper-extremity angiography, are complementary to a thorough history and physical examination. Optimal management strategies are not well defined because of its rarity and resultant lack of quality, evidence-based data. Though most cases can be successfully managed non-operatively, micrographic arterial reconstruction may be limb saving in severe or recalcitrant cases. Newer, experimental strategies including selective sympathetic blockage using botulinum toxin A have been reported in a few recalcitrant cases. The brief case description illustrates the typical presentation and potential treatment strategies employed in a difficult case. A review of relevant literature is also presented.

  3. 163. ARAIII Contaminated water pumphouse. Aerojetgeneral 880area/GCRE612A1. Date: February 1958. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    163. ARA-III Contaminated water pumphouse. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-612-A-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0612-00-013-102691. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. PyHammer: An Automatic and Visual Suite for Spectral Typing Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Aurora; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Brandon; Veyette, Mark; Feldman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a computing product (dubbed "PyHammer"), which can automatically assign estimates of spectral type, metallicity and radial velocity, and/or be used to visually classify stellar spectra. PyHammer uses empirical templates with known spectral types and metallicities as comparisons to automatically determine the spectral type and an estimate of the metallicity of a star by measuring prominent line indices and performing a weighted least squares minimization. The PyHammer GUI allows the user to visually compare their spectra to the templates and determine the spectral type and metallicity. We have created the templates used by PyHammer by co-adding individual spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from -2.0 dex through +1.0 dex, and are separated into main sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. This code is based on the “Hammer” spectral typing facility (Covey et al. 2007) and has been updated to include metallicity information, radial velocity calculations, improved automatic estimates, and now is in python (instead of IDL). PyHammer is publicly available to the community on GitHub (github.com/BU-hammerTeam/PyHammer).

  5. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. H.; Fang, H. Y.; Luo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers.

  6. Development of a quantitative reflex hammer for measurement of tendon stretch reflex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Hwang, Il-Kyu; Wertsch, Jacqueline J

    2002-09-01

    Quantification of tendon stretch reflex requires precise measurement of the tapping force of a reflex hammer. A quantitative reflex (QR) hammer consisting of two cut rubber pieces from a generic rubber reflex hammer and a uniaxial force transducer was constructed. Finite element stress analyses were conducted to estimate the natural frequency characteristics of the hammer and to find the stress distributions during the impact. Pendulum impact testing was conducted at four different heights to assess the calibration linearity and repeatability of the measurement. The QR hammer had a fundamental natural frequency of 515 Hz and showed minimal displacement and stress at the tip from the finite element simulation of the impact. The QR hammer also provided reliable and repeatable measurements as demonstrated with high coefficients of determination, exceeding 0.994 and small coefficients of variations, less than 4%. The calibration linearity was 0.64% compared with the reference force platform measurement. The QR hammer demonstrated sufficient accuracy and reliability for precise clinical assessment of tendon stretch reflexes.

  7. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers

    PubMed Central

    McDOWELL, THOMAS W.; WARREN, CHRISTOPHER; WELCOME, DANIEL E.; DONG, REN G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s−2) using any of the

  8. Laboratory and field measurements and evaluations of vibration at the handles of riveting hammers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Warren, Christopher; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2012-10-01

    The use of riveting hammers can expose workers to harmful levels of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). As a part of efforts to reduce HTV exposures through tool selection, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a standardized laboratory-based riveting hammer assessment protocol for screening riveting hammers. The second objective was to characterize the vibration emissions of reduced vibration riveting hammers and to make approximations of the HTV exposures of workers operating these tools in actual work tasks. Eight pneumatic riveting hammers were selected for the study. They were first assessed in a laboratory using the standardized method for measuring vibration emissions at the tool handle. The tools were then further assessed under actual working conditions during three aircraft sheet metal riveting tasks. Although the average vibration magnitudes of the riveting hammers measured in the laboratory test were considerably different from those measured in the field study, the rank orders of the tools determined via these tests were fairly consistent, especially for the lower vibration tools. This study identified four tools that consistently exhibited lower frequency-weighted and unweighted accelerations in both the laboratory and workplace evaluations. These observations suggest that the standardized riveting hammer test is acceptable for identifying tools that could be expected to exhibit lower vibrations in workplace environments. However, the large differences between the accelerations measured in the laboratory and field suggest that the standardized laboratory-based tool assessment is not suitable for estimating workplace riveting hammer HTV exposures. Based on the frequency-weighted accelerations measured at the tool handles during the three work tasks, the sheet metal mechanics assigned to these tasks at the studied workplace are unlikely to exceed the daily vibration exposure action value (2.5 m s(-2)) using any of the

  9. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  10. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. )

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  11. Fluid hammer with gas desorption in a liquid-filling tube: experiments with three different liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lema, Marcos; Peña, Fernando López; Rambaud, Patrick; Buchlin, Jean-Marie; Steelant, Johan

    2015-09-01

    The opening of a fast valve followed by a fluid line with a closed end generates a fluid hammer that may involve several multiphase phenomena. This is the case of the propulsion systems in satellites during the priming operation, where the lines are initially kept under vacuum conditions. The filling with liquid propellant is done by opening a pyrotechnic valve, and the fluid hammer taking place involves cavitation and gas desorption. For this purpose, an experimental study is carried out with inert fluids modeling a liquid propulsion system, where the saturation level of the test liquid is controlled, allowing to run experiments under deaerated and saturated conditions. The results show that the fluid hammer phenomenon is affected by the gas saturation conditions if the liquid is susceptible to high desorption rate. In this case, the desorbed pressurant gas in the lines cushions the liquid front impact at the closed ends, leading to a lower pressure rise during fluid hammer occurrence.

  12. 5. VIEW OF 20TON STEAMPOWERED FORGE HAMMER Manufactured by Chambersburg ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF 20-TON STEAM-POWERED FORGE HAMMER Manufactured by Chambersburg Engineering Company, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania - Juniata Shops, Blacksmith Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Second Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  13. Sketches of a hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Generation of shear waves in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.

  14. Development and validation of a method to directly measure the cable force during the hammer throw.

    PubMed

    Brice, Sara M; Ness, Kevin F; Rosemond, Doug; Lyons, Keith; Davis, Mark

    2008-05-01

    The development of cable force during hammer-throw turns is crucial to the throw distance. In this paper, we present a method that is capable of measuring cable force in real time and, as it does not interfere with technique, it is capable of providing immediate feedback to coaches and athletes during training. A strain gauge was mounted on the wires of three hammers to measure the tension in the wire and an elite male hammer thrower executed three throws with each hammer. The output from the gauges was recorded by a data logger positioned on the lower back of the thrower. The throws were captured by three high-speed video cameras and the three-dimensional position of the hammer's head was determined by digitizing the images manually. The five best throws were analysed. The force acting on the hammer's head was calculated from Newton's second law of motion and this was compared with the force measured via the strain gauge. Qualitatively the time dependence of the two forces was essentially the same, although the measured force showed more detail in the troughs of the force-time curves. Quantitatively the average difference between the measured and calculated forces over the five throws was 76 N, which corresponds to a difference of 3.8% for a cable force of 2000 N.

  15. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  16. A bioabsorbable fixation implant for use in proximal interphalangeal joint (hammer toe) arthrodesis: Biomechanical testing in a synthetic bone substrate.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, William S; Lessek, Timothy P; Perns, Stephen V

    2006-01-01

    The surgical correction of hammer toe deformity of the lesser toes is one of the most commonly performed forefoot procedures. In general, percutaneous Kirschner wires are used to provide fixation to the resected proximal interphalangeal joint. Although these wires are effective, issues such as pin tract infections as well as difficult postoperative management by patients make alternative fixation methods desirable. This study biomechanically compared a threaded/barbed bioabsorbable fixation implant made of a copolymer of 82% poly-L-lactic acid and 18% polyglycolic acid with a 1.57-mm Kirschner wire using the devices to fix 2 synthetic bone blocks together. Constructs were evaluated by applying a cantilever load, which simulated a plantar force on the middle phalanx. In all cases, the failure mode was bending of the implant, with no devices fracturing. The stiffness (approximately 6-9 N/mm) and peak load (approximately 8-9 N) of the constructs using the 2 systems were equivalent. Accelerated aging at elevated temperature (47 degrees C) in a buffer solution showed that there was no reduction in mechanical properties of the bioabsorbable system after the equivalent of nearly 6 weeks in a simulated in vivo (37 degrees C) environment. These results suggest that the bioabsorbable implant would be a suitable fixation device for the hammer toe procedure.

  17. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part One: P-Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. G.; Abbott, R. E.; Preston, L. A.; Hampshire, J. B., II

    2015-12-01

    Explosion-source phenomenology is best studied when competing signals (such as instrument, site, and propagation effects), are well understood. The second phase of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is moving from granite geology to alluvium geology at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site. To improve subsurface characterization of Yucca Flat (and therefore better understand propagation and site effects), an active-source seismic survey was conducted using a novel 13,000-kg impulsive hammer source. The source points, spaced 200 m apart, covered a N-S transect spanning 18 km. Three component, 2-Hz geophones were used to record useable signals out to 10 km. We inverted for P-wave velocity by computing travel times using a finite-difference 3D eikonal solver, and then compared that to the picked travel times using a linearized iterative inversion scheme. Preliminary results from traditional reflection processing methods are also presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  19. Effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of peripheral blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators.

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the effect of impulse vibration and noise on vasomotor function of blood vessels among pneumatic forge hammer operators has been presented based on thermal tests (cooling). The study covered the following groups of workers; pneumatic forge hammer operators (I), pneumatic forging hammer operators (II), hammer operator's assistants (III), operators of forging presses and machines (IV) and the control group. The results of the study showed that in groups I and III it was impulse noise not vibration that caused changes in the functioning of peripheral blood vessels.

  20. An unusual case of hypothenar hammer syndrome in the non-dominant hand.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natasha J G; Hardy, Simon C

    2014-07-01

    A 60-year-old male patient was referred to the vascular clinic with a 2-week history of a 1.5 cm pulsatile tender swelling in the left hypothenar eminence. He worked as a gas fitter and sustained this swelling following an injury at work. Interestingly, unlike many cases reported, his left, non-dominant hand was only used passively while his dominant right hand was using the hammer. Duplex ultrasonography confirmed the presence of a true aneurysm of the left ulnar artery, measuring 11 mm in diameter, as it approached the palmar arch. The ulnar nerve was revealed to be ectatic and tortuous and was found to cork-screw in the palm. The aneurysm was removed surgically and histological specimens revealed an intraluminal organizing thrombus. The literature reveals that, in a true aneurysm, it is rare to present with symptoms of this syndrome in the non-dominant, passive hand. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014.

  1. Understanding the effect of hammering process on the vibration characteristics of cymbals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratani, F.; Yoshida, T.; Koide, T.; Mizuta, T.; Osamura, K.

    2016-09-01

    Cymbals are thin domed plates used as percussion instruments. When cymbals are struck, they vibrate and radiate sound. Cymbals are made through spin forming, hammering, and lathing. The spin forming creates the basic shape of the cymbal, which determines its basic vibration characteristics. The hammering and lathing produce specific sound adjustments by changing the cymbal's vibration characteristics. In this study, we study how hammering cymbals affects their vibration characteristics. The hammering produces plastic deformation (small, shallow dents) on the cymbal's surface, generating residual stresses throughout it. These residual stresses change the vibration characteristics. We perform finite element analysis of a cymbal to obtain its stress distribution and the resulting change in vibration characteristics. To reproduce the stress distribution, we use thermal stress analysis, and then with this stress distribution we perform vibration analysis. These results show that each of the cymbal's modes has a different sensitivity to the thermal load (i.e., hammering). This difference causes changes in the frequency response and the deflection shape that significantly improves the sound radiation efficiency. In addition, we explain the changes in natural frequencies by the stress and modal strain energy distributions.

  2. Hypothenar hammer syndrome from ice hockey stick-handling.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mohamed A; McDonald, Joey; Tittley, Jacques G

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar artery thrombosis and hypothenar hammer syndrome are rare vascular complications that could potentially occur with repeated blows or trauma to the hand. Although initially reported as an occupational hazard among laborers and craftsmen, it has been observed more recently among recreationalists and athletes. Until now, it has never been reported as a complication in ice hockey players. In this case report, a 26-year-old Canadian professional ice hockey player presented with acute dominant right hand paleness, coolness, and pain with hand use. The patient used a wooden hockey stick with a large knob of tape at the end of the handle, which he regularly gripped in the palm of his right hand to help with face-offs and general stick-handling. Sonographic evaluation demonstrated no arterial flow in the distal right ulnar artery distribution, and ulnar artery occlusion with no aneurysmal degeneration was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiogram. Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy was initiated, and subsequent serial angiograms demonstrated significant improvement in distal ulnar artery flow as well as recanalization of right hand deep palmar arch and digital arteries. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was maintained on therapeutic anticoagulation for 3 months prior to returning to playing ice hockey professionally, but with a padded glove and no tape knob at the handle tip. This case highlights a unique presentation of hockey stick-handling causing ulnar artery thrombosis that was likely from repeated palmar hypothenar trauma. Appropriate diagnostic imaging, early intraarterial thrombolysis, and postoperative surveillance and follow-up were crucial for the successful outcome in this patient.

  3. Fresh-water cementation of a 1,000-year-old oolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R. B.; Harris, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Calcite cementation of aragonite ooid sand is producing oolite on Joulters Cays, Bahamas. During the last 1,000 years, calcite cement has formed at an average rate of between 27 and 55 cm3 /m3 /yr and is derived from dissolution of ooid aragonite in fresh water. The dissolution-reprecipitation of carbonate minerals in the aquifer results in ground waters of unusually high Sr content. Sea water and mixtures of fresh and sea water appear to inhibit cementation. A pronounced cement fabric change occurs across the water table and has produced an obvious petrographic record of fresh-water diagenesis. Above the water table, cement is typically near grain contact positions, where water is held by capillarity; below the water table, cement is more randomly distributed around grains. At the water table a transition zone, 1 meter thick, marks the boundary between cement textures. No porosity reduction is associated with cementation; calcite cement precipitation is apparently compensated by an equal or greater amount of aragonite dissolution in the interval undergoing cementation. Permeability is more variable above the water table than below it, reflecting early channelling of flow patterns in the vadose zone. Effective permeability below the water table is one to two orders of magnitude higher than above the water table because of entrained gas in the vadose zone. This permeability difference promotes preservation of unstable minerals above the water table and continued diagenetic alteration below the water table.

  4. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  5. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Ed Gormel (left) and Chris Fairey (center) accept the Hammer Award at a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Presenting the award is Morley Winograd (right), director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel and Fairey are co-chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  6. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Commander of the Air Force Space Command, General Richard B. Myers (left) joins Ed Gormel (center) and Commander of the 45th Space Wing Brig. Gen. F. Randall Starbuck (right) after the presentation of the Hammer Award. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. Morley Winograd, director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, presented the award to the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel is a co-chair of the SEB. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the J-BOSC SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  7. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Ed Gormel (left) and Chris Fairey (center) display the Hammer Award they received at a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. At the podium is Morley Winograd director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, who presented the award. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J- BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Fairey and Gormel are co- chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  8. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, KSC and 45th Space Wing employees share the honors as recipients of the Hammer Award. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. Morley Winograd, director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, presented the award to Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey, co-chairs of the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the J-BOSC SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  9. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Morley Winograd (right), director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, presents the Hammer Award to Ed Gormel (left) and Chris Fairey (center) at a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel and Fairey are co-chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  10. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC's Director of Public Affairs Joe Gordon (left) applauds as Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey are named recipients of the Hammer Award at a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Presenting the award is Morley Winograd (at the podium), director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel and Fairey are co-chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  11. Tendon reflexes elicited using a computer controlled linear motor tendon hammer.

    PubMed

    Archambeault, Mark; de Bruin, Hubert; McComas, Alan; Fu, Winnie

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel instrumentation system for studying tendon and spinal reflexes using a commercial linear servo-motor as a precisely controlled tendon hammer. The system uses a LabVIEW-based program to both control electrical or mechanical stimuli and record and measure the resulting M and H waves. The hammer can deliver tendon taps with selected velocities, durations, frequencies and excursions. Preliminary results for both soleus and flexor carpi radialis muscles show that impact velocity is an important variable in eliciting tendon reflexes. As expected, the tendon reflex amplitude was also found to be dependent on excursion depth, but not as significantly as hammer velocity. Other stimulus paradigms are also presently being investigated.

  12. Fluid-hammer induced pressure oscillations in a cryogenic feed line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Jeswin; Agrawal, Gagan; Agarwal, Deepak; Pisharady, J. C.; Kumar, S. Sunil

    2017-02-01

    A transient, thermodynamic flow model is developed to simulate pressure oscillations in cryogenic fluid occurring due to sudden closing of valves, a phenomenon commonly known as fluid-hammering. The effects of line dimensions and flow rate changes on amplitude and frequency of these oscillations are investigated using numerical analysis. The model is validated with in-house experimental data and literature based on MOC solution for fluid-hammer. Current study is significant for understanding pressure oscillations during valve operation in launch vehicle cryogenic engine. Very low pressures caused due to fluid-hammer could lead to reduction in pump inlet pressure below saturation level, resulting in pump cavitation. Pressure oscillations also cause fluctuations in propellant flow rate, resulting in undesirable variations in thrust output from the engine. Computational analysis shows that increase in line diameter and reduction in the rate of change of flow rate reduce the peak amplitude of pressure oscillations.

  13. Preliminary Mineralogical and Geological Characterization of the Lost Hammer Perennial Spring, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battler, M.; Osinski, G. R.; Banerjee, N.; Izawa, M.

    2009-05-01

    Understanding past potential hydrological processes is fundamental in the search for past life on Mars. Despite the lack of liquid water on the Martian surface today, there is evidence of past upwelling and evaporation of groundwater [e.g., 1]. Cold, saline, perennial spring systems, in which water would have been able to flow to the Martian surface year round, may be of particular interest. Analogous systems on Earth are pertinent to better understand how they might have functioned, and possibly preserved biosignatures, on Mars. Several sets of cold saline springs have been documented in the region surrounding the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, NU; these represent the highest latitude perennial springs on Earth, flow through 600 m of permafrost, and are not associated with any volcanic heat sources. Primitive life thrives in these springs year round [2]. Here, first results of mineralogical analyses and geological field observations are presented for the Lost Hammer spring site. Spring deposits cover an area approximately 150 m x 30 m. The main vent is roughly 2.5 m tall and 3 m in diameter, and is covered in a layer several mm thick of a very fine, white, powdery mineral, overlying several cm of fine grey material. Preliminary XRD analysis has revealed the mineralogy of the white material to be thenardite (a dehydrated Na-sulphate; original mirabitite suspected) and halite, with trace amounts of quartz. The grey material is interpreted to be predominantly thenardite, mirabitite, and halite, with traces of other minerals. Hard white crusts on dried channel beds are thenardite and halite, and thicker crusts on pebbles are composed of halite and gypsum. Refs: [1] Allen, C.C, and Oehler, D.Z. 2008, A Case for Ancient Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars: Astrobiology, 8: 1093-1112. [2] Perreault, N.N. et al. 2007, Characterization of the Prokaryotic Diversity in Cold Saline Perennial Springs of the Canadian High Arctic: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 73

  14. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

  15. Self-Inflicted Hammer Blows to the Cranial Vault: An Interdisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Woong; Putzke, Michael; Uhl, Eberhard; Krishnan, Kartik G

    2016-01-01

    Depression is predicted to be the most common cause of disability in the coming decade. Self-inflicted hammer blow to the cranium is a rare phenomenon seen in patients with a history of attempted suicide. The resulting comminuted depressed skull fracture of the midline vertex is life threatening. Rapid interdisciplinary communication and intervention are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a case of self-inflicted hammer blows to the head, review the relevant literature on this topic, and discuss neurosurgical and psychiatric implications.

  16. Self-Inflicted Hammer Blows to the Cranial Vault: An Interdisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Woong; Putzke, Michael; Uhl, Eberhard; Krishnan, Kartik G.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is predicted to be the most common cause of disability in the coming decade. Self-inflicted hammer blow to the cranium is a rare phenomenon seen in patients with a history of attempted suicide. The resulting comminuted depressed skull fracture of the midline vertex is life threatening. Rapid interdisciplinary communication and intervention are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. We present a case of self-inflicted hammer blows to the head, review the relevant literature on this topic, and discuss neurosurgical and psychiatric implications. PMID:27722022

  17. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  18. Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. This experiment occured toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity.

  19. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  20. The water channel aquaporin-1a1 facilitates movement of CO₂ and ammonia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Krystle; Kwong, Raymond W M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Perry, Steve F

    2015-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that zebrafish (Danio rerio) aquaporin-1a1 (AQP1a1) serves as a multi-functional channel for the transfer of the small gaseous molecules, CO2 and ammonia, as well as water, across biological membranes. Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with a translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotide targeted to AQP1a1. Knockdown of AQP1a1 significantly reduced rates of CO2 and ammonia excretion, as well as water fluxes, in larvae at 4 days post fertilization (dpf). Because AQP1a1 is expressed both in ionocytes present on the body surface and in red blood cells, the haemolytic agent phenylhydrazine was used to distinguish between the contributions of AQP1a1 to gas transfer in these two locations. Phenylhydrazine treatment had no effect on AQP1a1-linked excretion of CO2 or ammonia, providing evidence that AQP1a1 localized to the yolk sac epithelium, rather than red blood cell AQP1a1, is the major site of CO2 and ammonia movements. The possibility that AQP1a1 and the rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg1, which also serves as a dual CO2 and ammonia channel, act in concert to facilitate CO2 and ammonia excretion was explored. Although knockdown of each protein did not affect the abundance of mRNA and protein of the other protein under control conditions, impairment of ammonia excretion by chronic exposure to high external ammonia triggered a significant increase in the abundance of AQP1a1 mRNA and protein in 4 dpf larvae experiencing Rhcg1 knockdown. Collectively, these results suggest that AQP1a1 in zebrafish larvae facilitates the movement of CO2 and ammonia, as well as water, in a physiologically relevant fashion.

  1. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  2. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans. PMID:23105047

  3. Reduction of the vibration of the hand-arm system by optimization of rotary hammer drills.

    PubMed

    Weinert, K; Gillmeister, F

    1996-02-01

    When operating a hand-held vibrating power tool, for example impact drills and rotary hammers, high vibration loads are introduced into the hand-arm system of the operator. In the long run these mechanical vibrations can lead to health problems of the hand-arm system. Hammer drilling tools for treatment of mineral materials are offered with many different designs of the cutting edge in the diameter range between 16 mm and 50 mm. In this research project the influences of the cutting edge design of drilling tools on the vibration characteristics of rotary hammers are investigated. The vibration exposure of the hand-arm system due to the tool and the volume of chip production are regarded. The gauge being a combination of the weighted acceleration and the drilling capacity. Based on the current spectrum of drillings tools neutral test have been developed to examine geometrical parameters. Both sets of drilling tools have been subjected to the same test programme. The analysis of the results led to the definition of the characteristics of an optimized rotary hammer drilling tool. Lists of criterions have been developed for the different groups of tools. Using these it is possible to create drilling tools optimized for vibration exposure. This was demonstrated by prototype drilling tools. The comparison of the results showed, that the averaged volume of chip production could be significantly improved by modifying the design of the drilling tools retaining the weighted acceleration. The comparison also showed that the total vibration severity parameter decreased.

  4. If I Had a Hammer: Technology in the Language Arts Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jester, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the computer as a hammer, a tool with unique qualities that allows people to perceive, manipulate, and express language in ways quite different from traditional media. Explores the tool of the multimedia presentation, a common use of technology in classrooms today. Describes a simple project with sixth graders that incorporates reading,…

  5. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    PubMed

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  6. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  7. The Effect of Venue and Wind on the Distance of a Hammer Throw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Iain

    2005-01-01

    In track and field, gravity and air resistance act on the hammer after it has been released. Both of these forces depend on altitude and latitude. In addition, air resistance also depends on wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Often, air resistance and varying gravity throughout the earth are not considered when throwing…

  8. The Effect of Venue and Wind on the Distance of a Hammer Throw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Iain

    2005-01-01

    In track and field, gravity and air resistance act on the hammer after it has been released. Both of these forces depend on altitude and latitude. In addition, air resistance also depends on wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Often, air resistance and varying gravity throughout the earth are not considered when throwing…

  9. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    PubMed

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  10. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Auto-Gopher-II: an autonomous wireline rotary-hammer ultrasonic drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jackson, Shannon; Chesin, Jacob; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Kim, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Developing technologies that would enable future NASA exploration missions to penetrate deeper into the subsurface of planetary bodies for sample collection is of great importance. Performing these tasks while using minimal mass/volume systems and with low energy consumption is another set of requirements imposed on such technologies. A deep drill, called Auto-Gopher II, is currently being developed as a joint effort between JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher II is a wireline rotary-hammer drill that combines formation breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted auger bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform high frequency vibrations of a piezoelectric transducer horn tip into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher and then integrated into a rotary hammer device to develop the Auto-Gopher-I. The lessons learned from these developments are being integrated into the development of the Auto- Gopher-II, an autonomous deep wireline drill with integrated cuttings and sample management and drive electronics. Subsystems of the wireline drill are being developed in parallel at JPL and Honeybee Robotics Ltd. This paper presents the development efforts of the piezoelectric actuator, cuttings removal and retention flutes and drive electronics.

  12. S-HAMMER: hierarchical attribute-guided, symmetric diffeomorphic registration for MR brain images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-01

    Deformable registration has been widely used in neuroscience studies for spatial normalization of brain images onto the standard space. Because of possible large anatomical differences across different individual brains, registration performance could be limited when trying to estimate a single directed deformation pathway, i.e., either from template to subject or from subject to template. Symmetric image registration, however, offers an effective way to simultaneously deform template and subject images toward each other until they meet at the middle point. Although some intensity-based registration algorithms have nicely incorporated this concept of symmetric deformation, the pointwise intensity matching between two images may not necessarily imply the matching of correct anatomical correspondences. Based on HAMMER registration algorithm (Shen and Davatzikos, [2002]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 21:1421-1439), we integrate the strategies of hierarchical attribute matching and symmetric diffeomorphic deformation to build a new symmetric-diffeomorphic HAMMER registration algorithm, called as S-HAMMER. The performance of S-HAMMER has been extensively compared with 14 state-of-the-art nonrigid registration algorithms evaluated in (Klein et al., [2009]: NeuroImage 46:786-802) by using real brain images in LPBA40, IBSR18, CUMC12, and MGH10 datasets. In addition, the registration performance of S-HAMMER, by comparison with other methods, is also demonstrated on both elderly MR brain images (>70 years old) and the simulated brain images with ground-truth deformation fields. In all experiments, our proposed method achieves the best registration performance over all other registration methods, indicating the high applicability of our method in future neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. S-HAMMER: Hierarchical Attribute-Guided, Symmetric Diffeomorphic Registration for MR Brain Images

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Deformable registration has been widely used in neuroscience studies for spatial normalization of brain images onto the standard space. Because of possible large anatomical differences across different individual brains, registration performance could be limited when trying to estimate a single directed deformation pathway, i.e., either from template to subject or from subject to template. Symmetric image registration, however, offers an effective way to simultaneously deform template and subject images toward each other until they meet at the middle point. Although some intensity-based registration algorithms have nicely incorporated this concept of symmetric deformation, the pointwise intensity matching between two images may not necessarily imply the matching of correct anatomical correspondences. Based on HAMMER registration algorithm (Shen and Davatzikos, [2002]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 21:1421–1439), we integrate the strategies of hierarchical attribute matching and symmetric diffeomorphic deformation to build a new symmetric-diffeomorphic HAMMER registration algorithm, called as S-HAMMER. The performance of S-HAMMER has been extensively compared with 14 state-of-the-art nonrigid registration algorithms evaluated in (Klein et al., [2009]: NeuroImage 46:786–802) by using real brain images in LPBA40, IBSR18, CUMC12, and MGH10 datasets. In addition, the registration performance of S-HAMMER, by comparison with other methods, is also demonstrated on both elderly MR brain images (>70 years old) and the simulated brain images with ground-truth deformation fields. In all experiments, our proposed method achieves the best registration performance over all other registration methods, indicating the high applicability of our method in future neuroscience and clinical applications. PMID:23283836

  14. Influence of pin and hammer mill on grinding characteristics, thermal and antioxidant properties of coriander powder.

    PubMed

    Barnwal, P; Singh, K K; Sharma, Alka; Choudhary, A K; Saxena, S N

    2015-12-01

    In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4-13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder.

  15. Counterevidence to the ion hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekura, H.; Okubo, N.; Tsuya, D.; Ishikawa, N.

    2017-08-01

    Counterevidence is provided in the ion-hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles (NPs) under swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII). Ion-induced compaction and the hammering, which are both induced in silica under SHII, dominate at low and high fluences, respectively, causing a crossover between them around a fluence of ˜4 × 1012 ions/cm2. Nevertheless, the shape elongation of NPs detected by the optical dichroism exhibits nearly linear dependence in a wide fluence range between ˜1 × 1011 and 2 × 1013 ions/cm2, indicating that the hammering does not play an important role.

  16. Determination of variables for air distribution system with elastic valve for down-the-hole pneumatic hammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primychkin, AYu; Kondratenko, AS; Timonin, VV

    2017-02-01

    The air distribution system of down-the-hole pneumatic hammer 105 mm in diameter is updated to enhance drilling efficiency. The design model of the down-the-hole pneumatic hammer is constructed in ITI SimulationX environment. The basic variables of the air distribution system with an elastic valve are determined so that to ensure increased impact energy at the limited pre-impact velocity and the same machine size.

  17. The hammer QSD-quick stop device for high speed machining and rubbing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. T.; James, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A quick stop device (QSD) was designed for use in orthogonal machining and rubbing experiments. QSD's are used to obtain chip root samples that are representative of the deformation taking place during dynamic (actual) cutting conditions. These 'frozen' specimens are helpful in examining the plastic deformation that occurs in the regions of compression and shear which form the chip; the secondary shear at the tool-chip interface; and the nose ploughing/flank rubbing action which operates on the newly machined surface. The Hammer QSD employs a shear pin mechanism, broken by a flying hammer, which is traveling at the same velocity as the workpiece. The device has been successfully tested up to 6000 sfpm (30.48 m/sec).

  18. Astronaut David Scott watching hammer and feather fall to lunar surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    S71-43788 (2 Aug. 1971) --- Astronaut David R. Scott, Apollo 15 commander, watches a geological hammer and a feather hit the lunar surface simultaneously in a test of Galileo's law of motion concerning falling bodies, as seen in this color reproduction taken from a transmission made by the RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). Scott released the hammer from his right hand and the feather from his left at the same instant. Galileo (1564-1642) was the great Italian astronomer and physicist. This experiment occurred toward the end of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts Scott and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. While Scott and Irwin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot, remained in the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  19. Schmidt hammer rebound data for estimation of large scale in situ coal strength

    SciTech Connect

    Sheorey, P.R.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports an investigation to determine whether a correlation exists between the Schmidt hammer rebound and the in situ large-scale strength. The results showed a reasonable correlation between the large-scale in situ crushing strength of 0.3 m cubes of coal and the lower mean of rebound values obtained. The regression is seen to be linear within the range 2.75 - 13.14 MPa of in situ strength. In situ large-scale testing procedures are cumbersome and expensive, and the Schmidt hammer rebound method can offer a quicker and cheaper means of estimating this strength. Laboratory 25 mm cube coal strength shows a greater scatter with rebound values than the large-scale in situ strength, and gives a non-linear regression.

  20. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost.

    PubMed

    Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the "gold standard" imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  1. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Domm, Lukas; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The search for present or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's exploration missions. Drills for subsurface sampling of rocks, ice and permafrost are an essential tool for astrobiology studies on other planets. Increasingly, it is recognized that drilling via a combination of rotation and hammering offers an efficient and effective rapid penetration mechanism. The rotation provides an intrinsic method for removal of cuttings from the borehole while the impact and shear forces aids in the fracturing of the penetrated medium. Conventional drills that use a single actuator are based on a complex mechanism with many parts and their use in future mission involves greater risk of failure and/or may require lubrication that can introduce contamination. In this paper, a compact drill is reported that uses a single piezoelectric actuator to produce hammering and rotation of the bit. A horn with asymmetric grooves was design to impart a longitudinal (hammering) and transverse force (rotation) to a keyed free mass. The drill requires low axial pre-load since the hammering-impacts fracture the rock under the bit kerf and rotate the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations 'fluidize' the powdered cuttings inside the flutes reducing the friction with the auger surface. This action reduces the consumed power and heating of the drilled medium helping to preserve the pristine content of the acquired samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This can reduce the development/fabrication cost and complexity. In this paper, the drill mechanism will be described and the test results will be reported and discussed.

  2. Hypothenar hammer syndrome in a computer programmer: CTA diagnosis and surgical and endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Ehab A; Bonatti, Hugo; Housseini, Ahmed M; Maged, Ismaeel M; Morgan, Raymond F; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Finger ischemia due to embolic occlusion of digital arteries resulting from trauma to the palmar ulnar artery has been termed hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS). In HHS, arterial thrombosis and/or aneurysm formation with embolization to the digital arteries causes symptoms of ischemia. We describe a patient in whom the initial diagnosis was made on multidetector computed tomographic angiography (CTA), as well as his endovascular and surgical management.

  3. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Domm, Lukas; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The search for present or past life in the Universe is one of the most important objectives of NASA's exploration missions. Drills for subsurface sampling of rocks, ice and permafrost are an essential tool for astrobiology studies on other planets. Increasingly, it is recognized that drilling via a combination of rotation and hammering offers an efficient and effective rapid penetration mechanism. The rotation provides an intrinsic method for removal of cuttings from the borehole while the impact and shear forces aids in the fracturing of the penetrated medium. Conventional drills that use a single actuator are based on a complex mechanism with many parts and their use in future mission involves greater risk of failure and/or may require lubrication that can introduce contamination. In this paper, a compact drill is reported that uses a single piezoelectric actuator to produce hammering and rotation of the bit. A horn with asymmetric grooves was design to impart a longitudinal (hammering) and transverse force (rotation) to a keyed free mass. The drill requires low axial pre-load since the hammering-impacts fracture the rock under the bit kerf and rotate the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations 'fluidize' the powdered cuttings inside the flutes reducing the friction with the auger surface. This action reduces the consumed power and heating of the drilled medium helping to preserve the pristine content of the acquired samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This can reduce the development/fabrication cost and complexity. In this paper, the drill mechanism will be described and the test results will be reported and discussed.

  4. A 1:8.7 Scale Water Tunnel Verification & Validation Test of an Axial Flow Water Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, Arnold A.; Straka, William A.; Meyer, Richard S.; Jonson, Michael L.

    2014-09-01

    As interest in waterpower technologies has increased over the last few years, there has been a growing need for a public database of measured data for these devices. This would provide a basic understanding of the technology and means to validate analytic and numerical models. Through collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, Penn State University Applied Research Laboratory, and University of California, Davis, a new marine hydrokinetic turbine rotor was designed, fabricated at 1:8.7-scale, and experimentally tested to provide an open platform and dataset for further study and development. The water tunnel test of this three-bladed, horizontal-axis rotor recorded power production, blade loading, near-wake characterization, cavitation effects, and noise generation. This report documents the small-scale model test in detail and provides a brief discussion of the rotor design and an initial look at the results with comparison against low-order modeling tools. Detailed geometry and experimental measurements are released to Sandia National Laboratories as a data report addendum.

  5. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, the Hammer Award is presented to Kennedy Space Center and the 45th Space Wing. Present for the awards are (left to right) Commander of the Air Force Space Command General Richard B. Myers, Ed Gormel, Chris Fairey, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, and Director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, Morley Winograd, who presented the award. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Gormel and Fairey are co-chairs of the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  6. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a special presentation in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, the Hammer Award is presented to Kennedy Space Center and the 45th Space Wing. Among the attendees in the audience are (center) Center Director Roy D. Bridges Jr., flanked by (at left) Commander of the 45th Space Wing Brig. Gen. F. Randall Starbuck and (at right) Commander of the Air Force Space Command General Richard B. Myers. Standing second from right is NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. At the far right is Morley Winograd, director of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government, who presented the award. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J- BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey, co-chairs of the SEB, accepted the awards for the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  7. The Hammer Award is presented to KSC and 45th Space Wing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a special presentation of the Hammer Award in the IMAX 2 Theater in the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin (second from right) applauded the recipients, Kennedy Space Center and the 45th Space Wing. The Hammer Award is Vice President Al Gore's special recognition of teams of federal employees who have made significant contributions in support of the principles of the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. This Hammer Award acknowledges the accomplishments of a joint NASA and Air Force team that established the Joint Base Operations and Support Contract (J-BOSC) Source Evaluation Board (SEB). Ed Gormel and Chris Fairey, co-chairs of the SEB, accepted the awards for the SEB. The team developed and implemented the acquisition strategy for establishing a single set of base operations and support service requirements for KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base. Armstrong and Aldrin were at KSC to attend a banquet and other activities for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission, which landed the first man on the moon.

  8. HAMMER FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan: WBS {number_sign}8.2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center -- known simply as HAMMER -- is being developed to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and others dedicated to improving worker health, safety and productivity. HAMMER is a training and education program for hazardous material, waste management, and emergency response workers. HAMMER is managed by the DOE Richland Operations Office under Work Breakdown Structure (8.2). The 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) includes the Execution Year data and provides the information for Programmatic Fiscal Year Site Management System Execution Baseline, as well as the detailed work plan for performance evaluation of the authorized work. The MYPP incorporates various planning methodologies to define the program and provides essential program integration, and a fully developed technical, cost, and schedule baseline. The MYPP will be utilized by WHC Program and Department Managers as the baseline management tool for status and progress monitoring, performance enhancement, impact analysis studies, and as the basis for detailed fiscal year and near-term planning.

  9. Fatigue Life Improvement for Cruciform Welded Joint by Mechanical Surface Treatment using Hammer Peening and UNSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung-Ho; Han, Jeong-Woo; Nam, Yong-Yun; Cho, In-Ho

    For the improvement of fatigue strength of welded structures, mechanical post treatments have been applied in various industrial fields and have in most cases been founded to give substantial increases in their fatigue lives. These methods, generally, consist of the modification of weld toe geometry and the introduction of compressive residual stresses. In mechanical surface treatments, e.g. PHP (pneumatic hammer peening) and UNSM (ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification), the weld profile is modified due to remove or reduce minute crack-like flaws, and compressive residual stresses are also induced. In this study, a pneumatic hammer peening procedure and a UNSM device were introduced, and a quantitative measure of fatigue strength improvement was performed. The fatigue strength at 2 × 106 cycles of hammer-peened and UNSM treated on a non-load carrying cruciform welded joint shows 220 and 260MPa, respectively, which are more than two times higher than that of as-welded specimen. Especially, the surface layer in the vicinity weld toe treated by the UNSM provides nano-crystal structure created by an ultrasonic cold forging and introduces very high welding residual stress in compression.

  10. Cocaine and heroin in waste water plants: a 1-year study in the city of Florence, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Biggeri, Annibale; Accetta, Gabriele; Trignano, Claudia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2009-08-10

    The diffusion and trends in use of each substance is a basic information in policy planning of strategies aiming at deterrence of drug abuse or in the organization of the fight against drug trafficking. The actual diffusion of illicit drugs in a population is hardly measurable, but, among the various measures available, the analysis of waste water plants represents one of the most reliable source of data. We analyzed waste water in order to monitor illicit drug use by local population. We investigated the use of cocaine and heroin in the city of Florence, Italy, over a 1-year (July 2006-June 2007) period using state-of-the-art measuring techniques from waste water samples. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and morphine were determined in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, and the amount of illicit substance was estimated. Data indicate for cocaine a bimodal distribution (December and March), while heroin showed a main peak in April. The heroin-to-cocaine use ratio in terms of estimated doses per month ranged from 0.11 to 0.76, representing new evidence of wider distribution of cocaine than heroin in Florence. Waste water analysis can become a valuable tool in monitoring use of illicit drugs over time. In particular, it can highlight changes in the magnitude and relative use of illicit drug at a population level thereby becoming useful to develop strategies against drug trafficking and abuse. If routinely performed, it can be part of Epidemiologic Surveillance Programmes on drug abuse.

  11. Synthesis of DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine by immobilized phospholipase A1: effect of water addition and vacuum condition.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Weifei; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully synthesized by immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-catalyzed transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, water addition and substrate mass ratio on the incorporation of DHA/EPA were evaluated using response surface methods (RSM). Water addition had most significant effect on the incorporation. Reaction temperature and substrate mass ratio, however, had no significant effect on the incorporation. The maximal incorporation was 19.09 % (24 h) under the following conditions: temperature 55.7 °C, water addition 1.1 wt % and substrate mass ratio (ethyl esters/PC) 6.8:1. Furthermore, effects of water addition (from 0 to 1.25 wt %) on DHA/EPA incorporation and the composition of products were further investigated. The immobilized PLA1 was more active when water addition was above 0.5 wt %. By monitoring the reaction processes with different water addition, a possible reaction scheme was proposed for transesterification of PC with DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. In summary, PC and sn2-lysophosphatidylocholine (LPC) were predominant in the mixtures at early stages of reaction, whereas sn1-LPC and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) predominant at later stages. The vacuum employed after 24 h significantly increased the incorporation of DHA/EPA and the composition of PC, and the highest incorporation (30.31 %) of DHA/EPA was obtained at 72 h and the yield of PC was 47.2 %.

  12. Experimental Measurements and Mathematical Modeling of Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Water Flow in a Long Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonska, J.; Kozubkova, M.

    2017-08-01

    Static and dynamic characteristics of flow in technical practice are very important and serious problem and can be solved by experimental measurement or mathematical modeling. Unsteady flow presents time changes of the flow and water hammer can be an example of this phenomenon. Water hammer is caused by rapid changes in the water flow by means the closure or opening of the control valve. The authors deal with by hydraulic hammer at the multiphase flow (water and air), its one-dimensional modeling (Matlab SimHydraulics) and modeling with the use of the finite volume method (Ansys Fluent) in article. The circuit elements are defined by static and dynamic characteristics. The results are verified with measurements. The article evaluates different approaches, their advantages, disadvantages and specifics in solving of water hammer.

  13. Acoustic Analysis for a Steam Dome and Pipings of a 1,100 MWe-Class Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumi, Kitajima; Masanobu, Watanabe; Keiji, Matsunaga; Tsuyoshi, Hagiwara

    2006-07-01

    For the integrity evaluation of steam dryers in up-rated nuclear power plants, we have applied acoustic analysis to a nuclear power plant steam dome and main steam pipings. We have selected a 1,100 MWe-class boiling water reactor as a subject of the analysis. We have constructed a three-dimensional finite element model, and conducted acoustic analyses. The analysis result suggested that the origin of steam pressure pulsation in high frequency range was due to vortex shedding at standpipes. (authors)

  14. NATRAN2. Fluid Hammer Analysis 1D & 2D Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-03-03

    NATRAN2 analyzes short-term pressure-pulse transients in a closed hydraulic system consisting of a two-dimensional axisymmetric domain connected to a one-dimensional piping network. The one-dimensional network may consist of series or parallel piping, pipe junctions, diameter discontinuities, junctions of three to six branches, closed ends, surge tanks, far ends, dummy junctions, acoustic impedance discontinuities, and rupture disks. By default, the working fluid is assumed to be liquid sodium without cavitation; but another working fluid can be specified in terms of its density, sonic speed, and viscosity. The source pressure pulse can arise from one of the following: a pressure-time function specified at some point in the two-dimensional domain, a pressure-time function or a sodium-water reaction specified at some point in the one-dimensional domain. The pressure pulse from a sodium-water reaction is assumed to be generated according to the dynamic model of Zaker and Salmon.

  15. Auto Indexer Auto-Indexer for Percussive Hammers: Vane Motor Dynamometer Testing

    DOE Data Explorer

    Su, Jiann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Options associated with geothermal drilling operations are generally limited by factors such as formation temperature and rock strength. The objective of the research is to expand the "tool box" available to the geothermal driller by furthering the development of a high-temperature drilling motor that can be used in directional drilling applications for drilling high temperature geothermal formations. The motor is specifically designed to operate in conjunction with a pneumatic down-the-hole-hammer. It provides a more compact design compared to traditional drilling motors such as PDMs (positive displacement motors). The packaging can help to enhance directional drilling capabilities. It uses no elastomeric components, which enables it to operate in higher temperatures ( >250 °F). Current work on the motor has shown that is a capable of operating under pneumatic power with a down-the-hole-hammer. Further development work will include continued testing and refining motor components and evaluating motor capabilities. Targets/Milestones Complete testing current motor - 12/31/2010 Make final material and design decisions - 01/31/2011 Build and test final prototype - 04/31/2011 Final demonstration - 07/31/2011 Impacts The development of the motor will help to achieve program technical objectives by improving well construction capabilities. This includes enabling high-temperature drilling as well as enhancing directional drilling. A key component in the auto indexer is the drive motor. It is an air-driven vane motor that converts the energy stored in the compressed air to mechanical energy. The motor is attached to hammer-like components which impart an impulsive load onto the drive shaft. The impulsive force on the drive shaft in turn creates an indexing action. A controlled test was performed to characterize the performance of the the vane motor for a given pressure. The Sandia dynamometer test station was used to determine the performance of the motor for a

  16. [Adam hammer (1818 - 1878) - remarks on a forgotten pioneer of ether anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Streckfuss, W

    2004-05-01

    Adam Hammer, born in 1818, and working as a doctor for the poor since 1847 in Mannheim, was the first person in the German speaking world to use ether for pain relief during labor on February 18th 1847. He took part in the abortive April 1848 Revolution in Mannheim - a pinnacle of German liberalism and later of political radicalism, which attented to abolish the Monarchy and introduce a democratic Republic. After the revolution was put down, Hammer emigrated to the United States and settled down in St. Louis, Missouri. Remaining politically active, he joined the Republican Party, founded in 1854 and served as a military surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Even before the war, he was engaged in efforts to improve the level of medical training in America and was involved with the foundation of High Schools which offered training courses along the lines of German universities. His ideas and innovations were not introduced immediately, but had a significant impact on medical training methology later on in the US. During a visit in Europe in 1876, he was the first to diagnose a coronary thombosis as the cause of a heart attack on a live patient. The diagnosis was later confirmed by post-morten autopsy on the patient. In 1877 he returned to Germany and died one year later. The biography of Adam Hammer mirrows that of many other German-Americans whose emigration proved to be a gain for America but a loss for Germany. This story was destinated to be repeated in terrible circumstances some decades later.

  17. A 1D-2D Shallow Water Equations solver for discontinuous porosity field based on a Generalized Riemann Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Alessia; Vacondio, Renato; Dazzi, Susanna; Mignosa, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    A novel augmented Riemann Solver capable of handling porosity discontinuities in 1D and 2D Shallow Water Equation (SWE) models is presented. With the aim of accurately approximating the porosity source term, a Generalized Riemann Problem is derived by adding an additional fictitious equation to the SWEs system and imposing mass and momentum conservation across the porosity discontinuity. The modified Shallow Water Equations are theoretically investigated, and the implementation of an augmented Roe Solver in a 1D Godunov-type finite volume scheme is presented. Robust treatment of transonic flows is ensured by introducing an entropy fix based on the wave pattern of the Generalized Riemann Problem. An Exact Riemann Solver is also derived in order to validate the numerical model. As an extension of the 1D scheme, an analogous 2D numerical model is also derived and validated through test cases with radial symmetry. The capability of the 1D and 2D numerical models to capture different wave patterns is assessed against several Riemann Problems with different wave patterns.

  18. Child health in the workplace: the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918).

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Johansson, S R

    1980-01-01

    Exploitation of children in the labor force at the beginning of this century gave rise to a national campaign leading to congressional passage of the Keating-Owen Act in 1916. The act prohibited from interstate commerce goods produced in factories or mines that employed children who either were under fourteen years of age or who were under sixteen years of age and worked more than eight hours a day. Despite its popular support, the Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918). The Court's decision involved several major issues: interpretation of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, freedom of contract, police power of the states, and the interstate commerce clause. Review of previous Court decisions suggests that the justices were on less than solid legal ground in reaching their decision. Examination of the historical context of the decision, however, suggests other factors that may have played a more important role than judicial precedents. The debate prompted by Hammer v. Dagenhart has much relevance to such current issues as young agricultural workers, sex discrimination in industry, and the powers of the federal government vis-a-vis states and individual citizens.

  19. [Effects of peak levels and number of noise impulses on hearing among forge hammering workers].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, G A; Denisov, E I; Antipin, V G; Kharitonov, V I; Starck, Iu; Pyykko, I; Toppila, E

    2002-01-01

    The work was aimed (1) to compare actual and expected values of hearing loss in forge hammering workers, using risk evaluation patterns based on impulse noise measurements, and (2) to simulate harmful hearing changes caused by impulse noise. Study of exposure to noise and hearing loss covered forge hammering workers in 2 major blacksmith workshops of automobile enterprise, where equivalent levels of acoustic pressure (104 and 106 dB) were equal, but peak levels and impalse degrees reliably differed. Hearing thresholds for 2 selected groups of workers (97 and 235 subjects) were evaluated. When compared, actual and expected values of hearing loss calculated according to ISO standard appeared different with excess of 1 dB and 3 dB for the workers in shops 1 and 2 respectively. Excessive hearing loss corresponds to noise exposure increased by 3.5 years. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to less impulsive noise were readily forecasted by ISO standard 1999-1990. Hearing loss in the workers subjected to more impulsive noise were in reliable correlation with combination of peak level and impulses number.

  20. Deep Drilling and Sampling via the Wireline Rotary-Hammer Auto-Gopher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Beegle, L. W.; Bao, X.

    2011-12-01

    Deep penetration and sample acquisition are critical capabilities for the NASA in-situ exploration missions to bodies in the solar system, including the missions to Mars. A rotary-hammering drilling and coring device called Auto-Gopher is being developed that addresses this need by producing a rotary-hammering drilling and coring device that It employs a piezoelectric actuated percussive mechanism for breaking formations and electric motor generated rotation that removes the cuttings. The percussive and rotary motions of the Auto-Gopher are activated simultaneously to optimize the penetration rate. The percussive mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that was demonstrated to require low axial preload. This sampler is a wireline mechanism that allows thru cyclic coring and core removal to reach great depths in subsurfaces and it is intended to establish the capability to penetrate the subsurface of Mars beyond the oxidized and sterilized zone and acquire pristine samples. The Auto-Gopher that is under development represents a lessons learned from the development of the Gopher drill that is percussive only and was demonstrated to penetrated about 2 meters deep ice at in Antarctica in 2005. The demonstration of the Auto-Gopher will include coring gypsum and limestone substrates and it will be field tested to reach as deep as 3 to 5 meters.

  1. Ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer as a hammer-rotary drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, M.; Kassab, S.; Sherrit, S.; Aldrich, J.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.

    2007-04-01

    Rock, soil, and ice penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for past and present life on the planet. The Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of these applications [Bar-Cohen et al., 2001]. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. For shallow drilling the cuttings travel outside the hole due to acoustic vibrations of the bit. Various methods to enhance the drilling/coring depth of this device have been considered including pneumatic [Badescu et al., 2006] and bit rotation [Chang et al., 2006]. The combination of bit rotation at low speed for cuttings removal and bit hammering at sonic frequencies are described in this paper. The theoretical background and testing results are presented.

  2. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Tom

    2012-02-15

    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  3. Hammer toe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercises may be helpful. You can try gentle stretching exercises if the toe is not already in ... have difficulty walking or fitting into shoes comfortably Prevention Avoid wearing shoes that are too short or ...

  4. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges..., Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On January 3, 2011, the Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated...

  5. Drop Hammer Tests with Three Oleo Strut Models and Three Different Shock Strut Oils at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, M

    1954-01-01

    Drop hammer tests with different shock strut models and shock strut oils were performed at temperatures ranging to -40 C. The various shock strut models do not differ essentially regarding their springing and damping properties at low temperatures; however, the influence of the different shock strut oils on the springing properties at low temperatures varies greatly.

  6. Detection Of Multilayer Cavities By Employing RC-DTH Air Hammer System And Cavity Auto Scanning Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongjiang; Li, Lijia; Peng, Jianming; Yin, Kun; Li, Peng; Gan, Xin; Zhao, Letao; Su, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The subterranean cavities are seriously threatened to construction and mining safety, and it's important to obtain the exact localization and dimensions of subterranean cavities for the planning of geotechnical and mining activities. Geophysical investigation is an alternative method for cavity detection, but it usually failed for the uncertainly solution of information and data obtained by Geophysical methods. Drilling is considered as the most accurate method for cavity detection. However, the conventional drilling methods can only be used for single cavity detection, and there is no effective solution for multilayer cavities detection have been reported. In this paper, a reverse circulation (RC) down-the-hole (DTH) air hammer system with a special structured drill bit is built and a cavity auto scanning laser system based on laser range finding technique was employed to confirm the localization and dimensions of the cavities. This RC-DTH air hammer system allows drilling through the upper cavities and putting the cavity auto scanning laser system into the cavity area through the central passage of the drill tools to protect the detection system from collapsing of borehole wall. The RC-DTH air hammer system was built, and field tests were conducted in Lanxian County Iron Ore District, which is located in Lv Liang city of Shan Xi province, the northwest of china. Field tests show that employing the RC-DTH air hammer system assisted by the cavity auto scanning laser system is an efficiency method to detect multilayer cavities.

  7. The Prediction of Performance of Olympic Athletes in Discus, Hammer, Javelin, and Shotput from Measures of Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, G. Robert; And Others

    1979-01-01

    For each of four subsamples of Olympic-quality athletes--14 discus, 8 hammer, 11 javelin, and 12 shotput measures of 19 personality constructs yielded only two statistically significant validity coefficients (out of 76 possible significant indices) in the prediction of average length of throw. (Author/JKS)

  8. Numerical investigation of soil plugging effect inside sleeve of cast-in-place piles driven by vibratory hammers in clays.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong Jie; Chen, Fu Quan; Dong, Yi Zhi

    2016-01-01

    During driving sleeve of cast-in-place piles by vibratory hammers, soils were squeezed into sleeve and then soil plugging was formed. The physic-mechanical properties of the soil plug have direct influence on the load transmission between the sleeve wall and soil plug. Nevertheless, the researches on this issue are insufficient. In this study, finite element and infinite element coupling model was introduced, through the commercial code ABAQUS, to simulate the full penetration process of the sleeve driven from the ground surface to the desired depth by applying vibratory hammers. The research results indicated that the cyclic shearing action decreases both in soil shear strength and in granular cementation force when the sleeve is driven by vibratory hammers, which leads to a partially plugged mode of the soil plug inside the sleeve. Accordingly, the penetration resistance of sleeve driven by vibratory hammers is the smallest compared to those by other installation methods. When driving the sleeve, the annular soil arches forming in the soil plug at sleeve end induce a significant rise in the internal shaft resistance. Moreover, the influence of vibration frequencies, sleeve diameters, and soil layer properties on the soil plug was investigated in detail, and at the same time improved formulas were brought forward to describe the soil plug resistance inside vibratory driven sleeve.

  9. New developments with Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD): Comparison of mechanical and electronic Schmidt-hammers - towards a conversion factor for Q- and R-values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Matthews, John; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    Developed as an instrument for in situ destruction-free testing of concrete hardness in construction works, the Schmidt-hammer has subsequently been introduced and applied in various fields of geomorphology and geology. In the context of investigating Late Glacial and Holocene glacier chronologies, the Schmidt-hammer has been widely used as a relative-age dating technique. Such applications have for example successfully separated moraines formed during different glacier advance periods ('Little Ice Age'-type events). Pilot studies combined Schmidt-hammer measurements with available radiocarbon ages in order to achieve age constraints. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) combining Schmidt-hammer and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) has recently been successfully applied in Norway and New Zealand. Schmidt-hammer tests have also been used to ensure the representativeness of boulders selected for TCND sampling. Especially in mountain regions with a high "geomorphological uncertainty" with the dating of Holocene moraines the inherited multi-proxy approach of SHD owns a considerable potential for reliable investigations of Late Glacial/Holocene glacier chronologies and their palaeoclimatic interpretation. An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers especially facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes, therefore, a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible. Prior to any considerations of using the instruments interchangeably or replacing the mechanical Schmidt-hammer in future studies with the SilverSchmidt, comparative tests under field conditions need to be undertaken

  10. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  11. Water Hammer Simulations of MMH Propellant - New Capability Demonstration of the Generalized Fluid Flow Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Z.; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure-density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK does not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine (MMH). This paper will illustrate the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight. Rigorous code validation of this approach will be done and reported at a future date.

  12. Quench of superconducting magnet induced by mechanical disturbance using impact hammer

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, A.; Inada, T.; Akiba, K.; Kanda, Y.; Uriu, Y.; Ishigohka, T.

    1996-07-01

    In an epoxy-impregnated superconducting magnet, triggers of quench are considered to be conductor motion or epoxy cracking which succeed the temperature rise of the conductor induced by friction between conductor and epoxy or conductor and conductor. A more direct method which makes a quench would be hitting the magnet with mechanical hammer. To the authors` knowledge, there are very few papers which treat this type of quench. So they have carried out a quench experiment triggered by mechanical impact induced by dropping a weight. They have investigated the relation between magnitude of the mechanical disturbance and the behavior of the superconducting magnet. They have also investigated the relation between the impact energy and the structural change of superconducting magnet using an ultrasonic transfer function which they have already proposed as a quench detection method.

  13. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  14. Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Caused by Recreational Sports Activities and Muscle Anomaly in the Wrist

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Dueber, Christoph; Mueller, Lars-Peter; Degreif, Juergen

    1996-09-15

    A 34-year-old man with digital ischemia is reported. Angiography revealed thromboembolic occlusions of the proper digital arteries of the index, middle, and ring fingers and a tortuous ulnar artery in Guyon's canal. Though hypothenar hammer syndrome was suspected, there was no relevant occupational history. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated an anomalous muscular sling around the ulnar artery immediately adjacent to the hook of the hamate. The ulnar artery showed mural thrombi in its tortuous segment. These findings were confirmed during operative exploration. After thrombectomy and embolectomy the involved segment of the ulnar artery was replaced by an autologous vein graft. Postoperatively there was complete resolution of the symptoms. Only during convalescence did it become clear that the patient was a passionate golfer.

  15. From ion-hammering to ion-shaping: an historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizza, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the research activity carried out within the field of amorphous materials submitted to swift heavy-ion irradiation since the opening of the GANIL facilities. In particular, this review focuses on two experimental observations which have created excitement in the swift heavy-ion community for several years: the ion-hammering and the ion-shaping processes. However, this article is neither a comprehensive review nor a tutorial. Indeed, its prime purpose is to give an historical overview of these two phenomena, putting the accent on how a new phenomenon is addressed by the scientific community and how through a difficult trial-and-error approach unsolved problems favor the issue of a coherent description of the phenomenon.

  16. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  17. The Stomatopod Dactyl Club: A Formidable Damage-Tolerant Biological Hammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, James C.; Milliron, Garrett W.; Miserez, Ali; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Herrera, Steven; Gallana, Isaias; Mershon, William J.; Swanson, Brook; Zavattieri, Pablo; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisailus, David

    2012-06-01

    Nature has evolved efficient strategies to synthesize complex mineralized structures that exhibit exceptional damage tolerance. One such example is found in the hypermineralized hammer-like dactyl clubs of the stomatopods, a group of highly aggressive marine crustaceans. The dactyl clubs from one species, Odontodactylus scyllarus, exhibit an impressive set of characteristics adapted for surviving high-velocity impacts on the heavily mineralized prey on which they feed. Consisting of a multiphase composite of oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate and carbonate, in conjunction with a highly expanded helicoidal organization of the fibrillar chitinous organic matrix, these structures display several effective lines of defense against catastrophic failure during repetitive high-energy loading events.

  18. The Stomatopod Dactyl Club: A Formidable Damage-Tolerant Biological Hammer

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver J. C.; DiMasi E.; Milliron, G.W.; Miserez, A.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Herrera, S.; Gallana, I.; Mershon, W.J.; Swanson, B.; Zavattieri, P.; Kisailus, D.

    2012-06-08

    Nature has evolved efficient strategies to synthesize complex mineralized structures that exhibit exceptional damage tolerance. One such example is found in the hypermineralized hammer-like dactyl clubs of the stomatopods, a group of highly aggressive marine crustaceans. The dactyl clubs from one species, Odontodactylus scyllarus, exhibit an impressive set of characteristics adapted for surviving high-velocity impacts on the heavily mineralized prey on which they feed. Consisting of a multiphase composite of oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite and amorphous calcium phosphate and carbonate, in conjunction with a highly expanded helicoidal organization of the fibrillar chitinous organic matrix, these structures display several effective lines of defense against catastrophic failure during repetitive high-energy loading events.

  19. HAMMER: automated operation of mass frontier to construct in silico mass spectral fragmentation libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiarui; Weber, Ralf J. M.; Allwood, J. William; Mistrik, Robert; Zhu, Zexuan; Ji, Zhen; Chen, Siping; Dunn, Warwick B.; He, Shan; Viant, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Experimental MSn mass spectral libraries currently do not adequately cover chemical space. This limits the robust annotation of metabolites in metabolomics studies of complex biological samples. In silico fragmentation libraries would improve the identification of compounds from experimental multistage fragmentation data when experimental reference data are unavailable. Here, we present a freely available software package to automatically control Mass Frontier software to construct in silico mass spectral libraries and to perform spectral matching. Based on two case studies, we have demonstrated that high-throughput automation of Mass Frontier allows researchers to generate in silico mass spectral libraries in an automated and high-throughput fashion with little or no human intervention required. Availability and implementation: Documentation, examples, results and source code are available at http://www.biosciences-labs.bham.ac.uk/viant/hammer/. Contact: m.viant@bham.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24336413

  20. A comparison of the lichenometric and Schmidt hammer dating techniques based on data from the proglacial areas of some Icelandic glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. J. A.; Archer, S.; Wilson, D. J. H.

    Measurements of Rhizocarpon section and Schmidt hammer R-values are reported from the proglacial geomorphic features on the forelands of the Icelandic glaciers of Kvı´árjökull, Hólárjökull and Heinabergsjökull (Öræfi and south Vatnajökull), Sandfellsjökull and Öldufellsjökull (east Mýrdalsjökull), and Brúárjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and west Snæfell (north Vatnajökull). These data are used in reconstructions of patterns of glacier recession since the Little Ice Age maximum, and the geomorphic signals of climatic versus non-climatic events are discussed. Age control was obtained from various dated substrates by utilizing historical accounts, aerial photographs and grave stones. Three lichen growth rates are calculated: (a) 0.51 mm a -1 (corrected to 0.50 mm a -1) with a colonization lag time of <16 yr for the arid forelands of north Vatnajökull; (b) 0.56 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 5 yr for the Icelandic southeast coast; and (c) 0.80 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 6.5 yr for the south Vatnajökull and east Mýrdalsjökull forelands. These compare favourably with a previously published growth rate of 0.44 mm a -1 for the arid north of Iceland. This regional coverage of data allows a comparison between annual precipitation totals and lichen growth rates and the construction of a growth rate prediction curve for Iceland. The success of the Schmidt hammer in differentiating moraines based upon age varied according to the geomorphological setting. Reasonable R-value/lichen size correlations were obtained on the east Mýrdalsjökull and Heinabergsjökull forelands where unrestricted glacier advance into lowlands allows for a higher degree of debris surface freshening by direct glacial processes. Weak correlations were obtained at Kvı´árjökull, where the glacier was restricted by a precursor latero-frontal moraine loop and therefore the debris comprising the Little Ice Age recessional moraines was diluted with material of

  1. Influence of surface modifications on pitting corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718. Part 1: Effect of machine hammer peening

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The effect of surface modifications induced by machine hammer peening on pitting corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718 in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is investigated. Severe work hardening and high compressive residual stress are generated with surface smoothing and microstructure evolution in terms of formation of nano-grains and nano-twins in the near surface region after machine hammer peening. Electrochemical tests results show that machine hammer peening has a beneficial influence on the corrosion resistance, indicated by a significant increase of the critical pitting potential (+134 mV) accompanied with lower corrosion current density and higher polarization resistance.

  2. Reliability of the Achilles tendon tap reflex evoked during stance using a pendulum hammer.

    PubMed

    Mildren, Robyn L; Zaback, Martin; Adkin, Allan L; Frank, James S; Bent, Leah R

    2016-01-01

    The tendon tap reflex (T-reflex) is often evoked in relaxed muscles to assess spinal reflex circuitry. Factors contributing to reflex excitability are modulated to accommodate specific postural demands. Thus, there is a need to be able to assess this reflex in a state where spinal reflex circuitry is engaged in maintaining posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pendulum hammer could provide controlled stimuli to the Achilles tendon and evoke reliable muscle responses during normal stance. A second aim was to establish appropriate stimulus parameters for experimental use. Fifteen healthy young adults stood on a forceplate while taps were applied to the Achilles tendon under conditions in which postural sway was constrained (by providing centre of pressure feedback) or unconstrained (no feedback) from an invariant release angle (50°). Twelve participants repeated this testing approximately six months later. Within one experimental session, tap force and T-reflex amplitude were found to be reliable regardless of whether postural sway was constrained (tap force ICC=0.982; T-reflex ICC=0.979) or unconstrained (tap force ICC=0.968; T-reflex ICC=0.964). T-reflex amplitude was also reliable between experimental sessions (constrained ICC=0.894; unconstrained ICC=0.890). When a T-reflex recruitment curve was constructed, optimal mid-range responses were observed using a 50° release angle. These results demonstrate that reliable Achilles T-reflexes can be evoked in standing participants without the need to constrain posture. The pendulum hammer provides a simple method to allow researchers and clinicians to gather information about reflex circuitry in a state where it is involved in postural control.

  3. A-1 Petroleum in Washington settles with EPA to resolve spill prevention planning violations, protect local waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - Sept. 30, 2015) A-1 Petroleum and Propane, Inc., located in Ellensburg, Washington, has agreed to settle emergency planning violations with the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. A-1 Petroleum is the largest petroleum distributor in Kittitas C

  4. A 1D microphysical cloud model for Earth, and Earth-like exoplanets: Liquid water and water ice clouds in the convective troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsom, Andras; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Goldblatt, Colin

    2012-11-01

    One significant difference between the atmospheres of stars and exoplanets is the presence of condensed particles (clouds or hazes) in the atmosphere of the latter. In current 1D models clouds and hazes are treated in an approximate way by raising the surface albedo, or adopting measured Earth cloud properties. The former method introduces errors to the modeled spectra of the exoplanet, as clouds shield the lower atmosphere and thus modify the spectral features. The latter method works only for an exact Earth-analog, but it is challenging to extend to other planets. The main goal of this paper is to develop a self-consistent microphysical cloud model for 1D atmospheric codes, which can reproduce some observed properties of Earth, such as the average albedo, surface temperature, and global energy budget. The cloud model is designed to be computationally efficient, simple to implement, and applicable for a wide range of atmospheric parameters for planets in the habitable zone. We use a 1D, cloud-free, radiative-convective, and photochemical equilibrium code originally developed by Kasting, Pavlov, Segura, and collaborators as basis for our cloudy atmosphere model. The cloud model is based on models used by the meteorology community for Earth’s clouds. The free parameters of the model are the relative humidity and number density of condensation nuclei, and the precipitation efficiency. In a 1D model, the cloud coverage cannot be self-consistently determined, thus we treat it as a free parameter. We apply this model to Earth (aerosol number density 100 cm-3, relative humidity 77%, liquid cloud fraction 40%, and ice cloud fraction 25%) and find that a precipitation efficiency of 0.8 is needed to reproduce the albedo, average surface temperature and global energy budget of Earth. We perform simulations to determine how the albedo and the climate of a planet is influenced by the free parameters of the cloud model. We find that the planetary climate is most sensitive to

  5. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  6. Vertical section construction of wells at Kuyumbinsky oil field via percussive-rotary drilling with DTH hammer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanov, K. V.; Nechaeva, L. N.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the analysis of sequential use of mobile percussive-rotary drilling sets with DTH hammer and bottom-hole cleaning by foam mud in construction of vertical sections along with at Kuyumbinsky oil field. On the basis of the analysis, an engineering solution is proposed to prevent disastrous mud loss that is the key factor of efficiency in implementation of resource-saving technologies.

  7. Effect of bit wear on hammer drill handle vibration and productivity.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Andrea; Barr, Alan; Martin, Bernard; Rempel, David

    2017-08-01

    The use of large electric hammer drills exposes construction workers to high levels of hand vibration that may lead to hand-arm vibration syndrome and other musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effect of bit wear on drill handle vibration and drilling productivity (e.g., drilling time per hole). A laboratory test bench system was used with an 8.3 kg electric hammer drill and 1.9 cm concrete bit (a typical drill and bit used in commercial construction). The system automatically advanced the active drill into aged concrete block under feed force control to a depth of 7.6 cm while handle vibration was measured according to ISO standards (ISO 5349 and 28927). Bits were worn to 4 levels by consecutive hole drilling to 4 cumulative drilling depths: 0, 1,900, 5,700, and 7,600 cm. Z-axis handle vibration increased significantly (p<0.05) from 4.8 to 5.1 m/s(2) (ISO weighted) and from 42.7-47.6 m/s(2) (unweighted) when comparing a new bit to a bit worn to 1,900 cm of cumulative drilling depth. Handle vibration did not increase further with bits worn more than 1900 cm of cumulative drilling depth. Neither x- nor y-axis handle vibration was effected by bit wear. The time to drill a hole increased by 58% for the bit with 5,700 cm of cumulative drilling depth compared to a new bit. Bit wear led to a small but significant increase in both ISO weighted and unweighted z-axis handle vibration. Perhaps more important, bit wear had a large effect on productivity. The effect on productivity will influence a worker's allowable daily drilling time if exposure to drill handle vibration is near the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value. ([1]) Construction contractors should implement a bit replacement program based on these findings.

  8. Tools of Thor - more than a hammer: An overview of some analysis methods for turbulence investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, Stein; Vaivads, Andris; Eriksson, Elin

    2016-04-01

    In the old Norse mythology Thor was a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder and lightning. THOR is also an acronym for Turbulence Heating ObserveR - a planned space mission dedicated to stydy space plasma turbulence. Whereas the mythological Thor did most of his work with a single tool, Mjølnir - his hammer, the modern version of THOR is far more versatile. The proposed THOR spacecraft comes with a comprehensive package of instruments to explore the energy dissipation and particle energization taking place in turbulent plasma environments. This paper presents a more detailed investigation of some of the analysis methods listed in the submitted THOR proposal. To demonstrate the methods, we have used data from existing spacecraft missions like Cluster and MMS to examine and compare single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods to establish proper frames. The presented analysis methods are based on fundamental plasma laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy and do not require any triangulation or gradients based on multiple spacecraft. Our experience based on Cluster and MMS results show that a well equipped single spacecraft platform, like the proposed THOR mission, very often provides better and less ambiguous results that a constellation of many spacecraft with less capable instrumentation. Limitations in underlying assumptions, such as planarity and linearity, as well as non-optimal spacecraft separation and configurations often limit the possibility to utilize multi-spacecraft methods. We also investigate the role of time resolution and dynamical range of the measurements used in the methods. Since the particle instruments onboard THOR will have a much better time resolution than existing magnetospheric satellite missions, we infer that THOR will be far better suited to resolve time evolution in plasma structures. This is of particular importance in the solar wind and magnetosheat, where frame velocities can be very high. With a larger

  9. Active Precharge Hammering to Monitor Displacement Damage Using High-Energy Protons in 3x-nm SDRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chulseung; Park, Kyungbae; Baeg, Sanghyeon

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes the Active Precharge Hammering on a Row (APHR) test to evaluate displacement damage (DD) in 3x-nm DRAM components. Irradiated SDRAM devices could have multiple current leakage paths, partly owing to DD effects. The degree of leakage from cells with DD can be differentiated from undamaged cells by the difference in the number of hammered accesses to the two types of cells. Proton-based SER tests were performed with DDR3 SDRAM components made using 3x-nm technologies. The experimental results showed that bit errors caused by the APHR test (APHR errors) were more than five times higher in the irradiated sample compared to the non-irradiated sample, and APHR errors were not detectable within 64-ms retention time using the traditional retention test method. In the worst case, the number of hammerings required to cause an APHR error in the irradiated sample reduced by 36 times compared to that in the non-irradiated sample even after the irradiated sample was annealed at 150° C so as to have no retention errors within the maximum retention time of 64-ms.

  10. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface strength and durability assessment of stones by using non-destructive tests, such as Schmidt hammer and Duroskop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Á.

    2012-04-01

    Wide-ranges of surface testing methods are used under laboratory conditions and on site to assess the strength and durability of construction materials. The paper brings examples of the use of two types of techniques: Schmidt hammer and Duroscope. Both techniques were firstly used for testing artificial materials. The Schmidt hammer was developed for concrete testing, while Duroskop was first applied on metal surfaces. These non-destructive techniques are now increasingly applied for stone testing at historical monuments, at construction sites or even in quarries. The paper gives an overview of four different types of Schmidt hammer from which three analogous (L-9, N-34, PT-Schmidt) and one digital (Digi-Schmidt). It compares rebound values of various stones and provides information on the relationship between these values and weathering grades. Another less commonly applied technique the Duroskop was also tested. Relationship between Schmidt and Duroskop rebound values are also given. Tested stone types included porous limestone, cemented limestone, travertine and sandstone. For comparison, basalt and andesite tuff ashlars were also measured. The use of these techniques in assessing surface strength of stones, the advantages and limitations of their applications are also discussed.

  12. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  13. Dead-blow hammer design applied to a calibration target mechanism to dampen excessive rebound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Brian Y.

    1991-01-01

    An existing rotary electromagnetic driver was specified to be used to deploy and restow a blackbody calibration target inside of a spacecraft infrared science instrument. However, this target was much more massive than any other previously inherited design applications. The target experienced unacceptable bounce when reaching its stops. Without any design modification, the momentum generated by the driver caused the target to bounce back to its starting position. Initially, elastomeric dampers were used between the driver and the target. However, this design could not prevent the bounce, and it compromised the positional accuracy of the calibration target. A design that successfully met all the requirements incorporated a sealed pocket 85 percent full of 0.75 mm diameter stainless steel balls in the back of the target to provide the effect of a dead-blow hammer. The energy dissipation resulting from the collision of balls in the pocket successfully dampened the excess momentum generated during the target deployment. The disastrous effects of new requirements on a design with a successful flight history, the modifications that were necessary to make the device work, and the tests performed to verify its functionality are described.

  14. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Sciacca, Gianfranco; van der Ster, Dan

    2012-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  15. A portable vacuum hammer seismic source for use in tunnel environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.D.; Magner, J.E.

    1993-06-01

    Concern for the measurement of seismic refraction velocities in tunnel areas where cables, construction features, and other sensitive structures render the use of dynamite sources unwise, resulted in the design of a vacuum-driven impact system utilizing a 43-kg (94-lb) weight in a 2-m (6.5-ft) tube. The system is portable, quickly assembled and disassembled, and requires only standard electrical power, an air pressure supply, and a laboratory vacuum pump to operate. The maximum weight of any component is 84 kg (185 lb), the remaining components being significantly lighter. Tests in volcanic rock tunnels in Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site indicate maximum energy generated by the system is in the SV wave. When the system was employed at angles other than vertical, a polarized SH mode was also observed. The hammer was used to obtain velocities in an in-hole survey in a 138-m horizontal hole drilled behind the flat face of the Red Hot chamber after the Red Hot nuclear detonation. A large decrease was observed in compressional velocity compared with pre-event values. Because 20 years have elapsed since the explosion, one cannot separate the effect of ground shock on lowering the velocity from possible effects of destressing around adjacent underground openings over this period.

  16. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-03-10

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment.

  17. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  18. Evaluating a 1D and 2D water quality modeling framework: A case study of the lower Bode River, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sumit; Rode, Michael; Borchardt, Dietrich

    2014-05-01

    The Bode River catchment in the Harz Mountain area of central Germany is heavily influenced by anthropogenic factors. 70% of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, 23 % by forest and the rest 7% is urban in nature. The area of the catchment is approximately 3300 km2 and is characterized by sharp gradients in temperature, precipitation and land use. In order to acquire better understanding of the hydrological nature of the catchment and biogeochemical characteristics of the Bode River various monitoring stations have been deployed as a part of the larger earth observation network initiative named Terrestrial Environmental Observatories. One of the major issues with the catchment is the problem of eutrophication due to solute inputs from agriculture. The research presented here evaluated the application and development of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic and water quality models in the downstream area of the Bode River. A stretch of 30 kms between Hadmersleeben and Stassfurt in the downstream area of the Bode River was modeled using 1D model HEC-RAS, the focus of the water quality modeling was transport and uptake of nitrate in the aforementioned modeled stretch. Flood events of varying peak magnitude at different times of the year were modeled. As regards to 2D modeling, TELEMAC-2D model was applied for the same reach. The hydrodynamic simulation results were validated with the help of free surface elevation at Athensleben, 8 kms upstream from the downstream end at Stassfurt. Water quality modeling, focusing on the Nitrate removal for the aforementioned stretch, is applied and developed for both 1D and 2D modeling framework. Results from hydrodynamic and water quality modeling were validated with RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) value of 0.074 and 0.36 for the modeled state variables across various events simulated. For the nutrient-rich reach modeled in this research it was found that the nutrient removal capacity of the stream is directly proportional to the incoming

  19. Modifications to MELCOR for the analysis of heavy-water moderated, U-A1 fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J.P. ); Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The MELCOR computer code is being used as the point of departure to develop an integrated severe accident analysis computer code for the heavy-water moderated U-Al fuel reactors. The resulting computer code (MELCOR/SR) provides a practical and comprehensive analytical tool for evaluating severe accident behavior in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The technical scope of this development effort is summarized in this paper. Other companion papers are cited that provide additional details regarding particular models.

  20. Effect of monochloramine treatment on colonization of a hospital water distribution system by Legionella spp.: a 1 year experience study.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Benedetta; Scurti, Maria; Dormi, Ada; Grottola, Antonella; Zanotti, Andrea; Cristino, Sandra

    2015-04-07

    Contamination of hot water distribution systems by Legionella represents a great challenge due to difficulties associated with inactivating microorganisms, preserving the water characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine over the course of 1 year in 11 fixed sites, the impact of monochloramine disinfection on Legionella, heterotrophic bacteria (36 °C), Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination, and chemical parameters of a plumbing system in an Italian hospital. Three days after installation (T0), in the presence of monochloramine concentration between 1.5 and 2 mg/L, 10/11 sites (91%) were contaminated by L. pneumophila serogroups 3 and 10. After these results, the disinfectant dosage was increased to between 6 and 10 mg/L, reducing the level of Legionella by three logarithmic unit by 2 months postinstallation (T2) until 6 months later (T3). One year later (T4), there was a significant reduction (p = 0.0002) at 8/11 (73%) sites. Our data showed also a significant reduction of heterotrophic bacteria (36 °C) in 6/11 (55%) sites at T4 (p = 0.0004), by contrast the contamination of P. aeruginosa found at T0 in two sites persisted up until T4. The results of the present study show that monochloramine is a promising disinfectant that can prevent Legionella contamination of hospital water supplies.

  1. An Effective and Feasible Method, “Hammering Technique,” for Percutaneous Fixation of Anterior Column Acetabular Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihai; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Li, Jiantao; Chen, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and advantages of percutaneous fixation of anterior column acetabular fracture with “hammering technique.” Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with percutaneous fixation of anterior column acetabular fracture with “hammering technique.” There were 11 males and 5 females with an average age of 38.88 years (range: 24–54 years) in our study. Our study included 7 nondisplaced fractures, 6 mild displaced fractures (<2 mm), and 5 displaced fractures (>2 mm). The mean time from injury to surgery was 4.5 days (range: 2–7 days). Results. The average of operation time was 27.56 minutes (range: 15–45 minutes), and the mean blood loss was 55.28 mL (range: 15–100 mL). The mean fluoroscopic time was 54.78 seconds (range: 40–77 seconds). The first pass of the guide wire was acceptable without cortical perforation or intra-articular perforation in 88.89% (16/18) of the procedures, and the second attempt was in 11.11% (2/18). Conclusion. Our study suggested that percutaneous fixation of anterior column acetabular fracture with “hammering technique” acquired satisfying surgical and clinical outcomes. It may be an alternative satisfying treatment for percutaneous fixation of anterior column acetabular fracture by 2D fluoroscopy using a C-arm with less fluoroscopic time. PMID:27493962

  2. Molecular comparison of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Padiernos, R B C; Mingala, C N

    2016-06-01

    Solute-linked carrier 11a and 11a2 (Slc) have been associated with disease resistance and/or susceptibility across animal species. These genes have an important mechanism in the regulation against intracellular infection. This study analysed the genetic characteristic of Slc 11a and 11a2 in swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes to understand their immunological distinction. Characterization of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes from swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was carried out by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cloned cDNA of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 contained an open reading frame of 1647 and 1723 nucleotides, encoding 549 and 574 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of both Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 had 99% in swamp and riverine type, which gives almost identical polypeptide. However, Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 have substitutions of 5 and 1 amino acid residues, correspondingly. These substitutions suggest as a potential gene markers for resistance and/or susceptibility to intracellular infection. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the degree of relationship between the bubaline species and justifies the distinctness of each breed by the bootstrap value generated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Drug modulation of water-heme interactions in low-spin P450 complexes of CYP2C9d and CYP125A1.

    PubMed

    Conner, Kip P; Cruce, Alex A; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Schimpf, Alina M; Frank, Daniel J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul; Atkins, William M; Bowman, Michael K

    2015-02-10

    Azoles and pyridines are commonly incorporated into small molecule inhibitor scaffolds that target cytochromes P450 (CYPs) as a strategy to increase drug binding affinity, impart isoform-dependent selectivity, and improve metabolic stability. Optical absorbance spectra of the CYP-inhibitor complex are widely used to infer whether these inhibitors are ligated directly to the heme iron as catalytically inert, low-spin (type II) complexes. Here, we show that the low-spin complex between a drug-metabolizing CYP2C9 variant and 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (PPT) retains an axial water ligand despite exhibiting elements of "classic" type II optical behavior. Hydrogens of the axial water ligand are observed by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for both inhibitor-free and inhibitor-bound species and show that inhibitor binding does not displace the axial water. A (15)N label incorporated into PPT is 0.444 nm from the heme iron, showing that PPT is also in the active site. The reverse type I inhibitor, LP10, of CYP125A1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, known from X-ray crystal structures to form a low-spin water-bridged complex, is found by EPR and by visible and near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to retain the axial water ligand in the complex in solution.

  4. Erosion of metals by multiple impacts with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, S. L.; Thiruvengadam, A.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation determines - relation between impact velocity and minimum number of impacts producing visible erosion, relation between high frequency fatigue stresses and number of cycles to failure, water-hammer stresses relation to high frequency endurance limit, erosion rate as exposure time function, and correlates experimental data with recent theory.

  5. A 1D-ecosystem model for pelagic waters in the southern Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations (future decades)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Osiński, R.; Jakacki, J.; Jędrasik, J.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional Ecosystem Model. Mathematically, the pelagic variables in the model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The nutrient concentration is caused by nutrient release, zooplankton excretion, predator excretion, detritus decomposition and benthic regeneration as sources and by nutrient uptake by phytoplankton as sinks. However, the benthic detritus is described by phytoplankton sedimentation, detritus sedimentation and remineralisation. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. The 1D ecosystem model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of pelagic variables (phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and POC) in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The calculations were made assuming: 1) increase in the water temperature in the upper layer - 0.008oC per year, 2) increase in the available light - 0.2% per year. Based on this trend, daily, monthly and seasonal and annual variability of phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and particulate organic carbon in different areas of the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Borrnholm Deep and Gotland Deep) in the euphotic layer was calculated for the years: 2000, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050.

  6. O2(a1Δg) dayglow limb observations on Mars by SPICAM IR on Mars-Express and connection to water vapor distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guslyakova, S.; Fedorova, A. A.; Lefèvre, F.; Korablev, O. I.; Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2014-09-01

    The 1.27-μm O2(a1Δg) dayglow on Mars is a product of the ozone photolysis by solar UV radiation. The intensity of the O2(a1Δg) emission rate depends on ozone concentration, atmospheric density and kinetic parameters of involved photochemical reactions. In turn, the distribution of ozone is sensitive to the vertical and spatial distribution of water vapor, which is an effective destructor of O3. SPICAM IR on the Mars-Express mission measures the O2(1Δg) dayglow with spectral resolving power of 2200. The results of 147 limb observations from 2004 to 2013 are reported. Limb resolution of the instrument is variable and exceeds the scale height of the atmosphere. The slant emission rate reaches a maximum at the high Northern latitudes at northern and southern springs Ls = 0-50° and 160-190°, respectively and a minimum in middle and low latitudes at southern summer Ls = 200-300°. We have compared the SPIVAM O2(a1Δg) limb profiles with the General Circulation Model simulation by the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD GCM, Lefèvre, F., Lebonnois, S., Montmessin, F., Forget, F. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E07004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JE002268; Lefèvre, F., et al. [2008]. Nature 454(7207), 971-975) reduced to the vertical resolution of the instrument. The GCM includes the radiative effect of the water clouds and an interactive dust scheme, and well reproduces Martian Climate Sounder (MCS) temperature profiles (Clancy, R. Todd et al. [2012]. J. Geophys. Res. 117, 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JE004018). The model underestimates the emission for Ls = 0-50°, Ls = 160-180° and overestimates it from Ls = 60° to Ls = 150° at high Northern latitudes. In the Southern hemisphere the model underestimates the emission for Ls = 170-200° and overestimates it for Ls = 200-230° at high Southern latitudes. The disagreement could be related to the water vapor distribution as the model reproduces it. The most recent version of the LMD GCM including

  7. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). RESULTS--No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. CONCLUSION--These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological). PMID:8535492

  8. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Bitra, V.S.P; Womac, A.R.; Chevanan, Nehru; Miu, P.I.; Smith, D.R.; Igathinathane, C.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic

  9. Jet-type, water-cooled heat sink that yields 255-W continuous-wave laser output at 808 nm from a 1-cm laser diode bar.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Hirofumi; Kan, Hirofumi; Kanzaki, Takeshi; Furuta, Shin-ichi; Yamanaka, Masanobu; Izawa, Yasukazu; Nakai, Sadao

    2004-02-01

    A newly designed jet-type, water-cooled heat sink (the funryu heat sink, meaning fountain flow in Japanese) yielded 255-W cw laser output at 808 nm from a 1-cm bar made from InGaAsP/InGaP quantum-well active layers with a 67% fill factor [70 quantum-well laser diode (LD) array along the 1-cm bar]. A funryu heat sink measuring 1.1 mm in thickness gave the LD 0.25 degrees C/W thermal resistance, one of the lowest values achieved with a 1-cm LD bar. Over a short period of operation, the device reached a maximum cw power of 255 W. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power ever achieved in 808-nm LD operation. In the future, the funryu heat sink may be capable of 80-W cw operation over an extended lifetime of several thousand hours.

  10. Near-infrared measurement of water temperature near a 1-mm-diameter magnetic sphere and its heat generation rate under induction heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuta, Naoto; Nishijima, Keisuke; Kondo, Katsuya; Yamada, Yukio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a method of measuring the temperature of water near a 1-mm-diameter magnetic sphere under induction heating. The method is based on the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water at a wavelength of 1150 nm. In this study, two-dimensional images of the absorbance, which is the transverse projection of the absorption coefficient of water, were acquired by a near-infrared camera through a telecentric lens, and three-dimensional radial profiles of the temperature were then generated by applying inverse Abel transforms (IATs) to the absorbance profiles. To ensure the spherical symmetry of the temperature and the parallelity of the light rays, which are the conditions necessary to apply an IAT, the onset of free convection and the angles of deflection were evaluated. This paper also presents a method of estimating the heat generation rate in a sphere by fitting the numerical solutions of the thermal conduction equation to the measured temperatures. The temperatures and heat generation rates were observed to change consistently with the changes in the magnetic field intensity.

  11. Dermal safety assessment of Arm & Hammer laundry products formulated for sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Douglas M; Vorwerk, Linda; Gupta, Archana; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2017-09-01

    product (Arm & Hammer Free & Clear) and other nonirritant controls. In the Wrist Band Wear test, exposure to laundered fabrics under exaggerated conditions gave similar results for the test and control products, with no objective signs of skin irritation, and no self-reported persistent adverse sensory effects. Very mild, transient and isolated sensory effects were noted in daily diaries by a small proportion of subjects, and were similar for the test and control products. The Safety In-Use tests evaluated 4-week exposure to product and laundered fabrics under realistic use conditions. There were no clinically objective signs of skin irritation, and reports of transitory, mild sensory effects were minimal and similar for the test and controls. A comprehensive skin safety program on a lightly scented sensitive skin laundry formulation (i.e. Arm & Hammer™ Sensitive Skin plus Skin-Friendly Fresh Scent) conducted among panels of self-assessed sensitive skin subjects demonstrated that the presence of a light fragrance did not adversely impact skin compatibility in any of the testing protocols when the product was compared to a similar product with no fragrance. The lightly fragranced product demonstrated overall skin compatibility and mildness when tested in a self-assessed sensitive skin population, and compared favorably to currently marketed sensitive skin products.

  12. Application of iminodiacetate chelating resin muromac A-1 in on-line preconcentration and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace elements in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassileva, E.; Furuta, N.

    2003-08-01

    On-line system incorporating a microcolumn of Muromac A-1 resin was used for the developing of method for preconcentration of trace elements followed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry determination. A chelating type ion exchange resin has been characterized regarding the sorption and subsequent elution of 24 elements, aiming to their preconcentration from water samples of different origins. The effect of column conditioning, pH and flow rate during the preconcentration step, and the nature of the acid medium employed for desorption of the retained elements were investigated. A sample (pH 5) is pumped through the column at 3 ml min -1 and sequentially eluted directly to the ICP with 3 M HNO 3/HCl mixtures. In order to remove residual matrix elements from the column after sample loading a short buffer wash was found to be necessary. The effectiveness of the matrix separation process was illustrated. The procedure was validated by analyzing several simple matrices, Standard River water sample as well as artificial seawater. Proposed method can be applied for simultaneous determination of In, Tl, Ti, Y, Cd, Co, Cu and Ni in seawater and for multielement trace analysis of river water. Recovery at 1 μg l -1 level for the determination of investigated 24 elements in pure water ranged from 93.1 to 96% except for Pd (82.2%) and Pb (88.1%). For the same concentration level for seawater analysis recovery was between 81.9 and 95.6% except for Hg (38.2%).

  13. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  14. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  15. Interpolation of TC0 2 data on a 1° × 1° grid throughout the water column below 500 m depth in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; McCue, S. J.; Glover, D. M.

    1997-12-01

    We have combined the available total CO 2, temperature, salinity and oxygen data from the TTO, SAVE and WOCE programs in the Atlantic Ocean to parameterize TCO 2 below 500 m depth as a function of potential temperature, salinity and apparent oxygen utilization. We then use the Levitus data set of temperature, salinity and oxygen to compute the TCO 2 profiles at the resolution of the Levitus data set on a 1° × 1° grid with a vertical resolution of 33 layers, more densely spaced in the upper 1500 m than below. Depending on the method used to interpolate the data (along isopycnals or vertically by station), the estimated random uncertainty of the computed TC0 2 values in the Atlantic Ocean throughout the water column below the wintertime mixed layer depth ranges from ± 7.1 μmol kg -1 to t 5.9 μmol kg -1.

  16. Development of size reduction equations for calculating power input for grinding pine wood chips using hammer mill

    DOE PAGES

    Naimi, Ladan J.; Collard, Flavien; Bi, Xiaotao; ...

    2016-01-05

    Size reduction is an unavoidable operation for preparing biomass for biofuels and bioproduct conversion. Yet, there is considerable uncertainty in power input requirement and the uniformity of ground biomass. Considerable gains are possible if the required power input for a size reduction ratio is estimated accurately. In this research three well-known mechanistic equations attributed to Rittinger, Kick, and Bond available for predicting energy input for grinding pine wood chips were tested against experimental grinding data. Prior to testing, samples of pine wood chips were conditioned to 11.7% wb, moisture content. The wood chips were successively ground in a hammer millmore » using screen sizes of 25.4 mm, 10 mm, 6.4 mm, and 3.2 mm. The input power and the flow of material into the grinder were recorded continuously. The recorded power input vs. mean particle size showed that the Rittinger equation had the best fit to the experimental data. The ground particle sizes were 4 to 7 times smaller than the size of installed screen. Geometric mean size of particles were calculated using two methods (1) Tyler sieves and using particle size analysis and (2) Sauter mean diameter calculated from the ratio of volume to surface that were estimated from measured length and width. The two mean diameters agreed well, pointing to the fact that either mechanical sieving or particle imaging can be used to characterize particle size. In conclusion, specific energy input to the hammer mill increased from 1.4 kWh t–1 (5.2 J g–1) for large 25.1-mm screen to 25 kWh t–1 (90.4 J g–1) for small 3.2-mm screen.« less

  17. The Effects of Bit Wear on Respirable Silica Dust, Noise and Productivity: A Hammer Drill Bench Study.

    PubMed

    Carty, Paul; Cooper, Michael R; Barr, Alan; Neitzel, Richard L; Balmes, John; Rempel, David

    2017-07-01

    Hammer drills are used extensively in commercial construction for drilling into concrete for tasks including rebar installation for structural upgrades and anchor bolt installation. This drilling task can expose workers to respirable silica dust and noise. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of bit wear on respirable silica dust, noise, and drilling productivity. Test bits were worn to three states by drilling consecutive holes to different cumulative drilling depths: 0, 780, and 1560 cm. Each state of bit wear was evaluated by three trials (nine trials total). For each trial, an automated laboratory test bench system drilled 41 holes 1.3 cm diameter, and 10 cm deep into concrete block at a rate of one hole per minute using a commercially available hammer drill and masonry bits. During each trial, dust was continuously captured by two respirable and one inhalable sampling trains and noise was sampled with a noise dosimeter. The room was thoroughly cleaned between trials. When comparing results for the sharp (0 cm) versus dull bit (1560 cm), the mean respirable silica increased from 0.41 to 0.74 mg m-3 in sampler 1 (P = 0.012) and from 0.41 to 0.89 mg m-3 in sampler 2 (P = 0.024); levels above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg m-3. Likewise, mean noise levels increased from 112.8 to 114.4 dBA (P < 0.00001). Drilling productivity declined with increasing wear from 10.16 to 7.76 mm s-1 (P < 0.00001). Increasing bit wear was associated with increasing respirable silica dust and noise and reduced drilling productivity. The levels of dust and noise produced by these experimental conditions would require dust capture, hearing protection, and possibly respiratory protection. The findings support the adoption of a bit replacement program by construction contractors.

  18. Skull wounds linked with blunt trauma (hammer example). A report of two depressed skull fractures--elements of biomechanical explanation.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Becart, Anne; Colard, Thomas; Delille, Rémi; Tournel, Gilles; Hedouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier

    2012-09-01

    The lesions of the skull following perforating traumas can create complex fractures. The blunt traumas can, according to the swiftness and the shape of the object used, create a depressed fracture. The authors describe through two clinical cases the lesional characteristic of the blunt traumas, perforating the skull using a hammer. In both cases the cranial lesions were very typical: they were geometrical, square shaped, of the same size than the tool (head and tip of the hammer). On the outer table of the skull, the edges of the wounds were sharp and regular. On the inner table, the edges of the wounds were beveled and irregular. The bony penetration in the depressed fracture results from a rupture of the outer table of the bone under tension, in periphery, by the bend of the bone to the impact (outbending) and then, from the inner table with comminuted bony fragmentation. Breeding on the fractures of the size and the shape of the blunt objects used is inconstant and differs, that it is the objects of flat surface or wide in opposition to those of small surface area. Fractures morphologies depend on one hand on these extrinsic factors and on the other hand, of intrinsic factors (structure of the bone). To identify them, we had previously conducted experimental work on cranial bone samples. The bone was submitted to a device for three-point bending. This work had shown properties of thickness and stiffness of the various areas of the vault. Our cases are consistent with these results and illustrate the variability of bone lesions according to region and mode of use of blunt weapons. Many studies have identified criteria for identification of the weapons and the assistance of digital and biomechanical models will be an invaluable contribution with this aim in the future.

  19. Development of size reduction equations for calculating power input for grinding pine wood chips using hammer mill

    SciTech Connect

    Naimi, Ladan J.; Collard, Flavien; Bi, Xiaotao; Lim, C. Jim; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-01-05

    Size reduction is an unavoidable operation for preparing biomass for biofuels and bioproduct conversion. Yet, there is considerable uncertainty in power input requirement and the uniformity of ground biomass. Considerable gains are possible if the required power input for a size reduction ratio is estimated accurately. In this research three well-known mechanistic equations attributed to Rittinger, Kick, and Bond available for predicting energy input for grinding pine wood chips were tested against experimental grinding data. Prior to testing, samples of pine wood chips were conditioned to 11.7% wb, moisture content. The wood chips were successively ground in a hammer mill using screen sizes of 25.4 mm, 10 mm, 6.4 mm, and 3.2 mm. The input power and the flow of material into the grinder were recorded continuously. The recorded power input vs. mean particle size showed that the Rittinger equation had the best fit to the experimental data. The ground particle sizes were 4 to 7 times smaller than the size of installed screen. Geometric mean size of particles were calculated using two methods (1) Tyler sieves and using particle size analysis and (2) Sauter mean diameter calculated from the ratio of volume to surface that were estimated from measured length and width. The two mean diameters agreed well, pointing to the fact that either mechanical sieving or particle imaging can be used to characterize particle size. In conclusion, specific energy input to the hammer mill increased from 1.4 kWh t–1 (5.2 J g–1) for large 25.1-mm screen to 25 kWh t–1 (90.4 J g–1) for small 3.2-mm screen.

  20. Integrity of high-velocity water slug generated by an impacting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, Sevda; Bourne, Neil

    2013-06-01

    A pulsed water jet is a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at the stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the integrity of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence of the generated water pulse was of concern in this study. If repeated shock reflections within the chamber were transmitted or were carried into the internal geometry of nozzle, the emerging jet could pulsate. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to study the quality and endurance of the water pulse stream as it travelled through air.

  1. Production of a high-velocity water slug using an impacting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkhoda, S.; Bourne, N. K.

    2014-02-01

    A pulsed water jet consists of a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress pulses reaching an amplitude known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at a lower stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the quality of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence and integrity of the jet core was of concern in this study. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to determine the unity and endurance of the water slug stream once travelled through air.

  2. Production of a high-velocity water slug using an impacting technique.

    PubMed

    Dehkhoda, S; Bourne, N K

    2014-02-01

    A pulsed water jet consists of a series of discrete water slugs travelling at high velocity. Immediately after striking a target, these slugs apply high-intensity, short-duration transient stress pulses reaching an amplitude known as the water hammer pressure, followed by low-intensity, long-duration stationary stress at a lower stagnation pressure. The magnitude and duration of the water hammer and stagnation pressures are controlled by the size and quality of the water slugs. The use of water jets for rock cutting in mining operations is a centuries-old technology; however, practical methods for producing high-energy water slugs repeatedly have proven difficult. This can be partly due to the fact that the geometrical properties of a jet and so its effectiveness in creating damage is controlled and influenced by the method that is employed to generate the water slugs. This paper investigates the quality of a single water slug produced using an impacting technique where a hammer strikes a piston, resting on top of a water-filled chamber. The coherence and integrity of the jet core was of concern in this study. The impact impulse of the formed water jet was measured in a Kel-F target material using an embedded PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) shock gauge. The recorded stress waveform was then used to determine the unity and endurance of the water slug stream once travelled through air.

  3. Molecular Mining of Alleles in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis and Characterization of the TSPY1 and COL6A1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Ali, Sher

    2011-01-01

    Background Minisatellites are an integral part of eukaryotic genomes and show variation in the complexity of their organization. Besides their presence in non-coding regions, a small fraction of them are part of the transcriptome, possibly participating in gene regulation, expression and silencing. We studied the minisatellite (TGG)n tagged transcriptome in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis across various tissues and the spermatozoa, and characterized the genes TSPY1 and COL6A1 discovered in the process. Results Minisatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA) conducted using cDNA and oligonucleotide primer (TGG)5 uncovered 38 different mRNA transcripts from somatic tissues and gonads and 15 from spermatozoa. These mRNA transcripts corresponded to several known and novel genes. The majority of the transcripts showed the highest level of expression either in the testes or spermatozoa with exception of a few showing higher expression levels in the lungs and liver. Transcript SR1, which is expressed in all the somatic tissues and gonads, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus collagen type VI alpha 1 gene (COL6A1). Similarly, SR29, a testis-specific transcript, was found to be similar to the Bos taurus testis-specific Y-encoded protein-1 representing cancer/testis antigen 78 (CT78). Subsequently, full length coding sequences (cds) of these two transcripts were obtained. Quantitative PCR (q-PCR) revealed 182-202 copies of theTSPY1 gene in water buffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome. Conclusions The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead in it. For homes served by public water systems, data on lead in tap water may be available ... Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to ...

  5. Energy based simulation of a Timoshenko beam in non-forced rotation. Influence of the piano hammer shank flexibility on the sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabassier, Juliette; Duruflé, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A nonlinear model for a vibrating Timoshenko beam in non-forced unknown rotation is derived from the virtual work principle applied to a system of beam with mass at the end. The system represents a piano hammer shank coupled to a hammer head. An energy-based numerical scheme is then provided, obtained by non-classical approaches. A major difficulty for time discretization comes from the nonlinear behavior of the kinetic energy of the system. This new numerical scheme is then coupled to a global energy-preserving numerical solution for the whole piano. The obtained numerical simulations show that the pianistic touch clearly influences the spectrum of the piano sound of equally loud isolated notes. These differences do not come from a possible shock excitation on the structure, or from a changing impact point, or a “longitudinal rubbing motion” on the string, since neither of these features is modeled in our study.

  6. Schmidt Hammer studies in the maritime Antarctic: Application to dating Holocene deglaciation and estimating the effects of macrolichens on rock weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, M.; Worland, M. R.; Convey, P.; Cannone, N.

    2012-06-01

    In order to contribute to the reconstruction of the deglaciation history of the Marguerite Bay area (~ 68°S, Maritime Antarctic) and to estimate the rock weathering rate in this Antarctic sector, 28 sites (7 on Rothera Point and 21 on Anchorage Island) were characterised using Schmidt Hammer values. The weathering effect of two of the most widespread species of macrolichens in this area (Usnea sphacelata and Umbilicaria decussata) was tested at 5 different sites on Rothera Point. Schmidt Hammer data, in conjunction with recent 14C age, suggest a deglaciation age for the Marguerite Bay area of around 12 ka, and an average uplift rate of 5.4 mm year- 1 on Anchorage Island for the period between 3.3 and 5.2 ka. The weathering rates are extremely slow (e.g. three times slower than reported in Norway). Our data confirm that lichens exert a strong impact on weathering, decreasing the Schmidt Hammer R-values on lichenised surfaces by a factor of 3-4 compared to bare rock surfaces. The effect of lichens on weathering is mainly due to edaphic conditions and the type of the lichen involved rather the period of exposure.

  7. Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Caldwell, R L

    2005-10-01

    Mantis shrimp are renowned for their unusual method of breaking shells with brief, powerful strikes of their raptorial appendages. Due to the extreme speeds of these strikes underwater, cavitation occurs between their appendages and hard-shelled prey. Here we examine the magnitude and relative contribution of the impact and cavitation forces generated by the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. We present the surprising finding that each strike generates two brief, high-amplitude force peaks, typically 390-480 micros apart. Based on high-speed imaging, force measurements and acoustic analyses, it is evident that the first force peak is caused by the limb's impact and the second force peak is due to the collapse of cavitation bubbles. Peak limb impact forces range from 400 to 1501 N and peak cavitation forces reach 504 N. Despite their small size, O. scyllarus can generate impact forces thousands of times their body weight. Furthermore, on average, cavitation peak forces are 50% of the limb's impact force, although cavitation forces may exceed the limb impact forces by up to 280%. The rapid succession of high peak forces used by mantis shrimp suggests that mantis shrimp use a potent combination of cavitation forces and extraordinarily high impact forces to fracture shells. The stomatopod's hammer is fundamentally different from typical shell-crushing mechanisms such as fish jaws and lobster claws, and may have played an important and as yet unexamined role in the evolution of shell form.

  8. Robust Sub-harmonic Mixer at 340 GHz Using Intrinsic Resonances of Hammer-Head Filter and Improved Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; He, Yue; Lu, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Miao, Li; Deng, Xian-Jin; Xiong, Yong-zhong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a sub-harmonic mixer at 340 GHz based on anti-parallel Schottky diodes (SBDs). Intrinsic resonances in low-pass hammer-head filter have been adopted to enhance the isolation for different harmonic components, while greatly minimizing the transmission loss. The application of new DC grounding structure, impedance matching structure, and suspended micro-strip mitigates the negative influences of fabrication errors from metal cavity, quartz substrate, and micro-assembly. An improved lumped element equivalent circuit model of SBDs guarantees the accuracy of simulation, which takes current-voltage (I/V) behavior, capacitance-voltage (C/V) behavior, carrier velocity saturation, DC series resistor, plasma resonance, skin effect, and four kinds of noise generation mechanisms into consideration thoroughly. The measurement indicates that with local oscillating signal of 2 mW, the lowest double sideband conversion loss is 5.5 dB at 339 GHz; the corresponding DSB noise temperature is 757 K. The 3 dB bandwidth of conversion loss is 50 GHz from 317 to 367 GHz.

  9. Mapreduce is Good Enough? If All You Have is a Hammer, Throw Away Everything That's Not a Nail!

    PubMed

    Lin, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    Hadoop is currently the large-scale data analysis "hammer" of choice, but there exist classes of algorithms that aren't "nails" in the sense that they are not particularly amenable to the MapReduce programming model. To address this, researchers have proposed MapReduce extensions or alternative programming models in which these algorithms can be elegantly expressed. This article espouses a very different position: that MapReduce is "good enough," and that instead of trying to invent screwdrivers, we should simply get rid of everything that's not a nail. To be more specific, much discussion in the literature surrounds the fact that iterative algorithms are a poor fit for MapReduce. The simple solution is to find alternative, noniterative algorithms that solve the same problem. This article captures my personal experiences as an academic researcher as well as a software engineer in a "real-world" production analytics environment. From this combined perspective, I reflect on the current state and future of "big data" research.

  10. A model for estimating the number of glass fragments transferred when breaking a pane: experiments with firearms and hammer.

    PubMed

    Hicks, T; Schütz, F; Curran, J M; Triggs, C M

    2005-01-01

    Numerous publications have shown the importance of transfer in the interpretation of glass evidence. As this phenomenon is also highly variable, it was decided to test the hypothesis that there exists a means to predict the number of fragments recovered at time t = 0. Panes of float glass-of different types and thickness-were broken using either a firearm or a hammer. It was decided to choose a firearm as the main breaking device, as it allowed not only to have more reproducible conditions but also to acquire knowledge in a field where little has been published. Despite the inherent variation in the breaking process, the results show that using a statistical model it is possible to predict the number of fragments transferred onto a garment from the number of fragments transferred to the ground. This research also indicates the size and number of particles transferred onto a person, when breaking window panes of different types (float, laminated or toughened) with different breaking procedures.

  11. Specificity of training modalities on upper-body one repetition maximum performance: free weights vs. hammer strength equipment.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Thomas S; McLester, John R; Arnett, Scott W; Thoma, Matthew J

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between 1-repetition maximum (1RM) performed on hammer strength (HS) machines compared to free weights (FWs) and also to develop regression equations that can accurately predict 1RM when switching from exercise modality to another. Thirty-one trained male subjects performed 1-RM lifts (1RM's) on 3 HS externally loaded machines and 3 comparable FW exercises. Subjects performed 2 1RM tests during each laboratory session, with at least 48-72 hours of recovery between each. One repetition maximum data were used to (a) determine the relationship between 1RM performed on HS vs. FW and (b) to develop regression equations that can accurately predict 1RM's when switching from 1 exercise modality to another. Statistics revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) between 1RM's performed on the HS equipment as compared to its corresponding (FW) exercise. For all exercises, 1RM's were significantly greater on the HS equipment. Regression equations were developed for all exercises, except when predicting the HS shoulder press and the HS preacher curls from their free weight counterparts, where no variables existed that could significantly predict their respective 1RM's. As 1 RMs were significantly greater when using the HS equipment compared to when using FWs, those transitioning from HS exercise to FW exercise should exercise caution.

  12. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  13. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    PubMed

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime.

  14. Wild capuchin monkeys spontaneously adjust actions when using hammer stones of different mass to crack nuts of different resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2016-09-01

    Expert tool users are known to adjust their actions skillfully depending on aspects of tool type and task. We examined if bearded capuchin monkeys cracking nuts with stones of different mass adjusted the downward velocity and the height of the stone when striking palm nuts. During a field experiment carried out in FBV (Piauí, Brazil), eight adult wild capuchin monkeys (five males) cracked Orbygnia nuts of varied resistance with hammer stones differing in mass. From recorded videos, we identified the highest strike per nut-cracking episode, and for this strike, we calculated the height to which the monkey lifted the stone, the maximum velocity of the stone during the downward phase, the work done on the stone, and the kinetic energy of the strike. We found that individual capuchins achieved average maximum kinetic energy of 8.7-16.1 J when using stones between 0.9 and 1.9 kg, and maximum kinetic energy correlated positively with mass of the stone. Monkeys lifted all the stones to an individually consistent maximum height but added more work to the stone when using lighter stones. One male and one female monkey lifted stones higher when they cracked more resistant nuts. The high resistance of the Orbygnia nut elicits production of maximum kinetic energy, which the monkeys modulate to some degree by adding work to lighter stones. Capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees, modulate their actions in nut-cracking, indicating skilled action, although neither species regulates kinetic energy as precisely as skilled human stone knappers. Kinematic analyses promise to yield new insights into the ways and extent to which nonhuman tool users develop expertise. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:53-61, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  16. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  17. Comparison of Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) and Schmidt hammer 'R' for rapid assessment of rock surface hardness: a preliminary assessment from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    This research focuses on one of the key challenges in geomorphology - quantifying rock surface hardness via in situ measurements, to provide information on rock physical properties. This has been a focus in recent years with the rapid emergence of studies that center on surface and near surface weathering impacts, and rates of material loss. Indeed, a key element to understanding how weathering and erosion processes combine to influence rock surface (and landscape) evolution is the measurement and monitoring of rock surface hardness. We provide results from a preliminary assessment of the applicability of the Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) to subaerial rock surface hardness, in comparison with an N-Type Schmidt hammer. The AEM apparatus consists of a geophone which is in contact with the rock surface and some electronics. The AEM is held normal to the surface to be tested and the surface is struck with a small hammer (typically 0.75 kg), with the AEM quantifying the decay time of seismically-induced oscillations within the top c. 1-2 m of the rock mass. Previous work using an AEM has focused on measuring roof stability and delamination in South African underground coal, gold and platinum mines, where long AEM reverberation times correlated well with weak rock mass and dense microfracturing. However, the technique has rarely been applied to the assessment of rock surfaces in a subaerial setting. We applied the technique to a range of lithologies at five sites in southeast Queensland in the Brisbane area, each an exposure of phyllite, granite, mudstone, argillite or volcanic tuff. The aims were: (1) quantifying the response of different rock masses to the AEM technique; and (2) assessing the applicability of the AEM as a rapid in situ measure of rock hardness by comparing results with Schmidt hammer 'R' values from the same exposures. Results showed that the AEM is useful in discriminating rock hardness across rocks with different lithological properties. Second, an

  18. A joint probability approach using a 1-D hydrodynamic model for estimating high water level frequencies in the Lower Rhine Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; van Overloop, P.-J.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The Lower Rhine Delta, a transitional area between the River Rhine and Meuse and the North Sea, is at risk of flooding induced by infrequent events of a storm surge or upstream flooding, or by more infrequent events of a combination of both. A joint probability analysis of the astronomical tide, the wind induced storm surge, the Rhine flow and the Meuse flow at the boundaries is established in order to produce the joint probability distribution of potential flood events. Three individual joint probability distributions are established corresponding to three potential flooding causes: storm surges and normal Rhine discharges, normal sea levels and high Rhine discharges, and storm surges and high Rhine discharges. For each category, its corresponding joint probability distribution is applied, in order to stochastically simulate a large number of scenarios. These scenarios can be used as inputs to a deterministic 1-D hydrodynamic model in order to estimate the high water level frequency curves at the transitional locations. The results present the exceedance probability of the present design water level for the economically important cities of Rotterdam and Dordrecht. The calculated exceedance probability is evaluated and compared to the governmental norm. Moreover, the impact of climate change on the high water level frequency curves is quantified for the year 2050 in order to assist in decisions regarding the adaptation of the operational water management system and the flood defense system.

  19. Acceleration Measurements During Landings of a 1/5.5-Size Dynamic Model of the Columbia XJL-1 Amphibian in Smooth Water and in Waves: Langley Tank Model 208M, TED No. NACA 2336

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Eugene P.; Havens, Robert F.

    1947-01-01

    A 1/5.5-size powered dynamic model of the Columbia XJL-1 amphibian was landed in Langley tank no. 1 in smooth water and in oncoming waves of heights from 2.1 feet to 6.4 feet (full-size) and lengths from 50 feet to 264 feet (full-size). The motions and the vertical accelerations of the model were continuously recorded. The greatest vertical acceleration measured during the smooth-water landings was 3.1g. During landings in rough water the greatest vertical acceleration measured was 15.4g, for a landing in 6.4-foot by 165-foot waves. The impact accelerations increased with increase in wave height and, in general, decreased with increase in wave length. During the landings in waves the model bounced into the air at stalled attitudes at speeds below flying speed. The model trimmed up to the mechanical trim stop (20 deg) during landings in waves of heights greater than 2.0 feet. Solid water came over the bow and damaged the propeller during one landing in 6.4-foot waves. The vertical acceleration coefficients at first impact from the tank tests of a 1/5.5-size model were in fair agreement with data obtained at the Langley impact basin during tests of a 1/2-size model of the hull.

  20. Arm, Leg, and Foot Skin Water in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Relation to HbA1c Assessed by Tissue Dielectric Constant (TDC) Technology Measured at 300 MHz.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Volosko, Irina; Sarkar, Bansari; Pandya, Naushira

    2017-05-01

    DM is associated with structural skin changes. However, few studies have investigated changes in dermal water and specifically its relationship to glucose control as measured by HbA1c. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that skin water, assessed by its tissue dielectric constant (TDC), is inversely related to HbA1c. Water content of 3 skin sites (forearm, lower leg, and foot dorsum) of 50 persons with DM was estimated by measuring TDC at 300 MHz. TDC is the ratio of tissue dielectric constant to vacuum and depends on free and bound water in the measured volume. TDC was measured in triplicate to 4 depths, 0.5. 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mm to include different skin components. At each site increased measurement depth showed (1) a significant decrease in absolute TDC values and (2) a significant increase in foot-to-arm TDC ratios. TDC values at forearm were shown to be greater than at either leg or foot. However, testing of these 50 patients at 3 sites and 4 skin depths did not show any significant relationship between TDC and HbA1c or fasting glucose. The data indicate no relationship between TDC values, as indices for skin water, and HbA1c or fasting glucose. This implies that skin TDC values to assess skin property features and changes in persons with DM are not sensitive to recent glucose control. Furthermore, the results introduce a newly applied TDC technology useful to assess skin properties of persons with DM.

  1. Arm, Leg, and Foot Skin Water in Persons With Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Relation to HbA1c Assessed by Tissue Dielectric Constant (TDC) Technology Measured at 300 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N.; Volosko, Irina; Sarkar, Bansari; Pandya, Naushira

    2016-01-01

    Background: DM is associated with structural skin changes. However, few studies have investigated changes in dermal water and specifically its relationship to glucose control as measured by HbA1c. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that skin water, assessed by its tissue dielectric constant (TDC), is inversely related to HbA1c. Methods: Water content of 3 skin sites (forearm, lower leg, and foot dorsum) of 50 persons with DM was estimated by measuring TDC at 300 MHz. TDC is the ratio of tissue dielectric constant to vacuum and depends on free and bound water in the measured volume. TDC was measured in triplicate to 4 depths, 0.5. 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mm to include different skin components. Results: At each site increased measurement depth showed (1) a significant decrease in absolute TDC values and (2) a significant increase in foot-to-arm TDC ratios. TDC values at forearm were shown to be greater than at either leg or foot. However, testing of these 50 patients at 3 sites and 4 skin depths did not show any significant relationship between TDC and HbA1c or fasting glucose. Conclusions: The data indicate no relationship between TDC values, as indices for skin water, and HbA1c or fasting glucose. This implies that skin TDC values to assess skin property features and changes in persons with DM are not sensitive to recent glucose control. Furthermore, the results introduce a newly applied TDC technology useful to assess skin properties of persons with DM. PMID:27491529

  2. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  3. Serotonin 1A, 1B, and 7 receptors of the rat medial nucleus accumbens differentially regulate feeding, water intake, and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Clissold, Kara A; Choi, Eugene; Pratt, Wayne E

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been widely implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviors in both humans and animal models. Recently, we reported that co-stimulation of 5-HT1&7 receptors of the anterior medial nucleus accumbens with the drug 5-CT caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake, water intake, and locomotion in rats (Pratt et al., 2009). The current experiments sought to determine which of three serotonin receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7) might be responsible for these consummatory and locomotor effects. Food-deprived rats were given 2-h access to rat chow after stimulation of nucleus accumbens 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, or 5-HT7 receptors, or blockade of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors with 8-OH-DPAT (at 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) caused a dose-dependent decrease in food and water intake, and reduced rearing behavior but not ambulation. In contrast, rats that received the 5-HT1B agonist CP 93129 (at 0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in water intake only; stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors (AS 19; at 0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) decreased ambulatory activity but did not affect food or water consumption. Blockade of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors had no lasting effects on measures of food consumption. These data suggest that the food intake, water intake, and locomotor effects seen after medial nucleus accumbens injections of 5-CT are due to actions on separate serotonin receptor subtypes, and contribute to growing evidence for selective roles of individual serotonin receptors within the nucleus accumbens on motivated behavior.

  4. Reduction of the uncertainties in the water level-discharge relation of a 1D hydraulic model in the context of operational flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habert, J.; Ricci, S.; Le Pape, E.; Thual, O.; Piacentini, A.; Goutal, N.; Jonville, G.; Rochoux, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-driven hydrodynamic simulator based on the 1-D hydraulic solver dedicated to flood forecasting with lead time of an hour up to 24 h. The goal of the study is to reduce uncertainties in the hydraulic model and thus provide more reliable simulations and forecasts in real time for operational use by the national hydrometeorological flood forecasting center in France. Previous studies have shown that sequential assimilation of water level or discharge data allows to adjust the inflows to the hydraulic network resulting in a significant improvement of the discharge while leaving the water level state imperfect. Two strategies are proposed here to improve the water level-discharge relation in the model. At first, a modeling strategy consists in improving the description of the river bed geometry using topographic and bathymetric measurements. Secondly, an inverse modeling strategy proposes to locally correct friction coefficients in the river bed and the flood plain through the assimilation of in situ water level measurements. This approach is based on an Extended Kalman filter algorithm that sequentially assimilates data to infer the upstream and lateral inflows at first and then the friction coefficients. It provides a time varying correction of the hydrological boundary conditions and hydraulic parameters. The merits of both strategies are demonstrated on the Marne catchment in France for eight validation flood events and the January 2004 flood event is used as an illustrative example throughout the paper. The Nash-Sutcliffe criterion for water level is improved from 0.135 to 0.832 for a 12-h forecast lead time with the data assimilation strategy. These developments have been implemented at the SAMA SPC (local flood forecasting service in the Haute-Marne French department) and used for operational forecast since 2013. They were shown to provide an efficient tool for evaluating flood risk and to improve the flood early warning system

  5. The effect of intraoperative sounds of saw and hammer on psychological condition in patients with total knee arthroplasty: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Nusran, Gürdal; Göksel, Ferdi; Şahin, Hasan; Ömür, Dilek; Hancı, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient's mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  6. Data Qualification and Data Summary Report: Intact Rock Properties Data on Tensile Strength, Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, and Rock Triaxial Creep

    SciTech Connect

    E.M. Cikanek; R.J. Blakely; T.A. Grant; L.E. Safley

    2003-07-29

    This report presents a systematic review of the available data in the TDMS that are relevant to the following intact rock properties: rock tensile strength, Schmidt hammer rebound hardness, and rock triaxial creep. Relevant data are compiled from qualified and unqualified sources into the summary DTNs and these DTNs are evaluated for qualification using the method of corroborating data as defined in AP-SIII.2Q, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''. This report also presents a summary of the compiled information in the form of descriptive statistics and recommended values that will be contained in a Reference Information Base (RIB) item prepared in accordance with AP-SIII.4Q, ''Development, Review, Online Placement, and Maintenance of Individual Reference Information Base Data Items''. The primary purpose of this report is to produce qualified sets of data that include all relevant intact rock tensile strength, Schmidt hammer rebound hardness, and rock triaxial creep testing done over the course of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A second purpose is to provide a qualified summary (i.e., a RIB data item) of the test results using descriptive statistics. The immediate purpose of the report is to support the data needs of repository design; however, the products are designed to be appropriate for general use by the YMP. The appropriateness and limitations, if any, of the data, with respect to the intended use, are addressed in this report.

  7. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    "by vision". Especially in regions like the Southern Alps affected of considerable neo-tectonic activity and paraglacial erosion, post-depositional movement of any boulders on moraine ridges cannot be excluded a priori. On base on these considerations, an attempt to combine TCND with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology has been developed (Winkler 2009). Cosmogenic 10Be dating delivers ‘absolute' ages for the exposure of boulder surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer relative-age dating technique. Therefore, Schmidt-hammer measurements can successfully endorse the selection of representative boulders for TCND and effectively avoid sampling boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Additionally, the number of boulders sampled for TCND can be reduced, positive in the light of economic and conservational considerations. Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at a number of individual glaciers in Westland/Tai Poutini and Mt Cook/Aoraki National Parks of the Southern Alps proof its potential. At least three ‘Little Ice Age'-type events culminating around 2,300, 1,600, and 1,000 years ago and predating the "Little Ice Age" have been confirmed. The construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and demonstrates the high potential of this attempt. References: Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M., Putnam, A., Finkel, R.C., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Schwartz, R., McIntosh, A., Chinn, T. & Schlüchter, C. (2009): High-frequency Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand differ from the northern signature. Science 324, 622 - 625. Winkler, S. (2009): First attempt to combine terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt hammer relative-age dating: Strauchon Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Central European

  8. Smooth-Water Landing Stability and Rough-Water Landing and Take-Off Behavior of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert F.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane was tested in Langley tank no. 2. Presented without discussion in this paper are landing stability in smooth water, maximum normal accelerations occurring during rough-water landings, and take-off behavior in waves.

  9. Supramolecular assembled of hexameric water clusters into a 1D chain containing (H2O)6 and [(H2O)4O2] stabilized by hydrogen bonding in a copper complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various water clusters including hexamers, heptamers, octamers, decamers and 1D or 2D infinite water chains in a number of organic and inorganic-organic hybrid hosts, have been reported. Results {[Cu(pydc)(amp)].3H2O}n has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by IR spectroscopy. A wide range of hydrogen bonds (of the O-H...O, N-H...O and N-H...N type) are present in the crystal structure. Hydrogen bond interactions between the co-crystallized water molecules led to formation of six-membered rings with chair conformation. Conclusion In {[Cu(pydc)(amp)].3H2O}n, there are three uncoordinated water molecules. Thermal methods confirm number of co-crystallized water molecules in polymer. Hydrogen bond interactions between the co-crystallized water molecules led to the formation of a six-membered ring with the chair conformation. These rings are part of a 1D chain containing six-membered O6 rings, which are alternately made from (H2O)6 and [(H2O)4O2] rings. [(H2O)4O2] rings are also in chair conformation. PMID:22264401

  10. Dredging and Water Quality Problems in the Great Lakes. Volume 2. Appendices A1 to A19. Sampling Surveys with Separate Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    quantities (50 mg/l±) causes stabilization of most materials rosulting in better settling but also creates a very offensive odor due to the formation...constituents of the Cleveland harbor sediments which cause the most offensive appearance. They were measured for this investigation by hexane extraction...l16 -I Tc Ile s Page No.- 1.a 1; OAfl£.Arnrt p recipitLifl n5 2. qli3i’tDescr-.’y-iCn uZ Odors 10 3.Unc~irAurbed Boc-w So~imen.-,s 11 4. 1{OFMP2

  11. This is a Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Louis George

    1977-01-01

    English for special purposes should not be taught until the (FL) learner has developed his language skills through several years of study--skills needed in handling English in all kinds of specialized fields. Even then, "special language courses" will deal mainly with special vocabulary. (IFS/WGA)

  12. Hammer toe repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013:chap 83. Preoperative and perioperative assessment and management of the general medical patient. First Consult . www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-2011112?scrollTo=%23top . ...

  13. The NCAA's New Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    A series of unprecedented scandals has eroded confidence in big-time sports, increasing the appetite for change. Some critics have a tough time seeing the NCAA as a savior; they say the real problem is the NCAA structure itself, which allows athletes to generate billions of dollars for colleges while earning no compensation themselves. Mark A.…

  14. emcee: The MCMC Hammer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.; Lang, Dustin; Goodman, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a stable, well tested Python implementation of the affine-invariant ensemble sampler for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proposed by Goodman & Weare (2010). The code is open source and has already been used in several published projects in the astrophysics literature. The algorithm behind emcee has several advantages over traditional MCMC sampling methods and it has excellent performance as measured by the autocorrelation time (or function calls per independent sample). One major advantage of the algorithm is that it requires hand-tuning of only 1 or 2 parameters compared to ∼N2 for a traditional algorithm in an N-dimensional parameter space. In this document, we describe the algorithm and the details of our implementation. Exploiting the parallelism of the ensemble method, emcee permits any user to take advantage of multiple CPU cores without extra effort. The code is available online at http://dan.iel.fm/emcee under the GNU General Public License v2.

  15. The NCAA's New Hammer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2012-01-01

    A series of unprecedented scandals has eroded confidence in big-time sports, increasing the appetite for change. Some critics have a tough time seeing the NCAA as a savior; they say the real problem is the NCAA structure itself, which allows athletes to generate billions of dollars for colleges while earning no compensation themselves. Mark A.…

  16. Sledge-Hammer Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahner, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Integration (here visualized as a pounding process) is mathematically realized by simple transformations, successively smoothing the bounding curve into a straight line and the region-to-be-integrated into an area-equivalent rectangle. The relationship to Riemann sums, and to the trapezoid and midpoint methods of numerical integration, is…

  17. Hammer toe repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protected by wearing a sock and your orthopedic boot. Once you can shower and get your ... 26/2014 Updated by: C. ... medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of ...

  18. Flow visualization study of spanwise blowing applied to the F-4 fighter aircraft configuration. [water tunnel test using a 1/48-scale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to define the changes that occur in vortex flow fields above the wing due to spanwise blowing over the inboard and outboard wing panels and over the trailing-edge flaps. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 30 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The sensitivity of the vortex flows to changes in flap deflection angle, nozzle position, and jet momentum coefficient was determined. Deflection of the leading edge flap delayed flow separation and the formation of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. Spanwise blowing delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to farther outboard and to higher angles of attack. Spanwise blowing over the trailing edge flap entrained flow downward, producing a lift increase over a wide range of angles of attack. The sweep angle of the windward wing was effectively reduced in sideslip. This decreased the stability of the wing vortex, and it burst farther inboard. Reduced wing sweep required a higher blowing rate to maintain a stable vortex. A vortex could be stabilized on the outboard wing panel when an outboard blowing nozzle was used. Blowing from both an inboard and an outboard nozzle was found to have a favorable interaction.

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 21: Off-axis dose perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam for the PTW microLion and Exradin A1SL ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect

    O'Grady, K; Davis, S D; Papaconstadopoulos, P; Seuntjens, J

    2014-08-15

    A PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber and an Exradin A1SL air-filled ionization chamber have been modeled using the egs-chamber user code of the EGSnrc system to determine their perturbation effects in water in a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} 18 MV photon beam. A model of the Varian CL21EX linear accelerator was constructed using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code, and was validated by comparing measured PDDs and profiles from the microLion and A1SL chambers to calculated results that included chamber models. Measured PDDs for a 5 × 5 cm{sup 2} field for the microLion chamber agreed with calculations to within 1.5% beyond a depth of 0.5 cm, and the A1SL PDDs agreed within 1.0% beyond 1.0 cm. Measured and calculated profiles at 10 cm depth agreed within 1.0% for both chambers inside the field, and within 4.0% near the field edge. Local percent differences increased up to 15% at 4 cm outside the field. The ratio of dose to water in the absence of the chamber relative to dose in the chamber's active volume as a function of off-axis distance was calculated using the egs-chamber correlated sampling technique. The dose ratio was nearly constant inside the field and consistent with the stopping power ratios of water to detector material, but varied up to 3.3% near the field edge and 5.2% at 4 cm outside the field. Once these perturbation effects are fully characterized for more field sizes and detectors, they could be applied to clinical water tank measurements for improved dosimetric accuracy.

  20. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of Lateglacial rock glacier systems near the eastern margin of the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers are widespread permafrost landforms in Austria. Various rock glacier inventories list more than 4500 rock glaciers in the country; some 30-40% of them are intact. Relict (permafrost free) and pseudo-relict rock glaciers (sporadic and isolated permafrost particularly near the root zone) prevail in number. Rock glaciers are commonly formed over a period of several ka. Dating such landforms helps to understand palaeoclimatic conditions. In this study three rock glaciers consisting of gneiss were dated applying the Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) method. The rock glaciers are located at three neighbouring cirques in the Seckauer Tauern Range named Reichart Rock Glacier (RRG, area 1.26 km², length 1800 m, elevation range 1520-1940 m a.s.l.), Schöneben Rock Glacier (SRG, 0.11 km², 750 m, 1715-1905 m a.s.l.), and Dürrtal Rock Glacier (DRG, 0.08 km², 850 m, 1750-1980 m a.s.l.). RRG is one of the largest rock glaciers in Austria. All three landforms are influenced by lenses of permafrost at present (as indicated by ERT). During the LGM the Seckauer Tauern were covered by valley glaciers and deglaciation occurred presumably already early in the Alpine Lateglacial period. An analogue N-type Schmidt-hammer (proceq) was used for measuring the surface strength of stable blocks at the rock glacier surface by recording a rebound value (R-value) of a spring-loaded bolt. The R-value gives a relative measure of the surface hardness and hence time since exposure to weathering. Eight (RRG) or six (SRG, DRG) Schmidt-hammer measurement sites (with 50-100 individual readings) aligned along longitudinal transects (=former central flow line) between a talus slope (with relatively fresh boulders) in the root zone and the frontal ridge were measured. Mean R-value differences of 30.5 at RRG, 25.1 at SRG, and 20.7 at DRG were revealed along the three transects. The differences between the lowest and the highest R-value at the rock glaciers itself were 19.0 at RRG, 15

  1. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  2. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  3. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  4. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes the...

  7. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycohemoglobin test; Hemoglobin A1C; Diabetes - A1C; Diabetic - A1C ... gov/pubmed/26696680 . Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c - blood. ...

  8. [Relationship of blood aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA and cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA expression with corrected QT interval among residents exposed to arsenic via drinking water].

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Li, Y H; Liu, J P; Wu, K G; Xia, Y J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood aryl hydrocarbon receptor(AhR)mRNA and cytochrome P450(CYP)1A1 mRNA expression and corrected QT interval among residents exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Arsenic exposure area in Bayannao'er city of Nei Monggol Autonomous Region was selected as the survey point, and the residents living more than 10 years in this area were investigated from December 2012 to January 2015.A total of 233 residents were divided into four groups according to drinking water arsenic concentration (ranged from 0.8 to 824.7 μg/L): control group (drinking water arsenic concentration <10.0 μg/L, n=55), low exposure group (drinking water arsenic concentration 10.0-99.9 μg/L, n=47), middle exposure group (drinking water arsenic concentration 100.0-199.9 μg/L, n=45), high exposure group (drinking water arsenic concentration ≥200.0 μg/L, n=86). Epidemiological investigation was performed.Real-time PCR technology was used to detect the expression levels of blood AhR mRNA and CYP1A1 mRNA, and the relationship between expression levels of blood AhR mRNA and CYP1A1 mRNA and corrected QT interval was analyzed. (1) Blood AhR mRNA and CYP1A1 mRNA expression levels were similar among control group, low exposure group and middle exposure group (all P>0.05) while blood AhR mRNA (3.18×10(-3)(2.42×10(-3), 4.45×10(-3)) vs.2.30×10(-3)(1.53×10(-3), 3.20×10(-3)), P<0.05) and CYP1A1 mRNA (1.58×10(-3)(0.80×10(-3), 2.73×10(-3))vs.1.00×10(-3)(0.59×10(-3), 2.09×10(-3)), P<0.05) expression levels were significantly higher in high dose group than in control group.(2) AhR mRNA expression level was similar between residents with longer corrected QT interval and residents with normal corrected QT interval (2.89×10(-3)(1.90×10(-3), 3.71×10(-3)) vs.2.58×10(-3)(1.85×10(-3), 3.57×10(-3)), P>0.05). CYP1A1 mRNA expression level was significantly higher in residents with longer corrected QT interval than in residents with normal corrected QT interval (1

  9. Use of a fluidized bed hammer mill for size reduction and classification: effects of process variables and starting materials on the particle size distribution of milled lactose batches.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Chan, L W; Heng, Paul W S

    2003-01-01

    The process capability of a fluidized bed hammer mill was investigated with respect to four process variables, namely, rotational speeds of beater system and classifier wheel, airflow rates and length of grinding zones, as well as the particle size and flow property of the starting materials. The size distributions of all the milled lactose batches could be fitted to the Rosin Rammler distribution (RRD) function. The characteristic particle size (De) and uniform coefficient (n), which were derived from the RRD function, complemented the size at the 99th percentile of the cumulative undersize distribution (D99) to characterize the lactose batches. Lower De and D99 values indicate a finer powder while a higher n value indicates a narrower size distribution. The beater speed played a critical role. Increasing the beater speed from 12000 to 21000 rpm generally resulted in an increase in n and a decrease in D99 values due to the greater amount of milling energy supplied. The particle size and flow property of the starting material also played an important role at beater speed of 12000 rpm, where the lowest amount of milling energy was supplied. When a higher amount of milling energy was provided, the effect of particle size of the starting material was less significant. The other process variables exerted varying effects. Increasing the classifier wheel speed from 5000 to 15000 rpm decreased the De and D99 and increased the n values of the milled lactose batches, provided sufficient milling energy was supplied to the lactose particles. Changing airflow rates from 80 to 90 m3/h generally resulted in larger De and D99 values and lower n values as the higher airflow rate provided greater airflow-induced kinetic energy that facilitated the passage of lactose through the classifier wheel. However, changing the long grinding zone to a short one did not significantly affect the De, D99 and n values of the milled lactose batches produced. Small lactose particles of narrow size

  10. Inhibitory effects of water-soluble low-molecular-weight beta-(1,3-1,6) d-glucan purified from Aureobasidium pullulans GM-NH-1A1 strain on food allergic reactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Suzuki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Toshio; Sakanaka, Masahiro

    2007-07-01

    There have been a number of reports showing that the crude beta-glucan fraction prepared from various kinds of Basidiomycetes mushrooms acts as anti-cancer and anti-allergic reagent through stimulation of IFN-gamma production. It has been reported, however, that the exposure of the airway to beta-(1,3) d-glucan, contained in house dust, indoor moulds and some bacteria, potentiates the airway allergic response. It seems likely that the discrepant effects on immune function may be related to such factors as differences of the administration route, average molecular weight and water solubility. We isolated a new low-molecular-weight (about 100 kDa) beta-glucan from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain of black yeast, and found that it had low viscosity and was water-soluble. In this study, we examined the effects of water-soluble low-molecular-weight beta-(1-->3) and 50-80% branched beta-(1-->6) glucan (LMW-beta-Glucan) isolated from A. pullulans on the ova-albumin (OVA)-treated allergic reaction in mice. Feeding standard laboratory diets containing 0.5 and 1% LMW-beta-Glucan significantly inhibited the OVA-specific IgE elevation compared to that in OVA-sensitized mice fed standard laboratory diet alone (control). Furthermore, feeding standard laboratory diets containing 0.5 and 1% LMW-beta-Glucan inhibited the reduction of IL-12 and IFN-gamma production from splenocytes and the reduction of CD8- and IFN-gamma-positive cell number in the small intestine of the OVA-sensitized mice. These findings suggest that anti-food allergic action of LMW-beta-Glucan may be due to the inducing IFN-gamma production in the small intestine and splenocytes.

  11. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2005-09-30

    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  12. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  13. The role of ultrasonic velocity and Schmidt hammer hardness - The simple and economical non-destructive test for the evaluation of mechanical properties of weathered granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobli, Ahmad Fadzil; Hampden, Ahmad Zaidi; Tawie, Rudy

    2017-08-01

    One of the most significant techniques for evaluation of rock strength is by using the simple and economical non-destructive test (NDT). Previous literatures confirm that there were good correlations between NDTs to the strength properties of granite rocks. The present work deals with the use of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Schmidt Hammer Hardness test to predict the mechanical properties of weathered granite. Cylindrical specimens with the length to diameter ratio of two were prepared for this study and were characterized based on different weathering states. Each of the rock specimens was tested under non-destructive test and then followed by uniaxial compression test to assess the mechanical properties. It was found that good correlations established between the NDTs and the uniaxial compressive strength. The correlation between uniaxial compressive strength and rebound hardness number was demonstrated by exponential form; UCS = 6.31e0.057N, while linear correlations was obtained between the uniaxial compressive strength and the ultrasonic pulse velocity; UCS = 0.023Vp - 21.43. It was also noticed that the increase of uniaxial compression strength was parallel to the increase of elastic modulus and can be presented by a linear equation; UCS = 1.039Et50 + 4.252. Based on the reported results, it is clear that the mechanical properties or weathered granite can be estimated by means of non-destructive test.

  14. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hemoglobin A1c Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: A1c; HbA1c; Glycohemoglobin; Glycated Hemoglobin; Glycosylated Hemoglobin Formal name: Hemoglobin A1c Related tests: ...

  15. Rigid-plug elastic-water model for transient pipe flow with entrapped air pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; OU, CHANGQI

    2011-01-01

    Pressure transients in a rapidly filling pipe with an entrapped air pocket are investigated analytically. A rigid-plug elastic water model is developed by applying elastic water hammer to the majority of the water column while applying rigid water analysis to a small portion near the air-water interface, which avoids effectively the interpolation error of previous approaches. Moreover, another two simplified models are introduced respectively based on constant water length and by neglecting water elasticity. Verification of the three models is confirmed by experimental results. Calculations show that the simplification of constant water length is feasible for small air pockets. The complete rigid water model is appropriate for cases with large initial air volume. The rigid-plug elastic model can predict all the essential features for the entire range of initial air fraction considered in this study, and it is the effective model for analysis of pressure transients of entrapped air.

  16. Added mass for plates partially submerged in water

    SciTech Connect

    Lieb, B.W.; Jacala, A.P.; Glasser, R.P.

    1988-09-01

    Added mass values for plates partially submerged in water are obtained from a series of experiments. Both solid and perforated plates are tested. Each plate is circular and is constrained to move as a piston in a horizontal cylindrical container. Water flow past the perimeter of a plate is controlled by the narrow gap between the container and the edges of the plate. The perforated plate has an equilateral triangular pitch pattern of circular holes. The plate vibrates as a rigid mass on a flexible suspension system. The plate excitation is produced with an impact hammer, although shaker excitation is used to confirm natural frequencies. The natural frequency of the plate is measured for seven water levels in the container ranging from empty to full. For each water level, added mass is computed using the ratio of the natural frequency in air to the natural frequency in water. The added mass for fully submerged plates is compared to published experimental and theoretical results.

  17. Acceleration Measurements During Landing in Rough Water of a 1/7-Scale Dynamic Model of Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howard

    1947-01-01

    Tests of a 1/7 size model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no.1 to examine the landing behavior in rough water and to measure the normal and angular accelerations experienced by the model during these landings. All landings were made normal to the direction of wave advance, a condition assumed to produce the greatest accelerations. Wave heights of 4.4 and 8.0 inches (2.5 and 4.7 ft, full size) were used in the tests and the wave lengths were varied between 10 and 50 feet (70 and 350 ft, full size). Maximum normal accelerations of about 6.5g were obtained in 4.4 inch waves and 8.5g were obtained in 8.0 inch waves. A maximum angular acceleration corresponding to 16 radians per second per second, full size, was obtained in the higher waves. The data indicate that the airplane will experience its greatest accelerations when landing in waves of about 20 feet (140 ft, full size) in length.

  18. Dating of Holocene lateral moraines in the western Southern Alps, New Zealand, applying Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Research on Holocene mountain glacier chronologies has recently intensified due to the importance of mountain glaciers as key indicators for past and present climate change. This progress is closely connected with major improvements in modern dating techniques and the application of multi-proxy approaches adapted to specific local/regional conditions. Despite recent progress there is, however, still a need for better spatial differentiation and a lack of generally accepted concepts for global and inter-hemispheric correlation of Holocene glacier chronologies. Furthermore, the "geomorphological uncertainty" inevitably connected with numerical dating of moraines in neotectonic active mountain ranges characterised by highly dynamic geomorphological process systems requires careful consideration of any subsequent palaeoclimatic interpretation. During the past few years Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has revealed its potential to successfully challenge those specific circumstances. The Southern Alps of New Zealand have provided one of only a few suitable study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Recent years have seen a significant increase in terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND)-ages published for the Southern Alps, mainly for the last Glaciation, but also for the Holocene. The availability of a regional 10Be-production curve has improved the calibration of TCND-ages. These studies applying TCND alongside previous chronological studies using a variety of different dating techniques focus, however, primarily on a few selected glacier forelands east of the Main Divide in Aoraki/Mt Cook National Park. Bad accessibility and methodological problems account for comparatively few investigations on glacier forelands west of the Main Divide. Chronological studies applying Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) were performed on six glacier forelands in the western part of the Southern Alps

  19. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  20. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG) and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down" techniques.

  1. Reducing silica and dust exposures in construction during use of powered concrete-cutting hand tools: efficacy of local exhaust ventilation on hammer drills.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, S; Woskie, S R; Holcroft, C; Ellenbecker, M

    2009-01-01

    Concrete cutting in construction is a major source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. To reduce exposures, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be integrated into the hand tools used in concrete cutting. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center participated in a field study focused on the use of LEV on concrete-cutting hammer drills. A randomized block design field experiment employing four workers measured the efficacy of four hood-vacuum source combinations compared with no LEV in reducing dust and silica exposures. Using four-stage personal cascade impactors (Marple 294) to measure dust exposure, a total of 18 personal samples were collected. Reductions of over 80% in all three biologically relevant size fractions of dust (inhalable, thoracic, and respirable) were obtained by using any combination of hood and vacuum source. This study found that respirable dust concentrations were reduced from 3.77 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.242 to 0.370 mg/m(3); thoracic dust concentrations from 12.5 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.774 to 1.23 mg/m(3); and inhalable dust concentration from 47.2 mg/m(3) to a range of 2.13 to 6.09 mg/m(3). Silica concentrations were reduced from 0.308 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.006 to 0.028 mg/m(3) in the respirable size fraction, from 0.821 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.043 to 0.090 mg/m(3) in the thoracic size fraction, and from 2.71 mg/m(3) to a range of 0.124 to 0.403 mg/m(3) in the inhalable size fraction. Reductions in dust concentrations while using the four LEV systems were not statistically significantly different from each other.

  2. Model Design for Water Wheel Control System of Heumgyeonggaknu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Ham, Seon Young; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-03-01

    Heumgyeonggaknu (????) is powered by a water-hammering-type water wheel. The technique that maintains the constant speed of the water wheel is assumed to be the one used in the Cheonhyeong (???) apparatus in Shui Yun Yi Xiang Tai (???) made by the Northern Song (??) dynasty in the 11th century. We investigated the history of the development and characteristics of the Cheonhyeong apparatus, and we analyzed ways to transmit the power of Heumgyeonggaknu. In addition, we carried out a conceptual design to systematically examine the power control system. Based on the conceptual design, we built a model for a water wheel control system that could be used in experiments by drawing a 3D model and a basic design.

  3. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  4. Review of industry efforts to manage pressurized water reactor feedwater nozzle, piping, and feedring cracking and wall thinning

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; Ware, A.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a review of nuclear industry efforts to manage thermal fatigue, flow-accelerated corrosion, and water hammer damage to pressurized water reactor (PWR) feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. The review includes an evaluation of design modifications, operating procedure changes, augmented inspection and monitoring programs, and mitigation, repair and replacement activities. Four actions were taken: (a) review of field experience to identify trends of operating events, (b) review of technical literature, (c) visits to PWR plants and a PWR vendor, and (d) solicitation of information from 8 other countries. Assessment of field experience is that licensees have apparently taken sufficient action to minimize feedwater nozzle cracking caused by thermal fatigue and wall thinning of J-tubes and feedwater piping. Specific industry actions to minimize the wall-thinning in feedrings and thermal sleeves were not found, but visual inspection and necessary repairs are being performed. Assessment of field experience indicates that licensees have taken sufficient action to minimize steam generator water hammer in both top-feed and preheat steam generators. Industry efforts to minimize multiple check valve failures that have allowed backflow of steam from a steam generator and have played a major role in several steam generator water hammer events were not evaluated. A major finding of this review is that analysis, inspection, monitoring, mitigation, and replacement techniques have been developed for managing thermal fatigue and flow-accelerated corrosion damage to feedwater nozzles, piping, and feedrings. Adequate training and appropriate applications of these techniques would ensure effective management of this damage.

  5. A-1 to Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The A-1 Test Stand at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss., was the focus of a ceremony held Thursday to transition the storied facility to a new program of work: testing the J-2X engines that will power the agency's next generation spacecraft, Ares I & V. Standing before the historic structure, with a plaque commemorating the change, are (from left) SSC Center Director Richard Gilbrech; NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Scott Horowitz; and NASA Space Operations Deputy Associate Administrator for Program Integration Michael Hawes. Ares vehicles are the crew and cargo launch vehicles being developed under NASA's Constellation Program.

  6. A-1 to Constellation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-09

    The A-1 Test Stand at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss., was the focus of a ceremony held Thursday to transition the storied facility to a new program of work: testing the J-2X engines that will power the agency's next generation spacecraft, Ares I & V. Standing before the historic structure, with a plaque commemorating the change, are (from left) SSC Center Director Richard Gilbrech; NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Scott Horowitz; and NASA Space Operations Deputy Associate Administrator for Program Integration Michael Hawes. Ares vehicles are the crew and cargo launch vehicles being developed under NASA's Constellation Program.

  7. Tank Tests of a 1/7-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian: Spray Characteristics, Take-Off and Landing Stability in Smooth Water - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howrad

    1946-01-01

    Tests of a model of the XJR2F-Y amphibian were made in Langley tank no. to determine the spray characteristics and the take-off and landing stability. At a gross load of 22,000 pounds full size, spray entered the propeller disk only at a very narrow range of speeds. The spray striking the flaps was not excessive and no appreciable wetting of the tail surfaces was noted. The trim limits of stability appeared to be satisfactory and the upper-limit porpoising was not violent. The stable range of center-of-gravity locations with flaps set 20deg was well aft of the desired operating range. However, with flaps up, the forward limit was about 18 percent mean aerodynamic chord and the aft limit about 28.5 percent mean aerodynamic chord at a load of 26,000 pounds and with elevators deflected -10deg. Under these conditions the location of the step is considered satisfactory. Tests showed that the effect of water in the nose-wheel well would be to move the forward limit aft about 2-percent mean aerodynamic chord. Without ventilation of the main step, the model skipped during landing at most trims, but this skipping was not violent. With the ventilation, the model skipped lightly only at trims where the afterbody keel was approximately parallel to the water (around 7.5 deg).

  8. Antitumor and antimetastatic activity of a novel water-soluble low molecular weight beta-1, 3-D-glucan (branch beta-1,6) isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans 1A1 strain black yeast.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshuiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Suzuki, Toshio; Sakanaka, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Though it has been reported that beta-glucans or protein-binding hetero-glucans isolated from mushrooms have antitumor activity, the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of purified, structurally defined polysaccharides (such as beta-glucans) have not been proven yet. A new low molecular weight (approximately 100 kDa) beta-glucan was isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans black yeast, and was found to have low viscosity and to be water-soluble. The industrial production of this P-glucan was achieved from the culture media of A. pullulans. The effects of water-soluble low-molecular-weight (LMW) beta-(1-->3) and 50-80% branched beta-(1-->6) glucan isolated from A. pullulans on tumor growth and metastasis to the liver were examined in mice intrasplenically with implanted colon 26 tumor cells. In addition, to clarify the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of LMW beta-(1,3-1,6) glucan, the effects on immune functions in the small intestine were also examined. The intraperitoneal (5 and 15 mg/kg) and oral (50 mg/kg) administration of LMW P-(1.3-1.6) glucan inhibited the tumor growth and liver metastasis in mice intrasplenically implanted with colon 26 cells. The numbers of natural killer (NK)- and interferon (IFN)-gamma-positive cells in the small intestine of colon 26-bearing mice were lower than those in normal mice. The intraperitoneally and orally administered LMW beta-(1,3-1,6) glucan prevented the reduction of the number of NK- and IFN-gamma-positive cells induced by the tumor growth after implantation of colon 26 cells. These findings suggest that the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of LMW beta-(1,3-1,6) glucan may involve the enhancement of intestinal immune functions through increases in NK- and IFN-gamma-positive cell numbers.

  9. Hydrodynamic Qualities of a 1/10-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the XP5Y-1 Flying Boat in Smooth Water: Langley Tank Model 246, TED No. NACA DE 320

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, David R.; Weinstein, Irving; Whitaker, Walter E., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a 1/10-size powered dynamic model of the XP5Y-1 flying boat were determined in Langley tank no. 1. Stable take-offs were possible at all practicable positions of the center of gravity and flap deflections. An increase in gross load from 123.5 to 150.0 pounds (21.5 percent) had only a slight effect on the stable range for take-off. A decrease in forward acceleration from 3.0 to 1.0 feet per second per second had only a very small effect on the stable range for take-off. In general, the landings were free from skipping except at trims below 6 deg where one skip was encountered at an aft position of the center of gravity. The model porpoised during the landing runout at all positions of the center of gravity when landed at trims above 10 deg. Spray in the propellers was light at the design gross load, and was not considered excessive,at a gross load of 136.0 pounds.

  10. Dynamics of large-diameter water pipes in hydroelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavić, G.; Chevillotte, F.; Heraud, J.

    2017-04-01

    An outline is made of physical behaviour of water - filled large pipes. The fluid-wall coupling, the key factor governing the pipe dynamics, is discussed in some detail. Different circumferential pipe modes and the associated cut-on frequencies are addressed from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Major attention is paid to the breathing mode in view of its importance regarding main dynamic phenomena, such as water hammer. Selected measurement results done at EDF are presented to demonstrate how an external, non-intrusive sensor can detect pressure pulsations of the breathing mode in a pressure pipe. Differences in the pressure measurement using intrusive and non-intrusive sensors reveal the full complexity of large-diameter pipe dynamics.

  11. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  12. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  13. Distribution of Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals during Metamorphic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals are a reservoir for water in otherwise dry rocks. This water may play a role in facilitating metamorphic reactions and enhancing deformation. In this study, we examined orthopyroxene-bearing granites from the Athabasca Granulite terrane in northern Saskatchewan. These rocks intruded the lower crust (pressures of 1 GPa) at circa 2.6 Ga at temperatures of > 900 ºC and were subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies conditions (700 ºC and 1 GPa) in the Paleoproterozoic (Williams et al., 2000). One of the primary reactions recorded by these rocks is locally known as the "Mary" reaction and involves the anhydrous reaction: orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = clinopyroxene + garnet + Na-plagioclase. Measurements of water concentrations in both product and reactant assemblages were performed using a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and revealed that there is a slight excess of water in product minerals over reactant minerals. There are two possible explanations for this. The first is that water was derived from an external source, possibly hydrous, likely contemporaneous, mafic dikes. This interpretation is supported by higher concentrations of K, which is essentially absent from the reactant minerals, in the Na-rich rims of plagioclase. However, only modest amounts of external fluids could have been introduced, or amphiboles would have been stabilized at the expense of clinopyroxene (Moore & Carmichael, 1998). An alternative interpretation is that slightly more water-rich minerals reacted more readily, releasing water that was then incorporated into their products, whereas the water-poorer minerals failed to react. Support for this interpretation comes from very low water concentrations in orthopyroxene and plagioclase from an unreacted and undeformed sample. This interpretation suggests that water in anhydrous minerals may catalyze metamorphic reactions, and a lack of water may be critical for preserving metastable

  14. In search for coastal amplification of rock weathering in polar climates - pilot Schmidt hammer rock tests surveys from sheltered fjords of Svalbard and tsunami-affected coasts of Western Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelecki, Matt

    2014-05-01

    Recent decade has seen the major advance in Arctic coastal geomorphology due to research progress along ice-rich permafrost coastlines of Siberia, Alaska and NW Canada. On the contrary little attention was paid to Arctic rocky coastlines and their response to the reduction of sea ice cover and increased number of storms reaching Arctic region. In this paper I present results from a pilot survey of rock resistance using Schmidt Hammer Rock Tests across rocky cliffs and shore platforms developed in: - sheltered bays of Billefjorden, Svalbard characterised by prolonged sea-ice conditions and very limited operation of wave and tidal action - Vaigat Strait and Isfjorden in W Greenland influenced by landslide-triggered tsunamis and waves induced by ice-berg roll events. The aim of a pilot study was to test the hypothesized coastal impact on the rate of rock weathering in polar climates. To do so I characterise the changes in the rock resistance on the following coastal landforms: - modern and uplifted wave-washed abrasion platforms- focusing on a relation between the degree of rock surface weathering and the distance from the shoreline as well as thickness of sediment cover on shore platform surface - modern and uplifted rocky cliffs - focusing on a relation between the degree of rock surface weathering and the distance from the shoreline as well as difference in height above the sea level and relation to rock lithology. The results present another line of argument supporting intensification of rock weathering processes in the Arctic coastal zone. This work is a contribution to the National Science Centre in Poland research project no. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553.

  15. A-1 Test Stand modifications

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-14

    Team members check the progress of a liquid nitrogen cold shock test on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Sept. 15. The cold shock test is used to confirm the test stand's support system can withstand test conditions, when super-cold rocket engine propellant is piped. The A-1 Test Stand is preparing to conduct tests on the powerpack component of the J-2X rocket engine, beginning in early 2012.

  16. Identification and analysis of CYP7A1, CYP17A1, CYP20A1, CYP27A1 and CYP51A1 in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Hosaka, Shinya; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450) are important for not only drug metabolism and toxicity, but also biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids, and steroid synthesis. In cynomolgus macaques, widely used in biomedical research, we have characterized P450 cDNAs, which were isolated as expressed sequence tags of cynomolgus macaque liver. In this study, cynomolgus CYP7A1, CYP17A1, CYP20A1, CYP27A1 and CYP51A1 cDNAs were characterized by sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tissue expression pattern. By sequence analysis, these five cynomolgus P450s had high sequence identities (94-99%) to the human orthologs in amino acids. By phylogenetic analysis, each cynomolgus P450 was more closely related to the human ortholog as compared with the dog or rat ortholog. By quantitative polymerase chain reaction, among the 10 tissue types, CYP7A1 and CYP17A1 mRNAs were preferentially expressed in liver and adrenal gland, respectively. Cynomolgus CYP27A1 and CYP51A1 mRNAs were most abundantly expressed in liver and testis, respectively. Cynomolgus CYP20A1 mRNA was expressed in all the tissues, including brain and liver. Tissue expression patterns of each cynomolgus P450 were generally similar to that of the human ortholog. These results suggest the molecular similarities of CYP7A1, CYP17A1, CYP20A1, CYP27A1 and CYP51A1 between cynomolgus macaques and humans.

  17. Hermes A-1 Test Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    The first Hermes A-1 test rocket was fired at White Sand Proving Ground (WSPG). Hermes was a modified V-2 German rocket, utilizing the German aerodynamic configuration; however, internally it was a completely new design. Although it did not result in an operational vehicle, the information that was gathered in the process contributed directly to the development of the Redstone rocket.

  18. 50 CFR 217.144 - Mitigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required to initiate sound from vibratory hammers for 15 seconds at reduced energy followed by a 1-minute..., disturbance of any located seal structure. (2) Open-water Season: (i) BP will establish and monitor, during... activities with sound pressure levels (SPLs) that are expected to exceed that level in waters beyond the...

  19. A-1 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-13

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center work to maneuver a structural steam beam into place on the A-1 Test Stand on Jan. 13. The beam was one of several needed to form the thrust takeout structure that will support a new thrust measurement system being installed on the stand for future rocket engine testing. Once lifted onto the stand, the beams had to be hoisted into place through the center of the test stand, with only two inches of clearance on each side. The new thrust measurement system represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment installed more than 40 years ago when the test stand was first constructed.

  20. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  1. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  2. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  3. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  4. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes What is the A1C test? The A1C test ... A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert ...

  5. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c Print A A A What's in this ... de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What It Is A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to monitor long- ...

  6. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c A A A What's in this article? ... de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What It Is A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to monitor long- ...

  7. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  8. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  9. Decommissioning Project of Bohunice A1 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Moravek, J.; Spirko, M.

    2002-02-26

    The first (pilot) nuclear power plant A1 in the Slovak Republic, situated on Jaslovske Bohunice site (60 km from Bratislava) with the capacity of 143 MWel, was commissioned in 1972 and was running with interruptions till 1977. A KS 150 reactor (HWGCR) with natural uranium as fuel, D2O as moderator and gaseous CO2 as coolant was installed in the A1 plant. Outlet steam from primary reactor coolant system with the temperature of 410 C was led to 6 modules of steam generators and from there to turbine generators. Refueling was carried out on-line at plant full power. The first serious incident associated with refueling occurred in 1976 when a locking mechanism at a fuel assembly failed. The core was not damaged during that incident and following a reconstruction of the damaged technology channel, the plant continued in operation. However, serious problems were occurring with the integrity of steam generators (CO2 gas on primary side, water and steam on secondary side) when the plant had to be shut down frequently due to failures and subsequent repairs. The second serious accident occurred in 1977 when a fuel assembly was overheated with a subsequent release of D2O into gas cooling circuit due to a human failure in the course of replacement of a fuel assembly. Subsequent rapid increase in humidity of the primary system resulted in damages of fuel elements in the core and the primary system was contaminated by fission products. In-reactor structures had been damaged, too. Activity had penetrated also into certain parts of the secondary system via leaking steam generators. Radiation situation in the course of both events on the plant site and around it had been below the level of limits specified. Based on a technical and economical justification of the demanding character of equipment repairs for the restoration of plant operation, and also due to a decision made not to continue with further construction of gas cooled reactors in Czechoslovakia, a decision was made in

  10. [Drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

    1991-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones.

  11. Evaluation of Potential for Monitored Natural Attenuation of Perchlorate in Groundwater (Indian Head)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and riser or either ¾-inch pipe with a 1-ft stainless steel screen. Both types were driven into the sediment by hand with a slide hammer Figure 3-17...steel pipe and stainless steel drive points. Figure 3-17. Piezometer Installation in the Littoral Zone using a Slide Hammer 27 3.4.2.3... pipe into the sediment so that the slotted openings were exposed to the water in the creek. 3.4.2.4 Zone 4 - Monitoring Well Installation in the

  12. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  13. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  14. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  15. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  16. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  17. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals ...

  18. Target responses to the impact of high-velocity, non-abrasive water jets

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G.; Crutchmer, J.; Garrett, D.; Kramer, P.; Do, B.

    1993-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed on the effects of a non-abrasive water jet impinging on a solid surface. The theoretical analysis treats the time-dependent, twodimensional case of an axisymmetric jet impacting on a rigid or non-rigid surface at various velocities, up to 1500 m/s. The numerical results obtained include time-dependent pressure distributions and jet geometry near the surface. The maximum calculated pressures agree well with the ``water-hammer`` values when modified for high-velocity jets. Impact and machining experiments were conducted with various materials with water jet reservoir pressures up to 276 MPa (40,000 psi). Test results show that maximum mass removal rate takes place when the standoff distance is several hundred nozzle diameters from the nozzle, suggesting that at this long distance the jet has disintegrated into a series of ligaments and drops impinging on the surface. Analytical and experimental efforts are continuing on determining the dominant mechanisms for the target response to high-velocity jets.

  19. Target responses to the impact of high-velocity, non-abrasive water jets

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.; Carlson, G. ); Crutchmer, J.; Garrett, D.; Kramer, P.; Do, B. )

    1993-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed on the effects of a non-abrasive water jet impinging on a solid surface. The theoretical analysis treats the time-dependent, twodimensional case of an axisymmetric jet impacting on a rigid or non-rigid surface at various velocities, up to 1500 m/s. The numerical results obtained include time-dependent pressure distributions and jet geometry near the surface. The maximum calculated pressures agree well with the water-hammer'' values when modified for high-velocity jets. Impact and machining experiments were conducted with various materials with water jet reservoir pressures up to 276 MPa (40,000 psi). Test results show that maximum mass removal rate takes place when the standoff distance is several hundred nozzle diameters from the nozzle, suggesting that at this long distance the jet has disintegrated into a series of ligaments and drops impinging on the surface. Analytical and experimental efforts are continuing on determining the dominant mechanisms for the target response to high-velocity jets.

  20. 14 CFR 374a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 374a.1 Section 374a.1 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS EXTENSION OF CREDIT BY AIRLINES TO FEDERAL POLITICAL CANDIDATES § 374a.1 Purpose. Section 401 of...

  1. 22 CFR 3a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ACCEPTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS BY MEMBERS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES § 3a.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a) Applicant means any person who...

  2. 46 CFR 147A.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 147A.1 Section 147A.1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to prescribe the requirements for...

  3. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.1 Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization...

  4. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.1 Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization...

  5. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.1 Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization, or bank as...

  6. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEFINITIONS § 269a.1 Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization...

  7. 12 CFR 269a.1 - Party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party. 269a.1 Section 269a.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 269a.1 Party. The term Party means any person, employee, group of employees, labor organization, or bank as...

  8. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, they can spread the parasite into the water and continue the cycle of contamination and infection. Schistosomiasis can be spread when people swim in or have contact with freshwater lakes that are contaminated with ... drinking water or recreational water. Individuals spending time in the ...

  9. Water, mineral waters and health.

    PubMed

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  10. ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF VITAMINS A1 AND A2

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1939-01-01

    The distribution of vitamins A1 and A2 has been determined in the eye tissues and livers of a number of fishes. The vitamins were differentiated by means of the antimony chloride reaction, which yields with A1 a band at 615–620 mµ and with A2 a band at about 696 mµ. In the retina the presence of vitamin A1 is diagnostic of the operation of a rhodopsin, and vitamin A2 of a porphyropsin cycle. The eye tissues of all permanently marine fishes examined, except the tautog, contain vitamin A1 alone. Those of all permanently freshwater fishes possess only vitamin A2. Those of all euryhaline (potentially migratory) fishes, except possibly the alewife, contain mixtures of both vitamins A, and always predominantly that one which ordinarily is associated with the environment in which the fish is spawned. These correlations extend in part to the liver oils, but most livers contain mixtures of both vitamins A, and occasionally in proportions the reverse of those in the eye tissues. The vitamin A configuration does not depend upon environmental circumstances, but is determined genetically. The transfer from vitamin A1 to A2 metabolism appears associated phylogenetically with migration of marine teleosts into fresh water. PMID:19873110

  11. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  12. Valuable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.

  13. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  14. Global consumptive water use for crop production: The importance of green water and virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Yang, Hong

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 4 decades the use of blue water has received increasing attention in water resources research, but little attention has been paid to the quantification of green water in food production and food trade. In this paper, we estimate both the blue and green water components of consumptive water use (CWU) for a wide range of agricultural crops, including seven cereal crops, cassava, cotton, groundnuts, potatoes, pulses, rapeseed, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, and sunflower, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc min on the land surface. The results show that the global CWU of these crops amounted to 3823 km3 a-1 for the period 1998-2002. More than 80% of this amount was from green water. Around 94% of the world crop-related virtual water trade has its origin in green water, which generally constitutes a low-opportunity cost of green water as opposed to blue water. High levels of net virtual water import (NVWI) generally occur in countries with low CWU on a per capita basis, where a virtual water strategy is an attractive water management option to compensate for domestic water shortage for food production. NVWI is constrained by income; low-income countries generally have a low level of NVWI. Strengthening low-income countries economically will allow them to develop a virtual water strategy to mitigate malnutrition of their people.

  15. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  16. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  17. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  18. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  20. 32 CFR 169a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 169a.1 Section 169a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM... Department of Defense (DoD) to determine whether needed commercial activities (CAs) should be accomplished by...

  1. 32 CFR 237a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 237a.1 Section 237a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC AFFAIRS...) advertising defense themes and products. ...

  2. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  3. 32 CFR 242a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 242a.1 Section 242a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES...

  4. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  5. 32 CFR 242a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 242a.1 Section 242a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES...

  6. 32 CFR 242a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 242a.1 Section 242a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES...

  7. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 168a.1 Section 168a.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND... National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191. (b...

  8. 32 CFR 242a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 242a.1 Section 242a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES...

  9. 32 CFR 242a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 242a.1 Section 242a.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PUBLIC MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  11. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  13. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  14. Wasted waters.

    PubMed

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water.

  15. Dynamic water behaviour due to one trapped air pocket in a laboratory pipeline apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, A.; Karadžić, U.; Tijsseling, A.

    2016-11-01

    Trapped air pockets may cause severe operational problems in hydropower and water supply systems. A locally isolated air pocket creates distinct amplitude, shape and timing of pressure pulses. This paper investigates dynamic behaviour of a single trapped air pocket. The air pocket is incorporated as a boundary condition into the discrete gas cavity model (DGCM). DGCM allows small gas cavities to form at computational sections in the method of characteristics (MOC). The growth of the pocket and gas cavities is described by the water hammer compatibility equation(s), the continuity equation for the cavity volume, and the equation of state of an ideal gas. Isentropic behaviour is assumed for the trapped gas pocket and an isothermal bath for small gas cavities. Experimental investigations have been performed in a laboratory pipeline apparatus. The apparatus consists of an upstream end high-pressure tank, a horizontal steel pipeline (total length 55.37 m, inner diameter 18 mm), four valve units positioned along the pipeline including the end points, and a downstream end tank. A trapped air pocket is captured between two ball valves at the downstream end of the pipeline. The transient event is initiated by rapid opening of the upstream end valve; the downstream end valve stays closed during the event. Predicted and measured results for a few typical cases are compared and discussed.

  16. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include adding fluoride to prevent cavities and chlorine to kill germs. Your water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking ...

  17. Healthy Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... many uses for drinking, recreation, sanitation, hygiene, and industry, water is our most precious global resource. Clean ... effects to be easily linked to water exposure. Clusters of illnesses associated with chronic chemical exposures are ...

  18. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... different from swimming in a lake or the ocean — there are different hazards for each. Here are ... hot tub, water fountain, water park, lake, or ocean. Most such infections are diarrhea-related and often ...

  19. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  20. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing technology to analysis of watersheds, snow cover, snowmelt, water runoff, soil moisture, land use, playa lakes, flooding, and water quality are summarized. Recommendations are given for further utilization of this technology.

  2. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  4. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration related ... that it is any more effective than other beverages for this use. ... use coconut water to replace fluids after exercise. Coconut water seems ...

  5. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  6. Water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  7. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  8. Ocean Surface Water Sampling Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-10-01

    also parachuted, captures a volume of the water surface by a cookie cutter action and drew it into a 1-liter Thermos bottle for protection from...effective in landing upright on the water. Faster Dewar samplers without the cookie cutter action but with the same intake method proved about 95

  9. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  10. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under title 10, United States Code, this part establishes the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA)...

  11. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under title 10, United States Code, this part establishes the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA)...

  12. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under title 10, United States Code, this part establishes the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA)...

  13. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under title 10, United States Code, this part establishes the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA)...

  14. 32 CFR 383a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under title 10, United States Code, this part establishes the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA)...

  15. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    Stennis Space Center employees maneuver a new thrust measurement system in preparation for its installation on the A-1 Test Stand on March 3. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois and represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment used on the stand for more than 40 years. The A-1 Test Stand is being upgraded to provide testing for the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program.

  16. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Stennis Space Center employees maneuver a new thrust measurement system in preparation for its installation on the A-1 Test Stand on March 3. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois and represents a state-of-the-art upgrade from the equipment used on the stand for more than 40 years. The A-1 Test Stand is being upgraded to provide testing for the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program.

  17. The challenge of water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    In a sandy, riverside location in Wisconsin my family has a farm, once abandoned by a previous owner because it would not produce much corn. By the time we bought it for a pittance, only a few remnants of white pine remained from the magnificent stands made famous by Paul Bunyan. The variability of the glacial topography had resulted in an interesting mixture of prairie marsh, swamp woodlot, and sandhill.We did not acquire this farm because it had a great potential for growing crops. Rather we were interested in the variety of ecologic and topographic types which, even within the confines of our property, represented a condensed version of many different types of land in the Wisconsin countryside. It has also a very peculiar esthetic and historical interest. Marquette's canoes slipped quietly past our favorite fishing hole on the river. Passenger pigeons had once roosted in our great oaks. The few remaining white pines silhouetted against the sky-glow of evening made one think of the Round River and the Blue Ox.All right, we had acquired this place. What were we to do with it. Its resources were narrowly limited and peculiar. They had little economic value. All the more reason that they should be appraised in order that they be fully utilized and appreciated. So, while we were hammering and sawing the old stable into a useable homestead, we walked, sat, dug, and pruned in every coulee and covert, in every thicket and thatch. By compass and pace we mapped the boundaries, the vegetation, and sketched in the topography with notes on the distribution of soil and the occurrence of water. We counted the various kinds of birds and found there was a reasonable population of woods species, mostly transients. There were no pheasant, no quail, practically no grouse, and in spring only an occasional woodcock.In conjunction with the analysis of what we had to work with we started immediately on the task of development. The techniques were chosen with an eye to specific goals

  18. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  19. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  20. Methamphetamine regulation of sulfotransferase 1A1 and 2A1 expression in rat brain sections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; Chen, Yue; Xu, Jiaojiao; Shanbhag, Preeti Devaraya; Chen, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Sulfotransferase catalyzed sulfation regulates the biological activities of various neurotransmitters/hormones and detoxifies xenobiotics. Rat sulfotransferase rSULT1A1 catalyzes the sulfation of neurotransmitters and xenobiotic phenolic compounds. rSULT2A1 catalyzes the sulfation of hydroxysteroids and xenobiotic alcoholic compounds. In this work, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate the effect of methamphetamine on rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 protein and mRNA expression in rat cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. After 1-day treatment, significant induction of rSULT1A1 was observed only in the cerebellum; rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus. After 7 days of exposure, rSULT1A1 was induced in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, while rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in all four regions. Western blot results agreed with the real-time RT-PCR results, suggesting that the induction occurred at the gene transcriptional level. Results indicate that rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 are expressed in rat frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus. rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1are inducible by methamphetamine in rat brain sections in a time dependable manner. rSULT2A1 is more inducible than rSULT1A1 by methamphetamine in rat brain sections. Induction activity of methamphetamine is in the order of cerebellum>frontal cortex, hippocampus>striatum. These results suggest that the physiological functions of rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 in different brain regions can be affected by methamphetamine.

  1. Last SSME test on A-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-29

    The Stennis Space Center conducted the final space shuttle main engine test on its A-1 Test Stand Friday. The A-1 Test Stand was the site of the first test on a shuttle main engine in 1975. Stennis will continue testing shuttle main engines on its A-2 Test Stand through the end of the Space Shuttle Program in 2010. The A-1 stand begins a new chapter in its operational history in October. It will be temporarily decommissioned to convert it for testing the J-2X engine, which will power the upper stage of NASA's new crew launch vehicle, the Ares I. Although this ends the stand's work on the Space Shuttle Program, it will soon be used for the rocket that will carry America's next generation human spacecraft, Orion.

  2. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  3. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  4. Water decontamination

    Treesearch

    Roger Rowell

    2004-01-01

    For 1.5 to 2.5 billion people in the world, lack of clean water is a critical issue. It is estimated that by the year 2025 there will be an additional 2.5 billion people who will live in regions already lacking sufficient clean water. In the United States today, it is estimated that 90% of citizens live within 10 mi of a body of contaminated water. Large numbers of...

  5. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  6. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  7. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  8. Source Water Protection Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Defines drinking water sources (source water), identifies drinking water sources, and describes source water assessments and protection, roles of government and organizations in drinking water source protection

  9. Water pumps.

    PubMed

    Loo, Donald D F; Wright, Ernest M; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    The transport of water across epithelia has remained an enigma ever since it was discovered over 100 years ago that water was transported across the isolated small intestine in the absence of osmotic and hydrostatic pressure gradients. While it is accepted that water transport is linked to solute transport, the actual mechanisms are not well understood. Current dogma holds that active ion transport sets up local osmotic gradients in the spaces between epithelial cells, the lateral intercellular spaces, and this in turn drives water transport by local osmosis. In the case of the small intestine, which in humans absorbs about 8 l of water a day, there is no direct evidence for either local osmosis or aquaporin gene expression in enterocytes. Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced by glucose, and this is the basis for oral rehydration therapy in patients with secretory diarrhoea. In our studies of the intestinal brush border Na+-glucose cotransporter we have obtained evidence that there is a direct link between the transport of Na+, glucose and water transport, i.e. there is cotransport of water along with Na+ and sugar, that will account for about 50 % of the total water transport across the human intestinal brush border membrane. In this short review we summarize the evidence for water cotransport and propose how this occurs during the enzymatic turnover of the transporter. This is a general property of cotransporters and so we expect that this may have wider implications in the transport of water and other small polar molecules across cell membranes in animals and plants.

  10. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE § 8a.1 Definitions. (a) The term housing unit means a family dwelling or unit, together with the... Insurance (VMLI) means the mortgage protection life insurance authorized for veterans under 38 U.S.C. 2106. (c) The term initial amount of insurance means the amount of insurance corresponding in amount to the...

  11. 22 CFR 3a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNIFORMED SERVICES § 3a.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a) Applicant means any person who requests approval under this part to accept any civil employment (and compensation therefor) from a foreign... part to continue such employment. (b) Uniformed services means the Armed Forces, the...

  12. NERVA Reactor Based on NRX A1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  13. 38 CFR 8a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 8a.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS MORTGAGE LIFE..., acquired by an eligible veteran to be used as his or her residence after selling or otherwise disposing of title to the housing unit for which his or her grant was made. (b) The term Veterans Mortgage Life...

  14. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  15. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  16. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless...

  17. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless...

  18. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  19. Hydraulic design of a re-circulating water cooling system of a combined cycle power plant in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, C.K.; Pandit, D.R.; Kwon, S.G.

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the hydraulic design and hydraulic transient analysis of the re-circulating water cooling system of the combined cyclo Sipco power cogeneration plant in Thailand. The power plant of 450 MW total capacity is proposed to be built in two stages. Stage one will produce 300 MW of power and will consist of two gas turbine generators (GTG) and one steam turbine generator (STG). Stage two will produce 150 MW of power and will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of one GTG and one STG. The cooling system will consist of cooling towers, a combined collecting basin and pump intake sump, pumps and motors, and separate conveyance systems and condensers for the generator units in the two stages. In a re-circulating water cooling system, cold water is pumped from the pump intake sump to the condensers through the conveyance system and hot water from the condensers is carried through the returning pipeline system to the cooling towers, whence the water after cooling is drained into the sump at the base of the towers. Total cooling water requirement for the system in stage one is estimated to be 112,000 gallons per minute (GPM), and that in stage two, 56,000 GPM. The sump is designed using the computer program HEC-2, developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and the pump intake basin, following the recommendations of the Hydraulic Institute. The pumps were sized by computing the head loss in the system, and, the steady state and transient performances (during pump start-up and shut-down procedures and due to possible power or mechanical failure of one or all pumps) of the system were analyzed by mathematically modeling the system using the computer program WHAMO (Water Hammer nd Mass Oscillations), also developed by the COE.

  20. 44 CFR Appendix A(1) to Part 61 - Appendix A(1) to Part 61

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tanks used in solar energy systems; (12) Stairways and staircases attached to the building, not...; j. Furnaces and radiators; k. Garbage disposal units; l. Hot water heaters, including solar water... having been used as insulation material in conjunction with energy efficient building techniques;...

  1. Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearmont, David; McCarl, Bruce A.; Tolman, Deborah A.

    1998-04-01

    The cost of municipal water treatment due to diminished water quality represents an important component of the societal costs of water pollution. Here the chemical costs of municipal water treatment are expressed as a function of raw surface water quality. Data are used for a 3-year period for 12 water treatment plants in Texas. Results show that when regional raw water contamination is present, the chemical cost of water treatment is increased by 95 per million gallons (per 3785 m3) from a base of 75. A 1% increase in turbidity is shown to increase chemical costs by 0.25%.

  2. Virginia's Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

    This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3)…

  3. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  4. Water Quality

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Maluk; Thomas A. Abrahamsen; Richard H. Day

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) in 1991 to describe the status of and long-term trends in the quality of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources. The study of the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages began in 1994 and included about 60800 km2 in North Carolina and...

  5. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  6. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  7. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  8. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  9. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  10. Water Table Depth and Growth of Young Cottonwood

    Treesearch

    W. M. Broadfoot

    1973-01-01

    Planted cottonwood grew best when the water table was about 2 feet deep, whether the tree was planted on soil with a high water table or the water table was raised 1 year after planting. Growth over a 1- foot-deep water table was about the same as over no water table, but a surface water table restricted growth of cuttings planted in the water, and killed trees planted...

  11. Studies of membrane topology of mitochondrial cholesterol hydroxylases CYPs 27A1 and 11A1

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Liao, Wei-Li; Turko, Illarion V.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP or P450, EC 1.14.13.15) play an important role in metabolism of cholesterol. CYP27A1 hydroxylates cholesterol at position 27 and, thus, initiates cholesterol removal from many extrahepatic tissues. CYP11A1 is a steroidogenic P450 that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones. We utilized a new approach to study membrane topology of CYPs 27A1 and 11A1. This approach involves heterologous expression of membrane-bound P450 in E. coli, isolation of the P450-containing E. coli membranes, treatment of the membranes with protease, removal of the digested soluble portion and extraction of the membrane-associated peptides, which are then identified by mass spectrometry. By using this approach, we found four membrane-interacting peptides in CYP27A1, and two peptides in CYP11A1. Peptides in CYP27A1 represent a contiguous portion of the polypeptide chain (residues 210-251) corresponding to the putative F-G loop and adjacent portions of the F and G helices. Peptides in CYP11A1 are from the putative F-G loop (residues 218-225) and the C-terminal portion of the G helix (residues 238-250). This data is consistent with those obtained previously by us and others and provide new information about membrane topology of CYPs 27A1 and 11A1. PMID:18791760

  12. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  13. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  14. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A new thrust measurement system is lifted onto the A-1 Test Stand deck at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in preparation for its installation. The new system is a state-of-the-art upgrade for the testing structure, which is being prepared for testing of next-generation rocket engines. The system was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois at a cost of about $3.5 million.

  15. Water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Parnell, C; Whelton, H; O'Mullane, D

    2009-09-01

    This was to present a summary of the evidence from systematic reviews of the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation. A search for relevant systematic reviews was conducted using the terms Fluoridation [Mesh] OR "water fluoridation" OR fluoridation OR (water AND fluoride) and was run from 01/01/2000 to 17/10/2008 in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects in the Cochrane Library. The quality of the systematic reviews was assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) methodology checklists for systematic reviews. Websites of guideline organisations were also searched for relevant evidence-based guidelines, which were appraised using the AGREE instrument. Of the 59 publications identified, 3 systematic reviews and 3 guidelines were included in this review. While the reviews themselves were of good methodological quality, the studies included in the reviews were generally of moderate to low quality. The results of the three reviews showed that water fluoridation is effective at reducing caries in children and adults. With the exception of dental fluorosis, no association between adverse effects and water fluoridation has been established. Water fluoridation reduces caries for all social classes, and there is some evidence that it may reduce the oral health gap between social classes. Water fluoridation, where technically feasible and culturally acceptable, remains a relevant and valid choice as a population measure for the prevention of dental caries.

  16. Visualizing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  17. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  18. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  19. Human aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) exhibits chaperone-like function.

    PubMed

    Voulgaridou, Georgia-Persephoni; Tsochantaridis, Ilias; Mantso, Theodora; Franco, Rodrigo; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Pappa, Aglaia

    2017-08-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various aldehydes. Certain types of epithelial tissues in mammals, especially those continually exposed to environmental stress (e.g., corneal epithelium), express ALDH3A1 at high levels and its abundance in such tissues is perceived to help to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of oxidative stress. Metabolic as well as non-metabolic roles for ALDH3A1 have been associated with its mediated resistance to cellular oxidative stress. In this study, we provide evidence that ALDH3A1 exhibits molecular chaperone-like activity further supporting its multifunctional role. Specifically, we expressed and purified the human ALDH3A1 in E. coli and used the recombinant protein to investigate its in vitro ability to protect SmaI and citrate synthase (from precipitation and/or deactivation) under thermal stress conditions. Our results indicate that recombinant ALDH3A1 exhibits significant chaperone function in vitro. Furthermore, over-expression of the fused histidine-tagged ALDH3A1 confers host E. coli cells with enhanced resistance to thermal shock, while ALDH3A1 over-expression in the human corneal cell line HCE-2 was sufficient for protecting them from the cytotoxic effects of both hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. These results further support the chaperone-like function of human ALDH3A1. Taken together, ALDH3A1, in addition to its primary metabolic role in fundamental cellular detoxification processes, appears to play an essential role in protecting cellular proteins against aggregation under stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  1. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a lifeguard. No one can anticipate changing ocean currents, rip currents, sudden storms, or other hidden ... body of water (like a river, lake, or ocean) is different from swimming in a pool. You ...

  2. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  3. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  4. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  5. Water Spout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2013-02-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)

  6. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  7. Water separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, W. F.; Austin, I. G. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    An apparatus for separating liquids from gases or gaseous fluids is described. Features of the apparatus include: (1) the collection and removal of the moisture in the fluid is not dependent upon, or affected by gravity; (2) all the collected water is cyclically drained from the apparatus irrespective of the attitude of the separator; and (3) a fluid actuator is utilized to remove the collected water from the separator.

  8. Operating nanoliter scale NMR microcoils in a 1 tesla field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Andrew F.; Adolphi, Natalie L.

    2007-09-01

    Microcoil probes enclosing sample volumes of 1.2, 3.3, 7.0, and 81 nanoliters are constructed as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detectors for operation in a 1 tesla permanent magnet. The probes for the three smallest volumes utilize a novel auxiliary tuning inductor for which the design criteria are given. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and line width of water samples are measured. Based on the measured DC resistance of the microcoils, together with the calculated radio frequency (RF) resistance of the tuning inductor, the SNR is calculated and shown to agree with the measured values. The details of the calculations indicate that the auxiliary inductor does not degrade the NMR probe performance. The diameter of the wire used to construct the microcoils is shown to affect the signal line widths.

  9. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wendong; He, Changde; Zhang, Yongmei; Song, Jinlong; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V) at 1 m. The −3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications. PMID:26938536

  10. Antineoplastic Agents 552. Oxidation of Combretastatin A-1

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, George R.; Thornhill, Andrew J.; Moser, Bryan R.; Hogan, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    The very unstable (< 10 min at rt) o-quinone (5) derived from the vicinal diphenol anticancer drug combretastatin A-1 (1) has been obtained by careful oxidation with NaIO4 and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water/dichloromethane. Immediate reaction with phenylenediamine (6) allowed o-quinone 5 to be trapped as the stable phenazine derivative (7). For further confirmation, 5 was also captured as a dimethoxyphenylenediamine-derived phenazine (11). Both phenazines 7 and 11 significantly inhibited (ED50 ~ 0.2 μg/mL) growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line and provided a new SAR insight in the combretastatin series of naturally occurring anticancer drugs. PMID:18729517

  11. Reliability assessment of a 1 MV LTD.

    SciTech Connect

    Portillo, Salvador; Chavez, Raymond; Molina, Isidro; Kim, Alexandre A.; Johnson, David L.; Maenchen, John Eric; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2005-07-01

    A 1 MV linear transformer driver (LTD) is being tested with a large area e-beam diode load at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The experiments will be utilized to determine the repeatability of the output pulse and the reliability of the components. The 1 MV accelerator is being used to determine the feasibility of designing a 6 MV LTD for radiography experiments. The peak voltage, risetime, and pulse width as well as the cavity timing jitter are analyzed to determine the repeatability of the output pulse.

  12. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  13. ESW 2009: Water, Water Everywhere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat f...

  14. In Vitro Activity of Coumermycin A1

    PubMed Central

    Fedorko, Joseph; Katz, Sol; Allnoch, Hedi

    1969-01-01

    The in vitro activity of coumermycin A1 was compared with that of novobiocin, ampicillin, and minocycline. Coumermycin was found to be the most active antibiotic of the four against Staphylococcus aureus. It was about 50 times more active than novobiocin or minocycline against the strains tested. Coumermycin also showed good activity against group A streptococci and pneumococci, moderate activity against Escherichia coli, indole-positive Proteus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and poor activity against Klebsiella-Enterobacter and enterococci. Against P. mirabilis, however, coumermycin activity was almost equal to that of ampicillin. The new antibiotic was further found to be greatly reduced in activity in the presence of plasma, but its minimal inhibitory concentration was not greatly affected by inoculum size. Coumermycin was found to be bacteriostatic in its action, and resistance to it developed slowly. Also, cross-resistance was present with novobiocin but absent with ampicillin or minocycline. PMID:4391844

  15. J-2X installation on A-1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-20

    Core components of the J-2X engine being designed for NASA's Constellation Program recently were installed on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. Tests of the components, known as Powerpack 1A, will be conducted from November 2007 through February 2008. The Powerpack 1A test article consists of a gas generator and engine turbopumps originally developed for the Apollo Program that put Americans on the moon in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Engineers are testing these heritage components to obtain data that will help them modify the turbomachinery to meet the higher performance requirements of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. The upcoming tests will simulate inlet and outlet conditions that would be present on the turbomachinery during a full-up engine hot-fire test.

  16. Water Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Richard

    2005-12-01

    The following type of nozzle problem is found in some introductory-level physics textbooks.1-3 The (average) flow speed of water through and out a hose with a cross-sectional area AH is vH. If a nozzle with an exit area AN < AH is attached to the hose, what is the speed vN of the water out of it? The books simply apply the continuity equation AHvH = ANvN to the nozzle to obtain vN = (AH/AN)vH. This solution is not correct because it does not take account of the fact that attaching the nozzle to the hose reduces the flow speed in it. So the books' values of vN must always be too high, sometimes by large amounts. It should not seem surprising that it takes more time to fill a watering can with a garden hose when there is a nozzle at the end of it than when there isn't. This paper will explain how a water nozzle actually works, and for a situation with a simple water source, the correct flow speed from a nozzle will be derived.

  17. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  18. Impaired migration and cell volume regulation in aquaporin 5-deficient SPC-A1 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Ziqiang; Gu, Yutong; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-05-31

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is widely expressed in various organ and tissues. In light of the novel oncogenic properties of aquaporins (AQPs), here we investigated the effect of AQP5 knockdown by RNAi on transmembrane osmotic water permeability, cell migration potential and cell volume regulation ability. AQP5 expression was inhibited by short hairpin RNA in SPC-A1 cells, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Cells loaded with a fluoroprobe (calcein-AM) were immersed in either isosmotic, hyperosmotic or hyposmotic solutions, and fluorescence intensity was recorded using confocal microscopy. These measurements were used to calculate osmotic water permeability coefficients (Pf) and to monitor regulated volume decrease (RVD). Tumor cell migration and invasion assays were performed in a modified Boyden chamber. Wound healing and colony forming ability were also tested. Although self-quenching was not found in SPC-A1 cells, we observed a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and cell water volume, suggesting that this method is a sensitive and reproducible way to measure single-cell transmembrane water permeability. Cells in which the AQP5 gene was silenced showed a 49.4% decrease in osmotic water permeability, a 55.3% decrease in migration and a 28.4% decrease in invasion potential. In addition, RVD decreased remarkably with reduced osmotic water permeability. Our results suggest that AQP5, which mediates water permeability and thus regulates cell shape and volume, is a potentially important determinant in cell migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of the CBr2A1B1-X1A1 transition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Ju; Chang, Wei-Zhong; Chang, Bor-Chen

    2005-06-21

    Dispersed fluorescence spectra following the excitation of the CBr2A1B1-X1A1 2 and 2 bands at visible wavelengths were acquired in a discharge supersonic free jet expansion using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector. The dispersed fluorescence spectra show signal-to-noise ratios of up to 60 and extend out to a maximum red shift frequency of 6000 cm(-1). Complete and detailed vibrational structure of the ground singlet state (X1A1) was observed. Vibrational parameters including fundamental frequencies, anharmonicities, and coupling constants were determined for the CBr2 X1A1 state. Additional vibrational structure starting at approximately 3650 cm(-1) was observed and this indicates the singlet-triplet energy gap to be >10 kcal mol(-1).

  20. PLC Software Program for Leak Detector Station A1 SALW-LD-ST-A1

    SciTech Connect

    KOCH, M.R.

    2001-01-25

    This document describes the software program for the programmable logic controller for the leak detector station ''SALW-LD-ST-A1''. The appendices contains a copy of the printout of the software program.

  1. Continuous transformation of a -1/2 wedge disclination line to a +1/2 one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that, in the order-parameter space S2/Z2 (a typical example being a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal in three dimensions), a -1/2 wedge disclination line and a +1/2 one are topologically equivalent and can thus be transformed continuously into each other. Here we report the realization of this transformation in a simulation of a cholesteric blue phase under an electric field.

  2. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  3. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  4. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  5. Ultrahydrophobic water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  6. Water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, J.R.

    1981-04-28

    To prevent the accumulation of scale and other solid particles in its bottom portion, this water heater incorporates a specially designed agitator assembly that is cheaper and simpler to use than electrostatic, electronic, or chemical devices. A ring-shaped tube positioned at the bottom of the tank close to the side wall is connected to a second tube that extends toward the tank's center. Openings and venturi fittings on the two tubes cause the water to flow into to the tank horizontally and centrally upward, creating a stirring action at the tank bottom.

  7. Calm Water Resistance of a 1:25 Scale Model of the Armidale Class Patrol Boat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    2768 ABSTRACT DSTO has recently joined the International collaborative consortium FAST3.JIP with the aim to develop a numerical capability for the...TR- 2768 Contents ACRONYMS 1. INTRODUCTION...27 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR- 2768

  8. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  9. Vision in water.

    PubMed

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  10. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... based on a review of more than 50 human epidemiological (population) studies produced over the past 40 years, concluded that optimal fluoridation of drinking water “does not pose a detectable cancer risk to humans” as evidenced by extensive human epidemiological data reported ...

  11. Water World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-30

    Although Enceladus and Saturn's rings are largely made up of water ice, they show very different characteristics. The small ring particles are too tiny to retain internal heat and have no way to get warm, so they are frozen and geologically dead. Enceladus, on the other hand, is subject to forces that heat its interior to this very day. This results in its famous south polar water jets, which are just visible above the moon's dark, southern limb, along with a sub-surface ocean. Recent work by Cassini scientists suggests that Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) has a global ocean of liquid water under its surface. This discovery increases scientists' interest in Enceladus and the quest to understand the role of water in the development of life in the solar system. (For more on the sub-surface ocean, see this story.) This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 0.3 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 29, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 630,000 miles (1.0 million kilometers) from Enceladus and at a Sun-Enceladus-spacecraft, or phase angle of 155 degrees. Image scale is 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18343

  12. Water Crossings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of "Water Crossings," a Project WET activity, with preservice elementary teachers in a science methods course. Discusses how the activity integrates applications from physical science with history and geography concepts. Explains that the teaching strategy used is a version of the scientific method. (WRM)

  13. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  14. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  15. WATER EGRESS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-07-16

    S65-28459 (16 July 1965) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot for the Gemini-5 backup crew, inside the Gemini Static Article 5 spacecraft prior to water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. The training is part of the prelaunch schedule for prime and backup crew on the Gemini-5 mission.

  16. Water Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Jane E.; Smith, Brandy A.

    The inclusion of activities to develop sensory awareness, spatial thinking, and physical dexterity, operationalized through hands-on science lessons such as water play, have long been part of early childhood education. This practical article addresses Next Generation Science Standards K-2 ETS1-3 and K-2 ETS1-2 by having four-year-old…

  17. Water Hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  18. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  19. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  20. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.