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Sample records for a-1-acid glycoprotein concentration

  1. Use of cross-fostering to enhance growth of pigs that are predicted to grow poorly based on plasma a-1 acid glycoprotein concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a negative acute phase protein that can be quantified in the plasma at birth and used to predict growth rate through weaning. Neonatal plasma (AGP) may be useful as a marker to predict growth impairment and permit nutritional support to prevent the identified pigs ...

  2. The immune system modulator a1-acid glycoprotein inhibits insulin and IGF1 induced protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) has previously been demonstrated by our laboratory to be negatively correlated with growth rate in newborn piglets. However, a mechanism of action for AGP in growth has not been identified. Previous research has demonstrated that AGP can modify adipose tissue metabo...

  3. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing <80% Angus influence (3.40 ± 0.28 vs. 2.86 ± 0.28 cm crown-rump length; P < 0.01). Plasma PAG concentrations were reduced (P < 0.01) in cows containing >80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0

  4. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of accuracy of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and milk for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Z; Petrajtis-Gołobów, M; Melo de Sousa, N; Beckers, J F; Pawliński, B; Wehrend, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of early pregnancy diagnosis by determining pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in blood and PAG concentration in milk. Blood and milk samples were obtained on days 0 (AI day), 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91 and 105 of gestation from 60 lactating Holstein Frisian cows from one herd, carrying live fetuses. To determine PAG concentration a specific RIA system (RIA-706) was used. PAG concentration in blood and milk increased after 28 days of pregnancy, with blood concentrations being significantly higher than in milk. However, the accuracy of both tests at this time point was similar (sensitivity: 92 % in blood, 93 % in milk; specificity 53 % and 60 % respectively). None of the tests were able to detect open cows properly at this stage. On day 35 of gestation sensitivity (100 % for blood, 97 % for milk) and specificity (100 % for blood, 100 % for milk) were high enough to be used for reliable pregnancy diagnosis. The accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) for PAG concentrations in blood and milk for the rest of the study was 100 %. Our investigation shows that PAG determination in milk is a stress-free and non-invasive method for early pregnancy diagnosis in cattle.

  6. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein concentration in clinically healthy puppies and adult dogs and in dogs with various diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masashi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Takase, Katsuaki

    2010-03-01

    alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is an acute-phase protein and a serum marker of inflammation and neoplasia in humans. AGP concentrations in diseased dogs and the potential effects of age, breed, and sex have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in AGP concentration based on age, sex, and breed in a large population of clinically healthy dogs and to compare AGP concentrations in dogs with various diseases. Serum was obtained from clinically healthy puppies (n=74) and adults (n=172) of both sexes, and included mongrels (n=205) and Beagles (n=41). Serum also was obtained from 192 dogs with various diseases, including 8 with pyometra that were sampled before, and 1, 2, 3, and 10 days after surgery. AGP concentration was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Statistical comparisons were made among age, sex, breed, and disease groups. Serum AGP in healthy adult mongrels was 364+/-106 mg/L (reference interval, 152-576 mg/L). AGP was lowest in newborns (n=11, 122+/-54 mg/L) and gradually increased to adult levels by 3 months of age. Median AGP concentration was highest in dogs with parvovirus (n=17, 2100 mg/L), distemper (n=7, 1250 mg/L), and pyometra (n=18, 2480 mg/L) and was also significantly higher in dogs with acute filariasis, renal failure, urolithiasis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, trauma, hyperadrenocorticism, and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Dogs with acute filariasis and acute hepatopathy had significantly higher AGP concentrations than dogs with chronic filariasis and chronic hepatopathy. Serum AGP concentration decreased gradually following surgery for pyometra but remained increased after 10 days (896+/-175 mg/L). Because of significantly lower AGP in puppies, the age of dogs should be considered when using AGP as a marker of disease. Serum AGP may be a useful marker of inflammatory disease in dogs and may help differentiate acute and chronic stages of disease.

  7. Influence of P-glycoprotein modulation on plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of orally administered prednisolone in dogs.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, Sara; Croubels, Siska; Gadeyne, Caroline; Ducatelle, Richard; Daminet, Sylvie; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Sterenczak, Katharina; Polis, Ingeborgh; Schauvliege, Stijn; Hesta, Myriam; Chiers, Koen

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of modulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on plasma concentrations of orally administered prednisolone in dogs. 7 healthy adult Beagles. Each dog received 3 treatments (control [no treatment], rifampicin [100 mg/d, PO, for 21 days, as an inducer of P-gp], and ketoconazole [100 mg/d, PO, for 21 days, as an inhibitor of P-gp]). A single dose of prednisolone (1 mg/kg, PO) was administered on day 8 of each treatment period. There was a 7-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Plasma concentrations of prednisolone were determined by use of a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Duodenum and colon biopsy specimens were obtained endoscopically from anesthetized dogs and assessed for P-gp protein labeling via immunohistochemical analysis and mRNA quantification via real-time PCR assay. Total fecal collection was performed for evaluation of effects of P-gp modulation on digestion of nutrients. Rifampicin treatment upregulated duodenal P-gp in dogs and significantly reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of prednisolone. Ketoconazole typically downregulated expression of duodenal P-gp, with a subsequent increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of prednisolone. There was a noticeable interindividual difference in response. Digestion of nutrients was not affected. Modulation of P-gp expression influenced plasma concentrations of prednisolone after oral administration in dogs. Thus, treatment response to prednisolone may be influenced by coadministration of P-gp-modulating medications or feed ingredients.

  8. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-11-01

    According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the S-enantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of P-gp. P-gp knockout (abcb1ab (-/-)) and wild-type (abcb1ab (+/+)) mice underwent acute (single-dose) and chronic (two daily doses for 10 days) treatment with citalopram (10mg/kg) or escitalopram (5mg/kg) Serum and brain samples were collected 1-6h after the first or last i.p. injection for subsequent drug analysis by an enantioselective HPLC method. In brain, 3-fold higher concentrations of S- and R-citalopram, and its metabolites, were found in abcb1ab (-/-) mice than in abcb1ab (+/+) mice after both acute and chronic citalopram treatments. After escitalopram treatment, the S-citalopram brain concentration was 3-5 times higher in the knockout mice than in controls. The results provide novel evidence that the enantiomers of citalopram are substrates of P-gp. Possible clinical and toxicological implications of this finding need to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  9. Triorganotin Derivatives Induce Cell Death Effects on L1210 Leukemia Cells at Submicromolar Concentrations Independently of P-glycoprotein Expression.

    PubMed

    Bohacova, Viera; Seres, Mario; Pavlikova, Lucia; Kontar, Szilvia; Cagala, Martin; Bobal, Pavel; Otevrel, Jan; Brtko, Julius; Sulova, Zdena; Breier, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The acceleration of drug efflux activity realized by plasma membrane transporters in neoplastic cells, particularly by P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family), represents a frequently observed molecular cause of multidrug resistance (MDR). This multiple resistance represents a real obstacle in the effective chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases. Therefore, identifying cytotoxic substances that are also effective in P-gp overexpressing cells may be useful for the rational design of substances for the treatment of malignancies with developed MDR. Here, we showed that triorganotin derivatives—tributyltin-chloride (TBT-Cl), tributyltin-bromide (TBT-Br), tributyltin-iodide (TBT-I) and tributyltin-isothiocyanate (TBT-NCS) or triphenyltin-chloride (TPT-Cl) and triphenyltin-isothiocyanate (TPT-NCS)—could induce the death of L1210 mice leukemia cells at a submicromolar concentration independently of P-gp overexpression. The median lethal concentration obtained for triorganotin derivatives did not exceed 0.5 µM in the induction of cell death of either P-gp negative or P-gp positive L1210 cells. Apoptosis related to regulatory pathway of Bcl-2 family proteins seems to be the predominant mode of cell death in either P-gp negative or P-gp positive L1210 cells. TBT-Cl and TBT-Br were more efficient with L1210 cells overexpressing P-gp than with their counterpart P-gp negative cells. In contrast, TBT-I and TPT-NCS induced a more pronounced cell death effect on P-gp negative cells than on P-gp positive cells. Triorganotin derivatives did not affect P-gp efflux in native cells measured by calcein retention within the cells. Taken together, we assumed that triorganotin derivatives represent substances suitable for suppressing the viability of P-gp positive malignant cells.

  10. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2005-08-09

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  11. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-16

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  12. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

    2009-07-14

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  13. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-10-31

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  14. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-08-28

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  15. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-07-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  16. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-11-02

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  17. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-05-15

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  18. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2007-02-27

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  19. Glycoprotein synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Shultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2007-04-03

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  20. Increased permeability-glycoprotein inhibition at the human blood-brain barrier can be safely achieved by performing PET during peak plasma concentrations of tariquidar.

    PubMed

    Kreisl, William C; Bhatia, Ritwik; Morse, Cheryl L; Woock, Alicia E; Zoghbi, Sami S; Shetty, H Umesha; Pike, Victor W; Innis, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    The permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter is densely expressed at the blood-brain barrier, and its resultant spare capacity requires substantial blockade to increase the uptake of avid substrates, blunting the ability of investigators to measure clinically meaningful alterations in P-gp function. This study, conducted in humans, examined 2 P-gp inhibitors (tariquidar, a known inhibitor, and disulfiram, a putative inhibitor) and 2 routes of administration (intravenous and oral) to maximally increase brain uptake of the avid and selective P-gp substrate (11)C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (dLop) while avoiding side effects associated with high doses of tariquidar. Forty-two (11)C-dLop PET scans were obtained from 37 healthy volunteers. PET was performed with (11)C-dLop under the following 5 conditions: injected under baseline conditions without P-gp inhibition, injected 1 h after intravenous tariquidar infusion, injected during intravenous tariquidar infusion, injected after oral tariquidar, and injected after disulfiram. (11)C-dLop uptake was quantified with kinetic modeling using metabolite-corrected arterial input function or by measuring the area under the time-activity curve in the brain from 10 to 30 min. Neither oral tariquidar nor oral disulfiram increased brain uptake of (11)C-dLop. Injecting (11)C-dLop during tariquidar infusion, when plasma tariquidar concentrations reach their peak, resulted in a brain uptake of the radioligand approximately 5-fold greater than baseline. Brain uptake was similar with 2 and 4 mg of intravenous tariquidar per kilogram; however, the lower dose was better tolerated. Injecting (11)C-dLop after tariquidar infusion also increased brain uptake, though higher doses (up to 6 mg/kg) were required. Brain uptake of (11)C-dLop increased fairly linearly with increasing plasma tariquidar concentrations, but we are uncertain whether maximal uptake was achieved. We sought to increase the dynamic range of P-gp function measured after

  1. An endoglycosidase-assisted LC-MS/MS-based strategy for the analysis of site-specific core-fucosylation of low-concentrated glycoproteins in human serum using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as example.

    PubMed

    Lang, Robert; Leinenbach, Andreas; Karl, Johann; Swiatek-de Lange, Magdalena; Kobold, Uwe; Vogeser, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Recently, site-specific fucosylation of glycoproteins has attracted attention as it can be associated with several types of cancers including prostate cancer. However, individual glycoproteins, which might serve as potential cancer markers, often are very low-concentrated in complex serum matrices and distinct glycan structures are hard to detect by immunoassays. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based strategy for the simultaneous analysis of core-fucosylated and total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum in the low ng/ml concentration range. Sample preparation comprised an immunoaffinity capture step to enrich total PSA from human serum using anti-PSA antibody coated magnetic beads followed by consecutive two-step on-bead partial deglycosylation with endoglycosidase F3 and tryptic digestion prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The method was shown to be linear from 0.5 to 60 ng/ml total PSA concentrations and allows the simultaneous quantification of core-fucosylated PSA down to 1 ng/ml and total PSA lower than 0.5 ng/ml. The imprecision of the method over two days ranged from 9.7-23.2% for core-fucosylated PSA and 10.3-18.3% for total PSA depending on the PSA level. The feasibility of the method in native sera was shown using three human specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first MS-based method for quantification of core-fucosylated PSA in the low ng/ml concentration range in human serum. This method could be used in large patient cohorts as core-fucosylated PSA may be a diagnostic biomarker for the differentiation of prostate cancer and other prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Furthermore, the described strategy could be used to monitor potential changes in site-specific core-fucosylation of other low-concentrated glycoproteins, which could serve as more specific markers ("marker refinement") in cancer research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequence of contactin, a 130-kD glycoprotein concentrated in areas of interneuronal contact, defines a new member of the immunoglobulin supergene family in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The primary amino acid sequence of contactin, a neuronal cell surface glycoprotein of 130 kD that is isolated in association with components of the cytoskeleton (Ranscht, B., D. J. Moss, and C. Thomas. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 99:1803-1813), was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones and is reported here. The cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame for a 1,071-amino acid transmembrane protein with 962 extracellular and 89 cytoplasmic amino acids. In its extracellular portion, the polypeptide features six type 1 and two type 2 repeats. The six amino-terminal type 1 repeats (I-VI) each consist of 81-99 amino acids and contain two cysteine residues that are in the right context to form globular domains as described for molecules with immunoglobulin structure. Within the proposed globular region, contactin shares 31% identical amino acids with the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. The two type 2 repeats (I-II) are each composed of 100 amino acids and lack cysteine residues. They are 20-31% identical to fibronectin type III repeats. Both the structural similarity of contactin to molecules of the immunoglobulin supergene family, in particular the amino acid sequence resemblance to NCAM, and its relationship to fibronectin indicate that contactin could be involved in some aspect of cellular adhesion. This suggestion is further strengthened by its localization in neuropil containing axon fascicles and synapses. PMID:3049624

  3. Protein A Sepharose immunoadsorption can restore the efficacy of platelet concentrates in patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and anti-glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antibodies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Isabelle; Kriaa, Fayçal; Proulle, Valérie; Guillet, Benoît; Kaplan, Cécile; D'Oiron, Roseline; Debré, Marianne; Fressinaud, Edith; Laurian, Yyes; Tchernia, Gil; Charpentier, Bernard; Lambert, Thierry; Dreyfus, Marie

    2002-12-01

    Type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is a rare congenital platelet function disorder, characterized by undetectable platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa). Severe bleeding is controlled by transfusion of normal platelets, leading in some cases to the occurrence of anti-GPIIb-IIIa isoantibodies, which induces a loss of transfused platelet efficacy. We used immunoadsorption on protein A Sepharose (IA-PA), which has been shown to be efficient in decreasing the titre of antibodies in several immune diseases, in three patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and anti-GPIIb-IIIa isoantibodies on five different occasions. IA-PA was well tolerated with no deleterious side-effects reported. It induced a dramatic decrease of total immunoglobulin (Ig)G, including anti-GPIIb-IIIa isoantibody levels, as assessed by the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens test and the ex vivo inhibition of normal platelet aggregation induced by the patient's platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma. Elimination of the antibody was associated with a correction of the bleeding time following platelet transfusion. IA-PA combined with platelet transfusion made it possible to control two life-threatening haemorrhages, and allowed two surgical procedures and one bone marrow transplantation to be performed safely. Our experience suggests that IA-PA, which restores the haemostatic efficacy of platelet transfusion, is a valuable therapeutic strategy in patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia and anti-GPIIb-IIIa isoantibodies.

  4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  5. Comparison of a New Multiplex Immunoassay for Measurement of Ferritin, Soluble Transferrin Receptor, Retinol-Binding Protein, C-Reactive Protein and α1-Acid-glycoprotein Concentrations against a Widely-Used s-ELISA Method

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Amanda M.; Samson, Kaitlyn L. I.; Aljaadi, Abeer M.; Devlin, Angela M.; Becquey, Elodie; Wirth, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a multiplex ELISA (Quansys Biosciences) was developed that measures ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol-binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), thyroglobulin, and histidine-rich protein 2. Our primary aim was to conduct a method-comparison study to compare five biomarkers (ferritin, sTfR, RBP, CRP, and AGP) measured with the Quansys assay and a widely-used s-ELISA (VitMin Lab, Willstaett, Germany) with use of serum samples from 180 women and children from Burkina Faso, Cambodia, and Malaysia. Bias and concordance were used to describe the agreement in values measured by the two methods. We observed poor overall agreement between the methods, both with regard to biomarker concentrations and deficiency prevalence estimates. Several measurements were outside of the limit of detection with use of the Quansys ELISA (total n = 42 for ferritin, n = 2 for sTfR, n = 0 for AGP, n = 5 for CRP, n = 22 for RBP), limiting our ability to interpret assay findings. Although the Quansys ELISA has great potential to simplify laboratory analysis of key nutritional and inflammation biomarkers, there are some weaknesses in the procedures. Overall, we found poor comparability of results between methods. Besides addressing procedural issues, additional validation of the Quansys against a gold standard method is warranted for future research. PMID:29393894

  6. Dynamics of platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa receptor expression and fibrinogen binding. I. Quantal activation of platelet subpopulations varies with adenosine diphosphate concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Frojmovic, M. M.; Mooney, R. F.; Wong, T.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported that maximal platelet activation with adenosine diphosphate (100 microM ADP) causes rapid expression of all GPIIb-IIIa receptors for fibrinogen (FgR) (< 1-3 s), measured with FITC-labeled PAC1 by flow cytometry. We have extended these studies to examine the effects of ADP concentration on the graded expression and Fg occupancy of GPIIb-IIIa receptors. Human citrated platelet-rich plasma, diluted 10-fold with Walsh-albumin-Mg+2 (2 mM), was treated with ADP (0.1-100 microM). The rates of GPIIb-IIIa receptor expression or Fg binding were measured in unstirred samples by flow cytometry, using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mAb) PAC1 and 9F9, respectively, from on-rates, using increasing times between mAb and ADP additions. Fibrinogen receptors were all expressed rapidly at low (1 microM) or high (100 microM) ADP (few seconds), whereas Fg occupancy was 50% of maximal by about 2 min. The maximal extent of GPIIb-IIIa receptor expression and Fg occupancy was determined from maximal binding (Flmax) at 30 min incubation with PAC1 or 9F9. On-rates and maximal extents of binding for either PAC1 or 9F9 probes showed identical [ADP]-response profiles ("KD" approximately 1.4 +/- 0.1 microM). However, Flmax studies showed bimodal histograms consisting of "resting" (Po) and maximally "activated" (P*) platelets for both PAC1 and 9F9 binding, with the fraction of "activated" platelets increasing with ADP concentration. The data best fit a model where platelet subpopulations are "quantally" transformed from Po to P*, expressing all GPIIb-IIIa receptors, rapidly filled by Fg, but "triggered" at critical ADP concentrations. Larger, but not the largest, platelets appear to be the most sensitive subpopulation. The implications for clinical studies are discussed, and the relationship to dynamics of aggregation are described in a companion paper. PMID:7858143

  7. Development of Glycoprotein Capture-Based Label-Free Method for the High-throughput Screening of Differential Glycoproteins in Hepatocellular Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Tan, Yexiong; Wang, Min; Wang, Fangjun; Yao, Zhenzhen; Dong, Liwei; Ye, Mingliang; Wang, Hongyang; Zou, Hanfa

    2011-01-01

    A robust, reproducible, and high throughput method was developed for the relative quantitative analysis of glycoprotein abundances in human serum. Instead of quantifying glycoproteins by glycopeptides in conventional quantitative glycoproteomics, glycoproteins were quantified by nonglycosylated peptides derived from the glycoprotein digest, which consists of the capture of glycoproteins in serum samples and the release of nonglycopeptides by trypsin digestion of captured glycoproteins followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis of released peptides. Protein quantification was achieved by comparing the spectrum counts of identified nonglycosylated peptides of glycoproteins between different samples. This method was demonstrated to have almost the same specificity and sensitivity in glycoproteins quantification as capture at glycopeptides level. The differential abundance of proteins present at as low as nanogram per milliliter levels was quantified with high confidence. The established method was applied to the analysis of human serum samples from healthy people and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to screen differential glycoproteins in HCC. Thirty eight glycoproteins were found with substantial concentration changes between normal and HCC serum samples, including α-fetoprotein, the only clinically used marker for HCC diagnosis. The abundance changes of three glycoproteins, i.e. galectin-3 binding protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and thrombospondin 1, which were associated with the development of HCC, were further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In conclusion, the developed method was an effective approach to quantitatively analyze glycoproteins in human serum and could be further applied in the biomarker discovery for HCC and other cancers. PMID:21474793

  8. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  9. Immunogold detection of glycoprotein antigens in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Benson, N C; Benson, S C; Wilt, F

    1989-01-01

    Four developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were labeled with colloidal gold in an attempt to elucidate the intracellular trafficking patterns within the cells that produce the glycoprotein matrix of the embryonic spicule. The primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) form a syncytium and secrete an organic matrix on which calcium carbonate is laid down to form an endoskeletal spicule. The organic matrix has been isolated and characterized as glycoprotein consisting of four major bands. Polyclonal antibodies to these glycoproteins were used to label embryos from the mesenchyme blastula, early gastrula, late gastrula, and plutei stages of development. The label is concentrated in the Golgi complex and associated vesicles, in secretory vesicles, and in the organic matrix. The density of the labeling increases as development proceeds.

  10. Square-wave voltammetry assays for glycoproteins on nanoporous gold

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Binod; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Fujikawa, Kohki; Catania, Rosa; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical enzyme-linked lectinsorbent assays (ELLA) were developed using nanoporous gold (NPG) as a solid support for protein immobilization and as an electrode for the electrochemical determination of the product of the reaction between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP), which is p-aminophenol (p-AP). Glycoproteins or concanavalin A (Con A) and ALP conjugates were covalently immobilized onto lipoic acid self-assembled monolayers on NPG. The binding of Con A – ALP (or soybean agglutinin – ALP) conjugate to glycoproteins covalently immobilized on NPG and subsequent incubation with p-APP substrate was found to result in square-wave voltammograms whose peak difference current varied with the identity of the glycoprotein. NPG presenting covalently bound glycoproteins was used as the basis for a competitive electrochemical assay for glycoproteins in solution (transferrin and IgG). A kinetic ELLA based on steric hindrance of the enzyme-substrate reaction and hence reduced enzymatic reaction rate after glycoprotein binding is demonstrated using immobilized Con A–ALP conjugates. Using the immobilized Con A-ALP conjugate, the binding affinity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found to be 105 nM, and that for transferrin was found to be 650 nM. Minimal interference was observed in the presence of 5 mg mL−1 BSA as a model serum protein in both the kinetic and competitive ELLA. Inhibition studies were performed with methyl D-mannoside for the binding of TSF and IgG to Con A-ALP; IC50 values were found to be 90 μM and 286 μM, respectively. Surface coverages of proteins were estimated using solution depletion and the BCA protein concentration assay. PMID:24611035

  11. Glycoprotein interactions in paramyxovirus fusion

    PubMed Central

    Iorio, Ronald M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Mahon, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses, some of which recognize sialic acid-containing receptors, while others recognize specific proteinaceous receptors. The major cytopathic effect of paramyxovirus infection is membrane fusion-induced syncytium formation. Paramyxoviruses are unusual in that the receptor-binding and fusion-promoting activities reside on two different spike structures, the attachment and fusion glycoproteins, respectively. For most paramyxoviruses, this distribution of functions requires a mechanism by which the two processes can be linked for the promotion of fusion. This is accomplished by a virus-specific interaction between the two proteins. An increasing body of evidence supports the notion that members of this family of viruses utilize this glycoprotein interaction in different ways in order to mediate the regulation of the fusion protein activation, depending on the type of receptor utilized by the virus. PMID:20161127

  12. High efficiency labeling of glycoproteins on living cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Ramya, T. N. C.; Dirksen, Anouk; Dawson, Philip E.; Paulson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple method for efficiently labeling cell surface glycans on virtually any living animal cell. The method employs mild Periodate oxidation to generate an aldehyde on sialic acids, followed by Aniline-catalyzed oxime Ligation with a suitable tag (PAL). Aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates oxime ligation, allowing use of low concentrations of aminooxy-biotin at neutral pH to label the majority of cell surface glycoproteins while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:19234450

  13. Gulose as a constituent of a glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Mengele, R; Sumper, M

    1992-02-17

    The aldohexose gulose was identified as a constituent of a hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide derived from the glycoprotein SSG 185. This glycoprotein is part of the extracellular matrix of the green alga Volvox carteri. The gulose residue occupies a terminal position in the corresponding saccharide.

  14. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal P-glycoprotein inhibitors, benzoxanthone analogues.

    PubMed

    Chae, Song Wha; Lee, Jaeok; Park, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Na, Younghwa; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2018-02-01

    The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which limits an access of exogenous compounds in the luminal membrane of the intestine have been studied to enhance the intestinal P-gp-mediated absorption of anticancer drugs. Inhibition of the efflux pump by synthesized benzoxanthone derivatives was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MCF-7/ADR cell line was used for cytotoxicity assay and [ 3 H]-daunomycin (DNM) accumulation/efflux study. Eight benzoxanthone analogues were tested for their effects on DNM cytotoxicity. Among them, three analogues were selected for the accumulation/efflux and P-gp ATPase studies. Paclitaxel (PTX), a P-gp substrate anticancer drug, was orally administered to rats with/without compound 1 (8,10-bis(thiiran-2-ylmethoxy)-7H-benzo[c]xanthen-7-one). The pharmacokinetic parameters of PTX in the presence/absence of compound 1 were evaluated from the plasma concentration-time profiles. Compound 1 increased the DNA accumulation to 6.5-fold and decreased the DNM efflux to approximately 1/2 in the overexpressing P-gp cell line. Relative bioavailability (RB) of PTX in rats was significantly increased up to 3.2-fold by compound 1 (0.5 or 2 mg/kg). Benzoxanthone analogue, compound 1 is strongly suggested to be a promising inhibitor of P-gp to improve an oral absorption of compounds for cancer therapy. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: glycoprotein VI deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein called glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This protein is embedded in the outer membrane of blood cell fragments ... erythematosus (SLE). Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own cells and ...

  17. Bioactivity of proteins isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum L67 treated with Zanthoxylum piperitum DC glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Oh, S; Lim, K-T

    2015-06-01

    Lactobacilli in the human gastrointestinal tract have beneficial effects on the health of their host. To enhance these effects, the bioactivity of lactobacilli can be fortified through exogenous dietary or pharmacological agents, such as glycoproteins. To elucidate the inductive effect of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC (ZPDC) glycoprotein on Lactobacillus plantarum L67, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity, anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT), growth rate, ATPase activity and β-galactosidase activity of this strain. When Lact. plantarum L67 was treated with ZPDC glycoprotein at different concentrations, the intensities of a few SDS-PAGE bands were slightly changed. The amount of a 23 kDa protein was increased upon treatment with increasing concentrations of ZPDC glycoprotein. The results of this study indicate that the radical-scavenging activity for O2(-) and OH¯, but not for the DPPH radical, increased in a concentration-dependent manner after treatment with ZPDC glycoprotein. The activation of anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, GPx and CAT), growth rate and β-galactosidase activity also increased in a concentration-dependent manner in response to ZPDC glycoprotein treatment, whereas ATPase activity was decreased. In summary, ZPDC glycoprotein stimulated an increase in the bioactivity of Lact. plantarum L67. Significance and impact of the study: This study demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum L67 possesses anti-oxidative activity. This strain of lactic bacteria has been known to have various probiotic uses, such as yogurt starters and dietary additional supplements. We found, through this experiment, that the protein has a strong anti-oxidative character, and the activity can be enhanced by treatment with Zanthoxylum piperitum DC (ZPDC) glycoprotein. This study may be application of Lact. plantarum L67 treated by ZPDC glycoprotein in yogurt fermentation. It could be one of the avenues of minimizing yogurt postacidification during storage. In addition

  18. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Aänismaa, Päivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forcible destruction of severely misfolded mammalian glycoproteins by the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Horimoto, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kamiya, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins possessing unfolded/misfolded parts in their luminal regions are cleared from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-L with distinct mechanisms. Two-step mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 is crucial in the ERAD-L of glycoproteins. We recently showed that this process is initiated by EDEM2 and completed by EDEM3/EDEM1. Here, we constructed chicken and human cells simultaneously deficient in EDEM1/2/3 and analyzed the fates of four ERAD-L substrates containing three potential N-glycosylation sites. We found that native but unstable or somewhat unfolded glycoproteins, such as ATF6α, ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, were stabilized in EDEM1/2/3 triple knockout cells. In marked contrast, degradation of severely misfolded glycoproteins, such as null Hong Kong (NHK) and deletion or insertion mutants of ATF6α(C), CD3-δ–ΔTM, and EMC1, was delayed only at early chase periods, but they were eventually degraded as in wild-type cells. Thus, higher eukaryotes are able to extract severely misfolded glycoproteins from glycoprotein ERAD and target them to the non-glycoprotein ERAD pathway to maintain the homeostasis of the ER. PMID:26572623

  20. Defining glycoprotein cancer biomarkers by MS in conjunction with glycoprotein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Song, Ehwang; Mechref, Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important and common post-translational modification. More than 50% of human proteins are believed to be glycosylated to modulate the functionality of proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been correlated to several diseases, such as inflammatory skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's and prion diseases, and cancer. Many approved cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins which are not highly abundant proteins. Therefore, effective qualitative and quantitative assessment of glycoproteins entails enrichment methods. This chapter summarizes glycoprotein enrichment methods, including lectin affinity, immunoaffinity, hydrazide chemistry, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, and click chemistry. The use of these enrichment approaches in assessing the qualitative and quantitative changes of glycoproteins in different types of cancers are presented and discussed. This chapter highlights the importance of glycoprotein enrichment techniques for the identification and characterization of new reliable cancer biomarkers.

  1. Celastraceae sesquiterpenes as a new class of modulators that bind specifically to human P-glycoprotein and reverse cellular multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; Lu, Peihua; Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Ravelo, Angel G; Sharom, Frances J; Gamarro, Francisco; Castanys, Santiago

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1 (MDR1) P-glycoprotein, a multidrug efflux pump, is one mechanism by which tumor cells may develop multidrug resistance (MDR), preventing the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae family are natural compounds shown previously to reverse MDR in several human cancer cell lines and Leishmania strains. However, their molecular mechanism of reversion has not been characterized. In the present work, we have studied the ability of 28 dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes to reverse the P-glycoprotein-dependent MDR phenotype and elucidated their molecular mechanism of action. Cytotoxicity assays using human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells allowed us to select the most potent sesquiterpenes reversing the in vitro resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the above active compounds specifically inhibited drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein in a saturable, concentration-dependent manner (K(i) down to 0.24 +/- 0.01 micromol/L) but not that of ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1; MRP1), ABCC2 (MRP2), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein; BCRP) transporters. Moreover, sesquiterpenes inhibited at submicromolar concentrations the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of [(3)H]colchicine and tetramethylrosamine in plasma membrane from CH(R)B30 cells and P-glycoprotein-enriched proteoliposomes, supporting that P-glycoprotein is their molecular target. Photoaffinity labeling in plasma membrane and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with purified protein suggested that sesquiterpenes interact with transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein. Finally, sesquiterpenes modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase-activity in a biphasic, concentration-dependent manner: they stimulated at very low concentrations but inhibited ATPase activity as noncompetitive inhibitors at higher concentrations. Sesquiterpenes from Celastraceae are promising P-glycoprotein modulators with potential

  2. Paramyxovirus Glycoproteins and the Membrane Fusion Process.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Hector C; Henderson, Bryce A; Zamora, J Lizbeth; Johnston, Gunner P

    2016-09-01

    The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. This can lead to cell-cell fusion (syncytia formation), often linked to pathogenesis. Thus membrane fusion is essential for both viral entry and cell-cell fusion and an attractive target for therapeutic development. While there are important differences between viral-cell and cell-cell membrane fusion, many aspects are conserved. The paramyxoviruses generally utilize two envelope glycoproteins to orchestrate membrane fusion. Here, we discuss the roles of these glycoproteins in distinct steps of the membrane fusion process. These findings can offer insights into evolutionary relationships among Paramyxoviridae genera and offer future targets for prophylactic and therapeutic development.

  3. Paramyxovirus Glycoproteins and the Membrane Fusion Process

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Hector C.; Henderson, Bryce A.; Zamora, J. Lizbeth; Johnston, Gunner P.

    2016-01-01

    The family Paramyxoviridae includes many viruses that significantly affect human and animal health. An essential step in the paramyxovirus life cycle is viral entry into host cells, mediated by virus-cell membrane fusion. Upon viral entry, infection results in expression of the paramyxoviral glycoproteins on the infected cell surface. This can lead to cell-cell fusion (syncytia formation), often linked to pathogenesis. Thus membrane fusion is essential for both viral entry and cell-cell fusion and an attractive target for therapeutic development. While there are important differences between viral-cell and cell-cell membrane fusion, many aspects are conserved. The paramyxoviruses generally utilize two envelope glycoproteins to orchestrate membrane fusion. Here, we discuss the roles of these glycoproteins in distinct steps of the membrane fusion process. These findings can offer insights into evolutionary relationships among Paramyxoviridae genera and offer future targets for prophylactic and therapeutic development. PMID:28138419

  4. Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R; Zacharias, L; Wooding, K M; Peng, W; Mechref, Y

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection, while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins, while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughput of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved platelet survival after cold storage by prevention of glycoprotein Ibα clustering in lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Gitz, Eelo; Koekman, Cornelis A; van den Heuvel, Dave J.; Deckmyn, Hans; Akkerman, Jan W.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Urbanus, Rolf T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Storing platelets for transfusion at room temperature increases the risk of microbial infection and decreases platelet functionality, leading to out-date discard rates of up to 20%. Cold storage may be a better alternative, but this treatment leads to rapid platelet clearance after transfusion, initiated by changes in glycoprotein Ibα, the receptor for von Willebrand factor. Design and Methods: We examined the change in glycoprotein Ibα distribution using Förster resonance energy transfer by time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Results Cold storage induced deglycosylation of glycoprotein Ibα ectodomain, exposing N-acetyl-Dglucosamine residues, which sequestered with GM1 gangliosides in lipid rafts. Raft-associated glycoprotein Ibα formed clusters upon binding of 14-3-3ζ adaptor proteins to its cytoplasmic tail, a process accompanied by mitochondrial injury and phosphatidyl serine exposure. Cold storage left glycoprotein Ibα surface expression unchanged and although glycoprotein V decreased, the fall did not affect glycoprotein Ibα clustering. Prevention of glycoprotein Ibα clustering by blockade of deglycosylation and 14-3-3ζ translocation increased the survival of cold-stored platelets to above the levels of platelets stored at room temperature without compromising hemostatic functions. Conclusions We conclude that glycoprotein Ibα translocates to lipid rafts upon cold-induced deglycosylation and forms clusters by associating with 14-3-3ζ. Interference with these steps provides a means to enable cold storage of platelet concentrates in the near future. PMID:22733027

  6. The effect of P-glycoprotein on methadone hydrochloride flux in equine intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Linardi, R L; Stokes, A M; Andrews, F M

    2013-02-01

    Methadone is an effective analgesic opioid that may have a place for the treatment of pain in horses. However, its absorption seems to be impaired by the presence of a transmembrane protein, P-glycoprotein, present in different tissues including the small intestine in other species. This study aims to determine the effect of the P-glycoprotein on methadone flux in the equine intestinal mucosa, as an indicator of in vivo drug absorption. Jejunum tissues from five horses were placed into the Ussing chambers and exposed to methadone solution in the presence or absence of Rhodamine 123 or verapamil. Electrical measurements demonstrated tissue viability for 120 min, and the flux of methadone across the jejunal membrane (mucosal to submucosal direction) was calculated based on the relative drug concentration measured by ELISA. The flux of methadone was significantly higher only in the presence of verapamil. P-glycoprotein was immunolocalized in the apical membrane of the jejunal epithelial cells (enterocytes), mainly located in the tip of the villi compared to cells of the crypts. P-glycoprotein is present in the equine jejunum and may possibly mediate the intestinal transport of methadone. This study suggests that P-glycoprotein may play a role in the poor intestinal absorption of methadone in vivo. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Study on the extraction and purification of glycoprotein from the yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda Bleeker

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yuting; Xu, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    The optimum parameters of extraction for glycoprotein from seahorse were examined and determined by Box-Behnken combined with ultrasonic extraction technology. Column chromatography of glycoprotein was used for further purification. The optimal extraction conditions of seahorse glycoprotein were extracting time 4.3 h, salt concentration 0.08 mol/L, extracting temperature 73°C, raw material, and water ratio 1:6. At the optimal conditions, the yield of saccharide reached to 1.123%, and the yield of protein reached to 5.898%. For purifying the crude glycoprotein, the stage renounces of DEAE-52 column chromatography were done, respectively, with 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mol/L NaHCO3 solution, and further purification was done with Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Finally, two pieces of seahorse glycoprotein were obtained by the column chromatography, that is, HG-11 and HG-21. The saccharide content was 56.7975% and 39.479%, the protein content was 30.5475% and 51.747%, respectively. PMID:26288722

  8. [Enrichment of glycoproteins in human serum using concanavalin A-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and identification by mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Kang, Jingwu

    2014-04-01

    Biomedical sciences, and in particular biomarker research, demand efficient glycoprotein enrichment platforms. Herein novel magnetic nanoparticles with an average size around 135 nm in diameter were prepared for the enrichment of glycoproteins in human serum. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles possessed uniform core/shell/shell structure which was composed of 8 nm magnetite internal core and double layers consisting of silica and poly glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The latter was constructed by seed polymerization. Modified by a polyethylene hydrophilic linker, it made the surfaces of the magnetic nanoparticles highly hydrophilic so as to reduce the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. We examined affinity purification of glycoprotein in diluted human serum using our prepared magnetic nanoparticles with immobilization of concanavalin A (MNP @ ConA). The enriched proteins were reduced, alkylated and digested with trypsin. These peptides then were separated by offline two-dimensional chromatography. Protein identification was realized with nano-high performance liquid chromatography-orbitrap mass spectrometry. A total of 80 proteins were identified, among them 76 proteins were found to be glycoproteins by use of bioinformatic tools. /3-2-Glycoprotein 1 present in serum at low mass concentration around 0.000 01 g/L was also identified. This demonstrates the capability of magnetic nanoparticle for recovering minute amounts of glycoproteins from a fluid exhibiting a dynamic concentration range more than 12 orders of magnitude. Overall, MNP @ ConA has been proven to be an efficient alternative to currently available immobilization supports.

  9. Biosynthesis and maturation of cellular membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hunt, L A

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis and the processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of cellular membrane glycoproteins were examined in monolayer cultures of BHK21 cells and human diploid fibroblasts after pulse- and pulse-chase labeling with [2-3H]mannose. After pronase digestion, radiolabeled glycopeptides were characterized by high-resolution gel filtration, with or without additional digestion with various exoglycosidases and endoglycosidases. Pulse-labeled glycoproteins contained a relatively homogenous population of neutral oligosaccharides (major species: Man9GlcNAc2ASN). The vast majority of these asparagine-linked oligosaccharides was smaller than the major fraction of lipid-linked oligosaccharides from the cell and was apparently devoid of terminal glucose. After pulse-chase or long labeling periods, a significant fraction of the large oligomannosyl cores was processed by removal of mannose units and addition of branch sugars (NeuNAc-Gal-GlcNAc), resulting in complex acidic structures containing three and possibly five mannoses. In addition, some of the large oligomannosyl cores were processed by the removal of only several mannoses, resulting in a mixture of neutral structures with 5-9 mannoses. This oligomannosyl core heterogeneity in both neutral and acidic oligosaccharides linked to asparagine in cellular membrane glycoproteins was analogous to the heterogeneity reported for the oligosaccharides of avian RNA tumor virus glycoproteins (Hunt LA, Wright SE, Etchison JR, Summers DF: J Virol 29:336, 1979).

  10. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation factors. This paradigm has been...a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib-IX have been identified, including...08-1-0576 TITLE: Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Jerry Ware

  11. Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    provide a unique microenvironment supporting the accumulation of more platelets and the elaboration of a fibrin - rich network produced by coagulation...process and can initiate the formation of a platelet - rich thrombus by tethering the platelet to a thrombogenic surface. Several ligands binding to GP Ib... Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX and Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jerry Ware, Ph.D

  12. Impact of a human CMP-sialic acid transporter on recombinant glycoprotein sialylation in glycoengineered insect cells.

    PubMed

    Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Shi, Xianzong; Geisler, Christoph; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L

    2013-02-01

    Insect cells are widely used for recombinant glycoprotein production, but they cannot provide the glycosylation patterns required for some biotechnological applications. This problem has been addressed by genetically engineering insect cells to express mammalian genes encoding various glycoprotein glycan processing functions. However, for various reasons, the impact of a mammalian cytosine-5'-monophospho (CMP)-sialic acid transporter has not yet been examined. Thus, we transformed Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells with six mammalian genes to generate a new cell line, SfSWT-4, that can produce sialylated glycoproteins when cultured with the sialic acid precursor, N-acetylmannosamine. We then super-transformed SfSWT-4 with a human CMP-sialic acid transporter (hCSAT) gene to isolate a daughter cell line, SfSWT-6, which expressed the hCSAT gene in addition to the other mammalian glycogenes. SfSWT-6 cells had higher levels of cell surface sialylation and also supported higher levels of recombinant glycoprotein sialylation, particularly when cultured with low concentrations of N-acetylmannosamine. Thus, hCSAT expression has an impact on glycoprotein sialylation, can reduce the cost of recombinant glycoprotein production and therefore should be included in ongoing efforts to glycoengineer the baculovirus-insect cell system. The results of this study also contributed new insights into the endogenous mechanism and potential mechanisms of CMP-sialic acid accumulation in the Golgi apparatus of lepidopteran insect cells.

  13. Metabolism of Glycoproteins in Turpentine Granuloma*

    PubMed Central

    Prodi, G.; Pane, G.; Romeo, G.

    1970-01-01

    The local synthesis of sialic acid and sialic acid containing glycoproteins in granuloma experimentally produced with turpentine has been investigated by incubating them in vitro with 14C glucosamine. The content and activity of chromatographically isolated sialic acid of water soluble and water insoluble fractions of tissue incubated at different times after injection of turpentine was determined. A local synthesis of sialic acid and its incorporation both in the soluble and insoluble fractions were found, with a time depending slope. Chromatography on DEAE Sephadex of glycoproteins obtained from water soluble fraction showed that radioactivity was present in 2 peaks. After papain digestion of the insoluble fraction, the sialic acid containing material could be separated into 2 groups of radioactive glycopeptides on DEAE Sephadex. The data demonstrates that granuloma can synthestize in vitro a considerable variety of glycoproteic materials. PMID:5491911

  14. Murine Sarcoma Virus Gene Expression: Transformants Which Express Viral Envelope Glycoprotein In The Absence Of The Major Internal Protein And Infectious Particles

    PubMed Central

    Bilello, John A.; Strand, Mette; August, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Expression of the major internal protein and the envelope glycoprotein of murine C-type viruses in focus-derived lines of normal rat kidney cells infected with Kirsten murine sarcoma virus was measured by radioimmunoassay. Of the clones selected, which do not produce virus particles or the major viral structural protein, approximately half express the viral envelope glycoprotein at concentrations found in productively infected cells. Expression of the envelope glycoprotein did not appear to alter significantly the properties of the transformed cells in culture. PMID:4370209

  15. Thiolated polymers: evidence for the formation of disulphide bonds with mucus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Verena M; Walker, Greg F; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    Disulphide bonds between thiolated polymers (thiomers) and cysteine-rich subdomains of mucus glycoproteins are supposed to be responsible for the enhanced mucoadhesive properties of thiomers. This study set out to provide evidence for these covalent interactions using poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine conjugates of 2 and 450 kDa (PAA2-Cys, PAA450-Cys) displaying 402.5-776.0 micromol thiol groups per gram polymer. The effect of the disulphide bond breaker cysteine on thiomer-mucin disulphide bonds was monitored by (1) mucoadhesion studies and (2) rheological studies. Furthermore, (3) diffusion studies and (4) gel filtration studies were performed with thiomer-mucus mixtures. The addition of cysteine significantly (P<0.01) reduced the adhesion of thiomer tablets to porcine mucosa and G'/G" values of thiomer-mucin mixtures, whereas unthiolated controls were not influenced. These results indicate the cleavage of disulphide bonds between thiomer and mucus glycoproteins. Diffusion studies demonstrated that a 12.8-fold higher concentration of the thiomer (PAA2-Cys) remains in the mucin gel than the corresponding unmodified polymer. Gel filtration studies showed that PAA2-Cys was able to form disulphide bonds with mucin glycoproteins resulting in an altered elution profile of the mucin/PAA2-Cys mixture in comparison to mucin alone or mucin/PAA2 mixture. According to these results, the study provides evidence for the formation of covalent bonds between thiomer and mucus glycoproteins.

  16. Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins: aspects of biosynthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Nguema-Ona, Eric; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Gotté, Maxime; Plancot, Barbara; Lerouge, Patrice; Bardor, Muriel; Driouich, Azeddine

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall O-glycoproteins and N-glycoproteins are two types of glycomolecules whose glycans are structurally complex. They are both assembled and modified within the endomembrane system, i.e., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, before their transport to their final locations within or outside the cell. In contrast to extensins (EXTs), the O-glycan chains of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly heterogeneous consisting mostly of (i) a short oligo-arabinoside chain of three to four residues, and (ii) a larger β-1,3-linked galactan backbone with β-1,6-linked side chains containing galactose, arabinose and, often, fucose, rhamnose, or glucuronic acid. The fine structure of arabinogalactan chains varies between, and within plant species, and is important for the functional activities of the glycoproteins. With regards to N-glycans, ER-synthesizing events are highly conserved in all eukaryotes studied so far since they are essential for efficient protein folding. In contrast, evolutionary adaptation of N-glycan processing in the Golgi apparatus has given rise to a variety of organism-specific complex structures. Therefore, plant complex-type N-glycans contain specific glyco-epitopes such as core β,2-xylose, core α1,3-fucose residues, and Lewisa substitutions on the terminal position of the antenna. Like O-glycans, N-glycans of proteins are essential for their stability and function. Mutants affected in the glycan metabolic pathways have provided valuable information on the role of N-/O-glycoproteins in the control of growth, morphogenesis and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. With regards to O-glycoproteins, only EXTs and AGPs are considered herein. The biosynthesis of these glycoproteins and functional aspects are presented and discussed in this review. PMID:25324850

  17. Effects of nelfinavir and its M8 metabolite on lymphocyte P-glycoprotein activity during antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Donahue, John P; Dowdy, David; Ratnam, Krishna K; Hulgan, Todd; Price, James; Unutmaz, Derya; Nicotera, Janet; Raffanti, Steven; Becker, Mark; Haas, David W

    2003-01-01

    The efflux pump P-glycoprotein decreases drug penetration into cells and tissues. To determine whether nelfinavir or its metabolites inhibit P-glycoprotein in lymphocytes from a healthy volunteer, whole blood cells from human immunodeficiency virus-negative donors were incubated either in human plasma to which nelfinavir or its M8 metabolite were added ex vivo or in plasma from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients receiving nelfinavir. The 50% P-glycoprotein inhibitory concentrations of purified nelfinavir and M8 were 10.9 micromol/L and 29.5 micromol/L, respectively, for CD4(+) T cells and 19.3 micromol/L and >48 micromol/L, respectively, for CD8(+) T cells. Significant inhibitory activity was present in plasma from 27 of 46 patients (59%) receiving nelfinavir. Plasma nelfinavir concentrations correlated with percent inhibition on CD4(+) (rho = 0.85, P <.0001) and CD8(+) (rho = 0.83, P <.0001) T cells. The M8 concentrations correlated weakly with both inhibition and nelfinavir concentrations. On the basis of our findings in lymphocytes from a healthy volunteer exposed to plasma from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, we believe it is likely that CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in patients receiving nelfinavir as therapy for human immunodeficiency virus may have P-glycoprotein inhibited by plasma concentrations of nelfinavir.

  18. Glycoprotein Disease Markers and Single Protein-omics*

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kevin; Goldman, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Glycoproteins are well represented among biomarkers for inflammatory and cancer diseases. Secreted and membrane-associated glycoproteins make excellent targets for noninvasive detection. In this review, we discuss clinically applicable markers of cancer diseases and methods for their analysis. High throughput discovery continues to supply marker candidates with unusual glycan structures, altered glycoprotein abundance, or distribution of site-specific glycoforms. Improved analytical methods are needed to unlock the potential of these discoveries in validated clinical assays. A new generation of targeted quantitative assays is expected to advance the use of glycoproteins in early detection of diseases, molecular disease classification, and monitoring of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23399550

  19. Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Understanding Bosutinib Drug-Drug Interactions: Importance of Intestinal P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shinji; Loi, Cho-Ming; Kimoto, Emi; Costales, Chester; Varma, Manthena V

    2018-05-08

    Bosutinib is an orally available Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with Ph+ chronic myelogenous leukemia at a clinically recommended dose of 500 mg once daily. Clinical results indicated that increases in bosutinib oral exposures were supra-proportional at the lower doses (50 to 200 mg) and approximately dose-proportional at the higher doses (200 to 600 mg). Bosutinib is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein and exhibits pH-dependent solubility with moderate intestinal permeability. These findings led us to investigate the factors influencing the underlying pharmacokinetic mechanisms of bosutinib with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Our primary objectives were to: 1) refine the previously developed bosutinib PBPK model based on the latest oral bioavailability data and 2) verify the refined PBPK model with P-glycoprotein kinetics based on the bosutinib drug-drug interaction (DDI) results with ketoconazole and rifampin. Additionally, the verified PBPK model was applied to predict bosutinib DDIs with dual CYP3A/P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The results indicated that 1) the refined PBPK model adequately described the observed plasma concentration-time profiles of bosutinib and 2) the verified PBPK model reasonably predicted the effects of ketoconazole and rifampin on bosutinib exposures by accounting for intestinal P-gp inhibition/induction. These results suggested that bosutinib DDI mechanism could involve not only CYP3A4-mediated metabolism but also P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux on absorption. In summary, P-glycoprotein kinetics could constitute a critical element in the PBPK models to understand the pharmacokinetic mechanism of dual CYP3A/P-glycoprotein substrates such as bosutinib exhibiting nonlinear pharmacokinetics due largely to a saturation of intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Phospholipid flippase activity of the reconstituted P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Romsicki, Y; Sharom, F J

    2001-06-12

    The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter acts as an ATP-powered efflux pump for a large variety of hydrophobic drugs, natural products, and peptides. The protein is proposed to interact with its substrates within the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. There is indirect evidence to suggest that P-glycoprotein can also transport, or "flip", short chain fluorescent lipids between leaflets of the membrane. In this study, we use a fluorescence quenching technique to directly show that P-glycoprotein reconstituted into proteoliposomes translocates a wide variety of NBD lipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of the bilayer. Flippase activity depended on ATP hydrolysis at the outer surface of the proteoliposome, and was inhibited by vanadate. P-Glycoprotein exhibited a broad specificity for phospholipids, and translocated phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin. Lipid derivatives that were flipped included molecules with long, short, unsaturated, and saturated acyl chains and species with the NBD group covalently linked to either acyl chains or the headgroup. The extent of lipid translocation from the outer to the inner leaflet in a 20 min period at 37 degrees C was directly estimated, and fell in the range of 0.36-1.83 nmol/mg of protein. Phospholipid flipping was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, saturable fashion by various substrates and modulators, including vinblastine, verapamil, and cyclosporin A, and the efficiency of inhibition correlated well with the affinity of binding to Pgp. Taken together, these results suggest that P-glycoprotein carries out both lipid translocation and drug transport by the same path. The transporter may be a generic flippase for hydrophobic molecules with the correct steric attributes that are present within the membrane interior.

  1. Cell-wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins of parenchymatous tissues of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus).

    PubMed Central

    Ryden, P; Selvendran, R R

    1990-01-01

    1. Polymers were solubilized from the cell walls of parenchyma from mature runner-bean pods with minimum degradation by successive extractions with cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine-NNN'N'-tetra-acetate (CDTA), Na2CO3 and KOH to leave the alpha-cellulose residue, which contained cross-linked pectic polysaccharides and Hyp-rich glycoproteins. These were solubilized with chlorite/acetic acid and cellulase. The polymers were fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and fractions were subjected to methylation analysis. 2. The pectic polysaccharides differed in their ease of extraction, and a small proportion were highly cross-linked. The bulk of the pectic polysaccharides solubilized by CDTA and Na2CO3 were less branched than those solubilized by KOH. There was good evidence that most of the pectic polysaccharides were not degraded during extraction. 3. The protein-containing fractions included Hyp-rich and Hyp-poor glycoproteins associated with easily extractable pectic polysaccharides, Hyp-rich glycoproteins solubilized with 4M-KOH+borate, the bulk of which were not associated with pectic polysaccharides, and highly cross-linked Hyp-rich glycoproteins. 4. Isodityrosine was not detected, suggesting that it does not have a (major) cross-linking role in these walls. Instead, it is suggested that phenolics, presumably linked to C-5 of 3,5-linked Araf residues of Hyp-rich glycoproteins, serve to cross-link some of the polymers. 5. There were two main types of xyloglucan, with different degrees of branching. The bulk of the less branched xyloglucans were solubilized by more-concentrated alkali. The anomeric configurations of the sugars in one of the highly branched xyloglucans were determined by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy. 6. The structural features of the cell-wall polymers and complexes are discussed in relation to the structure of the cell walls of parenchyma tissues. PMID:2167068

  2. [Research progress on ebola virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Lu; Jiang, Bao-Fa

    2013-03-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes outbreaks of a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic treatments available. The glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV is a transmembrane envelope protein known to play multiple functions including virus attachment and entry, cell rounding and cytotoxicity, down-regulation of host surface proteins, and enhancement of virus assembly and budding. GP is the primary target of protective immunity and the key target for developing neutralizing antibodies. In this paper, the research progress on genetic structure, pathogenesis and immunogenicity of EBOV GP in the last 5 years is reviewed.

  3. Glycoprotein changes in non-insulin dependent diabetic rats: effect of N-benzoyl-D-phenylalanine and metformin.

    PubMed

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of N-benzoyl-D-phenylalanine (NBDP) and metformin on neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ) induced diabetes has been studied on plasma and tissue glycoproteins. In some pathological conditions, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, there is an abnormal glycosylation of acute phase serum proteins. As most serum proteins are produced in the liver, we have examined glycoprotein metabolism in diabetic condition. To induce non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) a single dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) was injected into two day old rats. After 10-12 weeks, rats weighing above 150 g were selected for NIDDM model. In these rat, blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins were significantly increased whereas plasma insulin was significantly decreased. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in tissues. Oral administration of NBDP and metformin to diabetic rats decreased blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins. Plasma insulin and tissue sialic acid were increased whereas tissue concentrations of hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal. Our study suggests that NBDP and metformin possess a significant beneficial effect on glycoproteins in addition to their antidiabetic effect.

  4. Evidence for glycoprotein transport into complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Madeleine; Moog, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe G; Hempel, Franziska

    2013-06-25

    Diatoms are microalgae that possess so-called "complex plastids," which evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by four membranes. Thus, in contrast to primary plastids, which are surrounded by only two membranes, nucleus-encoded proteins of complex plastids face additional barriers, i.e., during evolution, mechanisms had to evolve to transport preproteins across all four membranes. This study reveals that there exist glycoproteins not only in primary but also in complex plastids, making transport issues even more complicated, as most translocation machineries are not believed to be able to transport bulky proteins. We show that plastidal reporter proteins with artificial N-glycosylation sites are indeed glycosylated during transport into the complex plastid of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Additionally, we identified five endogenous glycoproteins, which are transported into different compartments of the complex plastid. These proteins get N-glycosylated during transport across the outermost plastid membrane and thereafter are transported across the second, third, and fourth plastid membranes in the case of stromal proteins. The results of this study provide insights into the evolutionary pressure on translocation mechanisms and pose unique questions on the operating mode of well-known transport machineries like the translocons of the outer/inner chloroplast membranes (Toc/Tic).

  5. Ammonia transport in the kidney by Rhesus glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Verlander, Jill W.

    2014-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism is a fundamental element of acid-base homeostasis, comprising a major component of both basal and physiologically altered renal net acid excretion. Over the past several years, a fundamental change in our understanding of the mechanisms of renal epithelial cell ammonia transport has occurred, replacing the previous model which was based upon diffusion equilibrium for NH3 and trapping of NH4+ with a new model in which specific and regulated transport of both NH3 and NH4+ across renal epithelial cell membranes via specific membrane proteins is required for normal ammonia metabolism. A major advance has been the recognition that members of a recently recognized transporter family, the Rhesus glycoprotein family, mediate critical roles in renal and extrarenal ammonia transport. The erythroid-specific Rhesus glycoprotein, Rh A Glycoprotein (Rhag), was the first Rhesus glycoprotein recognized as an ammonia-specific transporter. Subsequently, the nonerythroid Rh glycoproteins, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), were cloned and identified as ammonia transporters. They are expressed in specific cell populations and membrane domains in distal renal epithelial cells, where they facilitate ammonia secretion. In this review, we discuss the distribution of Rhbg and Rhcg in the kidney, the regulation of their expression and activity in physiological disturbances, the effects of genetic deletion on renal ammonia metabolism, and the molecular mechanisms of Rh glycoprotein-mediated ammonia transport. PMID:24647713

  6. Analgesic effects of glycoproteins from Panax ginseng root in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yinghong; Xu, Hong; Luo, Haoming; Jiang, Ruizhi

    2013-07-30

    The root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey has various beneficial pharmacological effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the analgesic activities of glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey in mice. Glycoproteins were isolated and purified from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey. Physicochemical properties and molecular mass were determined by chemical assay and HPLC. Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of glycoproteins and compared with that of aspirin or morphine. The locomotor activity was tested in mice by using actophometer. Four glycoproteins were obtained. The glycoproteins which protein content was the highest (73.04%) displayed dose-dependent analgesic effect. In writhing test, the glycoproteins significantly inhibited writhes (P<0.001) at the dose of 20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. In hot-plate test, only at the dose of 20 mg/kg prolong the hot-plate latency (P<0.05, at 30 min). In the locomotor activity test, the glycoproteins were significant decrease of motility counts at the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg. These findings collectively indicate that the glycoproteins from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mey exhibited significant analgesic activities and the proteins were the active site, providing evidence for its pharmacal use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis.more » Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.« less

  8. Oligosaccharides Released from Milk Glycoproteins Are Selective Growth Substrates for Infant-Associated Bifidobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Karav, Sercan; Le Parc, Annabelle; Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell, Juliana Maria; Frese, Steven A.; Kirmiz, Nina; Block, David E.; Barile, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Milk, in addition to nourishing the neonate, provides a range of complex glycans whose construction ensures a specific enrichment of key members of the gut microbiota in the nursing infant, a consortium known as the milk-oriented microbiome. Milk glycoproteins are thought to function similarly, as specific growth substrates for bifidobacteria common to the breast-fed infant gut. Recently, a cell wall-associated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) found in various infant-borne bifidobacteria was shown to remove a range of intact N-linked glycans. We hypothesized that these released oligosaccharide structures can serve as a sole source for the selective growth of bifidobacteria. We demonstrated that EndoBI-1 released N-glycans from concentrated bovine colostrum at the pilot scale. EndoBI-1-released N-glycans supported the rapid growth of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species that grows well on human milk oligosaccharides, but did not support growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis), a species which does not. Conversely, B. infantis ATCC 15697 did not grow on the deglycosylated milk protein fraction, clearly demonstrating that the glycan portion of milk glycoproteins provided the key substrate for growth. Mass spectrometry-based profiling revealed that B. infantis consumed 73% of neutral and 92% of sialylated N-glycans, while B. lactis degraded only 11% of neutral and virtually no (<1%) sialylated N-glycans. These results provide mechanistic support that N-linked glycoproteins from milk serve as selective substrates for the enrichment of infant-associated bifidobacteria capable of carrying out the initial deglycosylation. Moreover, released N-glycans were better growth substrates than the intact milk glycoproteins, suggesting that EndoBI-1 cleavage is a key initial step in consumption of glycoproteins. Finally, the variety of N-glycans released from bovine milk glycoproteins suggests that they may serve as

  9. Expression systems for therapeutic glycoprotein production.

    PubMed

    Durocher, Yves; Butler, Michael

    2009-12-01

    There are slightly over 165 recombinant pharmaceuticals currently approved for human use. Another 500 protein candidates are in preclinical and clinical development, about 70% of these being glycosylated proteins. The need for expression systems allowing the efficient manufacturing of high quality glycoproteins is thus becoming imperative. Recent developments with CHO cells, the predominant mammalian expression system, have focused on either increasing cell specific productivity or prolonging the life span of cells in culture that translates to high integrated viable cell densities. These two factors have allowed volumetric productivities in excess of 5 g/L under conditions of controlled nutrient feeding. In addition to glycoengineering strategies, which are offering considerable advantage in producing proteins with enhanced therapeutic properties, several alternative expression systems are being developed for their manufacture, each with their advantages and limitations.

  10. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected to...

  13. Transport characteristics of mammalian Rh and Rh glycoproteins expressed in heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Westhoff, C M; Wylie, D E

    2006-01-01

    The development and use of heterologous expression systems is critical for deciphering the function of mammalian Rh and Rh-glycoproteins. The studies here use Xenopus oocytes, well known for their ability to readily traffic and express difficult membrane proteins, and S. cerevisiae wild-type strains and mutants that are defective in ammonium transport. Data obtained in both of these expression systems revealed that mammalian Rh-glycoprotein-mediated transport (RhAG, RhBG, and RhCG) is an electroneutral process that is driven by the NH4+ concentration and the transmembrane H+ gradient, effectively exchanging NH4+ for H+ in a process that results in transport of net NH3. Homology modeling and functional studies suggest that the more recently evolved erythrocyte blood group proteins, RhCE and RhD, may not function directly in ammonia transport and may be evolving a new function in the RBC membrane. The relationship of Rh and Rh-glycoproteins to the Amt/Mep ammonium transporters is substantiated with functional transport data and structural modeling.

  14. Release of chromaffin granule glycoproteins and proteoglycans from potassium-stimulated PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Salton, S R; Margolis, R U; Margolis, R K

    1983-10-01

    Cultured PC12 pheochromocytoma cells were labeled with [3H]glucosamine, and the glycoproteins and proteoglycans released following potassium-induced depolarization were fractionated and characterized. Exposure of PC12 cells for 20 min to a high concentration of potassium (51.5 mM in Krebs-Ringers-HEPES buffer) results in an approximately sixfold increase in the release of labeled glycoproteins and proteoglycans, compared to incubation in physiological levels of potassium (6 mM). The released complex carbohydrates include chromogranins, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, and two chondroitin sulfate/heparan sulfate proteoglycan fractions, which together account for 7.4% of the soluble cell radioactivity. The chromogranins contained galactosyl(beta 1 leads to 3)N-acetylgalactosamine, as well as several mono- and disialyl O-glycosidically-linked oligosaccharides, and the tetrasaccharide AcNeu(alpha 2 leads to 3)Gal(beta 1 leads to 3)[AcNeu(alpha 2 leads to 6)] GalNAcol, obtained by alkaline borohydride treatment of the chromogranin glycopeptides, accounted for almost half of the total chromogranin labeling. The proteoglycan fractions varied in their relative proportions of chondroitin sulfate (23-68%), heparan sulfate (16-23%), and glycoprotein oligosaccharides (16-54%), which are of the tri- and tetraantennary and O-glycosidic types. As previously found in the case of proteoglycans from bovine chromaffin granules, the more acidic species has a considerably higher proportion of carbohydrate in the form of sulfated glycosaminoglycans.

  15. Quantitative Characterization of Shear-Induced Platelet Receptor Shedding: Glycoprotein Ibα, Glycoprotein VI, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2017-11-07

    The structural integrity of platelet receptors is essential for platelets to play the normal hemostatic function. The high non-physiologic shear stress (NPSS) commonly exists in blood-contacting medical devices and has been shown to cause platelet receptor shedding. The loss of platelet receptors may impair the normal hemostatic function of platelets. The aim of this study was to quantify NPSS-induced shedding of three key receptors on the platelet surface. Human blood was subjected to the matrix of well-defined shear stresses and exposure times, generated by using a custom-designed blood-shearing device. The expression of three key platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, GPVI, and GPIIb/IIIa, in sheared blood was quantified using flow cytometry. The quantitative relationship between the loss of each of the three receptors on the platelet surface and shear condition (shear stress level and exposure time) was explored. It was found that these relationships followed well the power law functional form. The coefficients of the power law models for the shear-induced shedding of these platelet receptors were derived with coefficients of determination (R) of 0.77, 0.73, and 0.78, respectively. The power law models with these coefficients may be potentially used to predict the shear-induced platelet receptor shedding of human blood.

  16. Effect of P-glycoprotein on flavopiridol sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, S A; Tourne, M E; Kaufmann, S H; Bible, K C

    2001-01-01

    Flavopiridol is the first potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to enter clinical trials. Little is known about mechanisms of resistance to this agent. In order to determine whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in flavopiridol resistance, we examined flavopiridol sensitivity in a pair of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines differing with respect to level of Pgp expression. The IC 50 s of flavopiridol in parental AuxB1 (lower Pgp) and colchicine-selected CHRC5 (higher Pgp) cells were 90.2 ± 6.6 nM and 117 ± 2.3 nM, respectively (P< 0.01), suggesting that Pgp might have a modest effect on flavopiridol action. Consistent with this hypothesis, pretreatment with either quinidine or verapamil (inhibitors of Pgp-mediated transport) sensitized CHRC5 cells to the antiproliferative effects of flavopiridol. Because of concern that colony forming assays might not accurately reflect cytotoxicity, we also examined flavopiridol-treated cells by trypan blue staining and flow cytometry. These assays confirmed that flavopiridol was less toxic to cells expressing higher levels of Pgp. Further experiments revealed that flavopiridol inhibited the binding of [3H]-azidopine to Pgp in isolated membrane vesicles, but only at high concentrations. Collectively, these results identify flavopiridol as a weak substrate for Pgp. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355953

  17. Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    synthesized in normal amounts but accumu- lated intracellularly, with transport to the cell surface being greatly de - layed. Glycoprotein E2 isolated from...UNcLA ,F E 2 Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion JAMES B. PARENT I. Introduction I!. Evidence for Intracellular Transport Signals...Ill. Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis IV. Role of Carbohydrate in Protein Solubility. Structure, and Stability V. Evidence for Carbohydrate Transport

  18. The hydroxyapatite-binding regions of a rat salivary glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Embery, G; Green, D R

    1989-09-01

    The regions of a salivary sulphated glycoprotein which are involved in its attachment to hydroxyapatite (Biogel HTP) have been characterised. The sulphated glycoprotein, a 35S-labelled preparation from mixed palatal and buccal minor gland secretions of the rat was bound onto hydroxyapatite and the resultant glycoprotein-hydroxyapatite complex was sequentially digested with pronase E and alpha-L-fucosidase, a treatment which released 86.8% +/- 1.7% of the radioactivity of the initially bound glycoprotein. The fragments which remained attached to the hydroxyapatite after enzymic digestion were fractionated on Sephadex G-25 and analysed for carbohydrate and amino acid components. A range of amino acids were detected which could reflect both glycosylated and non-glycosylated-binding regions. Sialic acid, although considered to be involved in the attachment process was not detected in any of the fragments remaining after enzymic digestion, a finding which provides indirect evidence that the enzymically liberated products do not subsequently re-attach to the hydroxyapatite surface. The notable feature of the fractions with average Mr estimated at 1000 or less is the high proportion of N-acetylhexosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. It is apparent that the hexosamine residues, which normally bear the ester sulphate moieties of sulphated glycoproteins, play an important role in the attachment of sulphated glycoproteins to hydroxyapatite.

  19. nES GEMMA Analysis of Lectins and Their Interactions with Glycoproteins - Separation, Detection, and Sampling of Noncovalent Biospecific Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Nicole Y.; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand biological events, lectin-glycoprotein interactions are of interest. The possibility to gather more information than the mere positive or negative response for interactions brought mass spectrometry into the center of many research fields. The presented work shows the potential of a nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (nES GEMMA) to detect weak, noncovalent, biospecific interactions besides still unbound glycoproteins and unreacted lectins without prior liquid phase separation. First results for Sambucus nigra agglutinin, concanavalin A, and wheat germ agglutinin and their retained noncovalent interactions with glycoproteins in the gas phase are presented. Electrophoretic mobility diameters (EMDs) were obtained by nES GEMMA for all interaction partners correlating very well with molecular masses determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of the individual molecules. Moreover, EMDs measured for the lectin-glycoprotein complexes were in good accordance with theoretically calculated mass values. Special focus was laid on complex formation for different lectin concentrations and binding specificities to evaluate the method with respect to results obtained in the liquid phase. The latter was addressed by capillary electrophoresis on-a-chip (CE-on-a-chip). Of exceptional interest was the fact that the formed complexes could be sampled according to their size onto nitrocellulose membranes after gas-phase separation. Subsequent immunological investigation further proved that the collected complex actually retained its native structure throughout nES GEMMA analysis and sampling.

  20. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  1. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein from the drug resistant human bladder cancer cell line BIU-87 does not require cell-to-cell contact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-liang; Zheng, Yong-jun; Cheng, Xiao-zhi; Lv, Yi-song; Gao, Rui; Mao, Hou-ping; Chen, Qin

    2013-09-01

    The efflux activity of transmembrane P-glycoprotein prevents various therapeutic drugs from reaching lethal concentrations in cancer cells, resulting in multidrug resistance. We investigated whether drug resistant bladder cancer cells could transfer functional P-glycoprotein to sensitive parental cells. Drug sensitive BIU-87 bladder cancer cells were co-cultured for 48 hours with BIU-87/ADM, a doxorubicin resistant derivative of the same cell line, in a Transwell® system that prevented cell-to-cell contact. The presence of P-glycoprotein in recipient cell membranes was established using fluorescein isothiocyanate, laser scanning confocal microscopy and Western blot. P-glycoprotein mRNA levels were compared between cell types. Rhodamine 123 efflux assay was done to confirm that P-glycoprotein was biologically active. The amount of P-glycoprotein protein in BIU-87 cells co-cultured with BIU-87/ADM was significantly higher than in BIU-87 cells (0.44 vs 0.25) and BIU-87/H33342 cells (0.44 vs 0.26, each p <0.001), indicating P-glycoprotein transfer. P-glycoprotein mRNA expression was significantly higher in BIU-87/ADM cells than in co-cultured BIU-87 cells (1.28 vs 0.30), BIU-87/H33342 (0.28) and BIU-87 cells (0.25, each p <0.001), ruling out a genetic mechanism. After 30 minutes of efflux, rhodamine 123 fluorescence intensity was significantly lower in BIU-87/ADM cells (5.55 vs 51.45, p = 0.004) and co-cultured BIU-87 cells than in BIU-87 cells (14.22 vs 51.45, p <0.001), indicating that P-glycoprotein was functional. Bladder cancer cells can acquire functional P-glycoprotein through a nongenetic mechanism that does not require direct cell contact. This mechanism is consistent with a microparticle mediated process. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protein and glycoprotein content of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV).

    PubMed

    García-Rosado, Esther; Castro, Dolores; Cano, Irene; Alonso, M Carmen; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Borrego, Juan J

    2004-06-01

    The polypeptide and glycoprotein composition of eight strains of the fish-pathogenic lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) isolated from gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata), blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), and sole (Solea senegalensis) were determined. The protein electrophoretic patterns of all LCDV isolates were quite similar regardless of the host fish, showing two major proteins (79.9 and 55.6 kDa) and a variable number of minor proteins. Three groups of LCDV isolates were distinguished according to the number and molecular masses of the minor proteins. Eight glycoproteins were detected inside viral particles of LCDV 2, LCDV 3 and LCDV 5 isolates, but only seven glycoproteins were found inside viral particles of LCDV 1, LCDV 4, LCDV 6, LCDV 7, and LCDV 11 isolates and the reference virus ATCC VR 342 by using five lectins. LCDV glycoproteins were mainly composed of mannose and sialic acid. These glycoproteins could be part of an external viral envelope probably derived from the host cell membrane.

  3. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through Human P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McCormick, James W; Vogel, Pia D; Wise, John G

    2015-07-21

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11-12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methylpyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp is presented.

  4. Multiple Drug Transport Pathways through human P-Glycoprotein(†)

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James W.; Vogel, Pia D.; Wise, John G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that is commonly associated with therapy resistances in cancers and infectious diseases. P-gp can lower the intracellular concentrations of many drugs to subtherapeutic levels by translocating them out of the cell. Because of the broad range of substrates transported by P-gp, overexpression of P-gp causes multidrug resistance. We reported previously on dynamic transitions of P-gp as it moved through conformations based on crystal structures of homologous ABCB1 proteins using in silico targeted molecular dynamics techniques. We expanded these studies here by docking transport substrates to drug binding sites of P-gp in conformations open to the cytoplasm, followed by cycling the pump through conformations that opened to the extracellular space. We observed reproducible transport of two substrates, daunorubicin and verapamil, by an average of 11 to 12 Å through the plane of the membrane as P-gp progressed through a catalytic cycle. Methyl-pyrophosphate, a ligand that should not be transported by P-gp, did not show this movement through P-gp. Drug binding to either of two subsites on P-gp appeared to determine the initial pathway used for drug movement through the membrane. The specific side-chain interactions with drugs within each pathway seemed to be, at least in part, stochastic. The docking and transport properties of a P-gp inhibitor, tariquidar, were also studied. A mechanism of inhibition by tariquidar is presented that involves stabilization of an outward open conformation with tariquidar bound in intracellular loops or at the drug binding domain of P-gp. PMID:26125482

  5. CHAPTER 7: Glycoprotein Enrichment Analytical Techniques: Advantages and Disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Zacharias, Lauren; Wooding, Kerry M.; Peng, Wenjing; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications. Numerous biological functions are related to protein glycosylation. However, analytical challenges remain in the glycoprotein analysis. To overcome the challenges associated with glycoprotein analysis, many analytical techniques were developed in recent years. Enrichment methods were used to improve the sensitivity of detection while HPLC and mass spectrometry methods were developed to facilitate the separation of glycopeptides/proteins and enhance detection, respectively. Fragmentation techniques applied in modern mass spectrometers allow the structural interpretation of glycopeptides/proteins while automated software tools started replacing manual processing to improve the reliability and throughout of the analysis. In this chapter, the current methodologies of glycoprotein analysis were discussed. Multiple analytical techniques are compared, and advantages and disadvantages of each technique are highlighted. PMID:28109440

  6. Tuning orb spider glycoprotein glue performance to habitat humidity.

    PubMed

    Opell, Brent D; Jain, Dharamdeep; Dhinojwala, Ali; Blackledge, Todd A

    2018-03-26

    Orb-weaving spiders use adhesive threads to delay the escape of insects from their webs until the spiders can locate and subdue the insects. These viscous threads are spun as paired flagelliform axial fibers coated by a cylinder of solution derived from the aggregate glands. As low molecular mass compounds (LMMCs) in the aggregate solution attract atmospheric moisture, the enlarging cylinder becomes unstable and divides into droplets. Within each droplet an adhesive glycoprotein core condenses. The plasticity and axial line extensibility of the glycoproteins are maintained by hygroscopic LMMCs. These compounds cause droplet volume to track changes in humidity and glycoprotein viscosity to vary approximately 1000-fold over the course of a day. Natural selection has tuned the performance of glycoprotein cores to the humidity of a species' foraging environment by altering the composition of its LMMCs. Thus, species from low-humidity habits have more hygroscopic threads than those from humid forests. However, at their respective foraging humidities, these species' glycoproteins have remarkably similar viscosities, ensuring optimal droplet adhesion by balancing glycoprotein adhesion and cohesion. Optimal viscosity is also essential for integrating the adhesion force of multiple droplets. As force is transferred to a thread's support line, extending droplets draw it into a parabolic configuration, implementing a suspension bridge mechanism that sums the adhesive force generated over the thread span. Thus, viscous capture threads extend an orb spider's phenotype as a highly integrated complex of large proteins and small molecules that function as a self-assembling, highly tuned, environmentally responsive, adhesive biomaterial. Understanding the synergistic role of chemistry and design in spider adhesives, particularly the ability to stick in wet conditions, provides insight in designing synthetic adhesives for biomedical applications. © 2018. Published by The Company of

  7. Three-Dimensionally Functionalized Reverse Phase Glycoprotein Array for Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Validation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Wang, Linna; Iliuk, Anton; Tao, W Andy

    2016-11-30

    Glycoproteins have vast structural diversity that plays an important role in many biological processes and have great potential as disease biomarkers. Here, we report a novel functionalized reverse phase protein array (RPPA), termed polymer-based reverse phase glycoprotein array (polyGPA), to capture and profile glycoproteomes specifically, and validate glycoproteins. Nitrocellulose membrane functionalized with globular hydroxyaminodendrimers was used to covalently capture preoxidized glycans on glycoproteins from complex protein samples such as biofluids. The captured glycoproteins were subsequently detected using the same validated antibodies as in RPPA. We demonstrated the outstanding specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capabilities of polyGPA by capturing and detecting purified as well as endogenous α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in human plasma. We further applied quantitative N-glycoproteomics and the strategy to validate a panel of glycoproteins identified as potential biomarkers for bladder cancer by analyzing urine glycoproteins from bladder cancer patients or matched healthy individuals.

  8. A new general method for the assessment of the molecular-weight distribution of polydisperse preparations. Its application to an intestinal epithelial glycoprotein and two dextran samples, and comparison with a monodisperse glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard A.; Dixon, Stephen N.; Pocock, David H.

    1973-01-01

    A specimen of intestinal glycoprotein isolated from the pig and two samples of dextran, all of which are polydisperse (that is, the preparations may be regarded as consisting of a continuous distribution of molecular weights), have been examined in the ultracentrifuge under meniscus-depletion conditions at equilibrium. They are compared with each other and with a glycoprotein from Cysticercus tenuicollis cyst fluid which is almost monodisperse. The quantity c−⅓ (c=concentration) is plotted against ξ (the reduced radius); this plot is linear when the molecular-weight distribution approximates to the `most probable', i.e. when Mn:Mw:Mz: M(z+1)....... is as 1:2:3:4: etc. The use of this plot, and related procedures, to evaluate qualitatively and semi-quantitatively molecular-weight distribution functions where they can be realistically approximated to Schulz distributions is discussed. The theoretical basis is given in an Appendix. PMID:4778265

  9. MRM validation of targeted nonglycosylated peptides from N-glycoprotein biomarkers using direct trypsin digestion of undepleted human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jin Young; Cheon, Mi Hee; Park, Gun Wook; Ahn, Yeong Hee; Moon, Myeong Hee; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2014-02-26

    A rapid, simple, and reproducible MRM-based validation method for serological glycoprotein biomarkers in clinical use was developed by targeting the nonglycosylated tryptic peptides adjacent to N-glycosylation sites. Since changes in protein glycosylation are known to be associated with a variety of diseases, glycoproteins have been major targets in biomarker discovery. We previously found that nonglycosylated tryptic peptides adjacent to N-glycosylation sites differed in concentration between normal and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) plasma due to differences in steric hindrance of the glycan moiety in N-glycoproteins to tryptic digestion (Lee et al., 2011). To increase the feasibility and applicability of clinical validation of biomarker candidates (nonglycosylated tryptic peptides), we developed a method to effectively monitor nonglycosylated tryptic peptides from a large number of plasma samples and to reduce the total analysis time with maximizing the effect of steric hindrance by the glycans during digestion of glycoproteins. The AUC values of targeted nonglycosylated tryptic peptides were excellent (0.955 for GQYCYELDEK, 0.880 for FEDGVLDPDYPR and 0.907 for TEDTIFLR), indicating that these could be effective biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma. This method provides the necessary throughput required to validate glycoprotein biomarkers, as well as quantitative accuracy for human plasma analysis, and should be amenable to clinical use. Difficulties in verifying and validating putative protein biomarkers are often caused by complex sample preparation procedures required to determine their concentrations in a large number of plasma samples. To solve the difficulties, we developed MRM-based protein biomarker assays that greatly reduce complex, time-consuming, and less reproducible sample pretreatment steps in plasma for clinical implementation. First, we used undepleted human plasma samples without any enrichment procedures. Using nanoLC/MS/MS, we targeted

  10. Retention of glucose units added by the UDP-GLC:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase delays exit of glycoproteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, an endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that only glucosylates improperly folded glycoproteins forming protein-linked Glc1Man7-9-GlcNAc2 from the corresponding unglucosylated species, participates together with lectin- like chaperones that recognize monoglucosylated oligosaccharides in the control mechanism by which cells only allow passage of properly folded glycoproteins to the Golgi apparatus. Trypanosoma cruzi cells were used to test this model as in trypanosomatids addition of glucosidase inhibitors leads to the accumulation of only monoglucosylated oligosaccharides, their formation being catalyzed by the UDP- Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. In all other eukaryotic cells the inhibitors produce underglycosylation of proteins and/or accumulation of oliogosaccharides containing two or three glucose units. Cruzipain, a lysosomal proteinase having three potential N-glycosylation sites, two at the catalytic domain and one at the COOH-terminal domain, was isolated in a glucosylated form from cells grown in the presence of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin. The oligosaccharides present at the single glycosylation site of the COOH-terminal domain were glucosylated in some cruzipain molecules but not in others, this result being consistent with an asynchronous folding of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In spite of not affecting cell growth rate or the cellular general metabolism in short and long term incubations, 1-deoxynojirimycin caused a marked delay in the arrival of cruzipain to lysosomes. These results are compatible with the model proposed by which monoglucosylated glycoproteins may be transiently retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by lectin-like anchors recognizing monoglucosylated oligosaccharides. PMID:7642696

  11. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARSmore » coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.« less

  12. The chaotrope-soluble glycoprotein GP1 is a constituent of the insoluble glycoprotein framework of the Chlamydomonas cell wall.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Frank, Ronald; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii wild-type cells are surrounded by the insoluble cell wall component, a sac-like framework of cross-linked glycoproteins containing 22% hydroxyproline. The chaotrope-soluble cell wall glycoprotein GP1 is the only polypeptide with an even higher proportion of hydroxyproline (35%) occurring in vegetative C. reinhardtii cells. Mass spectrometric analyses of peptides released from the purified insoluble cell wall fraction by trypsin treatment and epitope analyses of polyclonal antibodies raised against different deglycosylation products of this particular wall fraction using 181 chemically synthesized GP1-derived pentadecapeptides revealed evidence that GP1 is indeed a constituent of the insoluble wall component.

  13. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  14. Skin whitening and anti-corrugation activities of glycoprotein fractions from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Jung; Park, So Yun; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kwon, Eun-Hye; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and <50 kDa) were extracted via a series of steps involving: boiling, filtering, desalting and freeze drying. Cytotoxicity, skin whitening and wrinkle-removing effects of boiled liquid were determined. Our MTT data showed that neither glycoprotein fraction of boiled liquid induces cellular cytotoxicity up to a concentration of 10 mg/mL treatment of the mouse melanoma cell line, B16F10, with 10 mg/mL >50 kDa enhanced tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities by 50.84% and 28.78%, respectively. Correlations of the >50 kDa concentration with tyrosinase inhibitory (R2 = 0.968) and elastase inhibitory (R2 = 0.983) efficacy were significant. >50 kDa glycoprotein fraction isolated from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber, which can serve as a functional cosmetic ingredient for whitening and wrinkle improvement of skin. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5430 Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system...

  17. Carbohydrate moieties of myelin-associated glycoprotein, major glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system myelin and other myelin glycoproteins potentially involved in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Badache, A; Burger, D; Villarroya, H; Robert, Y; Kuchler, S; Steck, A J; Zanetta, J P

    1992-01-01

    The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the major glycoprotein of the peripheral nervous system myelin (P0) are two members of the family of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). A role in cell adhesion of the carbohydrate moiety of these molecules has been attributed to the presence of N-glycans bearing the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope. On the other hand, it has been suggested that these glycoproteins could be ligands of an endogenous mannose-binding lectin present in myelin, the cerebellar soluble lectin (CSL). In order to further document the heterogeneity of the glycans of these two CAMs, we have used several probes: an anti-carbohydrate antibody of the HNK-1 type, called Elec-39, the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA), and the endogenous lectin CSL involved in myelin compaction. This study shows that CSL binds to a small proportion of the polypeptide chains of MAG found in adult CNS of rats and man and the polypeptide chains of P0 molecules from adult human and rat sciatic nerve. For MAG from adult rat brain, the binding of CSL is restricted to glycans of polypeptide chains which could be separated from the others according to their solubility properties. These MAG molecular entities react also with the Elec-39 antibody and with ConA. These results confirm that P0 and MAG are heterogeneous in their carbohydrate moieties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Retrovirus purification: method that conserves envelope glycoprotein and maximizes infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, M; Witte, O; Pincus, T; Weissman, I L

    1978-01-01

    A Sepharose 4B chromatographic method for purification of retroviruses is described which was less time consuming, increased purified virus yields, conserved viral glycoprotein, and increased recovery of biological infectivity in comparison with conventional sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation techniques. Images PMID:205680

  19. Detection of glycoproteins in the Acanthamoeba plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paatero, G.I.L.; Gahmberg, C.G.

    1988-11-01

    In the present study the authors have shown that glycoproteins are present in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii by utilizing different radioactive labeling techniques. Plasma membrane proteins in the amoeba were iodinated by {sup 125}I-lactoperoxidase labeling and the solubilized radiolabeled glycoproteins were separated by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The periodate/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} and galactose oxidase/NaB{sup 3}H{sub 4} labeling techniques were used for labeling of surface carbohydrates in the amoeba. Several surface-labeled glycoproteins were observed in addition to a diffusely labeled region with M{sub r} of 55,000-75,000 seen on electrophoresis, which could represent glycolipids. The presencemore » of glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii was confirmed by metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine followed by lectin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.« less

  20. Interaction of forskolin with the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Ming s, D.I.; Seamon, K.B.; Speicher, L.A.

    1991-08-27

    Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, an analogue that does not activate adenylyl cyclase, were tested for their ability to enhance the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in human ovarian carcinoma cells, SKOV3, which are sensitive to adriamycin and express low levels of P-glycoprotein, and a variant cell line, SKVLB, which overexpresses the P-glycoprotein and has the multidrug reing ance (MDR) phenotype. Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin both increased the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in SKVLB cells, yet had no effect on SKOV3 cells. Two photoactive derivatives of forskolin have been synthesized, 7-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, and 6-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, which exhibit specificity for labelingmore » the glucose transporter and aing lyl cyclase, respectively. Both photolabels identified a 140-kDa protein in membranes from SKVLB cells whose labeling was inhibited by forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. The data are consistent with forskolin binding to the P-glycoprotein analogous to that of other chemosensitizing drugs that have been shown to partially reverse MDR. The ability of forskolin photolabels to specifically label the transporter, the adenylyl cyclase, and the P-glycoprotein suggests that these proteins may share a common biing g domain for forskolin analogues.« less

  1. Glycoprotein of the wall of sycamore tissue-culture cells.

    PubMed

    Heath, M F; Northcote, D H

    1971-12-01

    1. A glycoprotein containing a large amount of hydroxyproline is present in the cell walls of sycamore callus cells. This protein is insoluble and remained in the alpha-cellulose when a mild separation procedure was used to obtain the polysaccharide fractions of the wall. The glycoprotein contained a high proportion of arabinose and galactose. 2. Soluble glycopeptides were prepared from the alpha-cellulose fraction when peptide bonds were broken by hydrazinolysis. The soluble material was fractionated by gel filtration and one glycopeptide was further purified by electrophoresis; it had a composition of 10% hydroxyproline, 35% arabinose and 55% galactose, and each hydroxyproline residue carried a glycosyl radical so that the oligosaccharides on the glycopeptide had an average degree of polymerization of 9. 3. The extraction of the glycopeptides was achieved without cleavage of glycosyl bonds, so that the glycoprotein cannot act as a covalent cross-link between the major polysaccharides of the wall. 4. The wall protein approximates in conformation to polyhydroxyproline and therefore it probably has similar physicochemical properties to polyhydroxyproline. This is discussed in relation to the function of the glycoprotein and its effect on the physical and chemical nature of the wall.

  2. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  4. Glycoprotein expression by adenomatous polyps of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roney, Celeste A.; Xie, Jianwu; Xu, Biying; Jabour, Paul; Griffiths, Gary; Summers, Ronald M.

    2008-03-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Specificity in diagnostic imaging for detecting colorectal adenomas, which have a propensity towards malignancy, is desired. Adenomatous polyp specimens of the colon were obtained from the mouse model of colorectal cancer called adenomatous polyposis coli-multiple intestinal neoplasia (APC Min). Histological evaluation, by the legume protein Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), determined expression of the glycoprotein α-L-fucose. FITC-labelled UEA-1 confirmed overexpression of the glycoprotein by the polyps on fluorescence microscopy in 17/17 cases, of which 13/17 included paraffin-fixed mouse polyp specimens. In addition, FITC-UEA-1 ex vivo multispectral optical imaging of 4/17 colonic specimens displayed over-expression of the glycoprotein by the polyps, as compared to non-neoplastic mucosa. Here, we report the surface expression of α-L-fucosyl terminal residues by neoplastic mucosal cells of APC specimens of the mouse. Glycoprotein expression was validated by the carbohydrate binding protein UEA-1. Future applications of this method are the development of agents used to diagnose cancers by biomedical imaging modalities, including computed tomographic colonography (CTC). UEA-1 targeting to colonic adenomas may provide a new avenue for the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma by CT imaging.

  5. Bending elasticity of lipid membranes in presence of beta 2 glycoprotein I in the surrounding solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlič, J. I.; Genova, J.; Zheliaskova, A.; Iglič, A.; Mitov, M. D.

    2010-11-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations of giant quasi-spherical lipid vesicles are used to study the bending elasticity modulus kc of a phospholipid (PHLP) membranes in presence of beta 2 glycoprotein I (β2-GPI) in the aqueous solution which surrounds the vesicle's membrane. The bending elastic modulus kc of PHLP - protein membrane was obtained for different mass concentrations of β2-GPI for pure neutral SOPC membranes and for mixed SOPC: Cardiolipin negatively charged membranes. The experimental results for the bending elastic modulus kc of the PHLP membranes does not show dependence on the concentration of β2-GPI in the range from 5.5 to 55 μg/ml, when β2-GPI is present in the aqueous solution surrounding the vesicle's membrane. Obtained results are in good agreement with predictions, based on different experiments, explaining the mechanism of binding of β2-GPI to neutral membranes.

  6. Statins Suppress Ebola Virus Infectivity by Interfering with Glycoprotein Processing.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Flint, Mike; Bergeron, Éric; McElroy, Anita K; Chatterjee, Payel; Albariño, César G; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2018-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatments. Statins, widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs, have pleiotropic mechanisms of action and were suggested as potential adjunct therapy for Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of statin (lovastatin) on EBOV infection in vitro Statin treatment decreased infectious EBOV production in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and in the hepatic cell line Huh7. Statin treatment did not interfere with viral entry, but the viral particles released from treated cells showed reduced infectivity due to inhibition of viral glycoprotein processing, as evidenced by decreased ratios of the mature glycoprotein form to precursor form. Statin-induced inhibition of infectious virus production and glycoprotein processing was reversed by exogenous mevalonate, the rate-limiting product of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, but not by low-density lipoprotein. Finally, statin-treated cells produced EBOV particles devoid of the surface glycoproteins required for virus infectivity. Our findings demonstrate that statin treatment inhibits EBOV infection and suggest that the efficacy of statin treatment should be evaluated in appropriate animal models of EVD. IMPORTANCE Treatments targeting Ebola virus disease (EVD) are experimental, expensive, and scarce. Statins are inexpensive generic drugs that have been used for many years for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have a favorable safety profile. Here, we show the antiviral effects of statins on infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) production. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which statin regulates EBOV particle infectivity by preventing glycoprotein processing and incorporation into virus particles. Additionally, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Since inflammation and dysregulation of the immune

  7. Serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis with a bovine erythrocyte glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M A; Klimas, N G; Latif, Z A; Caldwell, K E

    1983-09-01

    A glycoprotein from bovine erythrocyte membrane was evaluated in two immunoassays as a reagent for the serodiagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (IM). We previously reported that a partially purified preparation of this glycoprotein, when attached to latex beads, agglutinated in the presence of IM heterophile antibody. In the present study, we used a highly purified form of the glycoprotein both as an agglutinating reagent, covalently bound to latex, and in a solid-phase sandwich-type radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IM antibody detection in a larger population of patients. We tested serum samples from college students with symptoms suggestive of IM with the latex reagent (143 samples) and with the RIA (245 samples). Correlation of these two tests, both with each other and with the classical differentially absorbed, agglutination tests for Paul-Bunnell antibody in IM sera, using fresh sheep or horse cells, was excellent (greater than 97% agreement). The new tests also corresponded in most cases with a rapid, unabsorbed preserved horse erythrocyte slide test. However, in this study of 245 samples, both apparent false-positives (5 samples) and apparent false-negatives (3 samples) were observed with this slide test. In conclusion, we found that the bovine glycoprotein as a reagent can facilitate the diagnosis of IM, giving results comparable to those with erythrocyte agglutination tests on differentially absorbed sera. The advantages are ease and speed of performance (latex test), potential for automation (RIA test), stability and uniformity of the glycoprotein reagent (latex and RIA tests), and most importantly, the ability to use unabsorbed sera (latex and RIA tests).

  8. Solamargine, a bioactive steroidal alkaloid isolated from Solanum aculeastrum induces non-selective cytotoxicity and P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Burger, Trevor; Mokoka, Tsholofelo; Fouché, Gerda; Steenkamp, Paul; Steenkamp, Vanessa; Cordier, Werner

    2018-05-02

    Solanum aculeastrum fruits are used by some cancer sufferers as a form of alternative treatment. Scientific literature is scarce concerning its anticancer activity, and thus the aim of the study was to assess the in vitro anticancer and P-glycoprotein inhibitory potential of extracts of S. aculeastrum fruits. Furthermore, assessment of the combinational effect with doxorubicin was also done. The crude extract was prepared by ultrasonic maceration. Liquid-liquid extraction yielded one aqueous and two organic fractions. Bioactive constituents were isolated from the aqueous fraction by means of column chromatography, solid phase extraction and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Confirmation of bioactive constituent identity was done by nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The crude extract and fractions were assessed for cytotoxicity and P-glycoprotein inhibition in both cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines using the sulforhodamine B and rhodamine-123 assays, respectively. Both the crude extract and aqueous fraction was cytotoxic to all cell lines, with the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line being most susceptible to exposure (IC 50  = 10.72 μg/mL [crude], 17.21 μg/mL [aqueous]). Dose-dependent P-glycoprotein inhibition was observed for the crude extract (5.9 to 18.9-fold at 100 μg/mL) and aqueous fraction (2.9 to 21.2 at 100 μg/mL). The steroidal alkaloids solamargine and solanine were identified. While solanine was not bioactive, solamargine displayed an IC 50 of 15.62 μg/mL, and 9.1-fold P-glycoprotein inhibition at 100 μg/mL against the SH-SY5Y cell line. Additive effects were noted for combinations of doxorubicin against the SH-SY5Y cell line. The crude extract and aqueous fraction displayed potent non-selective cytotoxicity and noteworthy P-glycoprotein inhibition. These effects were attributed to solamargine. P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity was only present at concentrations higher than

  9. Characterization of swiftlet edible bird nest, a mucin glycoprotein, and its adulterants by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eric K S; Chandra, Gleen F; Pedireddy, S; Lee, Soo-Y

    2016-09-01

    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is made from the glutinous salivary secretion of highly concentrated mucin glycoprotein by swiftlets (genus Aerodramus or Collocalia ) native to the Indo-Pacific region. The unique Raman spectrum of EBN has vibrational lines that can be assigned to peptides and saccharides in the glycoprotein, and it can be used to screen for adulteration. The common edible adulterants classified into two types. Type I adulterants, such as fish bladder, pork skin, karaya gum, coralline seaweed, agar strips, and tremella fungus, were solids which adhered externally on the surface of the EBN cement. They can usually be detected with a microscope based on differences in the surface structure. Type II adulterants were water soluble substances such as saccharides (e.g., glucose, sucrose), polypeptides (e.g., hydrolyzed collagen) and salts (e.g. monosodium glutamate) which can be readily soaked up by the EBN hydrogel when moist and adsorbed internally in the EBN cement matrix forming a composite upon drying, making them difficult to detect visually. The present study showed that Raman microspectroscopy offers a rapid, non-invasive, and label free technique to detect both Type I and II adulterants in EBN.

  10. Ependymin, a brain extracellular glycoprotein, and CNS plasticity.

    PubMed

    Shashoua, V E

    1991-01-01

    Ependymin, a glycoprotein of the brain ECF, has been implicated in the neurochemistry of memory and neuronal regeneration. Three behavioral experiments (swimming with a float, avoidance conditioning, and classical conditioning) in the goldfish and one in the mouse (T-maze learning) indicate that ependymin has a role in the synaptic changes that take place in the consolidation step of memory formation and the activity-dependent phase of sharpening of goldfish retinotectal connections during neuronal regeneration. The ECF concentration of the protein was found to decrease after the goldfish learned to associate a light stimulus (CS) with the subsequent arrival of a shock (US): paired CS-US gave changes whereas an unpaired presentation of CS-US gave no changes relative to the unstimulated controls. Ependymin is present in ECF as a mixture of three disulfide-linked dimers of two acidic (alpha and beta) polypeptide chains (37 kDa and 31 kDa). Upon removal of its N-linked glycan fragment by N-glycosidase F, the beta chain yields gamma-ependymin (26 kDa). Determinations of the amino acid sequence of gamma-ependymin indicate that it is a unique protein with no long sequence homologies to any known polypeptide. There are, however, small segments (5-7 amino acids long) with homologies to fibronectin, laminin, and tubulin. Ependymin has the capacity to polymerize into FIP (after activation by phosphorylation) in response to events that deplete ECF calcium. FIP is insoluble in 2% SDS in 6 M urea, 10 mM Ca2+Ac2, 100% acetic acid, chloroform/methanol (2/1), saturated KCNS, and even 100% trifluoroacetic acid. FIP was found to be present in goldfish brain and to be formed as a labeled product in vivo. Ependymin's FIP-forming property was used to propose a molecular hypothesis for generating synaptic changes in response to local extracellular depletions of calcium at sites of "associating inputs." The model assumes that, following NMDA receptor stimulation, the translocated PKC

  11. Partial purification and characterization of a mannosyl transferase involved in O -linked mannosylation of glycoproteins in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Flores, Blanca L; Calvo-Méndez, Carlos; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; López-Romero, Everardo

    2004-04-01

    Incubation of a mixed membrane fraction of C. albicans with the nonionic detergents Nonidet P-40 or Lubrol solubilized a fraction that catalyzed the transfer of mannose either from endogenously generated or exogenously added dolichol-P-[14C]Man onto endogenous protein acceptors. The protein mannosyl transferase solubilized with Nonidet P-40 was partially purified by a single step of preparative nondenaturing electrophoresis and some of its properties were investigated. Although transfer activity occurred in the absence of exogenous mannose acceptors and thus depended on acceptor proteins isolated along with the enzyme, addition of the protein fraction obtained after chemical de-mannosylation of glycoproteins synthesized in vitro stimulated mannoprotein labeling in a concentration-dependent manner. Other de-mannosylated glycoproteins, such as yeast invertase or glycoproteins extracted from C. albicans, failed to increase the amount of labeled mannoproteins. Mannosyl transfer activity was not influenced by common metal ions such as Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Ca(2+), but it was stimulated up to 3-fold by EDTA. Common phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylglycerol and, to a lower extent, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine enhanced transfer activity. Interestingly, coupled transfer activity between dolichol phosphate mannose synthase, i.e., the enzyme responsible for Dol-P-Man synthesis, and protein mannosyl transferase could be reconstituted in vitro from the partially purified transferases, indicating that this process can occur in the absence of cell membranes.

  12. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  13. Methylation of Notch3 modulates chemoresistance via P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoting; Lu, Yangfan; He, Dongxu; Lu, Chunxiao; Jin, Jian; Lu, Xiaojie; Ma, Xin

    2016-12-05

    The global gene expression and DNA methylation of genes in adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADM cells) are similar to those in paclitaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/PTX) and are significantly different from those in wild-type MCF-7 cells. DNA methylation is associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer and changes the characteristics of chemoresistant and chemosensitive cells. Here, we showed that the tumor-suppressor gene Notch3 was inactivated due to epigenetic silencing DNA hypermethylation in MCF-7/ADM cells. In addition, the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein was negatively regulated by Notch3 and highly expressed in MCF-7/ADM cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that hypermethylation of Notch3 causes activation of P-glycoprotein in adriamycin-resistant cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strategies to induce broadly protective antibody responses to viral glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Krammer, F

    2017-05-01

    Currently, several universal/broadly protective influenza virus vaccine candidates are under development. Many of these vaccines are based on strategies to induce protective antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins of antigenically and genetically diverse influenza viruses. These strategies might also be applicable to surface glycoproteins of a broad range of other important viral pathogens. Areas covered: Common strategies include sequential vaccination with divergent antigens, multivalent approaches, vaccination with glycan-modified antigens, vaccination with minimal antigens and vaccination with antigens that have centralized/optimized sequences. Here we review these strategies and the underlying concepts. Furthermore, challenges, feasibility and applicability to other viral pathogens are discussed. Expert commentary: Several broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccine strategies will be tested in humans in the coming years. If successful in terms of safety and immunological readouts, they will move forward into efficacy trials. In the meantime, successful vaccine strategies might also be applied to other antigenically diverse viruses of concern.

  15. Antigiardial activity of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from Ziziphus honey.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Kabashi, Ahmed S; Koko, Waleed S; Azim, M Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Natural honey contains an array of glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycopeptides. Size-exclusion chromatography fractionated Ziziphus honey proteins into five peaks with molecular masses in the range from 10 to >200 kDa. The fractionated proteins exhibited in vitro activities against Giardia lamblia with IC50 values ≤ 25 μg/mL. Results indicated that honey proteins were more active as antiprotozoal agents than metronidazole. This study indicated the potential of honey proteins and peptides as novel antigiardial agents.

  16. Platelet glycoproteins associated with aspirin-treatment upon platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit; Yang, Weiming; Sun, Shisheng; Pasay, Jered; Faraday, Nauder; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Platelet glycoproteins are known to play central roles in hemostasis and vascular integrity and have pathologic roles in vascular occlusive diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Characterizing glycoproteins within and secreted by platelets can provide insight into the mechanisms that underlie vascular pathologies and the therapeutic benefits or failure of anti-platelet agents. To study the impact of aspirin, which is commonly prescribed for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention, on the platelet glycoproteome, we evaluated washed platelets from ten donors. The platelet glycoproteome, was studied using an iTRAQ in resting and stimulated states and with and without aspirin treatment. Using solid phase extraction of glycosite-containing peptides (SPEG), we were able to identify 799 unique N-linked glycosylation sites (glycosites) in platelets, representing the largest and the most comprehensive analysis to date. We were able to identity a number of glycoproteins impacted by aspirin treatment, which we validated using global proteomics analysis of platelets and their secreted proteins. In our analyses, metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) was the single most significantly affected glycoprotein by aspirin treatment. ELISA assays confirmed proteomic results and validated our strategy. Functional analysis demonstrated that TIMP1 levels were highly correlated with platelet reactivity in vitro, with a correlation coefficient of −0.5. The release of TIMP1 from platelets, which was previously unknown to be affected by aspirin treatment, may play important roles in hemostasis and/or vascular integrity. If validated, our findings may be useful for developing assays that assess platelet response to aspirin or other anti-platelet therapies. PMID:27452734

  17. Prediction of conserved sites and domains in glycoproteins B, C and D of herpes viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Muhammad Asif; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Ihsan, Awais; Navid, Muhammad Tariq; Ur-Rehman, Shahid; Raza, Sohail

    2018-03-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB), C (gC) and D (gD) of herpes simplex virus are implicated in virus adsorption and penetration. The gB, gC and gD are glycoproteins for different processes of virus binding and attachment to the host cells. Moreover, their expression is necessary and sufficient to induce cell fusion in the absence of other glycoproteins. Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpes viruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment, de-envelopment and re-envelopment steps. Viral glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Hence, we target the 3 important glycoproteins (B, C and D) of eight different herpes viruses of different species. These species include human (HSV1 and 2), bovine (BHV1), equine (EHV1 and 4), chicken (ILT1 and MDV2) and pig (PRV1). By applying different bioinformatics tools, we highlighted the conserved sites in these glycoproteins which might be most significant regarding attachment and infection of the viruses. Moreover the conserved domains in these glycoproteins are also highlighted. From this study, we will able to analyze the role of different viral glycoproteins of different species during herpes virus adsorption and penetration. Moreover, this study will help to construct the antivirals that target the glycoproteins of different herpes viruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-02

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rhodamine-123: a p-glycoprotein marker complex with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Alam, Mohd Aftab

    2015-03-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as P-glycoprotein inhibitor. The everted rat gut sac model was used to study in-vitro mucosal to serosal transport of Rhodamine-123 (Rho-123). Surprisingly, SLS decreases the serosal absorption of Rho-123 at all investigated concentrations. Investigation reveals complex formation between Rhodamine-123 and sodium lauryl sulfate. Interaction profile of SLS & Rho-123 was studied at variable SLS concentrations. The SLS concentration higher than critical micelle concentration (CMC) increases the solubility of Rho-123 but could not help in serosal absorption, on the contrary the absorption of Rho-123 decreased. Rho-123 and SLS form pink color complex at sub-CMC. The SLS concentrations below CMC decrease the solubility of Rho-123. For further studies, Rho-123 & SLS complex was prepared by using solvent evaporation technique and characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Thermal analysis also proved the formation of complex between SLS & Rho-123. The P values were found to be significant (<0.05) except group comprising 0.0001% SLS, and that is because 0.0001% SLS is seems to be very low to affect the solubility or complexation of Rho-123.

  20. Pregnane X Receptor and P-glycoprotein: a connexion for Alzheimer's disease management.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sumit; Rathod, Vijay; Prajapati, Rameshwar; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-11-01

    The translational failure between preclinical animal models and clinical outcome has alarmed us to search for a new strategy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interlink between Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood brain barrier (BBB) has raised hope toward a new disease modifying therapy in AD. Pgp is a major efflux transporter for beta amyloid (Aβ) at human BBB. A literature survey reveals diminished expression of Pgp transporter at the BBB in AD patients. Pregnane X Receptor is a major transcriptional regulator of Pgp. Restoration of Pgp at the BBB enhances the elimination of the Aβ from brain alongside and inhibits the apical to basolateral movement of Aβ from the circulatory blood. This review concentrates on in vitro, in vivo, and in silico advancements on the study of the PXR in context to Pgp and discusses the substrate and inhibitor specificity between PXR and Pgp.

  1. Monomeric and polymeric forms of ependymin: a brain extracellular glycoprotein implicated in memory consolidation processes.

    PubMed

    Shashoua, V E

    1988-07-01

    Ependymin, a brain extracellular glycoprotein that appears to be implicated in neural circuit modifications associated with the process of memory consolidation, can rapidly polymerize into fibrous aggregates when the Ca2+ concentration in solution is reduced by the addition of EGTA or by dialysis. Such aggregates, once formed, could not be redissolved in boiling 1% SDS in 6 M urea, acetic acid, saturated aqueous potassium thiocyanate, and trifluoroacetic acid. They were, however, soluble in formic acid. Investigations of the immunological properties of ependymin indicated that various monomers, oligomers and polymers of the molecule with differing carbohydrate contents can be obtained. The polymerization properties of the ependymins may play an important role in their functions in memory consolidation mechanisms.

  2. Development and evaluation of a recombinant-glycoprotein-based latex agglutination test for rabies virus antibody assessment.

    PubMed

    Jemima, Ebenezer Angel; Manoharan, Seeralan; Kumanan, Kathaperumal

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of neutralizing antibodies induced by the glycoprotein of rabies virus is indispensable for assessing the level of neutralizing antibodies in animals or humans. A rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) has been approved by WHO and is the most widely used method to measure the virus-neutralizing antibody content in serum, but a rapid test system would be of great value to screen large numbers of serum samples. To develop and evaluate a latex agglutination test (LAT) for measuring rabies virus antibodies, a recombinant glycoprotein was expressed in an insect cell system and purified, and the protein was coated onto latex beads at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/ml to find out the optimal concentration for coating latex beads. It was found that 0.5 mg/ml of recombinant protein was optimal for coating latex beads, and this concentration was used to sensitize the latex beads for screening of dog serum samples. Grading of LAT results was done with standard reference serum with known antibody titers. A total of 228 serum samples were tested, out of which 145 samples were positive by both RFFIT and LAT, and the specificity was found to be 100 %. In RFFIT, 151 samples were positive, the sensitivity was found to be 96.03 %, and the accuracy/concordance was found to be 97.39 %. A rapid field test-a latex agglutination test (LAT)-was developed and evaluated for rabies virus antibody assessment using recombinant glycoprotein of rabies virus expressed in an insect cell system.

  3. Gefarnate stimulates mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models.

    PubMed

    Dota, Atsuyoshi; Takaoka-Shichijo, Yuko; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models. Conjunctival tissue isolated from rabbits was treated with gefarnate. Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Gefarnate ointment was topically applied to eyes once daily for 7 days in the rabbit dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal glands, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed, or for 4 weeks in the cat dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane were removed. Corneal epithelial damage was evaluated by measurement of corneal permeability by rose bengal in the rabbit model or by fluorescein staining in the cat model. Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment to the eyes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rose bengal permeability in the cornea, with the effect being significant at concentrations of ≥0.3%. In the cat dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment resulted in a significant decrease in the corneal fluorescein staining score. These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. Gefarnate may therefore be effective for treating dry eye.

  4. Effect of human alpha 2HS glycoprotein on mouse macrophage function.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J G; André, C M

    1980-01-01

    alpha 2HS glycoprotein was isolated from normal adult serum. The ability of alpha 2HS glycoprotein to promote the endocytosis of radiolabelled DNA and radiolabelled latex particles by mouse macrophages was investigated. The results using both radiolabelled latex particles and radiolabelled DNA show that alpha 2HS glycoprotein enhances the ability of mouse macrophages to take up these radiolabelled substrates as compared to control cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7439929

  5. Clinical evaluation of P-glycoprotein inhibition by venetoclax: a drug interaction study with digoxin.

    PubMed

    Chiney, Manoj S; Menon, Rajeev M; Bueno, Orlando F; Tong, Bo; Salem, Ahmed Hamed

    2018-09-01

    1. Venetoclax is a novel, small molecule B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical efficacy in a variety of haematological malignancies. Since venetoclax is an inhibitor of P glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, a study was conducted in healthy, female volunteers to evaluate the effect of venetoclax on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a P-gp probe substrate. 2. Volunteers received a single oral dose of digoxin (0.5 mg) with or without a single oral dose of venetoclax (100  mg). Serial blood samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic assessments of digoxin and venetoclax and serial urine samples were obtained for measurement of digoxin concentrations. Safety was assessed throughout the study. 3. Coadministration of digoxin and venetoclax increased digoxin maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ) by 35% and area under the plasma-concentration time curve (AUC 0-∞) by 9%. Digoxin half-life, renal clearance and the fraction excreted unchanged in urine remained relatively similar. The results of this study indicate that venetoclax can increase the concentrations of P-gp substrates. Narrow therapeutic index P-gp substrates should be administered six hours prior to venetoclax to minimise the potential interaction.

  6. Mannostatin A, a new glycoprotein-processing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tropea, J E; Kaushal, G P; Pastuszak, I; Mitchell, M; Aoyagi, T; Molyneux, R J; Elbein, A D

    1990-10-30

    Mannostatin A is a metabolite produced by the microorganism Streptoverticillium verticillus and reported to be a potent competitive inhibitor of rat epididymal alpha-mannosidase. When tested against a number of other arylglycosidases, mannostatin A was inactive toward alpha- and beta-glucosidase and galactosidase as well as beta-mannosidase, but it was a potent inhibitor of jack bean, mung bean, and rat liver lysosomal alpha-mannosidases, with estimated IC50's of 70 nM, 450 nM, and 160 nM, respectively. The type of inhibition was competitive in nature. This compound also proved to be an effective competitive inhibitor of the glycoprotein-processing enzyme mannosidase II (IC50 of about 10-15 nM with p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside as substrate, and about 90 nM with [3H]mannose-labeled GlcNAc-Man5GlcNAc as substrate). However, it was virtually inactive toward mannosidase I. The N-acetylated derivative of mannostatin A had no inhibitory activity. In cell culture studies, mannostatin A also proved to be a potent inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. Thus, in influenza virus infected Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, mannostatin A blocked the normal formation of complex types of oligosaccharides on the viral glycoproteins and caused the accumulation of hybrid types of oligosaccharides. This observation is in keeping with other data which indicate that the site of action of mannostatin A is mannosidase II. Thus, mannostatin A represents the first nonalkaloidal processing inhibitor and adds to the growing list of chemical structures that can have important biological activity.

  7. Comparison of In Vitro Assays in Selecting Radiotracers for In Vivo P-Glycoprotein PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Savolainen, Heli; Cantore, Mariangela; van de Steeg, Evita; Colabufo, Nicola A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the blood-brain barrier can be important in neurological diseases where P-gp is affected, such as Alzheimer´s disease. Radiotracers used in the imaging studies are present at very small, nanomolar, concentration, whereas in vitro assays where these tracers are characterized, are usually performed at micromolar concentration, causing often discrepant in vivo and in vitro data. We had in vivo rodent PET data of [11C]verapamil, (R)-N-[18F]fluoroethylverapamil, (R)-O-[18F]fluoroethyl-norverapamil, [18F]MC225 and [18F]MC224 and we included also two new molecules [18F]MC198 and [18F]KE64 in this study. To improve the predictive value of in vitro assays, we labeled all the tracers with tritium and performed bidirectional substrate transport assay in MDCKII-MDR1 cells at three different concentrations (0.01, 1 and 50 µM) and also inhibition assay with P-gp inhibitors. As a comparison, we used non-radioactive molecules in transport assay in Caco-2 cells at a concentration of 10 µM and in calcein-AM inhibition assay in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. All the P-gp substrates were transported dose-dependently. At the highest concentration (50 µM), P-gp was saturated in a similar way as after treatment with P-gp inhibitors. Best in vivo correlation was obtained with the bidirectional transport assay at a concentration of 0.01 µM. One micromolar concentration in a transport assay or calcein-AM assay alone is not sufficient for correct in vivo prediction of substrate P-gp PET ligands. PMID:29036881

  8. An Inducible Endothelial Cell Surface Glycoprotein Mediates Melanoma Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, G. Edgar; Bevilacqua, Michael P.

    1989-12-01

    Hematogenous metastasis requires the arrest and extravasation of blood-borne tumor cells, possibly involving direct adhesive interactions with vascular endothelium. Cytokine activation of cultured human endothelium increases adhesion of melanoma and carcinoma cell lines. An inducible 110-kD endothelial cell surface glycoprotein, designated INCAM-110, appears to mediate adhesion of melanoma cells. In addition, an inducible endothelial receptor for neutrophils, ELAM-1, supports the adhesion of a human colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, activation of vascular endothelium in vivo that results in increased expression of INCAM-110 and ELAM-1 may promote tumor cell adhesion and affect the incidence and distribution of metastases.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    PubMed

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  10. (Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the plant cell wall)

    SciTech Connect

    Varner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    We are studying the chemistry and architecture of plant cells walls, the extracellular matrices that taken together shape the plant and provide mechanical support for the plant. Cell walls are dynamic structures that regulate, or are the site of, many physiological processes, in addition to being the cells' first line of defense against invading pathogens. In the past year we have examined the role of the cell wall enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase as related to the structure of the wall and its possible interactions with hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the wall.

  11. Glycoprotein import: a common feature of complex plastids?

    PubMed

    Peschke, Madeleine; Hempel, Franziska

    2013-10-01

    Complex plastids evolved by secondary endosymbiosis and are, in contrast to primary plastids, surrounded by 3 or 4 envelope membranes. Recently, we provided evidence that in diatoms proteins exist that get N-glycosylated during transport across the outermost membrane of the complex plastid. This gives rise to unique questions on the transport mechanisms of these bulky proteins, which get transported across up to 3 further membranes into the plastid stroma. Here we discuss our results in an evolutionary context and speculate about the existence of plastidal glycoproteins in other organisms with complex plastids.

  12. Selective Capture of Glycoproteins Using Lectin-modified Nanoporous Gold Monolith

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Allan J.; d’Andrea, Felipe B.; Bhattarai, Jay K.; Cooper, Jared A.; Tan, Yih Horng; Demchenko, Alexei V.; Stine, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    The surface of nanoporous gold (np-Au) monoliths was modified via a flow method with the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A) to develop a substrate for separation and extraction of glycoproteins. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of lipoic acid (LA) on the np-Au monoliths were prepared followed by activation of the terminal carboxyl groups to create amine reactive esters that were utilized in the immobilization of Con A. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine the surface coverages of LA and Con A on np-Au monoliths which were found to be 1.31 × 1018 molecules m−2 and 1.85 × 1015 molecules m−2, respectively. An in situ solution depletion method was developed that enabled surface coverage characterization without damaging the substrate and suggesting the possibility of regeneration. Using this method, the surface coverages of LA and Con A were found to be 0.989 ×1018 molecules m−2 and 1.32 × 1015 molecules m−2, respectively. The selectivity of the Con A-modified np-Au monolith for the high mannose-containing glycoprotein ovalbumin (OVA) versus negative control non-glycosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) was demonstrated by the difference in the ratio of the captured molecules to the immobilized Con A molecules, with OVA:Con A = 2.3 and BSA:Con A = 0.33. Extraction of OVA from a 1:3 mole ratio mixture with BSA was demonstrated by the greater amount of depletion of OVA concentration during the circulation with the developed substrate. A significant amount of captured OVA was eluted using α-methyl mannopyranoside as a competitive ligand. This work is motivated by the need to develop new materials for chromatographic separation and extraction substrates for use in preparative and analytical procedures in glycomics. PMID:26554297

  13. Distribution of primaquine in human blood: Drug-binding to alpha 1-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.; Frischer, H.

    1990-12-01

    To clarify the distribution of the antimalarial primaquine in human blood, we measured the drug separately in the liquid, cellular, and ultrafiltrate phases. Washed red cells resuspended at a hematocrit of 0.4 were exposed to a submaximal therapeutic level of 250 ng/ml of carbon 14-labeled primaquine. The tracer was recovered quantitatively in separated plasma and red cells. Over 75% of the total labeled drug was found in red cells suspended in saline solution, but only 10% to 30% in red cells suspended in plasma. The plasma effect was not mediated by albumin. Studies with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, anmore » agent that displaces AGP-bound drugs, and cord blood known to have decreased AGP established that primaquine binds to physiologic amounts of the glycoprotein in plasma. Red cell primaquine concentration increased linearly as AGP level fell and as the free drug fraction rose. We suggest that clinical blood levels of primaquine include the red cell fraction or whole blood level because (1) erythrocytic primaquine is a sizable and highly variable component of the total drug in blood; (2) this component reflects directly the free drug in plasma, and inversely the extent of binding to AGP; (3) the amount of free primaquine may influence drug transport into specific tissues in vivo; and (4) fluctuations of AGP, an acute-phase reactant that increases greatly in patients with malaria and other infections, markedly affect the partition of primaquine in blood. Because AGP binds many basic drugs, unrecognized primaquine-drug interactions may exist.« less

  14. Arenavirus Stable Signal Peptide Is the Keystone Subunit for Glycoprotein Complex Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bederka, Lydia H.; Bonhomme, Cyrille J.; Ling, Emily L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rodent arenavirus glycoprotein complex encodes a stable signal peptide (SSP) that is an essential structural component of mature virions. The SSP, GP1, and GP2 subunits of the trimeric glycoprotein complex noncovalently interact to stud the surface of virions and initiate arenavirus infectivity. Nascent glycoprotein production undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events: first within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cleave SSP from the remaining precursor GP1/2 (glycoprotein complex [GPC]) glycoprotein and second within the Golgi stacks by the cellular SKI-1/S1P for GP1/2 processing to yield GP1 and GP2 subunits. Cleaved SSP is not degraded but retained as an essential glycoprotein subunit. Here, we defined functions of the 58-amino-acid lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) SSP in regard to glycoprotein complex processing and maturation. Using molecular biology techniques, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry, we detected SSP at the plasma membrane of transfected cells. Further, we identified a sorting signal (FLLL) near the carboxyl terminus of SSP that is required for glycoprotein maturation and trafficking. In the absence of SSP, the glycoprotein accumulated within the ER and was unable to undergo processing by SKI-1/S1P. Mutation of this highly conserved FLLL motif showed impaired glycoprotein processing and secretory pathway trafficking, as well as defective surface expression and pH-dependent membrane fusion. Immunoprecipitation of SSP confirmed an interaction between the signal peptide and the GP2 subunit; however, mutations within this FLLL motif disrupted the association of the GP1 subunit with the remaining glycoprotein complex. PMID:25352624

  15. Effect of zolpidem on human cytochrome P450 activity, and on transport mediated by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    von Moltke, Lisa L; Weemhoff, James L; Perloff, Michael D; Hesse, Leah M; Harmatz, Jerold S; Roth-Schechter, Barbara F; Greenblatt, David J

    2002-12-01

    The influence of high concentrations of zolpidem (100 microM, corresponding to approximately 200 times maximum therapeutic concentrations) on the activity of six human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was evaluated in a model system using human liver microsomes. Zolpidem produced negligible or weak inhibition of human CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. Transport of rhodamine 123, presumed to be mediated mainly by the energy-dependent efflux transport protein P-glycoprotein, was studied in a cell culture system using a human intestinal cell line. High concentrations of zolpidem (100 microM), exceeding the usual therapeutic range by more than 100-fold, produced only modest impairment of rhodamine 123 transport. The findings indicate that zolpidem is very unlikely to cause clinical drug interactions attributable to impairment of CYP activity or P-gp mediated transport. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. P-Glycoprotein in skin contributes to transdermal absorption of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Erina; Oikawa, Masashi; Masuo, Yusuke; Schinkel, Alfred H; Kato, Yukio

    2017-04-15

    ATP binding cassette transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed in skin, but their involvement in transdermal absorption of clinically used drugs remains unknown. Here, we examined their role in transdermal absorption of corticosteroids. Skin and plasma concentrations of dexamethasone after dermal application were reduced in P-gp and BCRP triple-knockout (Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- ) mice. The skin concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- mice was reduced in the dermis, but not in the epidermis, indicating that functional expression of these transporters in skin is compartmentalized. Involvement of these transporters in dermal transport of dexamethasone was also supported by the observation of a higher epidermal concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than wild-type mice during intravenous infusion. Transdermal absorption after dermal application of prednisolone, but not methylprednisolone or ethinyl estradiol, was also lower in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than in wild-type mice. Transport studies in epithelial cell lines transfected with P-gp or BCRP showed that dexamethasone and prednisolone are substrates of P-gp, but are minimally transported by BCRP. Thus, our findings suggest that P-gp is involved in transdermal absorption of at least some corticosteroids in vivo. P-gp might be available as a target for inhibition in order to deliver topically applied drugs and cosmetics in a manner that minimizes systemic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. QSAR studies of macrocyclic diterpenes with P-glycoprotein inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Inês J; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Molnár, Joseph; Fernandes, Miguel X

    2013-02-14

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a major limitation for cancer chemotherapy. There are several mechanisms of MDR but the most important is associated with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. The development of modulators of P-gp that are able to re-establish drug sensitivity of resistant cells has been considered a promising approach for overcoming MDR. Macrocyclic lathyrane and jatrophane-type diterpenes from Euphorbia species were found to be strong MDR reversing agents. In this study we applied quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology in order to identify the most relevant molecular features of macrocyclic diterpenes with P-gp inhibitory activity and to determine which structural modifications can be performed to improve their activity. Using experimental biological data at two concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml), we developed a QSAR model for a set of 51 bioactive diterpenic compounds which includes lathyrane and jatrophane-type diterpenes and another model just for jatrophanes. The cross-validation correlation values for all diterpenes QSAR models developed for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml were 0.758 and 0.729, respectively. Regarding the prediction ability, we get R²(pred) values of 0.765 and 0.534 for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml, respectively. Applying the cross-validation test to jatrophanes QSAR models, we obtained 0.680 and 0.787 for biological activities at compound concentrations of 4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, respectively. For the same concentrations, the obtained R²(pred) values for jatrophanes models were 0.541 and 0.534, respectively. The obtained models were statistically valid and showed high prediction ability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Internalization and Axonal Transport of the HIV Glycoprotein gp120

    PubMed Central

    Berth, Sarah; Caicedo, Hector Hugo; Sarma, Tulika; Morfini, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    The HIV glycoprotein gp120, a neurotoxic HIV glycoprotein that is overproduced and shed by HIV-infected macrophages, is associated with neurological complications of HIV such as distal sensory polyneuropathy, but interactions of gp120 in the peripheral nervous system remain to be characterized. Here, we demonstrate internalization of extracellular gp120 in a manner partially independent of binding to its coreceptor CXCR4 by F11 neuroblastoma cells and cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Immunocytochemical and pharmacological experiments indicate that gp120 does not undergo trafficking through the endolysosomal pathway. Instead, gp120 is mainly internalized through lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent manner, with a minor fraction being internalized by fluid phase pinocytosis. Experiments using compartmentalized microfluidic chambers further indicate that, after internalization, endocytosed gp120 selectively undergoes retrograde but not anterograde axonal transport from axons to neuronal cell bodies. Collectively, these studies illuminate mechanisms of gp120 internalization and axonal transport in peripheral nervous system neurons, providing a novel framework for mechanisms for gp120 neurotoxicity. PMID:25636314

  19. Biologically active peptides of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, R; Wade, M

    1985-01-01

    A peptide corresponding to the amino-terminal 25 amino acids of the mature vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein has recently been shown to be a pH-dependent hemolysin. In the present study, we analyzed smaller constituent peptides and found that the hemolytic domain resides within the six amino-terminal amino acids. Synthesis of variant peptides indicates that the amino-terminal lysine can be replaced by another positively charged amino acid (arginine) but that substitution with glutamic acid results in the total loss of the hemolytic function. Peptide-induced hemolysis was dependent upon buffer conditions and was inhibited when isotonicity was maintained with mannitol, sucrose, or raffinose. In sucrose, all hemolytic peptides were also observed to mediate hemagglutination. The large 25-amino acid peptide is also a pH-dependent cytotoxin for mammalian cells and appears to effect gross changes in cell permeability. Conservation of the amino terminus of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus suggests that the membrane-destabilizing properties of this domain may be important for glycoprotein function. Images PMID:2981356

  20. The Lyssavirus glycoprotein: A key to cross-immunity.

    PubMed

    Buthelezi, Sindisiwe G; Dirr, Heini W; Chakauya, Ereck; Chikwamba, Rachel; Martens, Lennart; Tsekoa, Tsepo L; Stoychev, Stoyan H; Vandermarliere, Elien

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an acute viral encephalomyelitis in warm-blooded vertebrates, caused by viruses belonging to Rhabdovirus family and genus Lyssavirus. Although rabies is categorised as a neglected disease, the rabies virus (RABV) is the most studied amongst Lyssaviruses which show nearly identical infection patterns. In efforts to improving post-exposure prophylaxis, several anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the glycoprotein (G protein) sites I, II, III and G5 have been characterized. To explore cross-neutralization capacity of available mAbs and discover new possible B-cell epitopes, we have analyzed all available glycoprotein sequences from Lyssaviruses with a focus on sequence variation and conservation. This information was mapped on the structure of a representative G protein. We proposed several possible cross-neutralizing B-cell epitopes (GUVTTTF, WLRTV, REECLD and EHLVVEEL) in complement to the already well-characterized antigenic sites. The research could facilitate development of novel cross-reactive mAbs against RABV and even more broad, against possibly all Lyssavirus members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a mouse synaptic glycoprotein gene in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Albert Cheung-Hoi; Sun, Chun Xiao; Li, Qiang; Liu, Hua Dong; Wang, Chen Ran; Zhao, Guo Ping; Jin, Meilei; Lau, Lok Ting; Fung, Yin-Wan Wendy; Liu, Shuang

    2005-10-01

    Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will require more investigation.

  2. Modeling of Oligosaccharides within Glycoproteins from Free-Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the abundance of glycoproteins in biological processes, relatively little three-dimensional structural data is available for glycan structures. Here, we study the structure and flexibility of the vast majority of mammalian oligosaccharides appearing in N- and O-glycosylated proteins using a bottom up approach. We report the conformational free-energy landscapes of all relevant glycosidic linkages as obtained from local elevation simulations and subsequent umbrella sampling. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first complete conformational library for the construction of N- and O-glycan structures. Next, we systematically study the effect of neighboring residues, by extensively simulating all relevant trisaccharides and one tetrasaccharide. This allows for an unprecedented comparison of disaccharide linkages in large oligosaccharides. With a small number of exceptions, the conformational preferences in the larger structures are very similar as in the disaccharides. This, finally, allows us to suggest several efficient approaches to construct complete N- and O-glycans on glycoproteins, as exemplified on two relevant examples. PMID:28816453

  3. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5430 - Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein I (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein I immunological test system. 866.5430 Section 866.5430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. Glycoproteins Enrichment and LC-MS/MS Glycoproteomics in Central Nervous System Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Song, Ehwang; Hussein, Ahmed; Kobeissy, Firas H; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-01-01

    Proteins and glycoproteins play important biological roles in central nervous systems (CNS). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of proteins and glycoproteins expression in CNS is critical to reveal the inherent biomolecular mechanism of CNS diseases. This chapter describes proteomic and glycoproteomic approaches based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins and glycoproteins expressed in CNS. Proteins and glycoproteins, extracted by a mass spectrometry friendly surfactant from CNS samples, were subjected to enzymatic (tryptic) digestion and three down-stream analyses: (1) a nano LC system coupled with a high-resolution MS instrument to achieve qualitative proteomic profile, (2) a nano LC system combined with a triple quadrupole MS to quantify identified proteins, and (3) glycoprotein enrichment prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Enrichment techniques can be applied to improve coverage of low abundant glycopeptides/glycoproteins. An example described in this chapter is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) enrichment to capture glycopeptides, allowing efficient removal of peptides. The combination of three LC-MS/MS-based approaches is capable of the investigation of large-scale proteins and glycoproteins from CNS with an in-depth coverage, thus offering a full view of proteins and glycoproteins changes in CNS.

  16. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein)Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    termed SIBLINGs (for small integrin binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) whose members include bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for quantitatively determining the levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...synthesized as a chimeric protein, composed of three parts: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP, also

  17. Demonstration that endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of glycoproteins can occur downstream of processing by endomannosidase.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, Nikolay V; Alonzi, Dominic S; Dwek, Raymond A; Butters, Terry D

    2011-08-15

    During quality control in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), nascent glycoproteins are deglucosylated by ER glucosidases I and II. In the post-ER compartments, glycoprotein endo-α-mannosidase provides an alternative route for deglucosylation. Previous evidence suggests that endomannosidase non-selectively deglucosylates glycoproteins that escape quality control in the ER, facilitating secretion of aberrantly folded as well as normal glycoproteins. In the present study, we employed FOS (free oligosaccharides) released from degrading glycoproteins as biomarkers of ERAD (ER-associated degradation), allowing us to gain a global rather than single protein-centred view of ERAD. Glucosidase inhibition was used to discriminate between glucosidase- and endomannosidase-mediated ERAD pathways. Endomannosidase expression was manipulated in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary)-K1 cells, naturally lacking a functional version of the enzyme, and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293T cells. Endomannosidase was shown to decrease the levels of total FOS, suggesting decreased rates of ERAD. However, following pharmacological inhibition of ER glucosidases I and II, endomannosidase expression resulted in a partial switch between glucosylated FOS, released from ER-confined glycoproteins, to deglucosylated FOS, released from endomannosidase-processed glycoproteins transported from the Golgi/ERGIC (ER/Golgi intermediate compartment) to the ER. Using this approach, we have identified a previously unknown pathway of glycoprotein flow, undetectable by the commonly employed methods, in which secretory cargo is targeted back to the ER after being processed by endomannosidase. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  18. Glycoprotein Biochemistry--Some Clinical Aspects of Interest to Biochemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some clinical features of glycoprotein biochemistry, including recognition, selected blood glycoproteins, glycated proteins, histochemistry, and cancer. The material presented has largely been taught to medical laboratory students; however, it can be used to teach premedical students and pure biochemistry students. Includes two…

  19. Establishment of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate endocytosis of desialylated glycoproteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Chen, Song; Xu, Na; Sai, Wen Bo; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ying Chun; Hu, Xiao Jing; Tian, Hong; Gao, Xiang Dong; Yao, Wen Bing

    2017-04-01

    Insufficient sialylation can result in rapid clearance of therapeutic glycoproteins by intracellular degradation, which is mainly mediated by asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) on hepatic cells. In contrast, for glycoproteins, a long half-life is often related to high level of terminal sialic acid. These could be extremely important for insufficient sialylated biomedicines in clinic, and development of therapeutic glycoproteins in laboratory. However, how the desialylated glycoproteins are removed and how to evaluate the ASGPRs mediated endocytosis in vitro needs further investigate. Herein we described an integrative characterization of ASGPRs in vitro to elucidate its endocytosis properties. The endocytosis was determined by a fluorescence-based quantization method. The results showed that the ASGPRs could bind to poorly sialylated glycoproteins including asialofetuin and low sialylated recombinant Factor VIIa with a relatively higher ASGPRs binding affinity, and induce a more rapid endocytosis in vitro. Moreover, the mechanism under the internalization of ASGPRs was also investigated, which was found to depend on clathrin and caveolin. Utilizing the relative fluorescence quantification can be suitable for measurement of insufficient sialylated glycoprotein endocytosis and quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins, which could be useful for the understanding of the development of therapeutic glycoproteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted Entry via Somatostatin Receptors Using a Novel Modified Retrovirus Glycoprotein That Delivers Genes at Levels Comparable to Those of Wild-Type Viral Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Krueger, Robin L.; Heldt, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a novel viral glycoprotein created by replacing a natural receptor-binding sequence of the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein with the peptide ligand somatostatin. This new chimeric glycoprotein, which has been named the Sst receptor binding site (Sst-RBS), gives targeted transduction based on three criteria: (i) a gain of the use of a new entry receptor not used by any known virus; (ii) targeted entry at levels comparable to gene delivery by wild-type ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoproteins; and (iii) a loss of the use of the natural ecotropic virus receptor. Retroviral vectors coated with Sst-RBS gained the ability to bind and transduce human 293 cells expressing somatostatin receptors. Their infection was specific to target somatostatin receptors, since a synthetic somatostatin peptide inhibited infection in a dose-dependent manner and the ability to transduce mouse cells bearing the natural ecotropic receptor was effectively lost. Importantly, vectors coated with the Sst-RBS glycoprotein gave targeted entry of up to 1 × 106 transducing U/ml, a level comparable to that seen with infection of vectors coated with the parental wild-type ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus glycoprotein through the ecotropic receptor and approaching that of infection of VSV G-coated vectors through the VSV receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a glycoprotein that gives targeted entry of retroviral vectors at levels comparable to the natural capacity of viral envelope glycoproteins. PMID:22013043

  1. Purification and characterization of a soluble glycoprotein from garlic (Allium sativum) and its in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Tingting; Xiang, Minghui; Jin, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xuejiao; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Qiuqing; Hu, Yihong

    2016-10-02

    A soluble glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity from ripe garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. A native mass of 55.7 kDa estimated on gel permeation chromatography and a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis supported that the glycoprotein is a homotetramer. β-Elimination reaction result suggested that the glycoprotein is an N-linked type. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy proved that it contains sugar. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis showed that its sugar component was galactose. The glycoprotein has 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging activity and the peroxidation inhibition ability to polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results indicated that the glycoprotein has potential for food additives, functional foods, and even biotechnological and medical applications.

  2. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  3. A membrane glycoprotein that accumulates intracellularly: cellular processing of the large glycoprotein of LaCrosse virus.

    PubMed

    Madoff, D H; Lenard, J

    1982-04-01

    The intracellular transport and certain posttranslational modifications of the large glycoprotein (G1) of LaCrosse virus (LAC) in BHK cells have been studied. G1 from released LAC virus was characterized by complex oligosaccharides (endo H-resistant) and covalently attached fatty acid. Only a small fraction of total cellular G1 was present on the baby hamster kidney cell surface. Cell-surface G1 contained complex oligosaccharides, while total G1 in infected cells contained largely unprocessed (endo H-sensitive) oligosaccharides. In addition, cell G1 contained significantly less fatty acid than virion-associated G1. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the oligosaccharides of G1 were processed to the complex from much more slowly than the oligosaccharides of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G). In addition, transit of LAC G1 to the cell surface and into extracellular virions was two to three fold slower than the transit of VSV G. Thus LAC G1 accumulates intracellularly and is only slowly processed by intracellular processing enzymes. Treatment with monensin caused accumulation in the cell of a form of G1 with partial sensitivity toward endo H, suggesting that monensin may act to inhibit the glycosylation process directly.

  4. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 , and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Increased platelet expression of glycoprotein IIIa following aspirin treatment in aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Christopher N; Goodman, Timothy; Becker, Silke; Chen, Nan; Mustafa, Agnesa; Schofield, Emma; Campbell, James; Ward, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Ferro, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aims Aspirin is widely used as an anti-platelet agent for cardiovascular prophylaxis. Despite aspirin treatment, many patients experience recurrent thrombotic events, and aspirin resistance may contribute to this. We examined the prevalence of aspirin resistance in a healthy population, and investigated whether the platelet proteome differed in aspirin-resistant subjects. Methods Ninety-three healthy subjects received aspirin 300 mg daily for 28 days. Before and at the end of treatment, urine was taken to determine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and blood was taken to measure arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma and to interrogate the platelet proteome by mass spectrometric analysis with further confirmation of findings using Western blotting. Results In two of the 93 subjects, neither AA-induced aggregation nor urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 was effectively suppressed by aspirin, despite measurable plasma salicylate concentrations, suggesting the presence of true aspirin resistance. Despite no detectable differences in the platelet proteome at baseline, following aspirin a marked increase was seen in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in the aspirin-resistant but not aspirin-sensitive subjects. An increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression with aspirin resistance was confirmed in a separate cohort of 17 patients with stable coronary artery disease on long term aspirin treatment, four of whom exhibited aspirin resistance. Conclusions In a healthy population, true aspirin resistance is uncommon but exists. Resistance is associated with an increase in platelet glycoprotein IIIa expression in response to aspirin. These data shed new light on the mechanism of aspirin resistance, and provide the potential to identify aspirin-resistant subjects using a novel biomarker. PMID:25099258

  6. Dynamic electrophoretic fingerprinting of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interactions between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and its primary receptor CD4 are influenced by the physiological setting in which these events take place. In this study, we explored the surface chemistry of HIV-1 Env constructs at a range of pH and salinities relevant to mucosal and systemic compartments through electrophoretic mobility (EM) measurements. Sexual transmission events provide a more acidic environment for HIV-1 compared to dissemination and spread of infection occurring in blood or lymph node. We hypothesize functional, trimeric Env behaves differently than monomeric forms. Results The dynamic electrophoretic fingerprint of trimeric gp140 revealed a change in EM from strongly negative to strongly positive as pH increased from that of the lower female genital tract (pHx) to that of the blood (pHy). Similar findings were observed using a trimeric influenza Haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, indicating that this may be a general attribute of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins. These findings were supported by computationally modeling the surface charge of various gp120 and HA crystal structures. To identify the behavior of the infectious agent and its target cells, EM measurements were made on purified whole HIV-1 virions and primary T-lymphocytes. Viral particles had a largely negative surface charge, and lacked the regions of positivity near neutral pH that were observed with trimeric Env. T cells changed their surface chemistry as a function of activation state, becoming more negative over a wider range of pH after activation. Soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4) was found to be positively charged under a wide range of conditions. Binding studies between sCD4 and gp140 show that the affinity of CD4-gp140 interactions depends on pH. Conclusions Taken together, these findings allow a more complete model of the electrochemical forces involved in HIV-1 Env functionality. These results indicate that the influence of the localized

  7. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, its local production and immunopathological participation in experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Martìnez Cordero, E; Gonzàlez, M M; Aguilar, L D; Orozco, E H; Hernàndez Pando, R

    2008-05-01

    Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is one of the major acute-phase proteins (APPs). Hepatic production and serum concentrations increase in response to systemic injury, inflammation, or infection. We reported previously that expression of the AGP gene is induced in the liver during experimental pulmonary tuberculosis. Since AGP may also be produced at the infection site and has some immunomodulatory properties, we used a model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis in Balb/c mice to study the kinetics of AGP production in the lung and its influence on immunopathology. We found that AGP was produced in the lung during experimental tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes were the most important cellular sources during early infection (days 1-14). From day 21 postinfection, during the progressive phase of the infection, foamy macrophages located in pneumonic areas were the most important source of AGP and 10-fold higher concentrations were found on day 60. In a second part of the study, AGP was inactivated during the progressive phase by the administration of specific blocking antibodies. In comparison with control infected animals, tuberculous mice treated with blocking AGP antibodies showed higher expression of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in association with significantly reduced bacillary loads and tissue damage. Thus, AGP is produced in the lung during experimental pulmonary tuberculosis and it has immunomodulatory activities, suppressing cell-mediated immunity and facilitating growth of bacilli and disease progression.

  8. Evidence for the in vivo polymerization of ependymin: a brain extracellular glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Shashoua, V E; Hesse, G W; Milinazzo, B

    1990-07-09

    Ependymin, a glycoprotein of the brain extracellular fluid, has been implicated in synaptic changes associated with the consolidation process of long-term memory formation and the activity-dependent sharpening of connections of regenerating optic nerve. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that ependymin has the capacity to form fibrous insoluble polymers (FIP) when the solvent Ca2+ concentration is reduced by the addition of EGTA. Such products, once formed, do not dissolve in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 5 M urea. This property was used to develop a method for isolating brain FIP. A reproducible quantity of FIP was found in goldfish and mouse brain. This was highly concentrated in the synaptosomal fraction and had identical immunoreactivity properties to FIP obtained by the polymerization of pure ependymin in vitro as well as a cross-reactivity to other protein components of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin and laminin. Labeling studies with [35S]methionine showed that labeled FIP aggregates are synthesized in vivo and become associated with the synaptosomal fraction. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of ependymin with those for proteins of the extracellular matrix indicated that common sequences 5-6 amino acids long exist in the molecules. These homologies may explain why antibodies to fibronectin, laminin and tubulin can recognize the FIP prepared from pure ependymin. These results suggest that ependymin can polymerize in vivo to form FIP aggregates which have similar immunoreactivity properties to major components of the brain extracellular matrix.

  9. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies.

  10. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  11. Macrophage activation by glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas

    PubMed Central

    Huong, Pham Thi Thu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that glycoprotein isolated from Dioscorea batatas (GDB) activates macrophage function. Analysis of the infiltration of macrophages into peritoneal cavity showed GDB treatment significantly increased the recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity. In order to further confirm and investigate the mechanism of GDB on macrophage activation, we analyzed the effects of GDB on the cytokine expression including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in mouse peritoneal macrophages. GDB increased the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Cytokine induction by GDB was further confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with GDB produced strong induction of NF-κB DNA binding and MAPK phosphorylation, markers for macrophage activation and important factors for cytokine gene expression. Collectively, this series of experiments indicates that GDB stimulates macrophage activation. PMID:24278568

  12. Neuronal plasticity depending on a glycoprotein synthesized in goldfish leptomeninx.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Rother, S; Schlingensiepen, K H; Brysch, W

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of a calcium and zinc binding, nervous system-specific cell adhesion glycoprotein, ependymin, in goldfish leptomeninx was significantly enhanced after active avoidance conditioning, followed by enhanced translation and secretion. Inactivation of secreted ependymin by injected antisera interfered with behavioral adaptations. In addition to the site of synthesis in reticular cells of the leptomeninx electronmicroscopic immunochemistry localized the protein to tectal neurons of the superficial plexiform and the periventricular cell layers. Detection of ependymin in cells where it is not synthesized, namely in neurons, suggests a re-uptake during functional activity of the CNS and assigns a pivotal role to the cerebrospinal and interstitial brain fluids for the distribution of protein factors that support axonal growth and neuronal plasticity.

  13. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2-75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level.

  14. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2–75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  15. Effects of DA-6034, a flavonoid derivative, on mucin-like glycoprotein and ocular surface integrity in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Seo, Mi Jeong; Lee, Yeong Geon; Lee, Min Jung; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Kang, Kyung Koo; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Yoo, Moohi

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether DA-6034 (7-carboxymethyloxy-3',4',5-trimethoxy flavone monohydrate), a new synthetic derivative of eupatilin, increases secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein and some mucins species in conjunctiva and cornea, and contributes to the preservation of ocular surface integrity. Human conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells were incubated with DA-6034 (1-250 microM). To investigate mucin secreting activity more directly, isolated rat conjunctival goblet cells were also used. Corneal protection was investigated using a desiccation-induced rabbit model of dry eye syndrome. It was found that DA-6034 increased mucin-like glycoprotein levels of both conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells at concentrations above 100 microM. Using human conjunctival epithelial cells, it was demonstrated that treatment with DA-6034 (200 microM) significantly increased production of some mucins species including MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC16. DA-6034 also significantly increased MUC5AC production from conjunctival goblet cells isolated from rats. In the rabbit desiccation model, an ophthalmic suspension containing 3% DA-6034 significantly reduced corneal damage induced by desiccation. These results suggest that DA-6034 is a good candidate for treatment of dry eye through maintaining ocular surface integrity, which might be related to mucin secretion.

  16. Novel functional hepatitis C virus glycoprotein isolates identified using an optimized viral pseudotype entry assay.

    PubMed

    Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; King, Barnabas; Mason, Christopher P; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W

    2016-09-01

    Retrovirus pseudotypes are a highly tractable model used to study the entry pathways of enveloped viruses. This model has been extensively applied to the study of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry pathway, preclinical screening of antiviral antibodies and for assessing the phenotype of patient-derived viruses using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) possessing the HCV E1 and E2 glycoproteins. However, not all patient-isolated clones produce particles that are infectious in this model. This study investigated factors that might limit phenotyping of patient-isolated HCV glycoproteins. Genetically related HCV glycoproteins from quasispecies in individual patients were discovered to behave very differently in this entry model. Empirical optimization of the ratio of packaging construct and glycoprotein-encoding plasmid was required for successful HCVpp genesis for different clones. The selection of retroviral packaging construct also influenced the function of HCV pseudoparticles. Some glycoprotein constructs tolerated a wide range of assay parameters, while others were much more sensitive to alterations. Furthermore, glycoproteins previously characterized as unable to mediate entry were found to be functional. These findings were validated using chimeric cell-cultured HCV bearing these glycoproteins. Using the same empirical approach we demonstrated that generation of infectious ebolavirus pseudoviruses (EBOVpv) was also sensitive to the amount and ratio of plasmids used, and that protocols for optimal production of these pseudoviruses are dependent on the exact virus glycoprotein construct. These findings demonstrate that it is crucial for studies utilizing pseudoviruses to conduct empirical optimization of pseudotype production for each specific glycoprotein sequence to achieve optimal titres and facilitate accurate phenotyping.

  17. Pregnancy Specific Glycoprotein 17 Binds to the Extracellular Loop 2 of its Receptor, CD9, and Induces the Secretion of IL-lO, IL-6, PGE2 and TGFbeta1 in Murine Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-09

    reaches up to 200-400 µg/ml at term, far exceeding the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha fetoprotein [42, 43]. Low...reach up to 200-400 µg/ml at term, far exceeding the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein [2]. Abnormally low levels...Human placental lactogen, pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein and alpha - fetoprotein in serum in threatened abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 1983. 21

  18. Plasmin-Cleaved β-2-Glycoprotein 1 Is an Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Taro; Balasubramanian, Krishnakumar; Maiti, Sourindra; Halder, Jyotsna B.; Schroit, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    β-2-Glycoprotein 1, an abundant plasma glycoprotein, binds anionic cell surfaces and functions as a regulator of thrombosis. Here, we show that cleavage of the kringle domain at Lys317/Thr318 switches its function to a regulator of angiogenesis. In vitro, the cleaved protein specifically inhibited the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. The protein was without effect on preformed endothelial cell tubes. In vivo, the cleaved protein inhibited neovascularization into subcutaneously implanted Matrigel and Gelfoam sponge implants and the growth of orthotopically injected tumors. Collectively, these data indicate that plasmin-cleaved β-2-glycoprotein 1 is a potent antiangiogenic and antitumor molecule of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:17872974

  19. Homologous and heterologous antibody responses of mice immunized with purified feline herpesvirus type 1 and canine herpesvirus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Limcumpao, J A; Horimoto, T; Xuan, X N; Tohya, Y; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Mikami, T

    1991-06-01

    The three glycoproteins each of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) were purified by affinity chromatography using glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and used individually or in combination in immunizing mice to determine their relative immunogenicity. All the glycoproteins induced detectable virus neutralizing antibodies to the homologous virus but FHV-1 gp143/108 and its cross-reacting counterpart, CHV gp145/112, elicited the highest titers not only to the homologous virus but to the heterologous virus as well. The production of ELISA antibodies after glycoprotein immunization was variable, while hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were produced by only 1 out of 10 FHV-1 gp60-inoculated mice. In general, the antibody titers induced by CHV glycoproteins were lower than those by FHV-1 glycoproteins. These results indicate that these glycoproteins may be useful as subunit vaccines against FHV-1 and CHV infections.

  20. Mechanical circulatory support is associated with loss of platelet receptors glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI.

    PubMed

    Lukito, P; Wong, A; Jing, J; Arthur, J F; Marasco, S F; Murphy, D A; Bergin, P J; Shaw, J A; Collecutt, M; Andrews, R K; Gardiner, E E; Davis, A K

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Relationship of acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) and platelet dysfunction is explored. Patients with ventricular assist devices and on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are investigated. Acquired VWD and platelet receptor shedding is demonstrated in the majority of patients. Loss of platelet adhesion receptors glycoprotein (GP) Ibα and GPVI may increase bleeding risk. Background Ventricular assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are associated with bleeding that is not fully explained by anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. Exposure of platelets to elevated shear in vitro leads to increased shedding. Objectives To investigate whether loss of platelet receptors occurs in vivo, and the relationship with acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). Methods Platelet counts, coagulation tests and von Willebrand factor (VWF) analyses were performed on samples from 21 continuous flow VAD (CF-VAD), 20 ECMO, 12 heart failure and seven aortic stenosis patients. Levels of platelet receptors were measured by flow cytometry or ELISA. Results The loss of high molecular weight VWF multimers was observed in 18 of 19 CF-VAD and 14 of 20 ECMO patients, consistent with AVWS. Platelet receptor shedding was demonstrated by elevated soluble glycoprotein (GP) VI levels in plasma and significantly reduced surface GPIbα and GPVI levels in CF-VAD and ECMO patients as compared with healthy donors. Platelet receptor levels were also significantly reduced in heart failure patients. Conclusions These data link AVWS and increased platelet receptor shedding in patients with CF-VADs or ECMO for the first time. Loss of the platelet surface receptors GPIbα and GPVI in heart failure, CF-VAD and ECMO patients may contribute to ablated platelet adhesion/activation, and limit thrombus formation under high/pathologic shear conditions. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Optimization of Unnicked β2-Glycoprotein I and High Avidity Anti-β2-Glycoprotein I Antibodies Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Artenjak, Andrej; Leonardi, Adrijana; Križaj, Igor; Ambrožič, Aleš; Sodin-Semrl, Snezna; Božič, Borut; Čučnik, Saša

    2014-01-01

    Patient biological material for isolation of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and high avidity IgG anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (HAv anti-β2GPI) dictates its full utilization. The aim of our study was to evaluate/improve procedures for isolation of unnicked β2GPI and HAv aβ2GPI to gain unmodified proteins in higher yields/purity. Isolation of β2GPI from plasma was a stepwise procedure combining nonspecific and specific methods. For isolation of polyclonal HAv aβ2GPI affinity chromatographies with immobilized protein G and human β2GPI were used. The unknown protein found during isolation was identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and the nonredundant National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The average mass of the isolated unnicked purified β2GPI increased from 6.56 mg to 9.94 mg. In the optimized isolation procedure the high molecular weight protein (proteoglycan 4) was successfully separated from β2GPI in the 1st peaks with size exclusion chromatography. The average efficiency of the isolation procedure for polyclonal HAv anti-β2GPI from different matrixes was 13.8%, as determined by our in-house anti-β2GPI ELISA. We modified the in-house isolation and purification procedures of unnicked β2GPI and HAv anti-β2GPI, improving the purity of antigen and antibodies as well as increasing the number of tests routinely performed with the in-house ELISA by ~50%. PMID:24741579

  2. Antigenic relatedness between glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B: evaluation of the contributions of F and G glycoproteins to immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P R; Olmsted, R A; Prince, G A; Murphy, B R; Alling, D W; Walsh, E E; Collins, P L

    1987-01-01

    The degree of antigenic relatedness between human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroups A and B was estimated from antibody responses induced in cotton rats by respiratory tract infection with RSV. Glycoprotein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of antibody responses induced by RSV infection demonstrated that the F glycoproteins of subgroups A and B were antigenically closely related (relatedness, R approximately 50%), whereas the G glycoproteins were only distantly related (R approximately 5%). Intermediate levels of antigenic relatedness (R approximately 25%) were seen in neutralizing antibodies from cotton rats infected with RSV of the two subgroups. Immunity against the F glycoprotein of subgroup A, induced by vaccinia-A2-F, conferred a high level of protection which was of comparable magnitude against challenge by RSV of either subgroup. In comparison, immunity against the G glycoprotein of subgroup A, induced by vaccinia-A2-G, conferred less complete, but significant, protection. Importantly, in vaccinia-A2-G-immunized animals, suppression of homologous challenge virus replication was significantly greater (13-fold) than that observed for the heterologous virus. PMID:3305988

  3. Gefarnate stimulates mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models

    PubMed Central

    Dota, Atsuyoshi; Takaoka-Shichijo, Yuko; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models. Methods Conjunctival tissue isolated from rabbits was treated with gefarnate. Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Gefarnate ointment was topically applied to eyes once daily for 7 days in the rabbit dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal glands, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed, or for 4 weeks in the cat dry-eye model, in which the lacrimal gland and nictitating membrane were removed. Corneal epithelial damage was evaluated by measurement of corneal permeability by rose bengal in the rabbit model or by fluorescein staining in the cat model. Results Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. In the rabbit dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment to the eyes resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in rose bengal permeability in the cornea, with the effect being significant at concentrations of ≥0.3%. In the cat dry-eye model, application of gefarnate ointment resulted in a significant decrease in the corneal fluorescein staining score. Conclusion These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. Gefarnate may therefore be effective for treating dry eye. PMID:23386781

  4. Dietary Hizikia fusiformis glycoprotein-induced IGF-I and IGFBP-3 associated to somatic growth, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Kang-Woong; Han, Hyon-Sob; Nam, Taek Jeong; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of dietary glycoprotein extracted from the sea mustard Hizikia fusiformis (Phaeophyceae: Sargassaceae) as a dietary supplement on growth performance in association with somatotropin level, proximate compositions, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Water-ethanol extracted glycoprotein from H. fusiformis was supplemented to three fishmeal-based diets at the concentration of 0, 5, and 10gkg(-1) diet (designated as H0, H5, and H10, respectively). After a 12week-long feeding trial, growth performance and biochemical responses were analyzed including proximate composition, and whole body amino acids and fatty acids. We also measured plasma insulin like growth factor (IGF), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) and interleukin (IL). The fish fed H5 showed the greatest weight gain among the dietary treatments. In parallel with the growth, the fish fed the diets containing H. fusiformis glycoprotein showed an increased plasma IGF-I activity and increased expression of 43-kDa IGFBP-3 compared to that in the control, whereas an opposite trend was observed for 34-kDa IGFBP-1. Although no differences were found in the level of whole body linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) among treatments, increases in arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were observed in fish fed H5 compared to control. IL-2 and -6 levels increased significantly in fish fed H10 compared to those in the control indicating increased immunity. These results suggest that supplementation of H. fusiformis glycoprotein in fish diet may be beneficial for fish growth and immunity in juvenile olive flounder. © 2013.

  5. Saint John's wort: An in vitro analysis of P-glycoprotein induction due to extended exposure

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Michael D; von Moltke, Lisa L; Störmer, Elke; Shader, Richard I; Greenblatt, David J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic use of Saint John's wort (SJW) has been shown to lower the bioavailability for a variety of co-administered drugs including indinavir, cyclosporin, and digoxin. Decreases in intestinal absorption through induction of the multidrug resistance transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may explain decreased bioavailability. The present study characterized the response of P-gp to chronic and acute exposure of SJW and hypericin (HYP, a presumed active moiety within SJW) in an in vitro system. Experiments were performed with 3 to 300 μg ml−1 of methanol-extracted SJW and 0.03 to 3 μM HYP, representing low to high estimates of intestinal concentrations. In induction experiments, LS-180 intestinal carcinoma cells were exposed for 3 days to SJW, HYP, vehicle or a positive control (ritonavir). P-gp was quantified using Western blot analysis. P-gp expression was strongly induced by SJW (400% increase at 300 μg ml−1) and by HYP (700% at 3 μM) in a dose-dependent fashion. Cells chronically treated with SJW had decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a P-gp substrate, that was reversed with acute verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Fluorescence microscopy of intact cells validated these findings. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, SJW and HYP caused moderate inhibition of P-gp-attributed transport at the maximum concentrations tested. SJW and HYP significantly induced P-gp expression at low, clinically relevant concentrations. Similar effects occurring in vivo may explain the decreased bioavailability of P-gp substrate drugs when co-administered with SJW. PMID:11739235

  6. A rapid magnetic particle-based enzyme immunoassay for human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B quantification.

    PubMed

    Pires, F; Arcos-Martinez, M Julia; Dias-Cabral, A Cristina; Vidal, Juan C; Castillo, Juan R

    2018-04-17

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpes virus that can cause severe infections. Still, the available methods for its diagnostic have the main disadvantage of requiring long time to be performed. In this work, a simple magnetic particle-based enzyme immunoassay (mpEIA) for the quantification of glycoprotein B of Human cytomegalovirus (gB-HCMV) in urine samples is proposed. The immunosensor scheme is based on the analyte protein gB-HCMV sandwiched between a primary monoclonal antibody, (MBs-PrG-mAb1), and a secondary anti-gB-HCMV antibody labelled with Horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) to allow spectrophotometric detection. The mpEIA analytical performance was tested in urine samples, showing a linear dependence between gB-HCMV concentration and the absorbance signal at 450 nm in a range of concentrations from 90 to 700 pg mL -1 . The calculated detection limits for gB-HCMV were 90 ± 2 pg mL -1 and the RSD was about 6.7% in urine samples. The immunosensor showed good selectivity against other viruses from Herpesviridae family, namely varicella zoster and Epstein Barr viruses. The recoveries of spiked human urine samples at 0.30-0.50 ng mL -1 concentration levels of gB-HCMV ranged between 91 to 105%. The proposed mpEIA method was validated following the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA-2014), and allows rapid, successful and easy quantification of gB-HCMV in urine samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential role for human P-glycoprotein in the transport of lacosamide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunbo; Chanteux, Hugues; Zuo, Zhong; Kwan, Patrick; Baum, Larry

    2013-07-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) do not effectively treat 30-40% of patients with epilepsy. Export of AEDs by P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1, or MDR1), which is overexpressed in the blood-brain barrier in drug-resistant patients, may be a mechanism for resistance to AEDs. For most recently approved AEDs, whether they are transported by Pgp is unknown. We investigated whether a new AED, lacosamide (LCM), is a substrate of human Pgp. LLC-PK1 and MDCKII cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene were used to determine the substrate status of LCM in concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETAs). An equal concentration of drug was initially loaded in both the apical and basal chambers, and the concentration in both chambers was measured up to 4 h. The experiments were repeated in the presence of the Pgp inhibitors verapamil and tariquidar. Caco-2 assays were used to determine the intrinsic permeability and efflux ratio of LCM as well as its potential to inhibit digoxin, a Pgp substrate. Lacosamide was transported by MDR1-transfected cells from basolateral to apical sides. The efflux of LCM could be completely blocked by verapamil or tariquidar. In Caco-2 assays, LCM showed high permeability without a significant efflux ratio; it did not inhibit digoxin, a Pgp substrate. Although LCM is a substrate of Pgp in CETA, Caco-2 data demonstrated that passive diffusion should play a major role in the overall disposition of LCM. The critical role of Pgp should be addressed in vivo. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Membrane microparticles mediate transfer of P-glycoprotein to drug sensitive cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bebawy, M; Combes, V; Lee, E; Jaiswal, R; Gong, J; Bonhoure, A; Grau, G E R

    2009-09-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), a significant impediment to the successful treatment of cancer clinically, has been attributed to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a plasma membrane multidrug efflux transporter. P-gp maintains sublethal intracellular drug concentrations by virtue of its drug efflux capacity. The cellular regulation of P-gp expression is currently known to occur at either pre- or post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we identify a 'non-genetic' mechanism whereby microparticles (MPs) serve as vectors in the acquisition and spread of MDR. MPs isolated from drug-resistant cancer cells (VLB(100)) were co-cultured with drug sensitive cells (CCRF-CEM) over a 4 h period to allow for MP binding and P-gp transfer. Presence of P-gp on MPs was established using flow cytometry (FCM) and western blotting. Whole-cell drug accumulation assays using rhodamine 123 and daunorubicin (DNR) were carried out to validate the transfer of functional P-gp after co-culture. We establish that MPs shed in vitro from drug-resistant cancer cells incorporate cell surface P-gp from their donor cells, effectively bind to drug-sensitive recipient cells and transfer functional P-gp to the latter. These findings serve to substantially advance our understanding of the molecular basis for the emergence of MDR in cancer clinically and lead to new treatment strategies which target and inhibit MP mediated transfer of P-gp during the course of treatment.

  9. Limited interaction between tacrolimus and P-glycoprotein in the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Hiroshi; Saikachi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mikako; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Oda, Masako; Yuhki, Yoshimitsu; Achiwa, Kazuhito; Tadano, Koji; Takahashi, Yasushi; Aungst, Bruce J

    2006-05-01

    The significance of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in determining the oral bioavailability of tacrolimus has been still controversial. In this study, we reevaluated the interaction of tacrolimus with P-gp in the rat small intestine, by evaluating its absorption from the rat small intestine and its modulating effect on the absorption of known P-gp substrates (digoxin, methylprednisolone, and vinblastine). Intestinal absorption of tacrolimus itself was as extensive as other P-gp modulators such as cyclosporine and verapamil. While cyclosporine and verapamil significantly increased the absorption of methylprednisolone and vinblastine through potent inhibition of intestinal P-gp, tacrolimus failed to achieve this. When cyclosporine and tacrolimus were intravenously administered to rats, digoxin absorption was significantly increased by cyclosporine but not by tacrolimus. When tacrolimus was coadministered with clotrimazole, a specific CYP3A inhibitor, into the rat small intestine, the area under the curve of tacrolimus blood concentrations increased more than seven-fold compared with that of tacrolimus alone. Our present results strongly suggest that the interaction between tacrolimus and P-gp is limited in the rat small intestine and that extensive metabolism by CYP3A enzymes is more responsible for the low oral bioavailability of tacrolimus. It was considered that the extensive absorption of cyclosporine and verapamil was closely associated with their potent ability to inhibit intestinal P-gp.

  10. The reconstituted P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter is a flippase for glucosylceramide and other simple glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Eckford, Paul D W; Sharom, Frances J

    2005-07-15

    The Pgp (P-glycoprotein) multidrug transporter, which is linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers, functions as an efflux pump for non-polar drugs, powered by the hydrolysis of ATP at its nucleotide binding domains. The drug binding sites of Pgp appear to be located within the cytoplasmic leaflet of the membrane bilayer, suggesting that Pgp may function as a 'flippase' for hydrophobic compounds. Pgp has been shown to translocate fluorescent phospholipids, and it has been suggested that it may also interact with GlcCer (glucosylceramide). Here we use a dithionite fluorescence quenching technique to show that reconstituted Pgp can flip several NBD (nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-labelled simple glycosphingolipids, including NBD-GlcCer, from one leaflet of the bilayer to the other in an ATP-dependent, vanadate-sensitive fashion. The rate of NBD-GlcCer flipping was similar to that observed for NBD-labelled PC (phosphatidylcholine). NBD-GlcCer flipping was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, saturable fashion by various Pgp substrates and modulators, and inhibition correlated well with the Kd for binding to the protein. The addition of a second sugar to the headgroup of the glycolipid to form NBD-lactosylceramide drastically reduced the rate of flipping compared with NBD-PC, probably because of the increased size and polarity contributed by the additional sugar residue. We conclude that Pgp functions as a broad-specificity outwardly-directed flippase for simple glycosphingolipids and membrane phospholipids.

  11. Enhanced transport of P-glycoprotein substrate saquinavir in presence of thiolated chitosan.

    PubMed

    Föger, Florian; Kafedjiiski, Krum; Hoyer, Herbert; Loretz, Brigitta; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine (Ch-TBA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on the absorption of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) substrate saquinavir in vitro and in vivo. Bidirectional transport studies were performed with Caco-2 cell monolayers and additionally with freshly excised rat small intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing type chambers. Furthermore, a delivery system based on Ch-TBA and GSH was evaluated in vivo in rats. The functional activity of the efflux pumps in Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal mucosa during the experiment was proven by the efflux ratio of saquinavir, which was 6.4 for Caco-2 cells and 2.1 for rat intestinal mucosa, respectively. Ch-TBA and particularly the combination of Ch-TBA with GSH enhanced apical (AP) absorption and decreased the secretory transport of saquinavir. In presence of 0.5% Ch-TBA and 0.5% GSH, the uptake of saquinavir was 1.6-fold improved in Caco-2 monolayer and 2.1-fold improved in rat intestinal mucosa. In vivo, the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) of saquinavir was 1.4-fold and Cmax 1.6-fold increased, in comparison with control. Results of this study showed that Ch-TBA in combination with GSH can be an interesting tool for increasing the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds.

  12. Detection of glycoprotein using fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensors with boronic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zigeng; Qian, Siyu; Gu, Yiying; Jing, Zhenguo; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBG) based surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) label-free sensors with boronic acid derivative (ABA-PBA) as receptor molecule to detect glycoprotein with high sensitivity and selectivity. Tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBG) as a near infrared wavelengths detecting element can be able to excite a number of cladding modes whose properties can be detected accurately by measuring the variation of transmitted spectra. A 10° TFBG coated by 50nm gold film was manufactured to stimulate surface plasmon resonance on the surface of the sensor. The sensor was loaded with boronic acid derivative as the recognition molecule which has been widely used in various areas for the recognition matrix of diol-containing biomolecules. The proposed TFBG-SPR sensors exhibit good selectivity and repeatability with the protein concentration sensitivity up to 2.867dB/ (mg/ml) and the limit of detection was 2*10-5g/ml.

  13. Menadione serves as a substrate for P-glycoprotein: implication in chemosensitizing activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Jeong; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Kang, Keon-Wook; Lee, Young-Joo; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2013-04-01

    Based on its chemosensitizing effect, we questioned whether menadione is an inhibitor or a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effect of menadione on P-gp activity and examined the P-gp-dependency of cellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of menadione as well. Treatment with menadione resulted in the concentration-dependent increase of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation in P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII/MDR1 and NCI/ADR-RES cells, suggesting that menadione inhibits Rh123 extrusion by P-gp. Compared with MDCKII or MCF-7, intracellular distribution of [(3)H]-menadione was significantly lower in MDCKII/MDR1 or NCI/ADR-RES cells, which could be restored by the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and quinidine. Consistent with these results, MDCKII/MDR1 or NCI/ADR-RES cells were more resistant to the cytotoxicity of menadione than MDCKII or MCF-7 cells, respectively. Such resistance was abolished by the combined treatment of verapamil and quinidine in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Our study identified menadione as a substrate of P-gp, which presumably, acts as the mechanism for the chemosensitizing effect. Menadione may be a promising chemotherapeutic enhancer by its ability of circumventing drug resistance, in addition to its own anti-cancer activity.

  14. Intercalated cell-specific Rh B glycoprotein deletion diminishes renal ammonia excretion response to hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Jesse M.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E.; Han, Ki-Hwan; Verlander, Jill W.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg), is an ammonia-specific transporter heavily expressed in the kidney and is necessary for the normal increase in ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia is a common clinical condition in which there is increased renal ammonia excretion despite the absence of metabolic acidosis. The purpose of this study was to examine Rhbg's role in this response through the use of mice with intercalated cell-specific Rhbg deletion (IC-Rhbg-KO). Hypokalemia induced by feeding a K+-free diet increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. In mice with intact Rhbg expression, hypokalemia increased Rhbg protein expression in intercalated cells in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). Deletion of Rhbg from intercalated cells inhibited hypokalemia-induced changes in urinary total ammonia excretion significantly and completely prevented hypokalemia-induced increases in urinary ammonia concentration, but did not alter urinary pH. We conclude that hypokalemia increases Rhbg expression in intercalated cells in the cortex and outer medulla and that intercalated cell Rhbg expression is necessary for the normal increase in renal ammonia excretion in response to hypokalemia. PMID:23220726

  15. Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session.

  16. Geneva Cocktail for Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activity Assessment Using Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  17. A simple and rapid microplate assay for glycoprotein-processing glycosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.S.; Zwolshen, J.H.; Harry, B.S.

    1989-08-15

    A simple and convenient microplate assay for glycosidases involved in the glycoprotein-processing reactions is described. The assay is based on specific binding of high-mannose-type oligosaccharide substrates to concanavalin A-Sepharose, while monosaccharides liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis do not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. By the use of radiolabeled substrates (( 3H)glucose for glucosidases and (3H)mannose for mannosidases), the radioactivity in the liberated monosaccharides can be determined as a measure of the enzymatic activity. This principle was employed earlier for developing assays for glycosidases previously reported. These authors have reported the separation of substrate from the product by concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography. Thismore » procedure is handicapped by the fact that it cannot be used for a large number of samples and is time consuming. We have simplified this procedure and adapted it to the use of a microplate (96-well plate). This would help in processing a large number of samples in a short time. In this report we show that the assay is comparable to the column assay previously reported. It is linear with time and enzyme concentration and shows expected kinetics with castanospermine, a known inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I.« less

  18. Evaluation of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potential Using a Rhodamine 123 Accumulation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Jouan, Elodie; Le Vée, Marc; Mayati, Abdullah; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potential is now a regulatory issue during drug development, in order to predict clinical inhibition of P-gp and subsequent drug–drug interactions. Assays for this purpose, commonly based on P-gp-expressing cell lines and digoxin as a reference P-gp substrate probe, unfortunately exhibit high variability, raising thus the question of developing alternative or complementary tests for measuring inhibition of P-gp activity. In this context, the present study was designed to investigate the use of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 as a reference P-gp substrate probe for characterizing P-gp inhibitory potential of 16 structurally-unrelated drugs known to interact with P-gp. 14/16 of these P-gp inhibitors were found to increase rhodamine 123 accumulation in P-gp-overexpressing MCF7R cells, thus allowing the determination of their P-gp inhibitory potential, i.e., their half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) value towards P-gp-mediated transport of the dye. These IC50 values were in the range of variability of previously reported IC50 for P-gp and can be used for the prediction of clinical P-gp inhibition according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria, with notable sensitivity (80%). Therefore, the data demonstrated the feasibility of the use of rhodamine 123 for evaluating the P-gp inhibitory potential of drugs. PMID:27077878

  19. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux in Caco-2 Cells by Phytic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Lujia; Fu, Qingxue; Xia, Mengxin; Xin, Lei; Shen, Hongyi; Li, Guowen; Ji, Guang; Meng, Qianchao; Xie, Yan

    2018-01-31

    Phytic acid (IP6) is a natural phosphorylated inositol, which is abundantly present in most cereal grains and seeds. This study investigated the effects of IP6 regulation on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its potential mechanisms using in situ and in vitro models. The effective permeability of the typical P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) in colon was significantly increased from (1.69 ± 0.22) × 10 -5 cm/s in the control group to (3.39 ± 0.417) × 10 -5 cm/s (p < 0.01) in the 3.5 mM IP6 group. Additionally, IP6 can concentration-dependently decrease the R123 efflux ratio in both Caco-2 and MDCK II-MDR1 cell monolayers and increase intracellular R123 accumulation in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, IP6 noncompetitively inhibited P-gp by impacting R123 efflux kinetics. The noncompetitive inhibition of P-gp by IP6 was likely due to decreases in P-gp ATPase activity and P-gp molecular conformational changes induced by IP6. In summary, IP6 is a promising P-gp inhibitor candidate.

  20. Cbl-b is a novel physiologic regulator of glycoprotein VI-dependent platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Daniel, James L; Dangelmaier, Carol A; Mada, Sripal; Buitrago, Lorena; Jin, Jianguo; Langdon, Wallace Y; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Kunapuli, Satya P; Sanjay, Archana

    2010-06-04

    Cbl-b, a member of the Cbl family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, plays an important role in the activation of lymphocytes. However, its function in platelets remains unknown. We show that Cbl-b is expressed in human platelets along with c-Cbl, but in contrast to c-Cbl, it is not tyrosine-phosphorylated upon glycoprotein VI (GPVI) stimulation. Cbl-b, unlike c-Cbl, is not required for Syk ubiquitylation downstream of GPVI activation. Phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are constituently associated with Cbl-b. Cbl-b-deficient (Cbl-b(-/-)) platelets display an inhibition in the concentration-response curve for GPVI-specific agonist-induced aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization. A parallel inhibition is found for activation of PLCgamma2 and BTK. However, Syk activation is not affected by the absence of Cbl-b, indicating that Cbl-b acts downstream of Syk but upstream of BTK and PLCgamma2. When Cbl-b(-/-) mice were tested in the ferric chloride thrombosis model, occlusion time was increased and clot stability was reduced compared with wild type controls. These data indicate that Cbl-b plays a positive modulatory role in GPVI-dependent platelet signaling, which translates to an important regulatory role in hemostasis and thrombosis in vivo.

  1. Characterization of a salt-responsive 24-kilodalton glycoprotein in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, H E; Edwards, G E; Grimes, H D

    1994-01-01

    A concanavalin A (Con A)-binding polypeptide with a molecular mass of 24 kD (termed "SRgp24") was associated with the intercellular space of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. callus. When callus was grown in medium containing between 0 and 100 mM NaCl, SRgp24 was detected by Con A binding. Increasing the NaCl concentration to 200 mM caused a reduction in the amount of SRgp24 within 3 d, and returning the callus to medium without salt resulted in an accumulation of SRgp24. Immunoblot analysis showed that appreciable amounts of SRgp24 accumulated in the leaves when plants were grown under sodium-limiting conditions. Unlike most of the cell-wall Con A-binding proteins in M. crystallinum callus, the carbohydrate moiety of SRgp24 was resistant to endoglycosidase H digestion. After purification of SRgp24, the N terminus was sequenced and found to share 55 to 60% identity with the N terminus of osmotin, a group 5 pathogenesis-related protein (PR-5) that accumulates in salt-adapted tobacco cell suspension. Immunocytochemical assays, with affinity-purified antibodies to SRgp24, indicated that SRgp24 preferentially accumulated in the cell-wall region. We conclude that SRgp24 is a salt-responsive glycoprotein related to the PR-5 family in M. crystallinum. PMID:7972493

  2. Purification and characterization of an antioxidant glycoprotein from the hydrolysate of Mustelus griseus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongrui; Wang, Bin; Chi, Changfeng; Gong, Yandan; Tang, Jiajia; Luo, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    An antioxidant glycoprotein (Fraction AIV-2) with molecular weight of 27.2 kDa was purified from the ethanol-soluble protein hydrolysate of Mustelus griseus muscle. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of Fraction AIV-2 reached up to 96.73±2.33% and was higher than that of ascorbic acid at the concentration of 5.0mg/mL. Total protein and carbohydrate contents of Fraction AIV-2 were 62.65±0.63% and 33.49±1.60%, respectively. Seventeen amino acids were identified in Fraction AIV-2, most of which are serine. GC-MS analysis showed that Fraction AIV-2 was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and mannose with the ratio of 1.00:1.53:7.27:9.07:2.09. The FT-IR spectrum of Fraction AIV-2 showed typical characteristics of polysaccharide and protein. For Fraction AIV-2, the changes of ultraviolet absorption curve, amino acid composition after the β-elimination reaction and its deglycosylation with the treatment of N-glycosidase F suggested that both O-glycosidic and N-glycosidic bonds were involved in the polysaccharide and protein moieties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Influenza Virus Pseudotyped with Ebolavirus Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Julie Huiyuan; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Wright, Edward; Annaert, Wim; Townsend, Alain

    2018-02-15

    We have produced a new Ebola virus pseudotype, E-S-FLU, that can be handled in biosafety level 1/2 containment for laboratory analysis. The E-S-FLU virus is a single-cycle influenza virus coated with Ebolavirus glycoprotein, and it encodes enhanced green fluorescence protein as a reporter that replaces the influenza virus hemagglutinin. MDCK-SIAT1 cells were transduced to express Ebolavirus glycoprotein as a stable transmembrane protein for E-S-FLU virus production. Infection of cells with the E-S-FLU virus was dependent on the Niemann-Pick C1 protein, which is the well-characterized receptor for Ebola virus entry at the late endosome/lysosome membrane. The E-S-FLU virus was neutralized specifically by an anti-Ebolavirus glycoprotein antibody and a variety of small drug molecules that are known to inhibit the entry of wild-type Ebola virus. To demonstrate the application of this new Ebola virus pseudotype, we show that a single laboratory batch was sufficient to screen a library (LOPAC 1280 ; Sigma) of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of virus entry. A total of 215 compounds inhibited E-S-FLU virus infection, while only 22 inhibited the control H5-S-FLU virus coated in H5 hemagglutinin. These inhibitory compounds have very dispersed targets and mechanisms of action, e.g., calcium channel blockers, estrogen receptor antagonists, antihistamines, serotonin uptake inhibitors, etc., and this correlates with inhibitor screening results obtained with other pseudotypes or wild-type Ebola virus in the literature. The E-S-FLU virus is a new tool for Ebola virus cell entry studies and is easily applied to high-throughput screening assays for small-molecule inhibitors or antibodies. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is in the Filoviridae family and is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics for Ebola virus. These characteristics warrant the development of surrogates for Ebola virus that can be handled in more convenient laboratory

  4. Characterization of Influenza Virus Pseudotyped with Ebolavirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Julie Huiyuan; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Wright, Edward; Annaert, Wim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have produced a new Ebola virus pseudotype, E-S-FLU, that can be handled in biosafety level 1/2 containment for laboratory analysis. The E-S-FLU virus is a single-cycle influenza virus coated with Ebolavirus glycoprotein, and it encodes enhanced green fluorescence protein as a reporter that replaces the influenza virus hemagglutinin. MDCK-SIAT1 cells were transduced to express Ebolavirus glycoprotein as a stable transmembrane protein for E-S-FLU virus production. Infection of cells with the E-S-FLU virus was dependent on the Niemann-Pick C1 protein, which is the well-characterized receptor for Ebola virus entry at the late endosome/lysosome membrane. The E-S-FLU virus was neutralized specifically by an anti-Ebolavirus glycoprotein antibody and a variety of small drug molecules that are known to inhibit the entry of wild-type Ebola virus. To demonstrate the application of this new Ebola virus pseudotype, we show that a single laboratory batch was sufficient to screen a library (LOPAC1280; Sigma) of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of virus entry. A total of 215 compounds inhibited E-S-FLU virus infection, while only 22 inhibited the control H5-S-FLU virus coated in H5 hemagglutinin. These inhibitory compounds have very dispersed targets and mechanisms of action, e.g., calcium channel blockers, estrogen receptor antagonists, antihistamines, serotonin uptake inhibitors, etc., and this correlates with inhibitor screening results obtained with other pseudotypes or wild-type Ebola virus in the literature. The E-S-FLU virus is a new tool for Ebola virus cell entry studies and is easily applied to high-throughput screening assays for small-molecule inhibitors or antibodies. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is in the Filoviridae family and is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. There are no FDA-approved therapeutics for Ebola virus. These characteristics warrant the development of surrogates for Ebola virus that can be handled in more convenient

  5. Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN) and measles hemagglutinin (MeH) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach. Results Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps) that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto) in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response. Conclusions Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of these recombinant

  6. [Pregnancy-specific beta-glycoprotein in the serum of women with a complicated early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Radikov, N

    1989-01-01

    The author determined pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in 109 women with threatened early pregnancy as 32 of the women suffered from abortus imminens with several unsuccessful pregnancies in the past as well as 67 women with abortus incipiens with bleeding ex utero. The author established that 87% of women with abortus imminens and preserved pregnancies had values of beta 1-glycoprotein close to those of normal pregnancy for the respective gestational week. 93% of women with abortus incipiens preserved pregnancies till term, but the specific glycoprotein was with in normal ranges. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 7% of women with low values under the 10th percentile. The present study show that examination of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in women with threatened early pregnancy is of prognostic significance for the outcome of pregnancy.

  7. Presynaptic neurones may contribute a unique glycoprotein to the extracellular matrix at the synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroni, Pico; Carlson, Steven S.; Schweitzer, Erik; Kelly, Regis B.

    1985-04-01

    As the extracellular matrix at the original site of a neuromuscular junction seems to play a major part in the specificity of synaptic regeneration1-5, considerable attention has been paid to unique molecules localized to this region6-11. Here we describe an extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the elasmobranch electric organ that is localized near the nerve endings. By immunological criteria, it is synthesized in the cell bodies, transported down the axons and is related to a glycoprotein in the synaptic vesicles of the neurones that innervate the electric organ. It is apparently specific for these neurones, as it cannot be detected elsewhere in the nervous system of the fish. Therefore, neurones seem to contribute unique extracellular matrix glycoproteins to the synaptic region. Synaptic vesicles could be involved in transporting these glycoproteins to or from the nerve terminal surface.

  8. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5425 - Alpha-2-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the alpha-2-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-2 group when subjected to... some cancers and genetically inherited deficiencies of these plasma proteins. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. Glycoproteins functionalized natural and synthetic polymers for prospective biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, Shazia; Noreen, Aqdas; Kanwal, Arooj; Zuber, Mohammad; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2017-05-01

    Glycoproteins have multidimensional properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, antimicrobial and adsorption properties; therefore, they have wide range of applications. They are blended with different polymers such as chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), heparin, polystyrene fluorescent nanoparticles (PS-NPs) and carboxyl pullulan (PC) to improve their properties like thermal stability, mechanical properties, resistance to pH, chemical stability and toughness. Considering the versatile charateristics of glycoprotein based polymers, this review sheds light on synthesis and characterization of blends and composites of glycoproteins, with natural and synthetic polymers and their potential applications in biomedical field such as drug delivery system, insulin delivery, antimicrobial wound dressing uses, targeting of cancer cells, development of anticancer vaccines, development of new biopolymers, glycoproteome research, food product and detection of dengue glycoproteins. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed; highlighting the recent advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunoinformatic Analysis of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Glycoproteins and Epitope Prediction for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tipu, Hamid Nawaz

    2016-02-01

    To determine the Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus M segement glycoprotein's immunoinformatic parameters, and identify Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I binders as candidates for synthetic peptide vaccines. Cross-sectional study. Combined Military Hospital, Khuzdar Cantt, in May 2015. Data acquisition, antigenicity prediction, secondary and tertiary structure prediction, residue analysis were done using immunoinformatics tools. HLAclass I binders in glycoprotein's sequence were identified at nanomer length using NetMHC 3.4 and mapped onto tertiary structure. Docking was done for strongest binder against its corresponding allele with CABS-dock. HLAA*0101, 0201, 0301, 2402, 2601 and B*0702, 0801, 2705, 3901, 4001, 5801, 1501 were analyzed against two glycoprotein components of the virus. Atotal of 35 nanomers from GP1, and 3 from GP2 were identified. HLAB*0702 bound maximum number of peptides (6), while HLAB*4001 showed strongest binding affinity. HLAspecific glycoproteins epitope prediction can help identify synthetic peptide vaccine candidates.

  16. Importance of the short cytoplasmic domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein for fusion activity and envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions

    SciTech Connect

    Celma, Cristina C.P.; Paladino, Monica G.; Gonzalez, Silvia A.

    2007-09-30

    The mature form of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein of lentiviruses is a heterodimer composed of the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) possesses a TM glycoprotein with a cytoplasmic tail of approximately 53 amino acids which is unusually short compared with that of the other lentiviral glycoproteins (more than 100 residues). To investigate the relevance of the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain to Env-mediated viral functions, we characterized the biological properties of a series of Env glycoproteins progressively shortened from the carboxyl terminus. All the mutant Env proteins were efficiently expressed in feline cells and processed intomore » the SU and TM subunits. Deletion of 5 or 11 amino acids from the TM C-terminus did not significantly affect Env surface expression, fusogenic activity or Env incorporation into virions, whereas removal of 17 or 23 residues impaired Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Further truncation of the FIV TM by 29 residues resulted in an Env glycoprotein that was poorly expressed at the cell surface, exhibited only 20% of the wild-type Env fusogenic capacity and was inefficiently incorporated into virions. Remarkably, deletion of the TM C-terminal 35 or 41 amino acids restored or even enhanced Env biological functions. Indeed, these mutant Env glycoproteins bearing cytoplasmic domains of 18 or 12 amino acids were found to be significantly more fusogenic than the wild-type Env and were efficiently incorporated into virions. Interestingly, truncation of the TM cytoplasmic domain to only 6 amino acids did not affect Env incorporation into virions but abrogated Env fusogenicity. Finally, removal of the entire TM cytoplasmic tail or deletion of as many as 6 amino acids into the membrane-spanning domain led to a complete loss of Env functions. Our results demonstrate that despite its relatively short length, the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain plays an important role in modulating Env-mediated viral

  17. Elliptical concentrators.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  18. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Donald L; Sharom, Frances J; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E; Chu, Joseph W K; Wright, Stephen E; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-03-01

    P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2=0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 min, and requires minimal quantities of test drug. The method is amenable to robotics and

  19. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Donald L.; Sharom, Frances J.; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E.; Chu, Joseph W.K.; Wright, Stephen E.; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Methods Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Results Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2 = 0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Discussion This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 minutes, and requires minimal quantities of test

  20. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  1. The glycoproteins of Marburg and Ebola virus and their potential roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H; Volchkov, V E; Volchkova, V A; Klenk, H D

    1999-01-01

    Filoviruses cause systemic infections that can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates. The primary target of the virus appears to be the mononuclear phagocytic system. As the virus spreads through the organism, the spectrum of target cells increases to include endothelial cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and many other cells. There is evidence that the filovirus glycoprotein plays an important role in cell tropism, spread of infection, and pathogenicity. Biosynthesis of the glycoprotein forming the spikes on the virion surface involves cleavage by the host cell protease furin into two disulfide linked subunits GP1 and GP2. GP1 is also shed in soluble form from infected cells. Different strains of Ebola virus show variations in the cleavability of the glycoprotein, that may account for differences in pathogenicity, as has been observed with influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. Expression of the spike glycoprotein of Ebola virus, but not of Marburg virus, requires transcriptional editing. Unedited GP mRNA yields the nonstructural glycoprotein sGP, which is secreted extensively from infected cells. Whether the soluble glycoproteins GP1 and sGP interfere with the humoral immune response and other defense mechanisms remains to be determined.

  2. Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in the Postfusion Conformation Reveals Preservation of Neutralizing Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason S.; Yang, Yongping; Graham, Barney S.

    2011-09-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) invades host cells via a type I fusion (F) glycoprotein that undergoes dramatic structural rearrangements during the fusion process. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, such as 101F, palivizumab, and motavizumab, target two major antigenic sites on the RSV F glycoprotein. The structures of these sites as peptide complexes with motavizumab and 101F have been previously determined, but a structure for the trimeric RSV F glycoprotein ectodomain has remained elusive. To address this issue, we undertook structural and biophysical studies on stable ectodomain constructs. Here, we present the 2.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of the trimeric RSV F ectodomain in itsmore » postfusion conformation. The structure revealed that the 101F and motavizumab epitopes are present in the postfusion state and that their conformations are similar to those observed in the antibody-bound peptide structures. Both antibodies bound the postfusion F glycoprotein with high affinity in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Modeling of the antibodies bound to the F glycoprotein predicts that the 101F epitope is larger than the linear peptide and restricted to a single protomer in the trimer, whereas motavizumab likely contacts residues on two protomers, indicating a quaternary epitope. Mechanistically, these results suggest that 101F and motavizumab can bind to multiple conformations of the fusion glycoprotein and can neutralize late in the entry process. The structural preservation of neutralizing epitopes in the postfusion state suggests that this conformation can elicit neutralizing antibodies and serve as a useful vaccine antigen.« less

  3. [C-terminal lysosome targeting domain of CD63 modifies cellular localization of rabies virus glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Starodubova, E S; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Preobrazhenskaya, O V; Karpov, V L

    2017-01-01

    The glycoprotein of rabies virus is the central antigen elicited the immune response to infection; therefore, the majority of developing anti-rabies vaccines are based on this protein. In order to increase the efficacy of DNA immunogen encoding rabies virus glycoprotein, the construction of chimeric protein with the CD63 domain has been proposed. The CD63 is a transmembrane protein localized on the cell surface and in lysosomes. The lysosome targeting motif GYEVM is located at its C-terminus. We used the domain that bears this motif (c-CD63) to generate chimeric glycoprotein in order to relocalize it into lysosomes. Here, it was shown that, in cells transfected with plasmid that encodes glycoprotein with c-CD63 motif at the C-terminus, the chimeric protein was predominantly observed in lysosomes and at the cell membrane where the unmodified glycoprotein is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and at the cell surface. We suppose that current modification of the glycoprotein may improve the immunogenicity of anti-rabies DNA vaccines due to more efficient antibody production.

  4. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  5. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) promotes substrate solubility in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Sean P.; Jaber, Nikita S.; Molinari, Maurizio; Arvan, Peter; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is error prone, and ER quality control (ERQC) processes ensure that only correctly folded proteins are exported from the ER. Glycoproteins can be retained in the ER by ERQC, and this retention contributes to multiple human diseases, termed ER storage diseases. UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT1) acts as a central component of glycoprotein ERQC, monoglucosylating deglucosylated N-glycans of incompletely folded glycoproteins and promoting subsequent reassociation with the lectin-like chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. The extent to which UGGT1 influences glycoprotein folding, however, has only been investigated for a few selected substrates. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking UGGT1 or those with UGGT1 complementation, we investigated the effect of monoglucosylation on the soluble/insoluble distribution of two misfolded α1-antitrypsin (AAT) variants responsible for AAT deficiency disease: null Hong Kong (NHK) and Z allele. Whereas substrate solubility increases directly with the number of N-linked glycosylation sites, our results indicate that additional solubility is conferred by UGGT1 enzymatic activity. Monoglucosylation-dependent solubility decreases both BiP association with NHK and unfolded protein response activation, and the solubility increase is blocked in cells deficient for calreticulin. These results suggest that UGGT1-dependent monoglucosylation of N-linked glycoproteins promotes substrate solubility in the ER. PMID:23864712

  7. Microheterogeneity of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in healthy elderly subjects: patterns obtained by crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kawerk, N; Succari-Aderschlag, M; Foglietti, M J

    1991-10-14

    Total serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration and concanavalin A-dependent microheterogeneity were studied in 31 healthy elderly subjects (18 men, 13 women, 71 to 76 yr old). Crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis (CAIE) revealed three microheterogeneity variants of AGP: non-reactive, weakly reactive and strongly reactive with ConA. Two patterns were found in both elderly men and women, i.e. a normal pattern and one with an increase in the non-reactive form. Mean serum AGP levels in the elderly subjects with slightly higher than in a reference group of younger subjects. The Con A non-reactive form of AGP was increased in 42% of the elderly population. An increase in the non-reactive form of AGP in CAIE should be considered as general expression of chronic inflammation which is of no clinical relevance.

  8. Lactoferrin: A Natural Glycoprotein Involved in Iron and Inflammatory Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cutone, Antimo; Lepanto, Maria Stefania; Paesano, Rosalba; Valenti, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Human lactoferrin (hLf), an iron-binding multifunctional cationic glycoprotein secreted by exocrine glands and by neutrophils, is a key element of host defenses. HLf and bovine Lf (bLf), possessing high sequence homology and identical functions, inhibit bacterial growth and biofilm dependently from iron binding ability while, independently, bacterial adhesion to and the entry into cells. In infected/inflamed host cells, bLf exerts an anti-inflammatory activity against interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus up-regulating ferroportin (Fpn) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and down-regulating ferritin (Ftn), pivotal actors of iron and inflammatory homeostasis (IIH). Consequently, bLf inhibits intracellular iron overload, an unsafe condition enhancing in vivo susceptibility to infections, as well as anemia of inflammation (AI), re-establishing IIH. In pregnant women, affected by AI, bLf oral administration decreases IL-6 and increases hematological parameters. This surprising effect is unrelated to iron supplementation by bLf (80 μg instead of 1–2 mg/day), but to its role on IIH. AI is unrelated to the lack of iron, but to iron delocalization: cellular/tissue overload and blood deficiency. BLf cures AI by restoring iron from cells to blood through Fpn up-expression. Indeed, anti-inflammatory activity of oral and intravaginal bLf prevents preterm delivery. Promising bLf treatments can prevent/cure transitory inflammation/anemia/oral pathologies in athletes. PMID:28914813

  9. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantialmore » contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.« less

  10. Expression of the rabies virus glycoprotein in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, P B; Hammond, J; Dienelt, M M; Hooper, D C; Fu, Z F; Dietzschold, B; Koprowski, H; Michaels, F H

    1995-12-01

    We have engineered tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. UC82b) to express a gene for the glycoprotein (G-protein), which coats the outer surface of the rabies virus. The recombinant constructs contained the G-protein gene from the ERA strain of rabies virus, including the signal peptide, under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. Plants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotyledons and tissue culture on selective media. PCR confirmed the presence of the G-protein gene in plants surviving selection. Northern blot analysis indicated that RNA of the appropriate molecular weight was produced in both leaves and fruit of the transgenic plants. The recombinant G-protein was immunoprecipitated and detected by Western blot from leaves and fruit using different antisera. The G-protein expressed in tomato appeared as two distinct bands with apparent molecular mass of 62 and 60 kDa as compared to the 66 kDa observed for G-protein from virus grown in BHK cells. Electron microscopy of leaf tissue using immunogold-labeling and antisera specific for rabies G-protein showed localization of the G-protein to the Golgi bodies, vesicles, plasmalemma and cell walls of vascular parenchyma cells. In light of our previous demonstration that orally administered rabies G-protein from the same ERA strain elicits protective immunity in animals, these transgenic plants should provide a valuable tool for the development of edible oral vaccines.

  11. Host cell tropism mediated by Australian bat lyssavirus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Weir, Dawn L; Smith, Ina L; Bossart, Katharine N; Wang, Lin-Fa; Broder, Christopher C

    2013-09-01

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus of the lyssavirus genus capable of causing fatal rabies-like encephalitis in humans. There are two variants of ABLV, one circulating in pteropid fruit bats and another in insectivorous bats. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. We examined the host cell entry of ABLV, characterizing its tropism and exploring its cross-species transmission potential using maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins. Results indicate that the ABLV receptor(s) is conserved but not ubiquitous among mammalian cell lines and that the two ABLV variants can utilize alternate receptors for entry. Proposed rabies virus receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes an unknown alternative receptor(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The sweet and sour of serological glycoprotein tumor biomarker quantification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant and dysregulated protein glycosylation is a well-established event in the process of oncogenesis and cancer progression. Years of study on the glycobiology of cancer have been focused on the development of clinically viable diagnostic applications of this knowledge. However, for a number of reasons, there has been only sparse and varied success. The causes of this range from technical to biological issues that arise when studying protein glycosylation and attempting to apply it to practical applications. This review focuses on the pitfalls, advances, and future directions to be taken in the development of clinically applicable quantitative assays using glycan moieties from serum-based proteins as analytes. Topics covered include the development and progress of applications of lectins, mass spectrometry, and other technologies towards this purpose. Slowly but surely, novel applications of established and development of new technologies will eventually provide us with the tools to reach the ultimate goal of quantification of the full scope of heterogeneity associated with the glycosylation of biomarker candidate glycoproteins in a clinically applicable fashion. PMID:23390961

  13. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Rajshekher, G; Prabhakar, Subhashini

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved treatment for AIS, is received by less than 2% of patients. Moreover, there is a slight increase in hemorrhagic complications with thrombolysis. Therefore, there is a need for newer therapeutic modalities in AIS, which could be used in window periods beyond 3-6 h after stroke onset with fewer hemorrhagic complications. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI), after their initial success in patients with acute coronary syndromes, promised much in patients with AIS over the past decade or so. However, their exact role in patients with AIS, including the window periods and type of strokes, and the risk of symptomatic or asymptomatic hemorrhage are unclear at the moment. The current review focuses on the literature concerning the use of GPI in AIS and looks at the available evidence regarding their use. Abciximab thought to be safe and effective in initial case series and early trials, has not been shown to improve outcomes in AIS, and is associated with higher rates of hemorrhage. Tirofiban appears to be safe and effective in initial trials and there is a need to conduct further trials to establish its role in AIS.

  14. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa

    2006-09-30

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen wasmore » also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems.« less

  15. The roles of ebolavirus glycoproteins in viral pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yun-Jia; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin

    2017-02-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly dangerous pathogens exhibiting extreme virulence in humans and nonhuman primates. The majority of ebolavirus species, most notably Zaire ebolavirus, can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, in humans. EVD is associated with case-fatality rates as high as 90%, and there is currently no specific treatment or licensed vaccine available against EVD. Understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of ebolaviruses is important for the development of antiviral therapeutics. Ebolavirus encodes several forms of glycoproteins (GPs), which have some interesting characteristics, including the transcriptional editing coding strategy and extensive O-glycosylation modification, clustered in the mucin-like domain of GP1, full-length GP (GP 1,2 ), and shed GP. In addition to the canonical role of the spike protein, GP 1,2 , in viral entry, ebolavirus GPs appear to have multiple additional functions, likely contributing to the complex pathogenesis of the virus. Here, we review the roles of ebolavirus GPs in viral pathogenesis.

  16. Evolution of specificity in cartilaginous fish glycoprotein hormones and receptors.

    PubMed

    Buechi, Hanna B; Bridgham, Jamie T

    2017-05-15

    Glycoprotein hormones (GpH) interact very specifically with their receptors to mediate hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral gland endocrine signaling. Vertebrates typically have three functionally distinct GpH endocrine signaling complexes: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, and their receptors. Each hormone consists of a common α subunit bound to one of three different β subunits. Individual hormone subunits and receptors are present in genomes of early metazoans, and a subset of hormone subunits and receptors has been recently characterized in sea lamprey. However, it remains unclear when the full complement of hormone and receptor protein families first appeared, and when specificity of interactions between GpH hormones and receptors first evolved. Here we present phylogenetic analyses showing that the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) genome contains sequences representing the current diversity of all hormone subunits and receptors in these co-evolving protein families. We examined specificity of hormone and receptor interactions using functional assays testing reporter gene activation by elephant shark follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We show highly specific, dose-responsive hormone interactions for all three complexes. Our results suggest that co-evolution of specificity between proteins in these endocrine signaling complexes occurred prior to the divergence of Chondrichthyes from the chordate lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine–rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein α-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine–rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with β-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  18. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-Ling; Peters, Nicholas S; Henry, John A

    2006-03-01

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) is an acute phase protein capable of binding basic drugs. This action explains its reversal of sodium channel blockade by drugs such as amitriptyline and quinidine. We report here the reversal of cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade by AAG. The sodium channel blocking property of cocaine is a major mechanism behind cocaine-induced sudden cardiac death, since sodium channels play a key role in the initiation and regulation of the heart beat. Voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) was recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Guinea-pig cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated and continuously perfused at room temperature with physiological solutions. At concentrations ranging from 5 to 320 microM cocaine showed a dose-dependent and reversible blockade of I(Na) with an IC50 of 45.9 microM. The addition of equimolar amounts of AAG to cocaine produced almost complete reversal of cocaine's effects, suggesting a single binding site for cocaine on the AAG molecule. With changes of peak I(Na) normalized against control as 1, cocaine at 20 and 40 microM reduced I(Na) to 0.62+/-0.042 (n = 6) and 0.57+/-0.052 (n = 9), respectively, and the addition of an equimolar concentration of AAG reversed I(Na) to 0.86+/-0.022 and 0.91+/-0.060, respectively. AAG reverses cocaine-induced sodium channel blockade in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a therapeutic potential to reverse acute cocaine cardiac toxicity.

  19. An in vitro evaluation of guanfacine as a substrate for P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Nancy K; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Markowitz, John S

    2011-01-01

    Background With a US Food and Drug Administration-labeled indication to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the nonstimulant guanfacine has become the preferred α2-agonist for ADHD treatment. However, significant interindividual variability has been observed in response to guanfacine. Consequently, hypotheses of a contributing interaction with the ubiquitously expressed drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), have arisen. We performed an in vitro study to determine if guanfacine is indeed a substrate of P-gp. Methods Intracellular accumulation of guanfacine was compared between P-gp expressing LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells and P-gp-negative LLC-PK1 cells to evaluate the potential interaction between P-gp and guanfacine. Cellular retention of guanfacine was analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic-ultraviolet method. Rhodamine6G, a known P-gp substrate, was included in the study as a positive control. Results At guanfacine concentrations of 50 μM and 5 μM, intracellular accumulation of guanfacine in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells was, 35.9% ± 4.8% and 49.0% ± 28.3% respectively, of that in LLC-PK1 cells. In comparison, the concentration of rhodamine6G, the positive P-gp substrate, in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells was only 5% of that in LLC-PK1 cells. Conclusion The results of the intracellular accumulation study suggest that guanfacine is, at best, a weak P-gp substrate. Therefore, it is unlikely that P-gp, or any genetic variants thereof, are a determining factor in the interindividual variability of response observed with guanfacine therapy. PMID:21931492

  20. Overexpression of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in transgenic mice leads to sensitisation to acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Hochepied, T; Wullaert, A; Berger, F G; Baumann, H; Brouckaert, P; Steidler, L; Libert, C

    2002-09-01

    alpha(1)-Acid glycoprotein (alpha(1)-AGP) is an acute phase protein in most mammalian species whose concentration rises 2-5-fold during an acute phase reaction. Its serum concentration has often been used as a marker of disease, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). High alpha(1)-AGP levels were found to have a prognostic value for an increased risk of relapse in IBD. To investigate a possible role for increased serum levels of alpha(1)-AGP in the development of IBD. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) 2% was added to the drinking water of transgenic mice, overexpressing the rat alpha(1)-AGP gene, to induce acute colitis, thus mimicking the conditions of relapse. Clinical parameters, inflammatory parameters, and histological analyses on colon sections were performed. Homozygous alpha(1)-AGP-transgenic mice started losing weight and showed rectal bleeding significantly earlier than heterozygous transgenic or wild-type mice. Survival time of homozygous transgenic mice was significantly shorter compared with heterozygous and wild-type mice. The higher susceptibility of homozygous alpha(1)-AGP-transgenic mice to DSS induced acute colitis was also reflected in higher local myeloperoxidase levels, higher inflammation scores of the colon, and higher systemic levels of interleukin 6 and serum amyloid P component. Local inflammatory parameters were also significantly different in heterozygous transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice, indicating a local dosage effect. In homozygous transgenic mice, significantly higher amounts of bacteria were found in organs but IgA levels were only slightly lower than those of control mice. Sufficiently high serum levels of alpha(1)-AGP result in a more aggressive development of acute colitis.

  1. Analytical Pipeline for Discovery and Verification of Glycoproteins from Plasma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Breast Cancer Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Hsuan; Aguilar, Hillary Andaluz; Paez Paez, J Sebastian; Wu, Xiaofeng; Pan, Li; Wendt, Michael K; Iliuk, Anton B; Zhang, Ying; Tao, W Andy

    2018-05-15

    Glycoproteins comprise more than half of current FDA-approved protein cancer markers, but the development of new glycoproteins as disease biomarkers has been stagnant. Here we present a pipeline to develop glycoproteins from extracellular vesicles (EVs) through integrating quantitative glycoproteomics with a novel reverse phase glycoprotein array and then apply it to identify novel biomarkers for breast cancer. EV glycoproteomics show promise in circumventing the problems plaguing current serum/plasma glycoproteomics and allowed us to identify hundreds of glycoproteins that have not been identified in blood. We identified 1,453 unique glycopeptides representing 556 glycoproteins in EVs, among which 20 were verified significantly higher in individual breast cancer patients. We further applied a novel glyco-specific reverse phase protein array to quantify a subset of the candidates. Together, this study demonstrates the great potential of this integrated pipeline for biomarker discovery.

  2. Role of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0243 TITLE: Role of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast...Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer 5b.GRANTNUMBER Cells DAAD17-03-1-0243 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Sergey N... processing of glycoproteins, exocytosis, protein delivery systems, gene expression, western and northern blot analysis, immunotiuorescence, gradient

  3. The G glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus depresses respiratory rates through the CX3C motif and substance P.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Ralph A; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Jones, Les P; Barskey, Albert; Gelfand, Erwin W; Anderson, Larry J

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the neonate can alter respiratory rates, i.e., lead to episodes of apnea. We show that RSV G glycoprotein reduces respiratory rates associated with the induction of substance P (SP) and G glycoprotein-CX3CR1 interaction, an effect that is inhibited by treatment with anti-G glycoprotein, anti-SP, or anti-CX3CR1 monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest new approaches for treating some aspects of RSV disease.

  4. Tromantadine inhibits HSV-1 induced syncytia formation and viral glycoprotein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ickes, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Tromantadine inhibits a late event in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) replication, visualized by the inhibition of both the size and number of syncytia. Tromantadine can be added at any time between 1 and 9 h post infection with complete inhibition of syncytia formation. Glycan synthesis of the viral glycoproteins, important for syncytia formation, is incomplete due to tromantadine treatment. Tromantadine does not inhibit the initiation of glycosylation, since viral glycoproteins, gX{sub t}, synthesized in the presence of tromantadine still incorporate {sup 3}H-glucosamine. Tromantadine does not inhibit the transport of t e viral glycoproteins to the cell surface, sincemore » glycoproteins B, C, and D are expressed, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Tromantadine inhibition of HSV-1 glycoprotein processing is demonstrated by an increase in mobility of the radioimmunoprecipitated gX{sub t}, on SDS-PAGE. The gX{sub t} of KOS, a non-syncytial strain of HSV-1, had a similar increase in mobility, suggesting that the block in glycoprotein processing is a general effect of tromantadine treatment. Fucose, which is incorporated into oligosaccharides in the medial Golgi, is incorporated into gX{sub t}, indicating that the tromantadine block in glycoprotein processing occurs after this step. Lectin binding studies and SDS-PAGE analysis of gC processed in the presence of tromantadine, gC{sub t}, indicates that it has terminal galactose residues in both N- and O-linked glycans (binds Peanut and Ricin Agglutinins, respectively). The inhibition of sialylation of N-linked glycans by tromantadine was indicated by the extent of the increase in SDS-PAGE mobility of the G protein from Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. O-glycanase digestion and SDS-PAGE analysis of gC{sub t} indicate that the O-linked disaccharide NAcGal-Galactose is present.« less

  5. Truncation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain blocks virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Dubay, J W; Roberts, S J; Hahn, B H; Hunter, E

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 contains a transmembrane glycoprotein with an unusually long cytoplasmic domain. To determine the role of this domain in virus replication, a series of single nucleotide changes that result in the insertion of premature termination codons throughout the cytoplasmic domain has been constructed. These mutations delete from 6 to 192 amino acids from the carboxy terminus of gp41 and do not affect the amino acid sequence of the regulatory proteins encoded by rev and tat. The effects of these mutations on glycoprotein biosynthesis and function as well as on virus infectivity have been examined in the context of a glycoprotein expression vector and the viral genome. All of the mutant glycoproteins were synthesized, processed, and transported to the cell surface in a manner similar to that of the wild-type glycoprotein. With the exception of mutants that remove the membrane anchor domain, all of the mutant glycoproteins retained the ability to cause fusion of CD4-bearing cells. However, deletion of more than 19 amino acids from the C terminus of gp41 blocked the ability of mutant virions to infect cells. This defect in virus infectivity appeared to be due at least in part to a failure of the virus to efficiently incorporate the truncated glycoprotein. Similar data were obtained for mutations in two different env genes and two different target cell lines. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 plays a critical role during virus assembly and entry in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Images PMID:1357190

  6. Requirements for cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation by Ebola virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Francica, Joseph R; Matukonis, Meghan K; Bates, Paul

    2009-01-20

    Ebola virus causes an acute hemorrhagic fever that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The viral glycoprotein is thought to contribute to pathogenesis, though precise mechanisms are unknown. Cellular pathogenesis can be modeled in vitro by expression of the Ebola viral glycoprotein (GP) in cells, which causes dramatic morphological changes, including cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation. These effects are known to be dependent on the presence of a highly glycosylated region of the glycoprotein, the mucin domain. Here we show that the mucin domain from the highly pathogenic Zaire subtype of Ebola virus is sufficient to cause characteristic cytopathology when expressed in the context of a foreign glycoprotein. Similarly to full length Ebola GP, expression of the mucin domain causes rounding, detachment from the extracellular matrix, and the down-regulation of cell surface levels of beta1 integrin and major histocompatibility complex class 1. These effects were not seen when the mucin domain was expressed in the context of a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored isoform of the foreign glycoprotein. In contrast to earlier analysis of full length Ebola glycoproteins, chimeras carrying the mucin domains from the Zaire and Reston strains appear to cause similar levels of down-modulation and cell detachment. Cytopathology associated with Ebola glycoprotein expression does not occur when GP expression is restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast to a previously published report, our results demonstrate that GP-induced surface protein down-regulation is not mediated through a dynamin-dependent pathway. Overall, these results support a model in which the mucin domain of Ebola GP acts at the cell surface to induce protein down modulation and cytopathic effects.

  7. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD50) of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  8. Zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein is overproduced in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Escoté, Xavier; Aranda, Gloria B; Mora, Mireia; Casals, Gregori; Enseñat, Joaquim; Vidal, Oscar; Esteban, Yaiza; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A

    2017-01-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS), an endogenous hypercortisolemic condition with increased cardiometabolic morbidity, leads to development of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and proatherogenic dyslipidemia. Zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a recently characterized lipolytic adipokine implicated in regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and fat distribution. In vitro and animal studies suggest that glucocorticoids interact with ZAG secretion and action. To assess the relationship between ZAG and glucocorticoids in a human model of hypercortisolism, circulating ZAG levels were tested in patients with CS and its counterpart controls. An observational, cross-sectional study on 39 women, 13 with active CS and 26 controls matched by age and body mass index. Plasma ZAG levels (μg/ml) were measured by ELISA and correlated with hypercortisolism, metabolic, and phenotypic parameters. Plasma ZAG levels were significantly higher in patients with CS compared to controls (64.3±16.6 vs. 44.0±16.1, p=0.002). In a univariate analysis, ZAG levels positively correlated to 24-h urinary free cortisol (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.02), non-esterified fatty acids (p=0.05), glucose (p=0.003), LDL-C (p=0.028), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.016), and were inversely related to total adiponectin levels (p=0.035). In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for CS, ZAG levels only correlated with body mass index (p=0.012), type 2 diabetes mellitus (p=0.004), and glucose (p<0.001). This study provides initial evidence that plasma ZAG levels are higher in patients with CS as compared to controls. The close relationship of ZAG with metabolic and phenotypic changes in CS suggests that ZAG may play a significant role in adipose tissue changes in hypercortisolism. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Genuine functions of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Takaharu; Masuda, Masatoshi; Nakai, Emi; Furumiya, Kenji; Togawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kawai, Yuko; Nakahira, Keiko; Shinkai, Shigeko; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1) was recognized as a drug-exporting protein from cancer cells three decade ago. Apart from the multidrug transporter side effects of P-gp, normal physiological functions of P-gp have been reported. P-gp could be responsible for translocating platelet-activating factor (PAF) across the plasma membrane and PAF inhibited drug transport mediated by P-gp in cancer cells. P-gp regulated the translocation of sphingomyelin (SM) and GlcCer, and short chain C(6)-NBD-GlcCer was found in the apical medium of P-gp cells exclusively and not in the basolateral membrane. SM plays an important role in the esterification of cholesterol. High expression of P-gp prevents stem-cell differentiation, leading to the proliferation and amplification of this cell repertoire, and functional P-gp plays a fundamental role in regulating programmed cell death, apoptosis. The transporter function of P-gp is therefore necessary to protect cells from death. P-gp can translocate both C(6)-NBD-PC and C(6)-NBD-PE across the apical membrane. This PC translocation was also confirmed with [(3)H]choline radioactivity. Progesterone is not transported by P-gp, but blocks P-gp-mediated efflux of other drugs and P-gp can mediate the transport of a variety of steroids. Cells transfected with human P-gp esterified more cholesterol. P-gp might also be involved in the transport of cytokines, particularly IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNgamma, out of activated normal lymphocytes into the surrounding medium. P-gp expression is also associated with a volume-activated chloride channel, thus P-gp is bifunctional with both transport and channel regulators. We also present information about P-gp polymorphism and new structural concepts, "gate" and "twist", of the P-gp structure.

  10. Synthesis and P-glycoprotein induction activity of colupulone analogs.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kaddoumi, Amal; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are one of the primary hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Efflux pump proteins located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been reported to play an important role in the clearance of brain Aβ, among which the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter pump has been shown to play a crucial role. Thus, P-gp has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD. Colupulone, a prenylated phloroglucinol isolated from Humulus lupulus, is known to activate pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), which is a nuclear receptor controlling P-gp expression. In the present work, we aimed to synthesize and identify analogs of colupulone that are potent P-gp inducer(s) with an ability to enhance Aβ transport across the BBB. A series of colupulone analogs were synthesized by modifications at both prenyl as well as acyl domains. All compounds were screened for P-gp induction activity using a rhodamine 123 based efflux assay in the P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells, wherein all compounds showed significant P-gp induction activity at 5 μM. In the western blot studies in LS-180 cells, compounds 3k and 5f were able to induce P-gp as well as LRP1 at 1 μM. The effect of compounds on the Aβ uptake and transport was then evaluated. Among all tested compounds, diprenylated acyl phloroglucinol displayed a significant increase (29%) in Aβ transport across bEnd3 cells grown on inserts as a BBB model. The results presented here suggest the potential of this scaffold to enhance clearance of brain Aβ across the BBB and thus its promise for development as a potential anti-Alzheimer agent.

  11. Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuguang; Ren, Jingshan; Harlos, Karl; Jones, Daniel M; Zeltina, Antra; Bowden, Thomas A; Padilla-Parra, Sergi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I

    2016-07-07

    Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are responsible for repeated outbreaks of fatal infections, including the recent deadly epidemic in West Africa. There are currently no approved therapeutic drugs or vaccines for the disease. EBOV has a membrane envelope decorated by trimers of a glycoprotein (GP, cleaved by furin to form GP1 and GP2 subunits), which is solely responsible for host cell attachment, endosomal entry and membrane fusion. GP is thus a primary target for the development of antiviral drugs. Here we report the first, to our knowledge, unliganded structure of EBOV GP, and high-resolution complexes of GP with the anticancer drug toremifene and the painkiller ibuprofen. The high-resolution apo structure gives a more complete and accurate picture of the molecule, and allows conformational changes introduced by antibody and receptor binding to be deciphered. Unexpectedly, both toremifene and ibuprofen bind in a cavity between the attachment (GP1) and fusion (GP2) subunits at the entrance to a large tunnel that links with equivalent tunnels from the other monomers of the trimer at the three-fold axis. Protein–drug interactions with both GP1 and GP2 are predominately hydrophobic. Residues lining the binding site are highly conserved among filoviruses except Marburg virus (MARV), suggesting that MARV may not bind these drugs. Thermal shift assays show up to a 14 °C decrease in the protein melting temperature after toremifene binding, while ibuprofen has only a marginal effect and is a less potent inhibitor. These results suggest that inhibitor binding destabilizes GP and triggers premature release of GP2, thereby preventing fusion between the viral and endosome membranes. Thus, these complex structures reveal the mechanism of inhibition and may guide the development of more powerful anti-EBOV drugs.

  12. Glycoprotein G is a virulence factor in infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Hartley, C A; Kirkpatrick, N C; Mahmoudian, A; Noormohammadi, A H; Gilkerson, J R

    2006-10-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid herpesvirus 1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in chickens. The role of glycoprotein G (gG) in vitro has been investigated in a number of alphaherpesviruses, but the relevance of gG in vivo in the pathogenicity of ILTV or in other alphaherpesviruses is unknown. In this study, gG-deficient mutants of ILTV were generated and inoculated into specific-pathogen-free chickens to assess the role of gG in pathogenicity. In chickens, gG-deficient ILTV reached a similar titre to wild-type (wt) ILTV but was significantly attenuated with respect to induction of clinical signs, effect on weight gain and bird mortality. In addition, an increased tracheal mucosal thickness, reflecting increased inflammatory cell infiltration at the site of infection, was detected in birds inoculated with gG-deficient ILTV compared with birds inoculated with wt ILTV. The reinsertion of gG into gG-deficient ILTV restored the in vivo phenotype of the mutant to that of wt ILTV. Quantitative PCR analysis of the expression of the genes adjacent to gG demonstrated that they were not affected by the deletion of gG and investigations in vitro confirmed that the phenotype of gG-deficient ILTV was consistent with unaltered expression of these adjacent genes. This is the first reported study to demonstrate definitively that gG is a virulence factor in ILTV and that deletion of gG from this alphaherpesvirus genome causes marked attenuation of the virus in its natural host.

  13. Interaction of the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Transporter with Sterols.

    PubMed

    Clay, Adam T; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J

    2015-11-03

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) actively exports structurally diverse substrates from within the lipid bilayer, leading to multidrug resistance. Many aspects of Pgp function are altered by the phospholipid environment, but its interactions with sterols remain enigmatic. In this work, the functional interaction between purified Pgp and various sterols was investigated in detergent solution and proteoliposomes. Fluorescence studies showed that dehydroergosterol, cholestatrienol, and NBD-cholesterol interact intimately with Pgp, resulting in both quenching of protein Trp fluorescence and enhancement of sterol fluorescence. Kd values indicated binding affinities in the range of 3-9 μM. Collisional quenching experiments showed that Pgp-bound NBD-cholesterol was protected from the external milieu, resonance energy transfer was observed between Pgp Trp residues and the sterol, and the fluorescence emission of bound sterol was enhanced. These observations suggested an intimate interaction of bound sterols with the transporter at a protected nonpolar site. Cholesterol hemisuccinate altered the thermal unfolding of Pgp and greatly stabilized its basal ATPase activity in both a detergent solution and reconstituted proteoliposomes of certain phospholipids. Other sterols, including dehydroergosterol, did not stabilize the basal ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized Pgp, which suggests that this is not a generalized sterol effect. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol hemisuccinate content of Pgp proteoliposomes altered the basal ATPase and drug transport cycles differently. Sterols may interact with Pgp and modulate its structure and function by occupying part of the drug-binding pocket or by binding to putative consensus cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC) motifs located within the transmembrane domains.

  14. Increasing nerve agent treatment efficacy by P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Marloes J A; Vester, Stefanie M; Hamelink, Jouk; Klaassen, Steven D; van den Berg, Roland M

    2016-11-25

    One of the shortcomings of current treatment of nerve agent poisoning is that not all drugs effectively penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas most nerve agents easily do. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux transporters at the BBB may contribute to this aspect. It was previously shown that Pgp inhibition by tariquidar enhanced the efficacy of nerve agent treatment when administered as a pretreatment. In the present study soman-induced seizures were also substantially prevented when the animals were intravenously treated with tariquidar post-poisoning, in addition to HI-6 and atropine. In these animals, approximately twice as much AChE activity was present in their brain as compared to control rats. The finding that tariquidar did not affect distribution of soman to the brain indicates that the potentiating effects were a result of interactions of Pgp inhibition with drug distribution. In line with this, atropine appeared to be a substrate for Pgp in in vitro studies in a MDR1/MDCK cell model. This indicates that tariquidar might induce brain region specific effects on atropine distribution, which could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy increase found. Furthermore, the therapeutic enhancement by tariquidar was compared to that of the less specific and less potent Pgp inhibitor cyclosporine A. This compound appeared to induce a protective effect similar to tariquidar. In conclusion, treatment with a Pgp inhibitor resulted in enhanced therapeutic efficacy of HI-6 and atropine in a soman-induced seizure model in the rat. The mechanism underlying these effects should be further investigated. To that end, the potentiating effect of nerve agent treatment should be addressed against a broader range of nerve agents, for oximes and atropine separately, and for those at lower doses. In particular when efficacy against more nerve agents is shown, a Pgp inhibitor such as tariquidar might be a valid addition to nerve agent antidotes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  15. Spatial localization of the Ebola virus glycoprotein mucin-like domain determined by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Tran, Erin E H; Simmons, James A; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Shoemaker, Charles J; Nelson, Elizabeth; White, Judith M; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-09-01

    The Ebola virus glycoprotein mucin-like domain (MLD) is implicated in Ebola virus cell entry and immune evasion. Using cryo-electron tomography of Ebola virus-like particles, we determined a three-dimensional structure for the full-length glycoprotein in a near-native state and compared it to that of a glycoprotein lacking the MLD. Our results, which show that the MLD is located at the apex and the sides of each glycoprotein monomer, provide a structural template for analysis of MLD function. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Altered disposition and effect of lerisetron in rats with elevated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels.

    PubMed

    Jauregizar, N; Calvo, R; Suarez, E; Quintana, A; Raczka, E; Lukas, J C

    2001-06-01

    To examine the effect of changes in plasma alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of lerisetron, a novel serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in the rat. After subcutaneous administration of turpentine oil, AAG was significantly elevated compared with controls. The PK of unchanged lerisetron (UL; high-performance liquid chromatography with radioactivity monitoring) and total lerisetron (TL; unchanged + changed, scintillation counting) was characterized post intravenous (i.v.) 14C lerisetron (50 microg/kg) in control and turpentine oil pretreated rats. The PK (0-180 min) was described by a two-compartmental model. Protein binding of lerisetron in vitro was measured using an ultrafiltration technique. The effect of lerisetron (5 microg/kg, i.v.) over 180 min was measured in anesthetized rats (control and pretreated) with the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (inhibition of bradycardia after 16 microg/kg serotonin i.v.) as the endpoint. PD parameters were estimated by sigmoid Emax models. The unbound fraction was significantly diminished in pretreated rats (mean +/- SEM) (6.60 +/- 1.23% vs. control 14.4 +/- 1.40%, P < 0.05). Volume of distribution (V) and clearance for UL and TL were significantly decreased when compared to the controls (P < 0.0001 for UL and P < 0.05 for TL). Plasma clearance based on unbound concentration for UL did not differ between groups but the unbound V and steady-state unbound V remained decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001). Pretreated rats showed a significantly diminished drug effect: the area under the E-t curve over 180 min was (mean +/- SEM) 5,189 +/- 657.7 in control animals vs. 3,486 +/- 464.4 in the pretreated group (P < 0.05). The EC50 (concentration at half maximum effect) for UL and TL were increased in pretreated rats and were not compensated when the unbound concentration was used. An increase in AAG causes alterations in the PK and PD of lerisetron, and because this is not compensated

  17. Antibodies to the Glycoprotein GP2 Subunit Cross-React between Old and New World Arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Amanat, Fatima; Duehr, James; Oestereich, Lisa; Hastie, Kathryn M; Ollmann Saphire, Erica; Krammer, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development. Here, we describe immunization strategies to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that cross-react between the glycoprotein complexes of both Old World and New World arenaviruses. Several monoclonal antibodies isolated from immunized mice were highly cross-reactive, binding a range of Old World arenavirus glycoproteins, including that of Lassa virus. One such monoclonal antibody, KL-AV-2A1, bound to GPCs of both New World and Old World viruses, including Lassa and Machupo viruses. These cross-reactive antibodies bound to epitopes present on the glycoprotein 2 subunit of the glycoprotein complex, which is relatively conserved among arenaviruses. Monoclonal antibodies binding to these epitopes, however, did not inhibit viral entry as they failed to neutralize a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped with the Lassa virus glycoprotein complex in vitro In addition, no protection from virus challenge was observed in in vivo mouse models. Even so, these monoclonal antibodies might still prove to be useful in the development of clinical and diagnostic assays. IMPORTANCE Several viruses in the Arenaviridae family infect humans and cause severe hemorrhagic fevers which lead to high case fatality rates. Due to their pathogenicity and geographic tropisms, these viruses remain very understudied. As a result, an effective

  18. Glycoproteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid identifies tumor-associated glycoproteins from lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing Kay; Shah, Punit; Li, Yan; Aiyetan, Paul O; Chen, Jing; Yung, Rex; Molena, Daniela; Gabrielson, Edward; Askin, Frederic; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Hui

    2013-08-02

    Cytological examination of cells from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is commonly used for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Proteins released from lung cancer cells into BAL may serve as biomarkers for cancer detection. In this study, N-glycoproteins in eight cases of BAL fluid, as well as eight lung adenocarcinoma tissues and eight tumor-matched normal lung tissues, were analyzed using the solid-phase extraction of N-glycoprotein (SPEG), iTRAQ labeling, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of 80 glycoproteins found in BAL specimens, 32 were identified in both cancer BAL and cancer tissues, with levels of 25 glycoproteins showing at least a 2-fold difference between cancer and benign BAL. Among them, eight glycoproteins showed greater than 2-fold elevations in cancer BAL, including Neutrophil elastase (NE), Integrin alpha-M, Cullin-4B, Napsin A, lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), Cathepsin D, BPI fold-containing family B member 2, and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. The levels of Napsin A in cancer BAL were further verified in independently collected 39 BAL specimens using an ELISA assay. Our study demonstrates that potential protein biomarkers in BAL fluid can be detected and quantified.

  19. Dynamics of glycoprotein charge in the evolutionary history of human influenza.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Grenfell, Bryan

    2010-12-30

    Influenza viruses show a significant capacity to evade host immunity; this is manifest both as large occasional jumps in the antigenic phenotype of viral surface molecules and in gradual antigenic changes leading to annual influenza epidemics in humans. Recent mouse studies show that avidity for host cells can play an important role in polyclonal antibody escape, and further that electrostatic charge of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein can contribute to such avidity. We test the role of glycoprotein charge on sequence data from the three major subtypes of influenza A in humans, using a simple method of calculating net glycoprotein charge. Of all subtypes, H3N2 in humans shows a striking pattern of increasing positive charge since its introduction in 1968. Notably, this trend applies to both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins. In the late 1980s hemagglutinin charge reached a plateau, while neuraminidase charge started to decline. We identify key groups of amino acid sites involved in this charge trend. To our knowledge these are the first indications that, for human H3N2, net glycoprotein charge covaries strongly with antigenic drift on a global scale. Further work is needed to elucidate how such charge interacts with other immune escape mechanisms, such as glycosylation, and we discuss important questions arising for future study.

  20. HSV-1 Glycoproteins Are Delivered to Virus Assembly Sites Through Dynamin-Dependent Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Albecka, Anna; Laine, Romain F; Janssen, Anne F J; Kaminski, Clemens F; Crump, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. It has been recently shown that the cytoplasmic membranes that wrap the newly assembled capsids are endocytic compartments derived from the plasma membrane. Here, we show that dynamin-dependent endocytosis plays a major role in this process. Dominant-negative dynamin and clathrin adaptor AP180 significantly decrease virus production. Moreover, inhibitors targeting dynamin and clathrin lead to a decreased transport of glycoproteins to cytoplasmic capsids, confirming that glycoproteins are delivered to assembly sites via endocytosis. We also show that certain combinations of glycoproteins colocalize with each other and with the components of clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that the uptake of neutralizing antibodies that bind to glycoproteins when they become exposed on the cell surface during virus particle assembly leads to the production of non-infectious HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that transport of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane prior to endocytosis is the major route by which these proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly compartments. This highlights the importance of endocytosis as a major protein-sorting event during HSV-1 envelopment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Amorphous titania modified with boric acid for selective capture of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shanxia; Liu, Liping; Zhou, Ping

    2018-05-22

    Amorphous titania was modified with boric acid, and the resulting material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The new material, in contrast to conventional boronate affinity materials containing boronic acid ligands, bears boric acid groups. It is shown to exhibit high specificity for glycoproteins, and this was applied to design a method for solid phase extraction of glycoproteins as shown for ribonuclease B, horse radish peroxidase and ovalbumin. Glycoproteins were captured under slightly alkaline environment and released in acidic solutions. The glycoproteins extracted were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The binding capacities for ribonuclease B, horse radish peroxidase and ovalbumin typically are 9.3, 26.0 and 53.0 mg ∙ g -1 , respectively. The method was successfully applied to the selective enrichment of ovalbumin from egg white. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of the capture of glycoproteins by amorphous titania modified with boric acid.

  2. Comparison of a commercial bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein ELISA test and a pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radiomimmunoassay test for early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Karen, Aly; Sousa, Noelita Melo De; Beckers, Jean-François; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Tibold, János; Mádl, István; Szenci, Ottó

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to compare the accuracy of a commercial PAG-ELISA test (Bovine Preg Test 29) and bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein radioimmunoassay (PAG-RIA) for diagnosing pregnancy at Day 28 after insemination in dairy cows. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was performed in 100 Holstein-Friesian cows at Day 28 after artificial insemination (AI; Day 0) to diagnose pregnancy. After TRUS examination, blood sample was collected from the coccygeal vessels of each cow to measure the concentrations of bPAGs by PAG-RIA test and Bovine Preg Test 29. Milk samples were collected at Days 0, 21 and 28 for measurement of progesterone (P4) by ELISA test. The cows were re-examined by TRUS at Day 42 to confirm the pregnancy diagnoses. The actual gold standard was based on TRUS outcomes at Day 28 that agreed with the outcomes of PAG-RIA test or PAG-ELISA test. If the outcomes of TRUS at Day 28 and PAG-RIA test and PAG-ELISA test did not agree, the gold standard was based on the outcome of TRUS at Day 42. Out of 100 inseminated cows, 41 were confirmed pregnant at Day 28 after AI. Based on the actual gold standard, the sensitivity of TRUS, PAG-ELISA and PAG-RIA tests for diagnosing pregnant cows at Day 28 were 92.7%, 90.2% and 100%, while the specificity of the three tests for diagnosing non-pregnant cows were 91.5%, 98.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the three tests were 92%, 95% and 97%, respectively. The degree of agreement (Kappa±S.E.) between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA test was 0.90 ±0.04. The degrees of agreement between PAG-RIA and PAG-ELISA and TRUS at Day 28 were 0.80±0.05 and 0.76±0.06, respectively. In conclusion, the commercial PAG-ELISA test is a highly accurate method for diagnosing early pregnancy in dairy cows on Day 28 after AI and may be used as an alternative method to the TRUS and the PAG-RIA test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free detection of glycoproteins by the lectin biosensor down to attomolar level using gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Nosko, Martin; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on a lectin biorecognition capable to detect concentrations of glycoproteins down to attomolar (aM) level by investigation of changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On polycrystalline gold modified by an aminoalkanethiol linker layer, gold nanoparticles were attached. A Sambucus nigra agglutinin was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer formed on gold nanoparticles and finally, the biosensor surface was blocked by poly(vinylalcohol). The lectin biosensor was applied for detection of sialic acid containing glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. Building of a biosensing interface was carefully characterised by a broad range of techniques such as electrochemistry, EIS, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface plasmon resonance with the best performance of the biosensor achieved by application of HS-(CH2)11-NH2 linker and gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. The lectin biosensor responded to an addition of fetuin (8.7% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (338 ± 11) Ω decade-1 and to asialofetuin (≤ 0.5% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (109 ± 10) Ω decade-1 with a blank experiment with oxidised asialofetuin (without recognisable sialic acid) revealing sensitivity of detection of (79 ± 13) Ω decade-1. These results suggest the lectin biosensor responded to changes in the glycan amount in a quantitative way with a successful validation by a lectin microarray. Such a biosensor device has a great potential to be employed in early biomedical diagnostics of diseases such as arthritis or cancer, which are connected to aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:23601864

  4. In vivo comparison of various polymeric and low molecular mass inhibitors of intestinal P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Föger, Florian; Hoyer, Herbert; Kafedjiiski, Krum; Thaurer, Michael; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    Several polymers have been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The aim of the present study was to provide a direct in vivo comparison of delivery systems based on Pluronic P85, Myrj 52 and chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine (Ch-TBA) in vivo in rats, using rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) as representative P-gp substrate. Furthermore, the postulated low molecular mass P-gp inhibitors 6-mercaptopurine and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the permeation enhancing effect of 6-mercaptopurine, GSH, Pluronic P85, Myrj 52, and the combination of Ch-TBA with GSH was evaluated by using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing-type diffusion chambers. In comparison to buffer only, Rho-123 transport in presence of 100 microm 6-mercaptopurine, 0.5% (w/v) GSH, 0.5% (w/v) Pluronic P85, 0.5% (w/v) Myrj 52 and the combination of 0.5% (w/v) Ch-TBA/ 0.5% (w/v) GSH, was 2.1, 1.6, 1.9, 1.8, 3.0-fold improved, respectively. In vivo in rat, enteric-coated tablets based on Pluronic P85, Myrj 52 or Ch-TBA/GSH increased the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-12)) of Rho-123 1.6-fold, 2.4-fold, 4.3-fold, respectively, in comparison to control only. Contrariwise, the low molecular mass excipients 6-mercaptopurine and GSH showed no significant effect in vivo at all. This in vivo study showed that polymeric P-gp inhibitors and especially the delivery system based on thiolated chitosan significantly increased the oral bioavailability of P-gp substrate Rho-123.

  5. Functional Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Interactions between P-Glycoprotein and Methadone

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chuan; Chiou, Mu-Han; Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp’s interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50 = 2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50 = 2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates. PMID:23527191

  6. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C.; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM. PMID:26907324

  7. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D

    2016-02-12

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM.

  8. Localization and characterization of an alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    PubMed

    De Marco, L; Mazzucato, M; Masotti, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1994-03-04

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib alpha is required for expression of the highest affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelets, possibly contributing to platelet activation through a pathway involving cleavage of a specific receptor. This function may be important for the initiation of hemostasis and may also play a role in the development of pathological vascular occlusion. We have now identified a discrete sequence in the extracytoplasmic domain of GP Ib alpha, including residues 271-284 of the mature protein, which appears to be part of the high affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site. Synthetic peptidyl mimetics of this sequence inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to GP Ib as well as platelet activation and aggregation induced by subnanomolar concentrations of the agonist; they also inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to purified glycocalicin, the isolated extracytoplasmic portion of GP Ib alpha. The inhibitory peptides interfere with the clotting of fibrinogen by alpha-thrombin but not with the amidolytic activity of the enzyme on a small synthetic substrate, a finding compatible with the concept that the identified GP Ib alpha sequence interacts with the anion-binding exosite of alpha-thrombin but not with its active proteolytic site. The crucial structural elements of this sequence necessary for thrombin binding appear to be a cluster of negatively charged residues as well as three tyrosine residues that, in the native protein, may be sulfated. GP Ib alpha has no significant overall sequence homology with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, nor with the specific thrombin receptor on platelets; all three molecules, however, possess a distinct region rich in negatively charged residues that appear to be involved in thrombin binding. This may represent a case of convergent evolution of unrelated proteins for high affinity interaction with the same ligand.

  9. Immunostimulatory effects and characterization of a glycoprotein fraction from rice bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Choi, In-Wook; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2013-10-01

    Many natural resources obtained from plants have been studied for their utility as host defense potentiators. In the present study, we investigated whether a glycoprotein fraction from rice (Oryza sativa) bran (GFRB) could modulate immune responses such as the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. GFRB, which contained 65.7% of protein and 7.7% of total sugar, was prepared by treating an aqueous extract of rice bran with 80% (NH4)2SO4 and the extraction yield was 4.9%. GFRB consisted of 5 bands with varying molecular weights by SDS-PAGE and remarkably improved production of NO in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, up to approximately 10-fold compared to the normal control at 100μg/mL concentration. In RAW 264.7 cells treated with 50μg/mL GFRB, released levels of various cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were 2824.4±90.7, 224.5±4.0, 524.3±4.8, and 143.0±9.5pg/mL, respectively, which were higher than the levels in normal controls. Moreover, GFRB exhibited no cytotoxicity. According to the results of region-selective enzyme hydrolysis, the immune responses against GFRB were elicited by the glycans in the GFRB. These results show the potential of GFRB as a functional therapeutic agent with demonstrable immunostimulatory activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Jatrophane diterpenoids from Euphorbia sororia as potent modulators against P-glycoprotein-based multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Gao, Jie; Rozimamat, Rushangul; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2018-02-25

    Five new (1-5) and ten known (6-15) jatrophane diterpenoids were isolated from the fructus of Euphorbia sororia and their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Cytotoxicity and anti-multidrug resistance effects of these jatrophane diterpenoids were evaluated in multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells with an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Eight compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 15) showed promising chemoreversal abilities compared to verapamil (VRP). The most potent compound, Euphosorophane A (1), possessed many advantages, including (1) high potency (EC 50  = 92.68 ± 18.28 nM) in reversing P-gp-mediated resistance to doxorubicin (DOX), low cytotoxicity, and a high therapeutic index, (2) potency in reversing resistance to other cytotoxic agents associated with MDR, and (3) inhibition of P-gp-mediated Rhodamine123 (Rh123) efflux function in MCF-7/ADR cells. The results of the Western blot analysis indicated that the multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal induced by 1 was not due to the inhibiton of P-gp expression. Compound 1 stimulated P-gp-ATPase activity and caused the dose-dependent inhibition of DOX transport activity. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots implied that 1 was a competitive inhibitor to DOX in the binding site of P-gp with a Ki of 0.49-0.50 μM. Our data suggested that 1 had a high binding affinity toward the DOX recognition site of P-gp. This resulted in inhibiting DOX transport, increasing intracellular DOX concentration, and finally resensitizing MCF-7/ADR to DOX. In addition, we discussed some added contents in the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of jatrophane diterpenoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 6-methoxy-2-arylquinolines as potential P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabzadeh, Sayyed Mohammad; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Ghodsi, Razieh

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, a new series of 6-methoxy-2-arylquinoline analogues was designed and synthesized as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors using quinine and flavones as the lead compounds. The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against two human cancer cell lines including EPG85-257RDB, multidrug-resistant gastric carcinoma cells (P-gp-positive gastric carcinoma cell line), and EPG85-257P, drug-sensitive gastric carcinoma cells. Compounds showing low to moderate toxicity in the MTT test were selected to investigate their P-gp inhibition activity. Moreover, trying to explain the results of biological experiments, docking studies of the selected compounds into the homology-modeled human P-gp, were carried out. The physicochemical and ADME properties of the compounds as drug candidate were also predicted. Most of our compounds exhibited negligible or much lower cytotoxic effect in both cancer cells. Among the series, 5a and 5b, alcoholic quinoline derivatives were found to inhibit the efflux of rhodamine 123 at the concentration of 10 μM significantly. Among the tested quinolines, 5a and 5b showed the most potent P-gp inhibitory activity in the series and were 1.3-fold and 2.1-fold stronger than verapamil, respectively. SAR data revealed that hydroxyl methyl in position 4 of quinolines has a key role in P-gp efflux inhibition of our compounds. ADME studies suggested that all of the compounds included in this study may have a good human intestinal absorption.

  12. Thyroid hormone upregulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in the liver but not in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not related to weight

  13. Thyroid Hormone Upregulates Zinc-α2-glycoprotein Production in the Liver but Not in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not related to weight

  14. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  15. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in idiopathic optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideki; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tanaka, Keiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Nakata, Ruka; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Shima, Tomoaki; Mukaino, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Shunsuke; Miyazaki, Teiichiro; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Kawakami, Atsushi; Tsujino, Akira

    2015-04-02

    To investigate the differences of clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), MRI findings and response to steroid therapies between patients with optic neuritis (ON) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies and those who have seronegative ON. We recruited participants in the department of neurology and ophthalmology in our hospital in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features and response to steroid therapies of patients with ON. Sera from patients were tested for antibodies to MOG and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) with a cell-based assay. Between April 2009 and March 2014, we enrolled serial 57 patients with ON (27 males, 30 females; age range 16-84 years) who ophthalmologists had diagnosed as having or suspected to have ON with acute visual impairment and declined critical flicker frequency, abnormal findings of brain MRI, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein fundus angiography at their onset or recurrence. We excluded those patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), MS McDonald's criteria, and so on. Finally we defined 29 patients with idiopathic ON (14 males, 15 females, age range 16-84 years). 27.6% (8/29) were positive for MOG antibodies and 3.4% (1/29) were positive for AQP4. Among the eight patients with MOG antibodies, five had optic pain (p=0.001) and three had prodromal infection (p=0.179). Three of the eight MOG-positive patients showed significantly high CSF levels of myelin basic protein (p=0.021) and none were positive for oligoclonal band in CSF. On MRIs, seven MOG-positive patients showed high signal intensity on optic nerve, three had a cerebral lesion and one had a spinal cord lesion. Seven of the eight MOG-positive patients had a good response to steroid therapy. Although not proving primary pathogenicity of anti-MOG antibodies, the present results indicate that the measurement of MOG antibodies is useful in diagnosing and treating ON

  16. Synthesis and processing of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Flowers, C C; Flowers, S P; Jennings, S R; O'Callaghan, D J

    1995-04-01

    Previous studies (C. C. Flowers and D. J. O'Callaghan, 1992, Virology 190, 307-315) employed peptide-specific antibodies to identify the product of the glycoprotein D (gD) gene of equine herpesvirus 1 strain Kentucky A (KyA). gD polypeptides of 55 and 58 kDa were detected in EHV-1-infected L-M cells, and the 58-kDa protein was observed in the membrane fraction of EHV-1 virions. In this report, the kinetics of synthesis and processing of gD polypeptides are described. One-hour pulse-labeling of EHV-1-infected L-M cells revealed that gD proteins are first detected at 6 hr after infection and that maximal synthesis of gD occurs between 5 and 8 hr postinfection. gD polypeptides accumulate progressively with time of infection as shown by immunoprecipitation analysis of gD proteins. Pulse-chase analysis of gD revealed that the 55-kDa protein is a precursor to the 58-kDa species and that processing of all pulse-labeled precursor protein requires approximately 2.5 hr. Analysis of the carbohydrate content of gD proteins, as judged by their sensitivity to digestion with endoglycosidases, revealed that the 55-kDa gD precursor contains high-mannose N-linked oligosaccharides, while the 58-kDa gD mature polypeptide possesses complex type oligosaccharides. Expression of the mature form of gD on the cell surface, as determined by fluorescent flow cytometric analysis, is delayed compared to the accumulation of the mature form of gD within the cell. The gD ORF encodes a potential protein of 442 amino acids but analysis of the translated sequence of gD indicated that the gD polypeptide is 392 amino acids, a size predicted by previous mapping of the transcription start site of the gD mRNA. Coupled in vitro transcription/translation of a pGEM-3Z construct containing the 392-amino-acid gD ORF, in the absence or presence of canine pancreatic microsomes, demonstrated that the 43-kDa gD polypeptide undergoes processing in vitro. These studies demonstrate that the EHV-1 strain KyA gD is

  17. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by 5,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (Sinensetin).

    PubMed

    Choi, Cheol Hee; Sun, Kyung Hoon; An, Chun San; Yoo, Jin Cheol; Hahm, Kyung Soo; Lee, In Hwa; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Kim, Youn Chul

    2002-07-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cells can be sensitized to anticancer drugs when treated concomitantly with chemosensitizers. In this study, chemosensitizing effects of 5,6,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (sinensetin) and its analogs were investigated with respect to in vitro efficacy and structure-activity relationship. Sinensetin reversed the resistance of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-overexpressing AML-2/D100 to vincristine in a concentration-dependent manner. Chemosensitizing effect of sinensetin was 10- and 18-fold higher than those of 5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone and 3,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone, respectively. Sinensetin cytotoxicity in AML-2/D100 was not changed by the complete inhibition of Pgp, suggesting that it is not a substrate for Pgp. Flow cytometry showed that sinensetin increased drug accumulation in the AML-2/D100 in a concentration-dependent manner. Unlike verapamil and cyclosporin A, the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations of sinensetin were found to decrease the Pgp levels. Azidopine-binding assay showed that cyclosporin A or verapamil inhibited azidopine binding on Pgp partially but sinensetin did not. Taken together, these results suggest that sinensetin has a chemosensitizing effect in reversing Pgp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular accumulation of drugs without competition in a binding site of azidopine. Thus, sinensetin is anticipated as a novel and highly potent second-generation flavonoid chemosensitizer, since sinensetin has significant advantages of having a high therapeutic index, of being a non-transportable inhibitor, and of effecting no induction of Pgp.

  18. The contact site A glycoprotein of Dictyostelium discoideum carries a phospholipid anchor of a novel type.

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, J; Keenan, T W; Bauer, G; Gerisch, G

    1989-01-01

    The contact site A glycoprotein, a cell adhesion protein of aggregating Dictyostelium cells, was labeled with fatty acid, myo-inositol, phosphate and ethanolamine in vivo, indicating that the protein is anchored in the membrane by a lipid. This lipid was not susceptible to phosphatidyl inositol specific phospholipase C. When cleaved with nitrous acid or when subjected to acetolysis, the anchor released lipids which were different from those released from Trypanosoma variant cell surface glycoprotein, a protein with a known phosphatidyl inositol-glycan anchor. Resistance to weak and sensitivity to strong alkali indicated that the fatty acid in the contact site A glycolipid anchor was in an amide bond. On incubation with sphingomyelinase, a lipid with the chromatographic behavior of ceramide was released. These results suggest that the contact site A glycoprotein is anchored by a ceramide based lipid glycan. Images PMID:2721485

  19. Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies. PMID:23435236

  20. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  1. Identifying the viral genes encoding envelope glycoproteins for differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolates.

    PubMed

    Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

    2013-01-31

    Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

  2. Crucial steps in the structure determination of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein using cryo‐electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Alexandra; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Bosch, Berend‐Jan; Frenz, Brandon; Rottier, Peter J. M.; DiMaio, Frank; Rey, Felix A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the last 15 years by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor‐binding and membrane fusion functions. Despite their biomedical importance, coronavirus S glycoproteins have proven difficult targets for structural characterization, precluding high‐resolution studies of the biologically relevant trimer. Recent technological developments in single particle cryo‐electron microscopy allowed us to determine the first structure of a coronavirus S glycoprotein trimer which provided a framework to understand the mechanisms of viral entry and suggested potential inhibition strategies for this family of viruses. Here, we describe the key factors that enabled this breakthrough. PMID:27667334

  3. Antibodies Targeting Novel Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein Preclude Genotype 2 Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Huiying; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Jianghua; Xie, Xingwang; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, partly due to our insufficient understanding of the virus glycoprotein immunology. Most neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were identified using glycoprotein immunogens, such as recombinant E1E2, HCV pseudoparticles or cell culture derived HCV. However, the fact that in the HCV acute infection phase, only a small proportion of patients are self-resolved accompanied with the emergence of nAbs, indicates the limited immunogenicity of glycoprotein itself to induce effective antibodies against a highly evolved virus. Secondly, in previous reports, the immunogen sequence was mostly the genotype of the 1a H77 strain. Rarely, other genotypes/subtypes have been studied, although theoretically one genotype/subtype immunogen is able to induce cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies. To overcome these drawbacks and find potential novel neutralizing epitopes, 57 overlapping peptides encompassing the full-length glycoprotein E1E2 of subtype 1b were synthesized to immunize BALB/c mice, and the neutralizing reactive of the induced antisera against HCVpp genotypes 1–6 was determined. We defined a domain comprising amino acids (aa) 192–221, 232–251, 262–281 and 292–331 of E1, and 421–543, 564–583, 594–618 and 634–673 of E2, as the neutralizing regions of HCV glycoprotein. Peptides PUHI26 (aa 444–463) and PUHI45 (aa 604–618)-induced antisera displayed the most potent broad neutralizing reactive. Two monoclonal antibodies recognizing the PUHI26 and PUHI45 epitopes efficiently precluded genotype 2 viral (HCVcc JFH and J6 strains) infection, but they did not neutralize other genotypes. Our study mapped a neutralizing epitope region of HCV glycoprotein using a novel immunization strategy, and identified two monoclonal antibodies effective in preventing genotype 2 virus infection. PMID:26406225

  4. A sea lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor similar with gnathostome thyrotropin hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Freamat, Mihael; Sower, Stacia A

    2008-10-01

    The specificity of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes is explained by the evolutionary refinement of the specificity of expression and selectivity of interaction between the glycoprotein hormones GpH (FSH, LH, and TSH) and their cognate receptors GpH-R (FSH-R, LH-R, and TSH-R). These two finely tuned signaling pathways evolved by gene duplication and functional divergence from an ancestral GpH/GpH-R pair. Comparative analysis of the protochordate and gnathostome endocrine systems suggests that this process took place prior or concomitantly with the emergence of the gnathostome lineage. Here, we report identification and characterization of a novel glycoprotein hormone receptor (lGpH-R II) in the Agnathan sea lamprey. This 781 residue protein was found approximately 43% identical with mammalian TSH-R and FSH-R representative sequences, and similarly with these two classes of mammalian receptors it is assembled from ten exons. A synthetic ligand containing the lamprey glycoprotein hormone beta-chain tethered upstream of a mammalian alpha-chain activated the lGpH-R II expressed in COS-7 cells but in a lesser extent than lGpH-R I. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate GpH-R protein sequences suggests a closer relationship between lGpH-R II and gnathostome thyrotropin receptors. Overall, the presence and characteristics of the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptors suggest existence of a primitive functionally overlapping glycoprotein hormone/glycoprotein hormone receptor system in this animal.

  5. Use of an informed search space maximizes confidence of site-specific assignment of glycoprotein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Kshitij; Klein, Joshua A; Zaia, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In order to interpret glycopeptide tandem mass spectra, it is necessary to estimate the theoretical glycan compositions and peptide sequences, known as the search space. The simplest way to do this is to build a naïve search space from sets of glycan compositions from public databases and to assume that the target glycoprotein is pure. Often, however, purified glycoproteins contain co-purified glycoprotein contaminants that have the potential to confound assignment of tandem mass spectra based on naïve assumptions. In addition, there is increasing need to characterize glycopeptides from complex biological mixtures. Fortunately, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods for glycomics and proteomics are now mature and accessible. We demonstrate the value of using an informed search space built from measured glycomes and proteomes to define the search space for interpretation of glycoproteomics data. We show this using α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) mixed into a set of increasingly complex matrices. As the mixture complexity increases, the naïve search space balloons and the ability to assign glycopeptides with acceptable confidence diminishes. In addition, it is not possible to identify glycopeptides not foreseen as part of the naïve search space. A search space built from released glycan glycomics and proteomics data is smaller than its naïve counterpart while including the full range of proteins detected in the mixture. This maximizes the ability to assign glycopeptide tandem mass spectra with confidence. As the mixture complexity increases, the number of tandem mass spectra per glycopeptide precursor ion decreases, resulting in lower overall scores and reduced depth of coverage for the target glycoprotein. We suggest use of α-1-acid glycoprotein as a standard to gauge effectiveness of analytical methods and bioinformatics search parameters for glycoproteomics studies. Graphical Abstract Assignment of site specific glycosylation from LC

  6. Zinc-α2-Glycoprotein Is Unrelated to Gestational Diabetes: Anthropometric and Metabolic Determinants in Pregnant Women and Their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Näf, Silvia; Escote, Xavier; Yañez, Rosa Elena; Ballesteros, Mónica; Simón, Inmaculada; Gil, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Context Zinc-α2-Glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with lipolytic action and is positively associated with adiponectin in adipose tissue. We hypothesize that ZAG may be related with hydrocarbonate metabolism disturbances observed in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective The aim of this study was to analyze serum ZAG concentration and its relationship with carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant women and its influence on fetal growth. Design 207 pregnant women (130 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 77 with GDM) recruited in the early third trimester and their offspring were studied. Cord blood was obtained at delivery and neonatal anthropometry was assessed in the first 48 hours. ZAG was determined in maternal serum and cord blood. Results ZAG concentration was lower in cord blood than in maternal serum, but similar concentration was observed in NGT and GDM pregnant women. Also similar levels were found between offspring of NGT and GDM women. In the bivariate analysis, maternal ZAG (mZAG) was positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL cholesterol, and negatively correlated with insulin and triglyceride concentrations, and HOMA index. On the other hand, cord blood ZAG (cbZAG) was positively correlated with fat-free mass, birth weight and gestational age at delivery. After adjusting for confounding variables, gestational age at delivery and HDL cholesterol emerged as the sole determinants of cord blood ZAG and maternal ZAG concentrations, respectively. Conclusion mZAG was not associated with glucose metabolism during pregnancy. ZAG concentration was lower in cord blood compared with maternal serum. cbZAG was independently correlated with gestational age at delivery, suggesting a role during the accelerated fetal growth during latter pregnancy. PMID:23272038

  7. Monitoring binding affinity between drug and α1-acid glycoprotein in real time by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Lu, Xin; Yang, YuHan; Yao, Chen Xi; Ning, BaoMing; He, Dacheng; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for monitoring the binding affinity between drugs and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in real time was developed based on a combination of drug-protein reaction followed by Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry determination of the free drug concentrations. A known basic drug, propranolol was used to validate the new built method. Binding constant values calculated by venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry was in good accordance with a traditional ultrafiltration combined with high performance liquid chromatography method. Then six types of basic drugs were used as the samples to conduct the real time analysis. Upon injection of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the drug mixture, the ion chromatograms were extracted to show the changes in the free drug concentrations in real time. By observing the drop-out of six types of drugs during the whole binding reaction, the binding affinities of different drugs were distinguished. A volume shift validating experiment and an injection delay correcting experiment were also performed to eliminate extraneous factors and verify the reliability of our experiment. Therefore, the features of Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (V-EASI-MS) and the experimental results indicate that our technique is likely to become a powerful tool for monitoring drug-AGP binding affinity in real time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  9. Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Ficolin-1 Interaction with the Mucin Domain of GP Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Favier, Anne-Laure; Gout, Evelyne; Reynard, Olivier; Ferraris, Olivier; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Volchkov, Viktor; Peyrefitte, Christophe; Thielens, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Ebola virus infection requires the surface viral glycoprotein to initiate entry into the target cells. The trimeric glycoprotein is a highly glycosylated viral protein which has been shown to interact with host C-type lectin receptors and the soluble complement recognition protein mannose-binding lectin, thereby enhancing viral infection. Similarly to mannose-binding lectin, ficolins are soluble effectors of the innate immune system that recognize particular glycans at the pathogen surface. In this study, we demonstrate that ficolin-1 interacts with the Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein, and we characterized this interaction by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Ficolin-1 was shown to bind to the viral glycoprotein with a high affinity. This interaction was mediated by the fibrinogen-like recognition domain of ficolin-1 and the mucin-like domain of the viral glycoprotein. Using a ficolin-1 control mutant devoid of sialic acid-binding capacity, we identified sialylated moieties of the mucin domain to be potential ligands on the glycoprotein. In cell culture, using both pseudotyped viruses and EBOV, ficolin-1 was shown to enhance EBOV infection independently of the serum complement. We also observed that ficolin-1 enhanced EBOV infection on human monocyte-derived macrophages, described to be major viral target cells,. Competition experiments suggested that although ficolin-1 and mannose-binding lectin recognized different carbohydrate moieties on the EBOV glycoprotein, the observed enhancement of the infection likely depended on a common cellular receptor/partner. In conclusion, ficolin-1 could provide an alternative receptor-mediated mechanism for enhancing EBOV infection, thereby contributing to viral subversion of the host innate immune system. A specific interaction involving ficolin-1 (M-ficolin), a soluble effector of the innate immune response, and the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV was identified. Ficolin-1 enhanced virus infection instead of tipping the

  10. Glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of infectious laryngotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Kanabagatte Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna; Song, Haichen; Lamichhane, Chinta; Samal, Siba K

    2015-05-01

    For detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) antibody, glycoprotein B-, C-, and D-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (B-, C-, and D-ELISAs, respectively) were developed. The B- and D-ELISAs showed enhanced detection of anti-ILTV antibodies in infected chickens compared to that of the commercial ELISA. Furthermore, the D-ELISA was efficient in detecting seroconversion with vectored vaccine, using recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing glycoprotein D (gD) as the vaccine vector. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Glycoprotein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Serodiagnosis of Infectious Laryngotracheitis

    PubMed Central

    Kanabagatte Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna; Song, Haichen; Lamichhane, Chinta

    2015-01-01

    For detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) antibody, glycoprotein B-, C-, and D-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (B-, C-, and D-ELISAs, respectively) were developed. The B- and D-ELISAs showed enhanced detection of anti-ILTV antibodies in infected chickens compared to that of the commercial ELISA. Furthermore, the D-ELISA was efficient in detecting seroconversion with vectored vaccine, using recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing glycoprotein D (gD) as the vaccine vector. PMID:25694519

  12. Identification of the glycoproteins of lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) of fish.

    PubMed

    Robin, J; Laperrière, A; Berthiaume, L

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of highly purified fish Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LDV), strain Leetown NFH, by three different methods, namely periodic Acid Schiff reaction, radiolabelling with tritiated fucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and staining with three lectins, indicated that ten glycoproteins were associated with the virus structure. Six of them were detected by all of the three methods, three by both radiolabelling and lectin staining but only one by the lectin technique. Localization of these glycoproteins at the surface or inside the virion is discussed.

  13. Determination of N-linked glycosylation in viral glycoproteins by negative ion mass spectrometry and ion mobility

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, David; Harvey, David J.; Halldorsson, Steinar; Doores, Katie J.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glycan analysis of virion-derived glycoproteins is challenging due to the difficulties in glycoprotein isolation and low sample abundance. Here, we describe how ion mobility mass spectrometry can be used to obtain spectra from virion samples. We also describe how negative ion fragmentation of glycans can be used to probe structural features of virion glycans. PMID:26169737

  14. Data Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., developed, built, and tested three high-temperature components for use in the design of a data concentrator module in distributed turbine engine control. The concentrator receives analog and digital signals related to turbine engine control and communicates with a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) or high-level command processor. This data concentrator follows the Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) roadmap for turbine engine distributed controls communication development that operates at temperatures at least up to 225 C. In Phase I, Orbital Research developed detailed specifications for each component needed for the system and defined the total system specifications. This entailed a combination of system design, compiling existing component specifications, laboratory testing, and simulation. The results showed the feasibility of the data concentrator. Phase II of this project focused on three key objectives. The first objective was to update the data concentrator design modifications from DECWG and prime contractors. Secondly, the project defined requirements for the three new high-temperature, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs): one-time programmable (OTP), transient voltage suppression (TVS), and 3.3V. Finally, the project validated each design by testing over temperature and under load.

  15. Use of lambdagt11 to isolate genes for two pseudorabies virus glycoproteins with homology to herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovskis, E.A.; Timmins, J.G.; Post, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    A library of pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA fragments was constructed in the expression cloning vector lambdagt11. The library was screened with antisera which reacted with mixtures of PRV proteins to isolate recombinant bacteriophages expressing PRV proteins. By the nature of the lambdagt11 vector, the cloned proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as ..beta..-galactosidase fusion proteins. The fusion proteins from 35 of these phages were purified and injected into mice to raise antisera. The antisera were screened by several different assays, including immunoprecipitation of (/sup 14/C)glucosamine-labeled PRV proteins. This method identified phages expressing three different PRV glycoproteins: the secreted glycoprotein, gX;more » gI; and a glycoprotein that had not been previously identified, which we designate gp63. The gp63 and gI genes map adjacent to each other in the small unique region of the PRV genome. The DNA sequence was determined for the region of the genome encoding gp63 and gI. It was found that gp63 has a region of homology with a herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) protein, encoded by US7, and also with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gpIV. The gI protein sequence has a region of homology with HSV-1 gE and VZV gpI. It is concluded that PRV, HSV, and VZV all have a cluster of homologous glycoprotein genes in the small unique components of their genomes and that the organization of these genes is conserved.« less

  16. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2013-07-01

    infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 1010. The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; characterization of probes; the influence of electrolyte pH; probe concentration and glucose concentration on the electrode ECL effect. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01598j

  17. Chemoenzymatic Site-Specific Labeling of Influenza Glycoproteins as a Tool to Observe Virus Budding in Real Time

    PubMed Central

    Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2012-01-01

    The influenza virus uses the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins to interact with and infect host cells. While biochemical and microscopic methods allow examination of the early steps in flu infection, the genesis of progeny virions has been more difficult to follow, mainly because of difficulties inherent in fluorescent labeling of flu proteins in a manner compatible with live cell imaging. We here apply sortagging as a chemoenzymatic approach to label genetically modified but infectious flu and track the flu glycoproteins during the course of infection. This method cleanly distinguishes influenza glycoproteins from host glycoproteins and so can be used to assess the behavior of HA or NA biochemically and to observe the flu glycoproteins directly by live cell imaging. PMID:22457626

  18. Regulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein-Induced Cascade of Events Governing Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Wan Ting; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Receptor-dependent herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced cell-cell fusion requires glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB. Our current model posits that during fusion, receptor-activated conformational changes in gD activate gH/gL, which subsequently triggers the transformation of the prefusion form of gB into a fusogenic state. To examine the role of each glycoprotein in receptor-dependent cell-cell fusion, we took advantage of our discovery that fusion by wild-type herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins occurs twice as fast as that achieved by HSV-1 glycoproteins. By sequentially swapping each glycoprotein between the two serotypes, we established that fusion speed was governed by gH/gL, with gH being the main contributor. While the mutant forms of gB fuse at distinct rates that are dictated by their molecular structure, these restrictions can be overcome by gH/gL of HSV-2 (gH2/gL2), thereby enhancing their activity. We also found that deregulated forms of gD of HSV-1 (gD1) and gH2/gL2 can alter the fusogenic potential of gB, promoting cell fusion in the absence of a cellular receptor, and that deregulated forms of gB can drive the fusion machinery to even higher levels. Low pH enhanced fusion by affecting the structure of both gB and gH/gL mutants. Together, our data highlight the complexity of the fusion machinery, the impact of the activation state of each glycoprotein on the fusion process, and the critical role of gH/gL in regulating HSV-induced fusion. IMPORTANCE Cell-cell fusion mediated by HSV glycoproteins requires gD, gH/gL, gB, and a gD receptor. Here, we show that fusion by wild-type HSV-2 glycoproteins occurs twice as fast as that achieved by HSV-1 glycoproteins. By sequentially swapping each glycoprotein between the two serotypes, we found that the fusion process was controlled by gH/gL. Restrictions imposed on the gB structure by mutations could be overcome by gH2/gL2, enhancing the activity of the mutants. Under low-pH conditions or when

  19. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein Is Associated With Chlorpyrifos Resistance in the German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan

    2016-12-01

    A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Recombinant Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Genotype IVb Glycoprotein Produced in Cabbage Looper Larvae Trichoplusia ni Elicits Antibody Response and Protection in Muskellunge.

    PubMed

    Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    The Novirhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb has caused serious fish kills and become endemic throughout the Great Lakes basin of North America. This is troublesome since there are no protective vaccines currently approved against this deadly disease even though recombinant technology has become increasingly common. Herein, we explored the production of a recombinant VHSV-IVb glycoprotein, believed to be important for virus infectivity, and determined its ability to elicit protection against challenge with the wild virus strain. A recombinant baculovirus containing a 5' 6x polyhistidine tag embedded in the VHSV-IVb G gene was used to infect the larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni. A sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of affinity-purified protein yielded apparent VHSV-IVb glycoprotein at the expected molecular weight of ~65 kDa. The recombinant protein (rG) was used successfully in coating microtiter plate wells in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and positive anti-VHSV-IVb antibodies in Muskellunge Esox masquinongy were capable of binding to both the rG and purified whole VHSV-IVb, indicating epitope resemblance. In addition, the rG elicited a protective response in Muskellunge during a VHSV-IVb immersion challenge, resulting in 80% relative percent survival. Our results demonstrate that cabbage looper larvae can serve as an excellent production system for apparently conformationally correct viral glycoprotein. The incorporation of a polyhistidine tag facilitates obtaining highly purified protein in a relatively high concentration, which has potential in the development of an efficacious subunit vaccine against this deadly virus. Received September 11, 2016; accepted March 10, 2017.

  1. Base-modified UDP-sugars reduce cell surface levels of P-selectin glycoprotein 1 (PSGL-1) on IL-1β-stimulated human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kanabar, Varsha; Tedaldi, Lauren; Jiang, Jingqian; Nie, Xiaodan; Panina, Irina; Descroix, Karine; Man, Francis; Pitchford, Simon C; Page, Clive P; Wagner, Gerd K

    2016-01-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162) is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is expressed, either constitutively or inducibly, on all myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages. PSGL-1 is implicated in cell–cell interactions between platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells, and a key mediator of inflammatory cell recruitment and transmigration into tissues. Here, we have investigated the effects of the β-1,4-galactosyltransferase inhibitor 5-(5-formylthien-2-yl) UDP-Gal (5-FT UDP-Gal, compound 1) and two close derivatives on the cell surface levels of PSGL-1 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). PSGL-1 levels were studied both under basal conditions, and upon stimulation of hPBMCs with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Between 1 and 24 hours after IL-1β stimulation, we observed initial PSGL-1 shedding, followed by an increase in PSGL-1 levels on the cell surface, with a maximal window between IL-1β-induced and basal levels after 72 h. All three inhibitors reduce PSGL-1 levels on IL-1β-stimulated cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but show no such effect in resting cells. Compound 1 also affects the cell surface levels of adhesion molecule CD11b in IL-1β-stimulated hPBMCs, but not of glycoproteins CD14 and CCR2. This activity profile may be linked to the inhibition of global Sialyl Lewis presentation on hPBMCs by compound 1, which we have also observed. Although this mechanistic explanation remains hypothetical at present, our results show, for the first time, that small molecules can discriminate between IL-1β-induced and basal levels of cell surface PSGL-1. These findings open new avenues for intervention with PSGL-1 presentation on the cell surface of primed hPBMCs and may have implications for anti-inflammatory drug development. PMID:27233805

  2. Base-modified UDP-sugars reduce cell surface levels of P-selectin glycoprotein 1 (PSGL-1) on IL-1β-stimulated human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanabar, Varsha; Tedaldi, Lauren; Jiang, Jingqian; Nie, Xiaodan; Panina, Irina; Descroix, Karine; Man, Francis; Pitchford, Simon C; Page, Clive P; Wagner, Gerd K

    2016-10-01

    P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162) is a cell-surface glycoprotein that is expressed, either constitutively or inducibly, on all myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages. PSGL-1 is implicated in cell-cell interactions between platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells, and a key mediator of inflammatory cell recruitment and transmigration into tissues. Here, we have investigated the effects of the β-1,4-galactosyltransferase inhibitor 5-(5-formylthien-2-yl) UDP-Gal (5-FT UDP-Gal, compound 1: ) and two close derivatives on the cell surface levels of PSGL-1 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs). PSGL-1 levels were studied both under basal conditions, and upon stimulation of hPBMCs with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Between 1 and 24 hours after IL-1β stimulation, we observed initial PSGL-1 shedding, followed by an increase in PSGL-1 levels on the cell surface, with a maximal window between IL-1β-induced and basal levels after 72 h. All three inhibitors reduce PSGL-1 levels on IL-1β-stimulated cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but show no such effect in resting cells. Compound 1: also affects the cell surface levels of adhesion molecule CD11b in IL-1β-stimulated hPBMCs, but not of glycoproteins CD14 and CCR2. This activity profile may be linked to the inhibition of global Sialyl Lewis presentation on hPBMCs by compound 1: , which we have also observed. Although this mechanistic explanation remains hypothetical at present, our results show, for the first time, that small molecules can discriminate between IL-1β-induced and basal levels of cell surface PSGL-1. These findings open new avenues for intervention with PSGL-1 presentation on the cell surface of primed hPBMCs and may have implications for anti-inflammatory drug development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Microdose study of a P-glycoprotein substrate, fexofenadine, using a non-radioisotope-labelled drug and LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, A; Kumagai, Y; Yamane, N; Tozuka, Z; Sugiyama, Y; Fujita, T; Yokota, S; Maeda, M

    2010-04-01

    Fexofenadine is a P-glycoprotein substrate of low bioavailability. It is primarily excreted into faeces as a parent drug via biliary excretion. The predictability from microdose data for the drug absorbed via transporters such as P-glycoprotein is not known. Therefore, this study assessed the predictability of therapeutic-dose pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine from microdosing data using non-radioisotope-labelled drug and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). In a single dose, randomized, two-way crossover study, eight subjects received a microdose (100 microg) or a therapeutic dose (60 mg) of fexofenadine. Blood samples were collected until 12 h after dosing, and assayed using LC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration-time curves of fexofenadine between microdose and therapeutic dose were similar. The mean +/- SD of C(max) normalized to 60 mg dose after microdose and therapeutic dose were 379 +/- 147 and 275 +/- 145 ng/mL respectively. The mean AUC(last) normalized to 60 mg dose after microdose and therapeutic dose were 1914 +/- 738 and 1431 +/- 432 ng/h/mL respectively. The mean dose-adjusted C(max) and AUC(last) after microdose were higher compared with those after therapeutic dose. Individual plots of C(max) and AUC(last) normalized to 60 mg dose, were similar for microdose and therapeutic dose. None of the pharmacokinetic parameters were statistically different using anova. Overall, the microdose pharmacokinetics profile was similar to, and hence predictive of, that of the therapeutic dose. For the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine, the predictability of therapeutic-dose pharmacokinetics from microdose data was good. A microdose study using a non-radioisotope-labelled drug and LC/MS/MS is convenient, and has the potential to aid the early selection of drug candidates.

  4. Solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. G. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An improved solar concentrator is characterized by a number of elongated supporting members arranged in substantial horizontal parallelism with the axis and intersecting a common curve. A tensioned sheet of flexible reflective material is disposed in engaging relation with the supporting members in order to impart to the tensioned sheet a catenary configuration.

  5. Differential interaction of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin with pig intestinal brush border glycoproteins depending on their ABH and related blood group antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Balanzino, L E; Barra, J L; Monferran, C G; Cumar, F A

    1994-04-01

    The ability of glycoproteins from pig intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) to bind cholera toxin (CT) or heat-labile toxins from strains of Escherichia coli isolated from human (LTh) or pig (LTp) intestines was studied. Glycoproteins capable of binding the toxins are also recognized by antibodies or lectins specific for ABO(H) blood group and related antigens. Pigs expressing A, H, or I antigenic determinants were used for comparison. The toxin-binding capacity of a glycoprotein depends on the toxin type and the blood group epitope borne by the glycoprotein. LTh and LTp preferably bound to several blood group A-active glycoproteins rather than H-active glycoproteins. By contrast, CT practically did not recognize either blood group A- or blood group H-active glycoproteins, while glycoproteins from pigs expressing I antigenic determinants were able to interact with LTh, LTp, and CT. LTh, LTp, or CT glycoprotein binding was selectively inhibited by specific lectins or monosaccharides. Affinity purification of the toxin binding brush border glycoproteins on the basis of their blood group reactivity suggests that such glycoproteins are hydrolytic enzymes. BBM from A+ pigs contain about 27 times more LTh binding sites, in addition to those recognized by CT, than an equivalent membrane preparation from H+ pigs. The present findings may help clarify some previous unclear results on LTh binding to intestinal BBM glycoproteins obtained by use of animals not typed by their ABO(H) blood group phenotype.

  6. beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) modulates uptake and endocytosis associated chemiluminescence in rat Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, L F; Gonçalves, L M; Fonseca, F L A; Celli, C M; Videla, L A; Chaimovich, H; Junqueira, V B C

    2002-07-01

    beta 2-Glycoprotein I (beta 2 GPI) is known to influence macrophage uptake of particles with phosphatidylserine containing surfaces, as apoptotic thymocytes and unilamellar vesicles in vitro. Nevertheless, effects upon macrophage activation induced by this interaction are still unknown. beta 2 GPI influence upon the reactive species production by Kupffer cells was evaluated in order to investigate whether beta 2 GPI modulates the macrophage response to negatively charged surfaces. Chemiluminescence of isolated non-parenchymal rat liver cells was measured after phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan or phorbolymristate acetate (PMA) stimulation, in the presence and absence of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) containing 25 mol% phosphatidylserine (PS) or 50 mol% cardiolipin (CL) and complementary molar ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC). beta 2 GPI decreased by 50% the chemiluminescence response induced by opsonized zymosan, with a 66% reduction of the initial light emission rate. PMA stimulated Kupffer cell chemiluminescence was insensitive to human or rat beta 2 GPI. Albumin (500 micrograms/ml) showed no effect upon chemiluminescence. beta 2 GPI increased PS/PC LUV uptake and degradation by Kupffer cells in a concentration-dependent manner, without leakage of the internal contents of the LUVs, as shown by fluorescence intensity enhancement. LUVs opsonized with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) from syphilitic patients increased light emission by Kupffer cells. Addition of beta 2 GPI to the assay reduced chemiluminescence due to opsonization with purified IgG antibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or syphilis (Sy) patient sera. A marked net increase in chemiluminescence is observed in the presence of Sy aPL antibodies, whereas a decrease was found when SLE aPL were added to the assay, in the presence or absence of beta 2 GPI. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, beta 2 GPI significantly reduced Kupffer cell Candida albicans phagocytosis index and killing

  7. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-11-01

    Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Panax ginseng on Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) Activity in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Malati, Christine Y.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    A number of herbal preparations have been shown to interact with prescription medications secondary to modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of Panax ginseng on CYP3A and P-gp function using the probe substrates midazolam and fexofenadine, respectively. Twelve healthy subjects (8 males) completed this open label, single sequence pharmacokinetic study. Healthy volunteers received single oral doses of midazolam 8 mg and fexofenadine 120 mg, before and after 28 days of P. ginseng 500 mg twice daily. Midazolam and fexofenadine pharmacokinetic parameter values were calculated and compared pre-and post P. ginseng administration. Geometric mean ratios (post-ginseng/pre-ginseng) for midazolam area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞), half life (T1/2), and maximum concentration (Cmax) were significantly reduced at 0.66 (0.55 – 0.78), 0.71 (0.53 – 0.90), and 0.74 (0.56 – 0.93), respectively. Conversely, fexofenadine pharmacokinetics were unaltered by P. ginseng administration. Based on these results, Panax ginseng appeared to induce CYP3A activity in the liver and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Patients taking Panax ginseng in combination with CYP3A substrates with narrow therapeutic ranges should be monitored closely for adequate therapeutic response to the substrate medication. PMID:21646440

  9. Variations in Spike Glycoprotein Gene of MERS-CoV, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, You-Jin; Park, Sung Han; Yun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Heui Man; Kim, Hak; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Joo Ae; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Kisoon; Kim, Sung Soon

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus occurred in South Korea in May 2015. Spike glycoprotein genes of virus strains from South Korea were closely related to those of strains from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, virus strains from South Korea showed strain-specific variations.

  10. Refining the Mechanisms of Heniparvirus-Mediated Membrane Fusion Through Mutagenesis of Hendra virus Envelope Glycoproteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-06

    receptors are Measles virus (MeV), Rinderpest virus, and Canine Distemper virus (CDV) (reviewed in (91, 92)). There is currently no solved structure...parainfluenza virus-1 (hPIV-1) and hPIV-3, and the H glycoprotein of MeV and Canine Distemper Virus. An amino acid sequence alignment of the stalk region

  11. Free oligosaccharides to monitor glycoprotein endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroto; Seino, Junichi; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2010-04-16

    In eukaryotic cells, N-glycosylation has been recognized as one of the most common and functionally important co- or post-translational modifications of proteins. "Free" forms of N-glycans accumulate in the cytosol of mammalian cells, but the precise mechanism for their formation and degradation remains unknown. Here, we report a method for the isolation of yeast free oligosaccharides (fOSs) using endo-beta-1,6-glucanase digestion. fOSs were undetectable in cells lacking PNG1, coding the cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase gene, suggesting that almost all fOSs were formed from misfolded glycoproteins by Png1p. Structural studies revealed that the most abundant fOS was M8B, which is not recognized well by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-related lectin, Yos9p. In addition, we provide evidence that some of the ERAD substrates reached the Golgi apparatus prior to retrotranslocation to the cytosol. N-Glycan structures on misfolded glycoproteins in cells lacking the cytosol/vacuole alpha-mannosidase, Ams1p, was still quite diverse, indicating that processing of N-glycans on misfolded glycoproteins was more complex than currently envisaged. Under ER stress, an increase in fOSs was observed, whereas levels of M7C, a key glycan structure recognized by Yos9p, were unchanged. Our method can thus provide valuable information on the molecular mechanism of glycoprotein ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Free Oligosaccharides to Monitor Glycoprotein Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Hiroto; Seino, Junichi; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, N-glycosylation has been recognized as one of the most common and functionally important co- or post-translational modifications of proteins. “Free” forms of N-glycans accumulate in the cytosol of mammalian cells, but the precise mechanism for their formation and degradation remains unknown. Here, we report a method for the isolation of yeast free oligosaccharides (fOSs) using endo-β-1,6-glucanase digestion. fOSs were undetectable in cells lacking PNG1, coding the cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase gene, suggesting that almost all fOSs were formed from misfolded glycoproteins by Png1p. Structural studies revealed that the most abundant fOS was M8B, which is not recognized well by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-related lectin, Yos9p. In addition, we provide evidence that some of the ERAD substrates reached the Golgi apparatus prior to retrotranslocation to the cytosol. N-Glycan structures on misfolded glycoproteins in cells lacking the cytosol/vacuole α-mannosidase, Ams1p, was still quite diverse, indicating that processing of N-glycans on misfolded glycoproteins was more complex than currently envisaged. Under ER stress, an increase in fOSs was observed, whereas levels of M7C, a key glycan structure recognized by Yos9p, were unchanged. Our method can thus provide valuable information on the molecular mechanism of glycoprotein ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:20150426

  13. Sindbis virus glycoproteins are abnormally glycosylated in Chinese hamster ovary cells deprived of glucose.

    PubMed

    Davidson, S K; Hunt, L A

    1985-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Sindbis virus infection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells altered the protein glycosylation machinery of the cell, so that both normal, full-size (nine mannose-containing) oligosaccharides and abnormal, "truncated' (five mannose-containing) oligosaccharides are transferred from lipid-linked precursors to newly synthesized viral membrane glycoproteins. In the present studies, we have examined the precursor oligosaccharides on viral glycoproteins that were pulse-labelled with [3H]mannose in the presence or absence of glucose, since glucose starvation of uninfected CHO cells has been reported to induce synthesis of truncated precursor oligosaccharides. Pulse-labelling in the absence of glucose led to a greater than 10-fold increase in the relative amount of the truncated precursor oligosaccharides being transferred to the newly synthesized viral glycoproteins and to an apparent underglycosylation of some precursor viral polypeptides, with some asparaginyl sites not acquiring covalently linked oligosaccharides. The mature virion glycoproteins from CHO cells which were pulse-labelled in the absence of glucose and then 'chased' in the presence of glucose contained proportionately more unusual Man3GlcNAc2-size oligosaccharides. These small neutral-type oligosaccharides were apparently not as good a substrate for further processing into complex acidic-type oligosaccharides as the normal Man5GlcNAc2 intermediate that results from the full-size precursor oligosaccharides.

  14. Release of oligomannoside-type glycans as a marker of the degradation of newly synthesized glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Villers, C; Cacan, R; Mir, A M; Labiau, O; Verbert, A

    1994-02-15

    The N-glycosylation of proteins is accompanied by the release of soluble oligosaccharide material. Besides oligosaccharide phosphates originating from the cleavage of lipid intermediates, neutral free oligosaccharides represent the major part of this material and are heterogeneous depending on whether the reducing end has one or two N-acetylglucosamine residues. The present study focuses on the intracellular origin of neutral free oligosaccharides in a CHO cell line. Kinetic and pulse-chase experiments clearly indicate that oligosaccharides possessing a chitobiosyl unit are derived from oligosaccharide pyrophosphodolichol, whereas oligosaccharides possessing one N-acetyl-glucosamine residue are derived from newly synthesized glycoprotein. This relationship is confirmed by comparing the glycosylation pattern of lipid donors and glycoproteins with those of neutral free oligosaccharides under various incubation conditions (inhibition of protein synthesis, presence of processing inhibitors, presence or absence of glucose). Degradation of newly synthesized glycoprotein and formation of neutral oligosaccharides with one N-acetylglucosamine residue are inhibited at 16 degrees C but not affected by lysosomotropic agents such as leupeptin or NH4Cl. Together with the fact that the degradation of newly synthesized glycoproteins and the subsequent release of the glycan are recovered in permeabilized cells, these results suggest that this phenomenon occurs in the rough endoplasmic reticulum or in a closely related compartment.

  15. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B

    SciTech Connect

    Backovic, Marija; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the structure of gB from Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of the secreted EBV gB ectodomain, which formsmore » 16-nm long spike-like trimers, structurally homologous to the postfusion trimers of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Comparative structural analyses of EBV gB and VSV G, which has been solved in its pre and postfusion states, shed light on gB residues that may be involved in conformational changes and membrane fusion. Also, the EBV gB structure reveals that, despite the high sequence conservation of gB in herpesviruses, the relative orientations of individual domains, the surface charge distributions, and the structural details of EBV gB differ from the HSV-1 protein, indicating regions and residues that may have important roles in virus-specific entry.« less

  16. Glycoprotein Biochemistry (Biosynthesis)--A Vehicle for Teaching Many Aspects of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Clair R.; Smith, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    Information about the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate portions or glycans of glycoproteins is presented. The teaching of glycosylation can be used to develop and emphasize many general aspects of biosynthesis, in addition to explaining specific biochemical and molecular biological features associated with producing the oligosaccharide portions of…

  17. Intracellular transport and stability of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein K

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Susan L.; Govero, Jennifer L.; Heineman, Thomas C.

    2007-02-20

    VZV gK, an essential glycoprotein that is conserved among the alphaherpesviruses, is believed to participate in membrane fusion and cytoplasmic virion morphogenesis based on analogy to its HSV-1 homolog. However, the production of VZV gK-specific antibodies has proven difficult presumably due to its highly hydrophobic nature and, therefore, VZV gK has received limited study. To overcome this obstacle, we inserted a FLAG epitope into gK near its amino terminus and produced VZV recombinants expressing epitope-tagged gK (VZV gK-F). These recombinants grew indistinguishably from native VZV, and FLAG-tagged gK could be readily detected in VZV gK-F-infected cells. FACS analysis established thatmore » gK is transported to the plasma membrane of infected cells, while indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that gK accumulates predominately in the Golgi. Using VZV gK-F-infected cells we demonstrated that VZV gK, like several other herpesvirus glycoproteins, is efficiently endocytosed from the plasma membrane. However, pulse-labeling experiments revealed that the half-life of gK is considerably shorter than that of other VZV glycoproteins including gB, gE and gH. This finding suggests that gK may be required in lower abundance than other viral glycoproteins during virion morphogenesis or viral entry.« less

  18. Enrichment of Glycoproteins using Nano-scale Chelating Con A Monolithic Capillary Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shun; Yang, Na; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Goodison, Steve; Lubman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Immobilized lectin chromatography can be employed for glycoprotein enrichment, but commonly used columns have limitations of yield and resolution. In order to improve efficiency and to make the technique applicable to minimal sample material, we have developed a nano-scale chelating Concanavalin A (Con A) monolithic capillary prepared using GMA-EDMA (glycidyl methacrylate–co-ethylene dimethacrylate) as polymeric support. Con A was immobilized on Cu(II)-charged iminodiacetic acid (IDA) regenerable sorbents by forming a IDA:Cu(II):Con A sandwich affinity structure that has high column capacity as well as stability. When compared with conventional Con A lectin chromatography, the monolithic capillary enabled the better reproducible detection of over double the number of unique N-glycoproteins in human urine samples. Utility for analysis of minimal biological samples was confirmed by the successful elucidation of glycoprotein profiles in mouse urine samples at the microliter scale. The improved efficiency of the nano-scale monolithic capillary will impact the analysis of glycoproteins in complex biological samples, especially where only limited material may be available. PMID:19366252

  19. Non-natural amino acid peptide microarrays to discover Ebola virus glycoprotein ligands.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Joshua A; Lainson, John C; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Diehnelt, Chris W

    2018-02-06

    We demonstrate a platform to screen a virus pseudotyped with Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) against a library of peptides that contain non-natural amino acids to develop GP affinity ligands. This system could be used for rapid development of peptide-based antivirals for other emerging or neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  20. Marked differences in the antigenic structure of human respiratory syncytial virus F and G glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    García-Barreno, B; Palomo, C; Peñas, C; Delgado, T; Perez-Breña, P; Melero, J A

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus were used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for topological mapping of epitopes. Whereas epitopes of the F glycoprotein could be ascribed to five nonoverlapping antigenic sites, anti-G antibodies recognized unique epitopes, many of whose competition profiles overlapped extensively. Variant viruses selected with a neutralizing (47F) anti-F antibody lost the binding for only 47F and 49F antibodies, which mapped in the same antigenic area. In contrast, viruses selected with an anti-G antibody lost the capacity to bind most of the anti-G antibodies, and their G protein was not recognized by an anti-virus antiserum, indicating major changes in the antigenic structure of the G molecule. Finally, we found great antigenic variation of the G protein among viral isolates. This occurred even within viruses of the same subtype with only limited divergence of amino acid sequence between strains. All of these data indicate marked differences in the antigenic organization of the G and F glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus; we discuss these differences in terms of the chemical structure of the glycoproteins. Images PMID:2463385

  1. Paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way dance for infectious particle production.

    PubMed

    El Najjar, Farah; Schmitt, Anthony P; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2014-08-07

    Paramyxoviruses are a family of negative sense RNA viruses whose members cause serious diseases in humans, such as measles virus, mumps virus and respiratory syncytial virus; and in animals, such as Newcastle disease virus and rinderpest virus. Paramyxovirus particles form by assembly of the viral matrix protein, the ribonucleoprotein complex and the surface glycoproteins at the plasma membrane of infected cells and subsequent viral budding. Two major glycoproteins expressed on the viral envelope, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote attachment of the virus to host cells and subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion. Incorporation of the surface glycoproteins into infectious progeny particles requires coordinated interplay between the three viral structural components, driven primarily by the matrix protein. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the contributions of the matrix protein and glycoproteins in driving paramyxovirus assembly and budding while focusing on the viral protein interactions underlying this process and the intracellular trafficking pathways for targeting viral components to assembly sites. Differences in the mechanisms of particle production among the different family members will be highlighted throughout.

  2. Paramyxovirus Glycoprotein Incorporation, Assembly and Budding: A Three Way Dance for Infectious Particle Production

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Schmitt, Anthony P.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses are a family of negative sense RNA viruses whose members cause serious diseases in humans, such as measles virus, mumps virus and respiratory syncytial virus; and in animals, such as Newcastle disease virus and rinderpest virus. Paramyxovirus particles form by assembly of the viral matrix protein, the ribonucleoprotein complex and the surface glycoproteins at the plasma membrane of infected cells and subsequent viral budding. Two major glycoproteins expressed on the viral envelope, the attachment protein and the fusion protein, promote attachment of the virus to host cells and subsequent virus-cell membrane fusion. Incorporation of the surface glycoproteins into infectious progeny particles requires coordinated interplay between the three viral structural components, driven primarily by the matrix protein. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the contributions of the matrix protein and glycoproteins in driving paramyxovirus assembly and budding while focusing on the viral protein interactions underlying this process and the intracellular trafficking pathways for targeting viral components to assembly sites. Differences in the mechanisms of particle production among the different family members will be highlighted throughout. PMID:25105277

  3. COMPOSITION OF GLYCOPROTEINS SECRETED BY TRACHEAL EXPLANTS FROM VARIOUS ANIMAL SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acidic and neutral glycoproteins secreted by cultured tracheal explants from pigs, sheep, rats, mice, monkeys, guinea pigs, dogs, and chickens were purified and fractionated by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. The ratios of ...

  4. Most neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies target novel epitopes requiring both Lassa virus glycoprotein subunits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James E.; Hastie, Kathryn M.; Cross, Robert W.; Yenni, Rachael E.; Elliott, Deborah H.; Rouelle, Julie A.; Kannadka, Chandrika B.; Smira, Ashley A.; Garry, Courtney E.; Bradley, Benjamin T.; Yu, Haini; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Boisen, Matt L.; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Zandonatti, Michelle A.; Rowland, Megan M.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson; de la Torre, Juan C.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Gbakie, Michael; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J.; Fonnie, Richard; Jalloh, Simbirie C.; Kargbo, Brima; Vandi, Mohamed A.; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Ikponmwosa, Odia; Asogun, Danny A.; Okokhere, Peter O.; Follarin, Onikepe A.; Schieffelin, John S.; Pitts, Kelly R.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Kulakoski, Peter C.; Wilson, Russell B.; Happi, Christian T.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Gevao, Sahr M.; Khan, S. Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever is a severe multisystem disease that often has haemorrhagic manifestations. The epitopes of the Lassa virus (LASV) surface glycoproteins recognized by naturally infected human hosts have not been identified or characterized. Here we have cloned 113 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for LASV glycoproteins from memory B cells of Lassa fever survivors from West Africa. One-half bind the GP2 fusion subunit, one-fourth recognize the GP1 receptor-binding subunit and the remaining fourth are specific for the assembled glycoprotein complex, requiring both GP1 and GP2 subunits for recognition. Notably, of the 16 mAbs that neutralize LASV, 13 require the assembled glycoprotein complex for binding, while the remaining 3 require GP1 only. Compared with non-neutralizing mAbs, neutralizing mAbs have higher binding affinities and greater divergence from germline progenitors. Some mAbs potently neutralize all four LASV lineages. These insights from LASV human mAb characterization will guide strategies for immunotherapeutic development and vaccine design. PMID:27161536

  5. Regulation of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein synthesis by porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, ORM-1) is a highly glycosylated mammalian acute phase protein, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and represents the major serum protein in newborn pigs. Recent data have suggested that the pig is unique in that AGP is a negative acute phase protein in this ...

  6. Virion Glycoprotein-Mediated Immune Evasion by Human Cytomegalovirus: a Sticky Virus Makes a Slick Getaway

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The prototypic herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (CMV) exhibits the extraordinary ability to establish latency and maintain a chronic infection throughout the life of its human host. This is even more remarkable considering the robust adaptive immune response elicited by infection and reactivation from latency. In addition to the ability of CMV to exist in a quiescent latent state, its persistence is enabled by a large repertoire of viral proteins that subvert immune defense mechanisms, such as NK cell activation and major histocompatibility complex antigen presentation, within the cell. However, dissemination outside the cell presents a unique existential challenge to the CMV virion, which is studded with antigenic glycoprotein complexes targeted by a potent neutralizing antibody response. The CMV virion envelope proteins, which are critical mediators of cell attachment and entry, possess various characteristics that can mitigate the humoral immune response and prevent viral clearance. Here we review the CMV glycoprotein complexes crucial for cell attachment and entry and propose inherent properties of these proteins involved in evading the CMV humoral immune response. These include viral glycoprotein polymorphism, epitope competition, Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis, glycan shielding, and cell-to-cell spread. The consequences of CMV virion glycoprotein-mediated immune evasion have a major impact on persistence of the virus in the population, and a comprehensive understanding of these evasion strategies will assist in designing effective CMV biologics and vaccines to limit CMV-associated disease. PMID:27307580

  7. Ubiquitination of exposed glycoproteins by SCFFBXO27 directs damaged lysosomes for autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Yasuda, Sayaka; Fujita, Toshiharu; Hamasaki, Maho; Murakami, Arisa; Kawawaki, Junko; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Saeki, Yasushi; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitination functions as a signal to recruit autophagic machinery to damaged organelles and induce their clearance. Here, we report the characterization of FBXO27, a glycoprotein-specific F-box protein that is part of the SCF (SKP1/CUL1/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, and demonstrate that SCFFBXO27 ubiquitinates glycoproteins in damaged lysosomes to regulate autophagic machinery recruitment. Unlike F-box proteins in other SCF complexes, FBXO27 is subject to N-myristoylation, which localizes it to membranes, allowing it to accumulate rapidly around damaged lysosomes. We also screened for proteins that are ubiquitinated upon lysosomal damage, and identified two SNARE proteins, VAMP3 and VAMP7, and five lysosomal proteins, LAMP1, LAMP2, GNS, PSAP, and TMEM192. Ubiquitination of all glycoproteins identified in this screen increased upon FBXO27 overexpression. We found that the lysosomal protein LAMP2, which is ubiquitinated preferentially on lysosomal damage, enhances autophagic machinery recruitment to damaged lysosomes. Thus, we propose that SCFFBXO27 ubiquitinates glycoproteins exposed upon lysosomal damage to induce lysophagy. PMID:28743755

  8. Interpreting Tacrolimus Concentrations During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Mary F.; Zheng, Songmao; Hays, Karen; Shen, Danny D.; Davis, Connie L.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Easterling, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy following solid organ transplantation, although considered high risk for maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, has been quite successful. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy make interpretation of whole blood trough concentrations particularly challenging. There are multiple factors that can increase the fraction of unbound tacrolimus, including but not limited to low albumin concentration and low RBC count. The clinical titration of dosage to maintain whole blood tacrolimus trough concentrations in the usual therapeutic range can lead to elevated unbound concentrations and possibly toxicity in pregnant women with anemia and hypoalbuminemia. Measurement of plasma or unbound tacrolimus concentrations for pregnant women might better reflect the active form of the drug, though these are technically-challenging and often unavailable in usual clinical practice. Tacrolimus crosses the placenta with in utero exposure being approximately 71% of maternal blood concentrations. The lower fetal blood concentrations are likely due to active efflux transport of tacrolimus from the fetus toward the mother by placental P-glycoprotein. To date, tacrolimus has not been linked to congenital malformations, but can cause reversible nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in the newborn. In contrast, very small amounts of tacrolimus are excreted in the breast milk and are unlikely to elicit adverse effects in the nursing infant. PMID:23274970

  9. Solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Melchior, B.

    1984-04-03

    A solar concentrator comprises a solid block of a transparent material having a planar incident surface positioned to receive solar rays and, opposite this surface, a curved reflective surface so that the material of the block completely fills the space between these surfaces. At the incident surface an absorber is provided and the curvature of the reflective surface is such that it is at least partly parabolical and adapted to reflect solar rays traversing the body through the body again to the absorber.

  10. Novel Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibodies against Ebolavirus Glycoproteins Show Protection in a Murine Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Duehr, James; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Oestereich, Lisa; Chromikova, Veronika; Amanat, Fatima; Gomez-Medina, Sergio; Mena, Ignacio; tenOever, Benjamin R.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Basler, Christopher F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Out of an estimated 31,100 cases since their discovery in 1976, ebolaviruses have caused approximately 13,000 deaths. The vast majority (∼11,000) of these occurred during the 2013-2016 West African epidemic. Three out of five species in the genus are known to cause Ebola Virus Disease in humans. Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics. However, there is still a paucity of monoclonal antibodies that can cross-react between the glycoproteins of different ebolavirus species, and the mechanism of these monoclonal antibody therapeutics is still not understood in detail. Here, we generated a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) utilizing a prime-boost vaccination regimen with a Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein expression plasmid followed by infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein. We tested the binding breadth of the resulting monoclonal antibodies using a set of recombinant surface glycoproteins from Reston, Taï Forest, Bundibugyo, Zaire, Sudan, and Marburg viruses and found two antibodies that showed pan-ebolavirus binding. An in vivo Stat2−/− mouse model was utilized to test the ability of these MAbs to protect from infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein. Several of our antibodies, including the broadly binding ones, protected mice from mortality despite lacking neutralization capability in vitro, suggesting their protection may be mediated by Fc-FcR interactions. Indeed, three antibodies displayed cellular phagocytosis and/or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Our antibodies, specifically the two identified cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (KL-2E5 and KL-2H7), might add to the understanding of anti-ebolavirus humoral immunity. IMPORTANCE This study describes the generation of a panel of novel anti-ebolavirus glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies

  11. Novel Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibodies against Ebolavirus Glycoproteins Show Protection in a Murine Challenge Model.

    PubMed

    Duehr, James; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Oestereich, Lisa; Chromikova, Veronika; Amanat, Fatima; Rajendran, Madhusudan; Gomez-Medina, Sergio; Mena, Ignacio; tenOever, Benjamin R; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Basler, Christopher F; Munoz-Fontela, Cesar; Krammer, Florian

    2017-08-15

    Out of an estimated 31,100 cases since their discovery in 1976, ebolaviruses have caused approximately 13,000 deaths. The vast majority (∼11,000) of these occurred during the 2013-2016 West African epidemic. Three out of five species in the genus are known to cause Ebola Virus Disease in humans. Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics. However, there is still a paucity of monoclonal antibodies that can cross-react between the glycoproteins of different ebolavirus species, and the mechanism of these monoclonal antibody therapeutics is still not understood in detail. Here, we generated a panel of eight murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) utilizing a prime-boost vaccination regimen with a Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein expression plasmid followed by infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein. We tested the binding breadth of the resulting monoclonal antibodies using a set of recombinant surface glycoproteins from Reston, Taï Forest, Bundibugyo, Zaire, Sudan, and Marburg viruses and found two antibodies that showed pan-ebolavirus binding. An in vivo Stat2 -/- mouse model was utilized to test the ability of these MAbs to protect from infection with a vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein. Several of our antibodies, including the broadly binding ones, protected mice from mortality despite lacking neutralization capability in vitro , suggesting their protection may be mediated by Fc-FcR interactions. Indeed, three antibodies displayed cellular phagocytosis and/or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro Our antibodies, specifically the two identified cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (KL-2E5 and KL-2H7), might add to the understanding of anti-ebolavirus humoral immunity. IMPORTANCE This study describes the generation of a panel of novel anti-ebolavirus glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies, including two

  12. Concentrator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the years of technology development by the Parabolic Dish program, the problems peculiar to tracking dishes have been explored in depth with particular emphasis on economics. Starting with the Precursor Concentrator, testing techniques and apparatus such as calorimeters and the flux mapper were developed. At the same time, mirrors were developed to have a long operating life as well as high performance. Commercially available equipment was evaluated as well. Building on all these elements, the Test Bed Concentrators were designed and built. With a peak intensity in the focal plane of over 17,500 suns and an average concentrator ratio over 3000 on an eight inch diameter aperture, they have proven to be the work horses of the technology. With a readily adjustable mirror array, they have proved to be an essential tool in the development of dish components, receivers, heat transport systems, instrumentation, controls, engines, and materials - all necessary to cost effective modules and plants. Utilizing the lessons learned from this technology, most cost effective systems were designed. These included Parabolic Dish Number 1 (PDC-1) and PDC-2 currently in final design by Acurex Corporation. Even more advanced concepts are being worked on, such as the Cassegranian systems by BDM Corporation.

  13. Role of N-linked polymannose oligosaccharides in targeting glycoproteins for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Spiro, R G

    2004-05-01

    Misfolded or incompletely assembled multisubunit glycoproteins undergo endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) regulated in large measure by their N-linked polymannose oligosaccharides. In this quality control system lectin interaction with Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) glycans after trimming with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-glucosidases and alpha-mannosidases sorts out persistently unfolded glycoproteins for N-deglycosylation and proteolytic degradation. Monoglucosylated (Glc(1)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)) glycoproteins take part in the calnexin/calreticulin glucosylation-deglucosylation cycle, while the Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B product of ER mannosidase I interacts with EDEM. Proteasomal degradation requires retrotranslocation into the cytosol through a Sec61 channel and deglycosylation by peptide: N-glycosidase (PNGase); in alternate models both PNGase and proteasomes may be either free in the cytosol or ER membrane-imbedded/attached. Numerous proteins appear to undergo nonproteasomal degradation in which deglycosylation and proteolysis take place in the ER lumen. The released free oligosaccharides (OS) are transported to the cytosol as OS-GlcNAc(2) along with similar components produced by the hydrolytic action of the oligosaccharyltransferase, where they together with OS from the proteasomal pathway are trimmed to Man(5)GlcNAc(1) by the action of cytosolic endo-beta- N-acetylglucosaminidase and alpha-mannosidase before entering the lysosomes. Some misfolded glycoproteins can recycle between the ER, intermediate and Golgi compartments, where they are further processed before ERAD. Moreover, properly folded glycoproteins with mannose-trimmed glycans can be deglucosylated in the Golgi by endomannosidase, thereby releasing calreticulin and permitting formation of complex OS. A number of regulatory controls have been described, including the glucosidase-glucosyltransferase shuttle, which controls the level of Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-P-P-Dol, and the unfolded protein

  14. Identification, isolation, and N-terminal sequencing of style glycoproteins associated with self-incompatibility in Nicotiana alata.

    PubMed

    Jahnen, W; Batterham, M P; Clarke, A E; Moritz, R L; Simpson, R J

    1989-05-01

    S-Gene-associated glycoproteins (S-glycoproteins) from styles of Nicotiana alata, identified by non-equilibrium two-dimensional electrophoresis, were purified by cation exchange fast protein liquid chromatography with yields of 0.5 to 8 micrograms of protein per style, depending on the S-genotype of the plant. The method relies on the highly basic nature of the S-glycoproteins. The elution profiles of the different S-glycoproteins from the fast protein liquid chromatography column were characteristic of each S-glycoprotein, and could be used to establish the S-genotype of plants in outbreeding populations. In all cases, the S-genotype predicted from the style protein profile corresponded to that predicted from DNA gel blot analysis using S-allele-specific DNA probes and to that established by conventional breeding tests. Amino-terminal sequences of five purified S-glycoproteins showed a high degree of homology with the previously published sequences of N. alata and Lycopersicon esculentum S-glycoproteins.

  15. Leukoreduced red blood cell transfusions do not induce platelet glycoprotein antibodies in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Robert Sheppard; Winkler, Anne M; Horan, John T; Hendrickson, Jeanne E

    2016-09-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell (RBC) antigens after transfusion is well described in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We recently demonstrated that leukocyte-reduced RBC transfusions appeared to induce human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in some children with SCD; now, we hypothesize that residual platelets contained in transfused RBC products may lead to platelet glycoprotein antibody formation. A cross-sectional study was conducted among never pregnant pediatric patients with SCD who either had received many RBC transfusions or had never received any transfusions. Serum was tested for antibodies to platelet-specific glycoproteins using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Platelet-specific glycoprotein antibodies were found in 12 of 90 patients (13%) in the transfused group versus 5 of 24 patients (21%) in the never transfused group (p = 0.35). The prevalence of antibodies as well as the median standardized optical density for these two groups was not significantly different for any of the studied platelet glycoprotein antigens. There was no association with the presence of platelet-specific glycoprotein antibodies with either RBC or HLA antibodies. Leukocyte-reduced RBC transfusions do not appear to induce platelet-specific glycoprotein antibodies. The positive platelet-specific glycoprotein antibody results from this study may represent platelet autoantibodies, platelet alloantibodies, or false-positive reactions. A better understanding of the immunobiology of patients with SCD at baseline and after blood product exposure may help improve future transfusion and transplantation. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Global analysis of glycoproteins identifies markers of endotoxin tolerant monocytes and GPR84 as a modulator of TNFα expression.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mario M; Lehmann, Roland; Klassert, Tilman E; Reifenstein, Stella; Conrad, Theresia; Moore, Christoph; Kuhn, Anna; Behnert, Andrea; Guthke, Reinhard; Driesch, Dominik; Slevogt, Hortense

    2017-04-12

    Exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a temporary insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenges, a cellular state called endotoxin tolerance. In this study, we investigated the LPS-induced global glycoprotein expression changes of tolerant human monocytes and THP-1 cells to identify markers and glycoprotein targets capable to modulate the immunosuppressive state. Using hydrazide chemistry and LC-MS/MS analysis, we analyzed glycoprotein expression changes during a 48 h LPS time course. The cellular snapshots at different time points identified 1491 glycoproteins expressed by monocytes and THP-1 cells. Label-free quantitative analysis revealed transient or long-lasting LPS-induced expression changes of secreted or membrane-anchored glycoproteins derived from intracellular membrane coated organelles or from the plasma membrane. Monocytes and THP-1 cells demonstrated marked differences in glycoproteins differentially expressed in the tolerant state. Among the shared differentially expressed glycoproteins G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) was identified as being capable of modulating pro-inflammatory TNFα mRNA expression in the tolerant cell state when activated with its ligand Decanoic acid.

  17. Antifreeze glycoproteins from antarctic notothenioid fishes fail to protect the rat cardiac explant during hypothermic and freezing preservation.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhu, Q; Yang, X; Layne, J R; Devries, A L

    1994-04-01

    The antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing through the action of circulating antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs). This study investigated whether AFGPs could serve as cryoprotectants for the isolated rat heart under three different storage conditions. (1) Hearts were flushed with 15 mg AFGP/ml cardioplegic solution (CP) and stored for 9 h at 0 degrees C. This AFGP concentration has been reported to protect pig oocytes during hypothermic storage. (2) Hearts were flushed with 10 mg AFGP/ml CP-14 and stored frozen at -1.4 degrees C for 3 h. At this concentration the AFGPs significantly reduce the solution freezing point and also change the crystal morphology from dendritic to spicular. (3) Hearts were flushed with 10 micrograms AFGP/ml CP-15 and stored frozen at -1.4 degrees C for 5 h. At this low concentration the AFGPs have a strong inhibitory effect on ice recrystallization, but have little effect on the freezing point and less apparent effect on the crystal habit. After hypothermic or freezing storage, the functional viability was assessed by determining cardiac output (CO) during working reperfusion. No difference in CO was found between AFGP-treated and untreated hearts after 9 h of 0 degree C storage. CO in hearts frozen in CP-14 without AFGPs recovered to 50% of the freshly perfused control hearts. Hearts frozen in the presence of high concentrations of AFGPs (10 mg/ml CP-14) failed to beat upon thawing and reperfusion, although their tissue ice content was less than that found in hearts without AFGP treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Plasma binding of an alpha-blocking agent, nicergoline--affinity for serum albumin and native and modified alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Migne, J; Santonja, R; Zini, R; Schmid, K; Tillement, J P

    1983-06-01

    The binding of nicergoline, an alpha-blocking drug, by human plasma proteins was studied using gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and equilibrium dialysis techniques. 3H-labeled nicergoline added to plasma was eluted together with two major protein fractions, one containing mainly serum albumin, the other glycoproteins such as alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (alpha 1-AG). Equilibrium dialysis experiments with pure human serum albumin and alpha 1-AG as well as with its chemically modified forms, desialylated, carboxymethylated, and both desialylated and carboxymethylated alpha 1-AG gave the following results: nicergoline has about a 4-fold higher affinity for alpha 1-AG than for serum albumin. There are two binding sites per molecule on serum albumin and one on alpha 1-AG. The binding parameters of alpha 1-AG were not significantly modified by desialylation or carboxymethylation. Only desialylated and carboxymethylated alpha 1-AG showed a decreased binding for nicergoline, suggesting conformational modifications induced by these combined treatments. The fact that desialylated alpha 1-AG keeps its affinity for nicergoline suggests the possibility of a selective introduction of this drug in cells possessing the Ashwell-type specific receptor for desialylated alpha 1-AG, for instance hepatocytes. Increased serum alpha 1-AG concentration induced by inflammatory reactions will also modify the distribution of bound nicergoline between serum albumin and alpha 1-AG and as a consequence its half-life and cell distribution.

  19. C-peptide inhibitors of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cell entry: effects of conjugation to cholesterol and side chain-side chain crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Chelsea D; Koellhoffer, Jayne F; Chandran, Kartik; Lai, Jonathan R

    2013-10-01

    We previously described potent inhibition of Ebola virus entry by a 'C-peptide' based on the GP2 C-heptad repeat region (CHR) targeted to endosomes ('Tat-Ebo'). Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of C-peptides conjugated to cholesterol, and Tat-Ebo analogs containing covalent side chain-side chain crosslinks to promote α-helical conformation. We found that the cholesterol-conjugated C-peptides were potent inhibitors of Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP)-mediated cell entry (~10(3)-fold reduction in infection at 40 μM). However, this mechanism of inhibition is somewhat non-specific because the cholesterol-conjugated peptides also inhibited cell entry mediated by vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. One side chain-side chain crosslinked peptide had moderately higher activity than the parent compound Tat-Ebo. Circular dichroism revealed that the cholesterol-conjugated peptides unexpectedly formed a strong α-helical conformation that was independent of concentration. Side chain-side chain crosslinking enhanced α-helical stability of the Tat-Ebo variants, but only at neutral pH. These result provide insight into mechanisms of C-peptide inhibiton of Ebola virus GP-mediated cell entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic protein fluorescence interferes with detection of tear glycoproteins in SDS-polyacrylamide gels using extrinsic fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Aliwarga, Yulina; Willcox, Mark D P

    2007-12-01

    Intrinsic protein fluorescence may interfere with the visualization of proteins after SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In an attempt to analyze tear glycoproteins in gels, we ran tear samples and stained the proteins with a glycoprotein-specific fluorescent dye. The fluorescence detected was not limited to glycoproteins. There was strong intrinsic fluorescence of proteins normally found in tears after soaking the gels in 40% methanol plus 1-10% acetic acid and, to a lesser extent, in methanol or acetic acid alone. Nanograms of proteins gave visible native fluorescence and interfere with extrinsic fluorescent dye detection. Poly-L-lysine, which does not contain intrinsically fluorescent amino acids, did not fluoresce.

  1. Intrinsic Protein Fluorescence Interferes with Detection of Tear Glycoproteins in SDS-Polyacrylamide Gels Using Extrinsic Fluorescent Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Aliwarga, Yulina; Willcox, Mark DP

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic protein fluorescence may interfere with the visualization of proteins after SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. In an attempt to analyze tear glycoproteins in gels, we ran tear samples and stained the proteins with a glycoprotein-specific fluorescent dye. The fluorescence detected was not limited to glycoproteins. There was strong intrinsic fluorescence of proteins normally found in tears after soaking the gels in 40% methanol plus 1–10% acetic acid and, to a lesser extent, in methanol or acetic acid alone. Nanograms of proteins gave visible native fluorescence and interfere with extrinsic fluorescent dye detection. Poly-L-lysine, which does not contain intrinsically fluorescent amino acids, did not fluoresce. PMID:18166676

  2. The G Glycoprotein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Depresses Respiratory Rates through the CX3C Motif and Substance P

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Dakhama, Azzeddine; Jones, Les P.; Barskey, Albert; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Anderson, Larry J.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the neonate can alter respiratory rates, i.e., lead to episodes of apnea. We show that RSV G glycoprotein reduces respiratory rates associated with the induction of substance P (SP) and G glycoprotein-CX3CR1 interaction, an effect that is inhibited by treatment with anti-G glycoprotein, anti-SP, or anti-CX3CR1 monoclonal antibodies. These data suggest new approaches for treating some aspects of RSV disease. PMID:12743318

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of dibenzoylhydrazines

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ken-ichi, E-mail: Miyata.Kenichi@otsuka.jp; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima 771-0182; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki

    2016-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. It actively transports a wide variety of compounds out of cells to protect humans from xenobiotics. Thus, determining whether chemicals are substrates and/or inhibitors of P-gp is important in risk assessments of pharmacokinetic interactions among chemicals because P-gp-mediated transport processes play a significant role in their absorption and disposition. We previously reported that dibenzoylhydrazines (DBHs) such as tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide (agrochemicals) stimulated P-gp ATPase activity. However, it currently remains unclear whether these derivatives are transport substrates of P-gp and inhibit transport of other chemicals by P-gp. In the presentmore » study, in order to evaluate the interactions of DBHs with other chemicals in humans, we determined whether DBHs are P-gp transport substrates using both the in vitro bidirectional transport assay and the in vivo study of rats. In the in vivo study, we investigated the influence of P-gp inhibitors on the brain to plasma ratio of methoxyfenozide in rats. We also examined the inhibitory effects of DBHs on quinidine (a P-gp substrate) transport by P-gp in order to ascertain whether these derivatives are inhibitors of P-gp. Based on the results, DBHs were concluded to be weak P-gp transport substrates and moderate P-gp inhibitors. However, the risk of DBHs caused by interaction with other chemicals including drugs was considered to be low by considering the DBHs' potential as the substrates and inhibitors of P-gp as well as their plasma concentrations as long as DBHs are properly used. - Highlights: • Transport of DBHs by P-gp was not detected in in vitro bidirectional transport assay. • DBHs were weak P-gp transport substrates based on in vivo studies in rats. • The in vivo studies are useful methods for evaluating P-gp transport substrates. • DBHs inhibit quinidine transport by P-gp in in vitro bidirectional

  4. What Do Chaotrope-Based Avidity Assays for Antibodies to HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins Measure?

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Marina R.; Ringe, Rajesh; Sanders, Rogier W.; Voss, James E.; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT When HIV-1 vaccine candidates that include soluble envelope glycoproteins (Env) are tested in humans and other species, the resulting antibody responses to Env are sifted for correlates of protection or risk. One frequently used assay measures the reduction in antibody binding to Env antigens by an added chaotrope (such as thiocyanate). Based on that assay, an avidity index was devised for assessing the affinity maturation of antibodies of unknown concentration in polyclonal sera. Since a high avidity index was linked to protection in animal models of HIV-1 infection, it has become a criterion for evaluating antibody responses to vaccine candidates. But what does the assay measure and what does an avidity index mean? Here, we have used a panel of monoclonal antibodies to well-defined epitopes on Env (gp120, gp41, and SOSIP.664 trimers) to explore how the chaotrope acts. We conclude that the chaotrope sensitivity of antibody binding to Env depends on several properties of the epitopes (continuity versus tertiary- and quaternary-structural dependence) and that the avidity index has no simple relationship to antibody affinity for functional Env spikes on virions. We show that the binding of broadly neutralizing antibodies against quaternary-structural epitopes is particularly sensitive to chaotrope treatment, whereas antibody binding to epitopes in variable loops and to nonneutralization epitopes in gp41 is generally resistant. As a result of such biases, the avidity index may at best be a mere surrogate for undefined antibody or other immune responses that correlate weakly with protection. IMPORTANCE An effective HIV-1 vaccine is an important goal. Such a vaccine will probably need to induce antibodies that neutralize typically transmitted variants of HIV-1, preventing them from infecting target cells. Vaccine candidates have so far failed to induce such antibody responses, although some do protect weakly against infection in animals and, possibly, humans

  5. Immunolocalization and Changes of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins During Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cho, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Ai-Rong; Yeung, Edward C; Zeng, Xu; Guo, Shun-Xing; Lee, Yung-I

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are abundant cell wall components involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis, but little is known about their function in orchid mycorrhizal association. To gain further insight into the role of HRGPs in orchid symbiosis, the location and function of HRGPs were investigated during symbiotic germination of Dendrobium officinale . The presence of JIM11 epitope in developing protocorms was determined using immunodot blots and immunohistochemical staining procedures. Real-time PCR was also employed to verify the expression patterns of genes coding for extensin-like genes selected from the transcriptomic database. The importance of HRGPs in symbiotic germination was further investigated using 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP), an inhibitor of HRGP biosynthesis. In symbiotic cultures, immunodot blots of JIM11 signals were moderate in mature seeds, and the signals became stronger in swollen embryos. After germination, signal intensities decreased in developing protocorms. In contrast, in asymbiotic cultures, JIM11 signals were much lower as compared with those stages in symbiotic cultures. Immunofluorescence staining enabled the visualization of JIM11 epitope in mature embryo and protocorm cells. Positive signals were initially localized in the larger cells near the basal (suspensor) end of uninfected embryos, marking the future colonization site of fungal hyphae. After 1 week of inoculation, the basal end of embryos had been colonized, and a strong signal was detected mostly at the mid- and basal regions of the enlarging protocorm. As protocorm development progressed, the signal was concentrated in the colonized cells at the basal end. In colonized cells, signals were present in the walls and intracellularly associated with hyphae and the pelotons. The precise localization of JIM11 epitope is further examined by immunogold labeling. In the colonized cells, gold particles were found mainly in the cell wall and the interfacial matrix near the

  6. Immunolocalization and Changes of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins During Symbiotic Germination of Dendrobium officinale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cho, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Ai-Rong; Yeung, Edward C.; Zeng, Xu; Guo, Shun-Xing; Lee, Yung-I

    2018-01-01

    Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are abundant cell wall components involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis, but little is known about their function in orchid mycorrhizal association. To gain further insight into the role of HRGPs in orchid symbiosis, the location and function of HRGPs were investigated during symbiotic germination of Dendrobium officinale. The presence of JIM11 epitope in developing protocorms was determined using immunodot blots and immunohistochemical staining procedures. Real-time PCR was also employed to verify the expression patterns of genes coding for extensin-like genes selected from the transcriptomic database. The importance of HRGPs in symbiotic germination was further investigated using 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP), an inhibitor of HRGP biosynthesis. In symbiotic cultures, immunodot blots of JIM11 signals were moderate in mature seeds, and the signals became stronger in swollen embryos. After germination, signal intensities decreased in developing protocorms. In contrast, in asymbiotic cultures, JIM11 signals were much lower as compared with those stages in symbiotic cultures. Immunofluorescence staining enabled the visualization of JIM11 epitope in mature embryo and protocorm cells. Positive signals were initially localized in the larger cells near the basal (suspensor) end of uninfected embryos, marking the future colonization site of fungal hyphae. After 1 week of inoculation, the basal end of embryos had been colonized, and a strong signal was detected mostly at the mid- and basal regions of the enlarging protocorm. As protocorm development progressed, the signal was concentrated in the colonized cells at the basal end. In colonized cells, signals were present in the walls and intracellularly associated with hyphae and the pelotons. The precise localization of JIM11 epitope is further examined by immunogold labeling. In the colonized cells, gold particles were found mainly in the cell wall and the interfacial matrix near the

  7. Mechanistic kinetic modeling generates system-independent P-glycoprotein mediated transport elementary rate constants for inhibition and, in combination with 3D SIM microscopy, elucidates the importance of microvilli morphology on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ellens, Harma; Meng, Zhou; Le Marchand, Sylvain J; Bentz, Joe

    2018-06-01

    In vitro transporter kinetics are typically analyzed by steady-state Michaelis-Menten approximations. However, no clear evidence exists that these approximations, applied to multiple transporters in biological membranes, yield system-independent mechanistic parameters needed for reliable in vivo hypothesis generation and testing. Areas covered: The classical mass action model has been developed for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated transport across confluent polarized cell monolayers. Numerical integration of the mass action equations for transport using a stable global optimization program yields fitted elementary rate constants that are system-independent. The efflux active P-gp was defined by the rate at which P-gp delivers drugs to the apical chamber, since as much as 90% of drugs effluxed by P-gp partition back into nearby microvilli prior to reaching the apical chamber. The efflux active P-gp concentration was 10-fold smaller than the total expressed P-gp for Caco-2 cells, due to their microvilli membrane morphology. The mechanistic insights from this analysis are readily extrapolated to P-gp mediated transport in vivo. Expert opinion: In vitro system-independent elementary rate constants for transporters are essential for the generation and validation of robust mechanistic PBPK models. Our modeling approach and programs have broad application potential. They can be used for any drug transporter with minor adaptations.

  8. Pulse-chase Analysis of N-linked Sugar Chains from Glycoproteins in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avezov, Edward; Ron, Efrat; Izenshtein, Yana; Adan, Yosef; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2010-01-01

    Attachment of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 precursor oligosaccharide to nascent polypeptides in the ER is a common modification for secretory proteins. Although this modification was implicated in several biological processes, additional aspects of its function are emerging, with recent evidence of its role in the production of signals for glycoprotein quality control and trafficking. Thus, phenomena related to N-linked glycans and their processing are being intensively investigated. Methods that have been recently developed for proteomic analysis have greatly improved the characterization of glycoprotein N-linked glycans. Nevertheless, they do not provide insight into the dynamics of the sugar chain processing involved. For this, labeling and pulse-chase analysis protocols are used that are usually complex and give very low yields. We describe here a simple method for the isolation and analysis of metabolically labeled N-linked oligosaccharides. The protocol is based on labeling of cells with [2-3H] mannose, denaturing lysis and enzymatic release of the oligosaccharides from either a specifically immunoprecipitated protein of interest or from the general glycoprotein pool by sequential treatments with endo H and N-glycosidase F, followed by molecular filtration (Amicon). In this method the isolated oligosaccharides serve as an input for HPLC analysis, which allows discrimination between various glycan structures according to the number of monosaccharide units comprising them, with a resolution of a single monosaccharide. Using this method we were able to study high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide profiles of total cell glycoproteins after pulse-chase in normal conditions and under proteasome inhibition. These profiles were compared to those obtained from an immunoprecipitated ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrate. Our results suggest that most NIH 3T3 cellular glycoproteins are relatively stable and that most of their oligosaccharides are trimmed to Man9-8GlcNAc2. In

  9. Pulse-chase analysis of N-linked sugar chains from glycoproteins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Edward; Ron, Efrat; Izenshtein, Yana; Adan, Yosef; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2010-04-27

    Attachment of the Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 precursor oligosaccharide to nascent polypeptides in the ER is a common modification for secretory proteins. Although this modification was implicated in several biological processes, additional aspects of its function are emerging, with recent evidence of its role in the production of signals for glycoprotein quality control and trafficking. Thus, phenomena related to N-linked glycans and their processing are being intensively investigated. Methods that have been recently developed for proteomic analysis have greatly improved the characterization of glycoprotein N-linked glycans. Nevertheless, they do not provide insight into the dynamics of the sugar chain processing involved. For this, labeling and pulse-chase analysis protocols are used that are usually complex and give very low yields. We describe here a simple method for the isolation and analysis of metabolically labeled N-linked oligosaccharides. The protocol is based on labeling of cells with [2-(3)H] mannose, denaturing lysis and enzymatic release of the oligosaccharides from either a specifically immunoprecipitated protein of interest or from the general glycoprotein pool by sequential treatments with endo H and N-glycosidase F, followed by molecular filtration (Amicon). In this method the isolated oligosaccharides serve as an input for HPLC analysis, which allows discrimination between various glycan structures according to the number of monosaccharide units comprising them, with a resolution of a single monosaccharide. Using this method we were able to study high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide profiles of total cell glycoproteins after pulse-chase in normal conditions and under proteasome inhibition. These profiles were compared to those obtained from an immunoprecipitated ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrate. Our results suggest that most NIH 3T3 cellular glycoproteins are relatively stable and that most of their oligosaccharides are trimmed to Man9-8GlcNAc2

  10. Chromatographic studies of drug interactions with alpha1-acid glycoprotein by ultrafast affinity extraction and peak profiling.

    PubMed

    Beeram, Sandya; Bi, Cong; Zheng, Xiwei; Hage, David S

    2017-05-12

    Interactions with serum proteins such as alpha 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) can have a significant effect on the behavior and pharmacokinetics of drugs. Ultrafast affinity extraction and peak profiling were used with AGP microcolumns to examine these processes for several model drugs (i.e., chlorpromazine, disopyramide, imipramine, lidocaine, propranolol and verapamil). The association equilibrium constants measured for these drugs with soluble AGP by ultrafast affinity extraction were in the general range of 10 4 -10 6 M -1 at pH 7.4 and 37°C and gave good agreement with literature values. Some of these values were dependent on the relative drug and protein concentrations that were present when using a single-site binding model; these results suggested a more complex mixed-mode interaction was actually present, which was also then used to analyze the data. The apparent dissociation rate constants that were obtained by ultrafast affinity extraction when using a single-site model varied from 0.14 to 7.0s -1 and were dependent on the relative drug and protein concentrations. Lower apparent dissociation rate constants were obtained by this approach as the relative amount of drug versus protein was decreased, with the results approaching those measured by peak profiling at low drug concentrations. This information should be useful in better understanding how these and other drugs interact with AGP in the circulation. In addition, the chromatographic approaches that were optimized and used in this report to examine these systems can be adapted for the analysis of other solute-protein interactions of biomedical interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Opioid Analgesics and P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporters: A Potential Systems-Level Contribution to Analgesic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Susan L.; Coop, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development of opioid tolerance. Herein, we describe current in vitro and in vivo methodology available to analyze interactions between opioids and P-gp and critically analyze P-gp data associated with six commonly used mu opioids to include morphine, methadone, loperamide, meperidine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Recent studies focused on the development of opioids lacking P-gp substrate activity are explored, concentrating on structure-activity relationship development to develop an optimal opioid analgesic lacking this systems-level contribution to tolerance development. Continued work in this area will potentially allow for delineation of the mechanism responsible for opioid-related P-gp up-regulation and provide further support for evidence based medicine supporting clinical opioid rotation. PMID:21050174

  12. Ice recrystallization kinetics in the presence of synthetic antifreeze glycoprotein analogues using the framework of LSW theory.

    PubMed

    Budke, C; Heggemann, C; Koch, M; Sewald, N; Koop, T

    2009-03-05

    The Ostwald ripening of polycrystalline ice in aqueous sucrose solutions was investigated experimentally. The kinetics of this ice recrystallization process was studied at temperatures between -6 and -10 degrees C and varying ice volume fractions. Using the theory of Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW), the diffusion-limited rate constant for ice recrystallization was determined. Also, the effects of synthetic analogues of natural antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) were studied. These analogues synAFGPmi (i = 3-5) contained monosaccharide side groups instead of disaccharide side groups that occur in natural AFGP. In order to account for the inhibition effect of the synAFGPmi, we have modified classical LSW theory, allowing for the derivation of inhibition rate constants. It was found that the investigated synAFGPmi inhibit ice recrystallization at concentrations down to approximately 3 microg mL(-1) or, equivalently, approximately 1 micromol L(-1) for the largest synAFGPmi investigated: synAFGPm5. Hence, our new method is capable of quantitatively assessing the efficiency of very similar AFGP with a sensitivity that is at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than that typical for quantitative thermal hysteresis measurements.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni P-glycoprotein levels increase in response to praziquantel exposure and correlate with reduced praziquantel susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Messerli, Shanta M; Kasinathan, Ravi S; Morgan, William; Spranger, Stefani; Greenberg, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    One potential physiological target for new antischistosomals is the parasite's system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding-cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. In vertebrates, increased expression of Pgp is associated with multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Pgp may also play a role in drug resistance in helminths. In this report, we examine the relationship between praziquantel (PZQ), the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and Pgp expression in Schistosoma mansoni. We show that levels of RNA for SMDR2, a Pgp homolog from S. mansoni, increase transiently in adult male worms following exposure to sub-lethal concentrations (100-500 nM) of PZQ. A corresponding, though delayed, increase in anti-Pgp immunoreactive protein expression occurs in adult males following exposure to PZQ. The level of anti-Pgp immunoreactivity in particular regions of adult worms also increases in response to PZQ. Adult worms from an Egyptian S. mansoni isolate with reduced sensitivity to PZQ express increased levels of SMDR2 RNA and anti-Pgp-immunoreactive protein, perhaps indicating a role for multidrug resistance proteins in development or maintenance of PZQ resistance.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni P-glycoprotein levels increase in response to praziquantel exposure and correlate with reduced praziquantel susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Messerli, Shanta M.; Kasinathan, Ravi S.; Morgan, William; Spranger, Stefani; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    One potential physiological target for new antischistosomals is the parasite’s system for excretion of wastes and xenobiotics. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins, is an ATP-dependent efflux pump involved in transport of toxins and xenobiotics from cells. In vertebrates, increased expression of Pgp is associated with multidrug resistance in tumor cells. Pgp may also play a role in drug resistance in helminths. In this report, we examine the relationship between praziquantel (PZQ), the current drug of choice against schistosomiasis, and Pgp expression in Schistosoma mansoni. We show that levels of RNA for SMDR2, a Pgp homolog from S. mansoni, increase transiently in adult male worms following exposure to sublethal concentrations (100 – 500 nM) of PZQ. A corresponding, though delayed, increase in anti-Pgp immunoreactive protein expression occurs in adult males following exposure to PZQ. The level of anti-Pgp immunoreactivity in particular regions of adult worms also increases in response to PZQ. Adult worms from an Egyptian S. mansoni isolate with reduced sensitivity to PZQ express increased levels of SMDR2 RNA and anti-Pgp-immunoreactive protein, perhaps indicating a role for multidrug resistance proteins in development or maintenance of PZQ resistance. PMID:19406169

  15. Ionophore and Biometal Modulation of P-glycoprotein Expression and Function in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Mitchell P; Volitakis, Irene; Bush, Ashley I; Banks, William A; Short, Jennifer L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2018-03-05

    Biometals such as zinc and copper have been shown to affect tight junction expression and subsequently blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Whether these biometals also influence the expression and function of BBB transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) however is currently unknown. Using the immortalised human cerebral microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cell line, an in-cell western assay (alongside western blotting) assessed relative P-gp expression after treatment with the metal ionophore clioquinol and biometals zinc and copper. The fluorescent P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 was employed to observe functional modulation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on biometal trafficking. A 24-h treatment with clioquinol, zinc and copper (0.5, 0.5 and 0.1 μM) induced a significant upregulation of P-gp (1.7-fold) assessed by in-cell western and this was confirmed with western blotting (1.8-fold increase). This same treatment resulted in a 23% decrease in rhodamine-123 accumulation over a 1 h incubation. ICP-MS demonstrated that while t8his combination treatment had no effect on intracellular zinc concentrations, the treatment significantly enhanced bioavailable copper (4.6-fold). Enhanced delivery of copper to human brain microvascular endothelial cells is associated with enhanced expression and function of the important efflux pump P-gp, which may provide therapeutic opportunities for P-gp modulation.

  16. Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Interactions Involving African Herbs Indicated for Common Noncommunicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kikete, Siambi; Liang, Rongjia; Wang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Herbal remedies are regularly used to complement conventional therapies in the treatment of various illnesses in Africa. This may be because they are relatively cheap and easily accessible and are believed by many to be safe, cause fewer side effects, and are less likely to cause dependency. On the contrary, many herbs have been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics of coadministered allopathic medicines and can either synergize or antagonize therapeutic effects as well as altering the toxicity profiles of these drugs. Current disease burden data point towards epidemiological transitions characterised by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles, risk factors for chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and cancer which often present as multimorbidities. As a result, we highlight African herb-drug interactions (HDIs) modulated via cytochrome P450 enzyme family (CYP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the consequences thereof in relation to antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and anticancer drugs. CYPs are enzymes which account for to up to 70% of drug metabolism while P-gp is an efflux pump that extrudes drug substrates out of cells. Consequently, regulation of the relative activity of both CYP and P-gp by African herbs influences the effective drug concentration at the site of action and modifies therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28250793

  17. P-glycoprotein Inhibition Increases the Brain Distribution and Antidepressant-Like Activity of Escitalopram in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Fionn E; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2013-01-01

    Despite the clinical prevalence of the antidepressant escitalopram, over 30% of escitalopram-treated patients fail to respond to treatment. Recent gene association studies have highlighted a potential link between the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and response to escitalopram. The present studies investigated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between P-gp and escitalopram. In vitro bidirectional transport studies revealed that escitalopram is a transported substrate of human P-gp. Microdialysis-based pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that administration of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporin A resulted in increased brain levels of escitalopram without altering plasma escitalopram levels in the rat, thereby showing that P-gp restricts escitalopram transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. The tail suspension test (TST) was carried out to elucidate the pharmacodynamic impact of P-gp inhibition on escitalopram effect in a mouse model of antidepressant activity. Pre-treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil enhanced the response to escitalopram in the TST. Taken together, these data indicate that P-gp may restrict the BBB transport of escitalopram in humans, potentially resulting in subtherapeutic brain concentrations in certain patients. Moreover, by verifying that increasing escitalopram delivery to the brain by P-gp inhibition results in enhanced antidepressant-like activity, we suggest that adjunctive treatment with a P-gp inhibitor may represent a beneficial approach to augment escitalopram therapy in depression. PMID:23670590

  18. In vitro screening of dual flavonoid combinations for reversing P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance: Focus on antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana; Santos, Adriana O; Falcão, Amílcar; Alves, Gilberto

    2018-01-01

    The combined use of different P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors may be a relevant approach to the synergistic and safer inhibition of the P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Herein, we aimed to explore dual combinations of the flavonoids baicalein, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, kaempferol, quercetin and silymarin to reverse the interference of P-gp on the intracellular accumulation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (a classic P-gp substrate) and of several commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine) or their metabolites (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and licarbazepine) was evaluated in MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence and absence of individual flavonoids and their combinations. A selected flavonoid combination [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate/silymarin] was also evaluated in transepithelial transport experiments using licarbazepine (active metabolite of oxcarbazepine) as a model compound. Most flavonoid combinations increased rhodamine 123 intracellular uptake in a greater extent than their additive individual effects at similar concentrations. Moreover, selected (-)-epigallocatechin gallate/silymarin and kaempferol/baicalein combinations also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of all AEDs and metabolites. Overall, the combination of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate/silymarin was the most promising one. Thus, dual flavonoid combinations may be useful to overcome the P-gp-mediated efflux of AEDs and their metabolites, making their association to AED therapy a potentially valuable approach to circumvent pharmacoresistance in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of collagen production in scleroderma fibroblast cultures by a connective tissue glycoprotein extracted from normal dermis

    SciTech Connect

    Maquart, F.X.; Bellon, G.; Cornillet-Stoupy, J.

    1985-08-01

    It was shown in a previous paper that a connective tissue glycoprotein (CTGP) extracted from normal rabbit dermis was able to inhibit total protein and collagen syntheses by normal dermis fibroblast cultures. In the present study, the effects of CTGP on scleroderma fibroblasts were investigated. (/sup 14/C)Proline incorporation into total proteins of the supernatant was not significantly different from that found in controls. By contrast, the amount of collagen, expressed as percentage of total secreted protein, was far higher in scleroderma cultures than in normal ones (14.4% +/- 6.0% vs 4.6% +/- 0.9%). Addition of CTGP to the medium inducedmore » a concentration-dependent inhibition of (/sup 14/C)proline incorporation into proteins from both control and scleroderma cells. In control cultures, no significant decrease of the percentage of collagen was observed, but over 60 micrograms/ml, both cytotoxic effects and inhibition of protein synthesis occurred. In scleroderma cultures, the inhibition was twice as effective on collagen as on noncollagen protein synthesis. The inhibition of collagen secretion was not related either to changes in collagen hydroxylation or to the intracellular catabolism of newly synthesized procollagen.« less

  20. Opioid analgesics and P-glycoprotein efflux transporters: a potential systems-level contribution to analgesic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Susan L; Coop, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Chronic clinical pain remains poorly treated. Despite attempts to develop novel analgesic agents, opioids remain the standard analgesics of choice in the clinical management of chronic and severe pain. However, mu opioid analgesics have undesired side effects including, but not limited to, respiratory depression, physical dependence and tolerance. A growing body of evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, may contribute a systems-level approach to the development of opioid tolerance. Herein, we describe current in vitro and in vivo methodology available to analyze interactions between opioids and P-gp and critically analyze P-gp data associated with six commonly used mu opioids to include morphine, methadone, loperamide, meperidine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. Recent studies focused on the development of opioids lacking P-gp substrate activity are explored, concentrating on structure-activity relationships to develop an optimal opioid analgesic lacking this systems-level contribution to tolerance development. Continued work in this area will potentially allow for delineation of the mechanism responsible for opioid-related P-gp up-regulation and provide further support for evidence based medicine supporting clinical opioid rotation.

  1. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; O’Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  2. Escherichia coli as a glycoprotein production host: recent developments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Stephen R P; Strutton, Benjamin; Levarski, Zdenko; Pandhal, Jagroop; Wright, Phillip C

    2014-12-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary cells are the most popular host expression system for the large-scale production of human therapeutic glycoproteins, but, the race to engineer Escherichia coli to perform glycosylation is gathering pace. The successful functional transfer of an N-glycosylation pathway from Campylobacter jejuni to Escherichia coli in 2002 can be considered as the crucial first engineering step. Here, we discuss the recent advancements in the field of N-glycosylation of recombinant therapeutic proteins in E. coli cells, from the manipulation of glycan composition, to the improvement in glycosylation efficiency, along with the challenges that remain before E. coli can be available as an industry host cell for economically viable glycoprotein production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of glycoprotein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum using synthetic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukishige; Takeda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Protein quality control (QC) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises many steps, including folding and transport of nascent proteins as well as degradation of misfolded proteins. Recent studies have revealed that high-mannose-type glycans play a pivotal role in the QC process. To gain knowledge about the molecular basis of this process with well-defined homogeneous compounds, we achieved a convergent synthesis of high-mannose-type glycans and their functionalized derivatives. We focused on analyses of UDP-Glc: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) and ER Glucosidase II, which play crucial roles in glycoprotein QC; however, their specificities remain unclear. In addition, we established an in vitro assay system mimicking the in vivo condition which is highly crowded because of the presence of various biomacromolecules.

  4. Structural approaches to the study of oligosaccharides in glycoprotein quality control.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yukishige; Hagihara, Shinya; Matsuo, Ichiro; Totani, Kiichiro

    2005-10-01

    High-mannose-type oligosaccharides have been shown to play important roles in protein quality control. Several intracellular proteins, such as lectins, chaperones and glycan-processing enzymes, are involved in this process. These include calnexin/calreticulin, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT), cargo receptors (such as VIP36 and ERGIC-53), mannosidase-like proteins (e.g. EDEM and Htm1p) and ubiquitin ligase (Fbs). They are thought to recognize high-mannose-type glycans with subtly different structures, although the precise specificities are yet to be clarified. In order to gain a clear understanding of these protein-carbohydrate interactions, comprehensive synthesis of high-mannose-type glycans was conducted. In addition, two approaches to the synthesis of artificial glycoproteins with homogeneous oligosaccharides were investigated. Furthermore, a novel substrate of UGGT was discovered.

  5. Regulation of calcite crystal morphology by intracrystalline acidic proteins and glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Albeck, S; Addadi, I; Weiner, S

    1996-01-01

    Many biologically formed calcite crystals contain intracrystalline macromolecules. The ways in which they interact with growing calcite crystals were evaluated by monitoring changes in the morphology of calcite crystals grown in vitro in their presence. Macromolecules were extracted from within isolated prisms from the prismatic layer of the shell of the mollusk Atrina rigida and from spines of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Two modes of interaction were identified; the interaction of highly acidic proteins with calcite planes perpendicular to the c crystallographic axis and the interaction of glycoproteins with planes roughly parallel to the c axis. By different preparative procedures we demonstrated that the polysaccharide moieties of the sea urchin spine glycoproteins are directly involved in the latter mode of interactions. We suggest that organisms utilize the abilities of these macromolecules to interact in different ways with calcite crystals, and in so doing fine-tune aspects of the control of crystal growth in vivo.

  6. Drastic differences in glycosylation of related S-layer glycoproteins from moderate and extreme halophiles.

    PubMed

    Mengele, R; Sumper, M

    1992-04-25

    The outer surface of the moderate halophilic archaebacterium Haloferax volcanii (formerly named Halobacterium volcanii) is covered with a hexagonally packed surface (S) layer glycoprotein. The polypeptide (794 amino acid residues) contains 7 N-glycosylation sites. Four of these sites were isolated as glycopeptides and the structure of one of the corresponding saccharides was determined. Oligosaccharides consisting of beta-1,4-linked glucose residues are attached to the protein via the linkage unit asparaginyl-glucose. In the related glycoprotein from the extreme halophile Halobacterium halobium, the glucose residues are replaced by sulfated glucuronic acid residues, causing a drastic increase in surface charge density. This is discussed in terms of a recent model explaining the stability of halophilic proteins.

  7. Glycosylation and intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins encoded by murine leukemia viruses. Inhibition by amino acid analogues and by tunicamycin.

    PubMed

    Polonoff, E; Machida, C A; Kabat, D

    1982-12-10

    Addition of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides to nascent murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-encoded membrane glycoproteins was inhibited either completely by tunicamycin or specifically at Asn-X-Thr glycosylation sites by incorporation of the threonine analogue beta-hydroxynorvaline. In conditions of partial analogue substitution, a series of subglycosylated components is formed which are related by a constant apparent Mr difference when assayed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The total number of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides is then estimated by dividing the measured apparent Mr of one oligosaccharide into the total apparent Mr difference between the complete glycoprotein and the polypeptide chain that is synthesized in cells incubated with tunicamycin. Correct results were obtained using glycoproteins with known numbers of oligosaccharides. Our analyses indicate that the gp70 membrane envelope glycoproteins of certain ecotropic MuLVs contain seven oligosaccharides, whereas the GIX+ antigen-containing variant gp70 contains one fewer Asn-X-Thr-linked oligosaccharide. The membrane glycoprotein encoded by the gag gene of Friend MuLV contains only one asparagine-linked oligosaccharide. Similarly, the gp55 membrane glycoprotein encoded by Friend erythroleukemia virus contains four asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Pulse-chase and cell surface iodination analyses indicate that MuLV membrane envelope glycoprotein processing by partial proteolysis and transport to the cell surface can be efficiently blocked by structural perturbations caused by incorporation of different amino acid analogues or by loss of oligosaccharides. Our data also suggest that loss of oligosaccharides may expose new antigenic sites in viral membrane glycoproteins and increase their susceptibility to intracellular proteolysis.

  8. Expression of Glycoproteins in Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Varicella Zoster Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-18

    gpV vaccinia recombinants 142 XI LIST OF FIGURES ^ig^rfi Page 1 . Structural model of the herpesvirus virion 8 2. A diagram of the VZV and HSV ...gpIV-specific antiserum 139 36. Fc receptor activity in HSV - 1 and VZV glycoprotein recombinant vaccinia viruses 145 37. The gene 14 transcription...subfamily alphaherpesvirinae. The human alphaherpesviruses are comprised of VZV and herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 ( HSV - 1 and HSV -2). Four other

  9. Inactivated Recombinant Rabies Viruses Displaying Canine Distemper Virus Glycoproteins Induce Protective Immunity against Both Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Hudacek, Andrew; Sawatsky, Bevan; Krämer, Beate; Yin, Xiangping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. Both canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RABV) cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. While RABV vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated CDV vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wildlife species. In this study, we developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vaccine strain rabies virus particles, which concurrently display the protective CDV and RABV glycoprotein antigens. The recombinant viruses replicated to near-wild-type titers, and the heterologous glycoproteins were efficiently expressed and incorporated in the viral particles. Immunization of ferrets with beta-propiolactone-inactivated recombinant virus particles elicited protective RABV antibody titers, and animals immunized with a combination of CDV attachment protein- and fusion protein-expressing recombinant viruses were protected from lethal CDV challenge. However, animals that were immunized with only a RABV expressing the attachment protein of CDV vaccine strain Onderstepoort succumbed to infection with a more recent wild-type strain, indicating that immune responses to the more conserved fusion protein contribute to protection against heterologous CDV strains. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus and canine distemper virus (CDV) cause high mortality rates and death in many carnivores. While rabies vaccines are inactivated and thus have an excellent safety profile and high stability, live-attenuated CDV vaccines can retain residual virulence in highly susceptible species. Here we generated recombinant inactivated rabies viruses that carry one of the CDV glycoproteins on their surface. Ferrets immunized twice with a mix of recombinant rabies viruses carrying the CDV fusion and attachment glycoproteins were protected from lethal CDV challenge, whereas all animals that

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Is a Lectin That Binds Monoglucosylated Oligosaccharides but Not Protein Moieties of Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Labriola, Carlos; Cazzulo, Juan J.; Parodi, Armando J.

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse–chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin–cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin–cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages. PMID:10233151

  11. Role of Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    terminal oligosaccharide units serve as highly specific biological recognition molecules implicated in major regulatory processes of the cell...treatment or mock-treated for 9 days. To study the glycosylation process in COG complex depleted cells series of Pulse -Chase experiments have been...DAMD17-03-1-0243 TITLE: Role of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin is a lectin that binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not protein moieties of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Labriola, C; Cazzulo, J J; Parodi, A J

    1999-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse-chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages.

  13. Hantavirus Gn and Gc Glycoproteins Self-Assemble into Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera. PMID:24335294

  14. Hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins self-assemble into virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.

  15. Mapping the neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, C.; Chien, M.S.; Landolt, M.L.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1996-01-01

    Twelve neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the fish rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), were used to select 20 MAb escape mutants. The nucleotide sequence of the entire glycoprotein (G) gene was determined for six mutants representing differing cross-neutralization patterns and each had a single nucleotide change leading to a single amino acid substitution within one of three regions of the protein. These data were used to design nested PCR primers to amplify portions of the G gene of the 14 remaining mutants. When the PCR products from these mutants were sequenced, they also had single nucleotide substitutions coding for amino acid substitutions at the same, or nearby, locations. Of the 20 mutants for which all or part of the glycoprotein gene was sequenced, two MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 230-231 (antigenic site I) and the remaining MAbs selected mutants with substitutions at amino acids 272-276 (antigenic site II). Two MAbs that selected mutants mapping to amino acids 272-276, selected other mutants that mapped to amino acids 78-81, raising the possibility that this portion of the N terminus of the protein was part of a discontinuous epitope defining antigenic site II. CLUSTAL alignment of the glycoproteins of rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and IHNV revealed similarities in the location of the neutralizing epitopes and a high degree of conservation among cysteine residues, indicating that the glycoproteins of three different genera of animal rhabdoviruses may share a similar three-dimensional structure in spite of extensive sequence divergence.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi serinecarboxipeptidase is a sulfated glycoprotein and a minor antigen in human Chagas disease infection.

    PubMed

    Soprano, Luciana L; Parente, Juliana E; Landoni, Malena; Couto, Alicia S; Duschak, Vilma G

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the presence of sulfated N-glycans was studied in a high-mannose-type glycoprotein of Trypanosoma cruzi with serinecarboxipeptidase (TcSCP) activity. The immune cross-reactivity between purified SCP and Cruzipain (Cz) was evidenced using rabbit sera specific for both glycoproteins. Taking advantage that SCP co-purifies with Cz from Concanavalin-A affinity columns, the Cz-SCP mixture was desulfated, ascribing the cross-reactivity to the presence of sulfate groups in both molecules. Therefore, knowing that Cz is a sulfated glycoprotein, with antigenic sulfated epitopes (sulfotopes), SCP was excised from SDS-PAGE and the N-glycosydic chains were analyzed by UV-MALDI-TOF-MS, confirming the presence of short-sulfated high-mannose-type oligosaccharidic chains. Besides, the presence of sulfotopes was analyzed in lysates of the different parasite stages demonstrating that a band with apparent molecular weight similar to SCP was highly recognized in trypomastigotes. In addition, SCP was confronted with sera of infected people with different degrees of cardiac dysfunction. Although most sera recognized it in different groups, no statistical association was found between sera antibodies specific for SCP and the severity of the disease. In summary, our findings demonstrate (1) the presence of sulfate groups in the N-glycosidic short chains of native TcSCP, (2) the existence of immune cross-reactivity between Cz and SCP, purified from epimastigotes, (3) the presence of common sulfotopes between both parasite glycoproteins, and (4) the enhanced presence of sulfotopes in trypomastigotes, probably involved in parasite-host relationship and/or infection. Interestingly, we show for the first time that SCP is a minor antigen recognized by most of chronic Chagas disease patient's sera.

  17. Global site-specific analysis of glycoprotein N-glycan processing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwei; Diedrich, Jolene K; Ma, Yuanhui; Wang, Nianshuang; Pauthner, Matthias; Park, Sung-Kyu Robin; Delahunty, Claire M; McLellan, Jason S; Burton, Dennis R; Yates, John R; Paulson, James C

    2018-06-01

    N-glycans contribute to the folding, stability and functions of the proteins they decorate. They are produced by transfer of the glycan precursor to the sequon Asn-X-Thr/Ser, followed by enzymatic trimming to a high-mannose-type core and sequential addition of monosaccharides to generate complex-type and hybrid glycans. This process, mediated by the concerted action of multiple enzymes, produces a mixture of related glycoforms at each glycosite, making analysis of glycosylation difficult. To address this analytical challenge, we developed a robust semiquantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based method that determines the degree of glycan occupancy at each glycosite and the proportion of N-glycans processed from high-mannose type to complex type. It is applicable to virtually any glycoprotein, and a complete analysis can be conducted with 30 μg of protein. Here, we provide a detailed description of the method that includes procedures for (i) proteolytic digestion of glycoprotein(s) with specific and nonspecific proteases; (ii) denaturation of proteases by heating; (iii) sequential treatment of the glycopeptide mixture with two endoglycosidases, Endo H and PNGase F, to create unique mass signatures for the three glycosylation states; (iv) LC-MS/MS analysis; and (v) data analysis for identification and quantitation of peptides for the three glycosylation states. Full coverage of site-specific glycosylation of glycoproteins is achieved, with up to thousands of high-confidence spectra hits for each glycosite. The protocol can be performed by an experienced technician or student/postdoc with basic skills for proteomics experiments and takes ∼7 d to complete.

  18. HIV envelope glycoprotein imaged at high resolution | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The outer surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is surrounded by an envelope studded with spike-shaped glycoproteins called Env that help the deadly virus identify, bind, and infect cells. When unbound, Env exists in a “closed” conformational state. Upon binding with target cells, such as CD4+ T cells, the protein transitions to an “open” configuration. Given that

  19. Novel aspects of sialoglycan recognition by the Siglec-like domains of streptococcal SRR glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Bensing, Barbara A; Khedri, Zahra; Deng, Lingquan; Yu, Hai; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Fisher, Susan J; Chen, Xi; Iverson, Tina M; Varki, Ajit; Sullam, Paul M

    2016-11-01

    Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins are adhesins expressed by commensal and pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. A subset of these adhesins, expressed by oral streptococci, binds sialylated glycans decorating human salivary mucin MG2/MUC7, and platelet glycoprotein GPIb. Specific sialoglycan targets were previously identified for the ligand-binding regions (BRs) of GspB and Hsa, two serine-rich repeat glycoproteins expressed by Streptococcus gordonii While GspB selectively binds sialyl-T antigen, Hsa displays broader specificity. Here we examine the binding properties of four additional BRs from Streptococcus sanguinis or Streptococcus mitis and characterize the molecular determinants of ligand selectivity and affinity. Each BR has two domains that are essential for sialoglycan binding by GspB. One domain is structurally similar to the glycan-binding module of mammalian Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins), including an arginine residue that is critical for glycan recognition, and that resides within a novel, conserved YTRY motif. Despite low sequence similarity to GspB, one of the BRs selectively binds sialyl-T antigen. Although the other three BRs are highly similar to Hsa, each displayed a unique ligand repertoire, including differential recognition of sialyl Lewis antigens and sulfated glycans. These differences in glycan selectivity were closely associated with differential binding to salivary and platelet glycoproteins. Specificity of sialoglycan adherence is likely an evolving trait that may influence the propensity of streptococci expressing Siglec-like adhesins to cause infective endocarditis. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Aspirin resistance in cerebrovascular disease and the role of glycoprotein IIIa polymorphism in Turkish stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Derle, Eda; Öcal, Ruhsen; Kibaroğlu, Seda; Çelikkol, Ceyda; Bayraktar, Nilüfer; Verdi, Hasibe; Ataç, Belgin F; Can, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    Aspirin resistance occurs in 5-45% of high-risk patients, with various mechanisms proposed for its development. This study aimed to determine the relationships among aspirin resistance, aspirin dosage, type of aspirin and glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism in patients with vascular risk factors. Two hundred and eight (75 symptomatic, 133 asymptomatic) patients with vascular risk factors who were using aspirin for primary or secondary prevention were prospectively included. The symptomatic group was further classified into two groups according to aspirin use at the time of stroke. Aspirin resistance was measured by the PFA-100 system (collagen/epinephrine cartridge) and glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism was determined by PCR. The overall prevalence of aspirin resistance was 32.2%. The mean age of patients with aspirin resistance was significantly higher than that in those who did not have resistance (P = 0.009). The prevalence of aspirin resistance was similar for the symptomatic and asymptomatic under aspirin therapy groups. The resistance rate was found to be highest with 100 mg enteric-coated preparation use (39.3%). Increasing the aspirin dosage and/or shifting to uncoated preparations caused a change in aspirin sensitivity of 36-60%. Repeated measurements showed development of aspirin resistance in 14% of patients who were sensitive to aspirin in previous measurements. Glycoprotein IIIaP1A1/A2 polymorphism, aspirin resistance and development of atherothrombotic stroke were not significantly related. The effect of aspirin can change by time, dosage and type of preparation used. There are no relationships among glycoprotein IIIa P1A1/A2 polymorphism, aspirin resistance and development of atherothrombotic stroke.

  1. Identification of structural and secretory lectin-binding glycoproteins of normal and cancerous human prostate.

    PubMed

    Lad, P M; Cooper, J F; Learn, D B; Olson, C V

    1984-12-07

    We have utilized the technique of lectin-loading of SDS gels with iodinated concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to identify glycoproteins in prostatic and seminal fluids as well as in prostate tissue fractions. The following subunits which bound both lectins were detected: (a) 50, 43 and 38 kDa subunits common to prostatic and seminal fluids, and an additional 55 kDa subunit which predominates only in prostatic fluid; (b) 78, 55, 50 and 43 kDa subunits in prostatic tissue cytosol and (c) 195, 170, 135, 116 and 95 kDa subunits present in the particulate fractions of prostatic tissue. Immunoblotting using specific rabbit antibodies revealed the 50 kDa band to be prostatic acid phosphatase and the 38 kDa band to be prostate-specific antigen. Interestingly, antibodies directed toward prostatic acid phosphatase were found to cross-react with the 43 kDa band. Fractionation on sucrose gradients showed that several of these particulate glycoproteins were associated with a vesicle fraction enriched in adenylate cyclase activity, implying that they are plasma membrane glycoproteins. Comparison of soluble and particulate fractions of normal and cancerous tissue homogenates was made by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms of lectin-loaded gels. Similar relative intensities of lectin-binding were obtained for corresponding proteins in normal and cancerous tissue fractions. Also, immunoblotting showed no differences in prostatic acid phosphatase or prostate-specific antigen between normal and cancerous soluble homogenate fractions. Our results suggest that major lectin-binding proteins are conserved in the transition from normal to cancerous tissue. These results may be useful in developing a multiple-marker profile of metastatic prostate cancer and for the design of imaging agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, to prominent soluble and particulate prostate glycoproteins.

  2. Mannose-binding lectin binds to Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins, resulting in blocking of virus interaction with DC-SIGN and complement-mediated virus neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin; Olinger, Gene G; Aris, Sheena; Chen, Ying; Gewurz, Henry; Spear, Gregory T

    2005-09-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a serum lectin that mediates innate immune functions including activation of the lectin complement pathway, binds to carbohydrates expressed on some viral glycoproteins. In this study, the ability of MBL to bind to virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins was evaluated. Virus particles bearing either Ebola (Zaire strain) or Marburg (Musoke strain) envelope glycoproteins bound at significantly higher levels to immobilized MBL compared with virus particles pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein or with no virus glycoprotein. As observed in previous studies, Ebola-pseudotyped virus bound to cells expressing the lectin DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin). However, pre-incubation of virus with MBL blocked DC-SIGN-mediated binding to cells, suggesting that the two lectins bind at the same or overlapping sites on the Ebola glycoprotein. Neutralization experiments showed that virus pseudotyped with Ebola or Marburg (Musoke) glycoprotein was neutralized by complement, while the Marburg (Ravn strain) glycoprotein-pseudotyped virus was less sensitive to neutralization. Neutralization was partially mediated through the lectin complement pathway, since a complement source deficient in MBL was significantly less effective at neutralizing viruses pseudotyped with filovirus glycoproteins and addition of purified MBL to the MBL-deficient complement increased neutralization. These experiments demonstrated that MBL binds to filovirus envelope glycoproteins resulting in important biological effects and suggest that MBL can interact with filoviruses during infection in humans.

  3. Contribution of tumor endothelial cells to drug resistance: anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors act as p-glycoprotein antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bani, MariaRosa; Decio, Alessandra; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Ghilardi, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from the normal counterpart, in both gene expression and functionality. TEC may acquire drug resistance, a characteristic that is maintained in vitro. There is evidence that TEC are more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. TEC express p-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1), while no difference in other ABC transporters was revealed compared to normal endothelia. A class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), used as angiostatic compounds, interferes with the ATPase activity of p-glycoprotein, thus impairing its functionality. The exposure of ovarian adenocarcinoma TEC to the TKIs sunitinib or sorafenib was found to abrogate resistance (proliferation and motility) to doxorubicin and paclitaxel in vitro, increasing intracellular drug accumulation. A similar effect has been reported by the p-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. No beneficial effect was observed in combination with cytotoxic drugs that are not p-glycoprotein substrates. The current paper reviews the mechanisms of TEC chemoresistance and shows the role of p-glycoprotein in mediating such resistance. Inhibition of p-glycoprotein by anti-angiogenic TKI might contribute to the beneficial effect of these small molecules, when combined with chemotherapy, in counteracting acquired drug resistance.

  4. A hybrid monolithic column based on boronate-functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets for online specific enrichment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chanyuan; Chen, Xiaoman; Du, Zhuo; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-05-19

    A hybrid monolithic column based on aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) has been developed and used for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. The APBA/GO composites were homogeneously incorporated into a polymer monolithic column with the help of oligomer matrix and followed by in situ polymerization. The effect of dispersion of APBA/GO composites in the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column was explored in detail. The presence of graphene oxide not only enlarged the BET surface area from 6.3m 2 /g to 169.4m 2 /g, but also provided abundant boronic acid moieties for glycoprotein extraction, which improved the enrichment selectivity and efficiency for glycoproteins. The APBA/GO hybrid monolithic column was incorporated into a sequential injection system, which facilitated online extraction of proteins. Combining the superior properties of extraordinary surface area of GO and the affinity interaction of APBA to glycoproteins, the APBA/GO hybrid monolithic column showed higher enrichment factors for glycoproteins than other proteins without cis-diol-containing groups. Also, under comparable or even shorter processing time and without the addition of any organic solvent, it showed higher binding capacity toward glycoproteins compared with the conventional boronate affinity monolithic column. The practical applicability of this system was demonstrated by processing of egg white samples for extraction of ovalbumin and ovotransferrin, and satisfactory results were obtained by assay with SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LC–MS/MS Quantitation of Esophagus Disease Blood Serum Glycoproteins by Enrichment with Hydrazide Chemistry and Lectin Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glycosylation have been shown to have a profound correlation with development/malignancy in many cancer types. Currently, two major enrichment techniques have been widely applied in glycoproteomics, namely, lectin affinity chromatography (LAC)-based and hydrazide chemistry (HC)-based enrichments. Here we report the LC–MS/MS quantitative analyses of human blood serum glycoproteins and glycopeptides associated with esophageal diseases by LAC- and HC-based enrichment. The separate and complementary qualitative and quantitative data analyses of protein glycosylation were performed using both enrichment techniques. Chemometric and statistical evaluations, PCA plots, or ANOVA test, respectively, were employed to determine and confirm candidate cancer-associated glycoprotein/glycopeptide biomarkers. Out of 139, 59 common glycoproteins (42% overlap) were observed in both enrichment techniques. This overlap is very similar to previously published studies. The quantitation and evaluation of significantly changed glycoproteins/glycopeptides are complementary between LAC and HC enrichments. LC–ESI–MS/MS analyses indicated that 7 glycoproteins enriched by LAC and 11 glycoproteins enriched by HC showed significantly different abundances between disease-free and disease cohorts. Multiple reaction monitoring quantitation resulted in 13 glycopeptides by LAC enrichment and 10 glycosylation sites by HC enrichment to be statistically different among disease cohorts. PMID:25134008

  6. Involvement of the Golgi apparatus in the synthesis and secretion of hydroxyproline-rich cell wall glycoproteins. [carrot

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, M.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Pulse labeling of carrot root phloem parenchyma (Daucus carota L. ev. Nantes) tissue with /sup 14/C-proline followed by fractionation of the cytoplasmic organelles on sucrose gradients was used to determine the identiy of the membranous organelles involved in the secretion of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins of the cell wall. Identification of the organelles was done through electron-microscopical observations and through the localization of marker enzymes on the sucrose gradients. Enrichment of the organelles involved in secretion was determined by measuring the percentage of the incorporated radioactivity present as /sup 14/C-hydroxyproline. The Golgi apparatus (dictyosome) was found to be a major sitemore » of glycoprotein transport. This identification was based on the observed enrichment of dictyosomes paralleling the purification of newly synthesized cell-wall glycoproteins. A marker enzyme for the Golgi apparatus, inosinediphosphatase, banded with the newly synthesized cell wall glycoproteins on sequential isopycnic and rate zonal sucrose gradients. Marker enzymes for the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma memebrane were clearly separated from the dictyosome-rich fraction. UDP-arabinose arabinosyl transferase, an enzyme involved in the glycosylation of the peptide moiety of this glycoprotein, also banded with the dictyosomes on both kinds of gradients. The results suggest an important role of the Golgi apparatus in the biosynthesis and the secretion of the cell wall glycoproteins of higher plants. (auth)« less

  7. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  8. Effect of α1-acid glycoprotein on the intracellular accumulation of the HIV protease inhibitors saquinavir, ritonavir and indinavir in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K; Hoggard, P G; Khoo, S; Maher, B; Back, D J

    2001-01-01

    Aims Since α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) levels may be raised during HIV infection, we have examined in vitro the effect of increasing the concentration of AGP on the intracellular accumulation of the HIV protease inhibitors saquinavir (SQV), ritonavir (RTV) and indinavir (IDV). Methods U937 cells (5 × 106 cells in 5 ml RPMI growth medium) were incubated at 37 °C for 18 h with [14C]-SQV (0.1 µCi), [3H]-RTV and [3H]-IDV (0.135 µCi) to a final concentration of 1 µm in the presence of 0, 0.5 and 2.0 mg ml−1 AGP. Following extraction in 60% methanol the intracellular drug concentration was determined by liquid scintillation counting. Results Binding to AGP (2.0 mg ml−1) reduced the mean intracellular concentration of SQV from 31.5 µm to 7.4 µm (P < 0.0001; 95% CI 19.4–28.8). RTV concentration was also reduced (8.8 µm to 1.6 µm; P < 0.0001; 95% CI 5.4–9.0) as was the concentration of IDV (3.0 µm to 1.5 µm; P < 0.0001; 95% CI 1.1–1.9). Conclusions Reduced intracellular protease inhibitor concentrations in the presence of increasing concentrations of AGP will certainly impact on the antiviral activity in vitro. However, since protease inhibitors are high clearance drugs, free drug concentration will likely remain unaffected in the presence of elevated AGP during chronic oral dosing although there will be an increase in total plasma drug concentration. PMID:11167671

  9. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Nora F.; Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; Jasirwan, Chyntia

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highlymore » conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.« less

  10. The E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus is a virulence determinant in swine.

    PubMed

    Risatti, G R; Borca, M V; Kutish, G F; Lu, Z; Holinka, L G; French, R A; Tulman, E R; Rock, D L

    2005-03-01

    To identify genetic determinants of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) virulence and host range, chimeras of the highly pathogenic Brescia strain and the attenuated vaccine strain CS were constructed and evaluated for viral virulence in swine. Upon initial screening, only chimeras 138.8v and 337.14v, the only chimeras containing the E2 glycoprotein of CS, were attenuated in swine despite exhibiting unaltered growth characteristics in primary porcine macrophage cell cultures. Additional viral chimeras were constructed to confirm the role of E2 in virulence. Chimeric virus 319.1v, which contained only the CS E2 glycoprotein in the Brescia background, was markedly attenuated in pigs, exhibiting significantly decreased virus replication in tonsils, a transient viremia, limited generalization of infection, and decreased virus shedding. Chimeras encoding all Brescia structural proteins in a CS genetic background remained attenuated, indicating that additional mutations outside the structural region are important for CS vaccine virus attenuation. These results demonstrate that CS E2 alone is sufficient for attenuating Brescia, indicating a significant role for the CSFV E2 glycoprotein in swine virulence.

  11. Posttranslational modifications of Sindbis virus glycoproteins: electrophoretic analysis of pulse-chase-labeled infected cells.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, S; Cancedda, F D

    1982-04-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from Sindbis virus-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts pulse-chase-labeled with [35S]methionine 6 h postinfection were analyzed on a highly resolving sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel either directly or after various treatments. The results we obtained suggest that (i) the proteolytic cleavage which converts PE2 to E2 glycoprotein takes place intracellularly, before or at least during the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide side chains; and (ii) E1 glycoprotein undergoes a complex maturation pattern. Newly synthesized E1 has a molecular weight of 53,000: shortly thereafter, this 53,000 (53K) form was converted to a 50K form. Subsequently, the 50K form decreased its apparent molecular weight progressively and eventually comigrated with E1 glycoprotein present in the extracellular virus, which displays a molecular weight of 51,000 to 52,000. The conversion of the 53K to the 50K form was not the result of a proteolytic processing and did not depend on glycosylation or disulfide bridge formation and exchange. The possible mechanisms of this conversion are discussed. The second conversion step (from the 50K to the 51-52K form) was due to the formation of complex-type oligosaccharide and was reversed by incubating the cellular extracts with neuraminidase before electrophoretic analysis.

  12. Glycoprotein hormone receptors: determinants in leucine-rich repeats responsible for ligand specificity

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Guillaume; Campillo, Mercedes; Govaerts, Cédric; Janssens, Véronique; Richter, Christine; Vassart, Gilbert; Pardo, Leonardo; Costagliola, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Glycoprotein hormone receptors [thyrotropin (TSHr), luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CGr), follicle stimulating hormone (FSHr)] are rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors with a large extracellular N-terminal portion responsible for hormone recognition and binding. In structural models, this ectodomain is composed of two cysteine clusters flanking nine leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). The LRRs form a succession of β-strands and α-helices organized into a horseshoe-shaped structure. It has been proposed that glycoprotein hormones interact with residues of the β-strands making the concave surface of the horseshoe. Gain-of-function homology scanning of the β-strands of glycoprotein hormone receptors allowed identification of the critical residues responsible for the specificity towards human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Substitution of eight or two residues of the LH/CGr into the TSHr or FSHr, respectively, resulted in constructs displaying almost the same affinity and sensitivity for hCG as wild-type LH/CGr. Molecular dynamics simulations and additional site-directed mutagenesis provided a structural rationale for the evolution of binding specificity in this duplicated gene family. PMID:12773385

  13. Glycosylation of dengue virus glycoproteins and their interactions with carbohydrate receptors: possible targets for antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Idris, Fakhriedzwan; Muharram, Siti Hanna; Diah, Suwarni

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus, an RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, affects 50 million individuals annually, and approximately 500,000-1,000,000 of these infections lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. With no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral treatments available to prevent dengue infection, dengue is considered a major public health problem in subtropical and tropical regions. The virus, like other enveloped viruses, uses the host's cellular enzymes to synthesize its structural (C, E, and prM/M) and nonstructural proteins (NS1-5) and, subsequently, to glycosylate these proteins to produce complete and functional glycoproteins. The structural glycoproteins, specifically the E protein, are known to interact with the host's carbohydrate receptors through the viral proteins' N-glycosylation sites and thus mediate the viral invasion of cells. This review focuses on the involvement of dengue glycoproteins in the course of infection and the virus' exploitation of the host's glycans, especially the interactions between host receptors and carbohydrate moieties. We also discuss the recent developments in antiviral therapies that target these processes and interactions, focusing specifically on the use of carbohydrate-binding agents derived from plants, commonly known as lectins, to inhibit the progression of infection.

  14. Characterization of canine herpesvirus glycoprotein C expressed by a recombinant baculovirus in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Xuan, X; Maeda, K; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1996-12-01

    The gene encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein C (gC) homologue has been identified by sequence homology analyses with other well studied herpesviruses. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gC, a recombinant baculovirus which contains the putative CHV gC structural gene under the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed. The recombinant baculovirus expressed gC-related polypeptides (44-62 kDa), which reacted only with MAbs against CHV gp80, indicating that the previously identified CHV gp80 is the translation product of the gC gene. The baculovirus expressed gC was glycosylated and transported to the surface of infected cells. At least seven neutralizing epitopes were conserved on the gC produced in insect cells. It was found that the recombinant baculovirus infected cells adsorbed murine erythrocytes as is the case for CHV-infected cells. The hemadsorption activity was inhibited by heparin, indicating that the CHV gC binds to heparan sulfate on the surface of murine erythrocytes. Mice immunized with the recombinant gC produced strong neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that CHV gC produced in insect cells may be useful as a subunit vaccine to control CHV infections.

  15. A recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing rabies virus glycoprotein: safety and immunogenicity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziguo; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fei; Fooks, Anthony R; Li, Qianxue; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-03-04

    Several recombinant vaccines expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein have been developed, particularly for the oral vaccination of wildlife. While these vaccines induce protective immunity in some animal species such as foxes, they are less effective in others. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been licensed for use as a live vaccine in pigs and possesses an excellent safety and efficacy record. We have used it to construct a recombinant virus, rPRV/eGFP/rgp, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. This recombinant virus has been shown to be safe for dogs by oral and intramuscular routes of inoculation and was demonstrated to induce immune responses against both pseudorabies and rabies in dogs after a single oral dose of 2 x 10(7.0) plaque forming units (PFU). Neutralizing antibody titers against rabies reached > 0.5 IU/ml and 1:64-1:128 against pseudorabies by 5 weeks post-vaccination in all dogs, indicating that the pseudorabies virus vector infected dogs and replicated in vivo, and that the rabies virus glycoprotein had been expressed and an effective immune response elicited. Antibody titers were maintained for over 6 months. This suggests that pseudorabies virus could be an effective live vector for recombinant rabies oral vaccination.

  16. Molecular Docking Studies to Explore Potential Binding Pockets and Inhibitors for Chikungunya Virus Envelope Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T V; Yu, Haibo; Keller, Paul A

    2017-03-11

    The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) envelope glycoproteins are considered important potential targets for anti-CHIKV drug discovery due to their crucial roles in virus attachment and virus entry. In this study, using two available crystal structures of the immature and mature forms of envelope glycoproteins, virtual screenings based on blind dockings and focused dockings were carried out to identify potential binding pockets and hit compounds for the virus. The chemical library database of compounds, NCI Diversity Set II, was used in these docking studies. In addition to reproducing previously reported examples, new binding pockets were identified, e.g., Pocket 2 in the 3N40, and Pocket 2 and Pocket 3 in the 3N42. Convergences in conformational sampling in docking using AutoDock Vina were evaluated. An analysis of docking results was carried out to understand interactions of the envelope glycoproteins complexes. Some key residues for interactions, for example Gly91 and His230, are identified as possessing important roles in the fusion process.

  17. Co-assembly of Viral Envelope Glycoproteins Regulates Their Polarized Sorting in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Newly synthesized envelope glycoproteins of neuroinvasive viruses can be sorted in a polarized manner to the somatodendritic and/or axonal domains of neurons. Although critical for transneuronal spread of viruses, the molecular determinants and interregulation of this process are largely unknown. We studied the polarized sorting of the attachment (NiV-G) and fusion (NiV-F) glycoproteins of Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus that causes fatal human encephalitis, in rat hippocampal neurons. When expressed individually, NiV-G exhibited a non-polarized distribution, whereas NiV-F was specifically sorted to the somatodendritic domain. Polarized sorting of NiV-F was dependent on interaction of tyrosine-based signals in its cytosolic tail with the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1. Co-expression of NiV-G with NiV-F abolished somatodendritic sorting of NiV-F due to incorporation of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes into axonal transport carriers. We propose that faster biosynthetic transport of unassembled NiV-F allows for its proteolytic activation in the somatodendritic domain prior to association with NiV-G and axonal delivery of NiV-G•NiV-F complexes. Our study reveals how interactions of viral glycoproteins with the host's transport machinery and between themselves regulate their polarized sorting in neurons. PMID:24831812

  18. A Cell-Cell Fusion Assay to Assess Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Membrane-Fusion Activity.

    PubMed

    York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H

    2018-01-01

    For many viruses that enter their target cells through pH-dependent fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, cell-cell fusion assays can provide an experimental platform for investigating the structure-function relationships that promote envelope glycoprotein membrane-fusion activity. Typically, these assays employ effector cells expressing the recombinant envelope glycoprotein on the cell surface and target cells engineered to quantitatively report fusion with the effector cell. In the protocol described here, Vero cells are transfected with a plasmid encoding the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein complex GPC and infected with the vTF7-3 vaccinia virus expressing the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. These effector cells are mixed with target cells infected with the vCB21R-lacZ vaccinia virus encoding a β-galactosidase reporter under the control of the T7 promoter. Cell-cell fusion is induced upon exposure to low-pH medium (pH 5.0), and the resultant expression of the β-galactosidase reporter is quantitated using a chemiluminescent substrate. We have utilized this robust microplate cell-cell fusion assay extensively to study arenavirus entry and its inhibition by small-molecule fusion inhibitors.

  19. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the glycoprotein of hen oviduct microsomal signal peptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, A L; McLean, J W; Lively, M O

    1992-01-01

    Detergent-solubilized hen oviduct signal peptidase has been characterized previously as an apparent complex of a 19 kDa protein and a 23 kDa glycoprotein (GP23) [Baker & Lively (1987) Biochemistry 26, 8561-8567]. A cDNA clone encoding GP23 from a chicken oviduct lambda gt11 cDNA library has now been characterized. The cDNA encodes a protein of 180 amino acid residues with a single site for asparagine-linked glycosylation that has been directly identified by amino acid sequence analysis of a tryptic-digest peptide containing the glycosylated site. Immunoblot analysis reveals cross-reactivity with a dog pancreas protein. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of GP23 with the 22/23 kDa glycoprotein of dog microsomal signal peptidase [Shelness, Kanwar & Blobel (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 17063-17070], one of five proteins associated with this enzyme, reveals that the amino acid sequences are 90% identical. Thus the signal peptidase glycoprotein is as highly conserved as the sequences of cytochromes c and b from these same species and is likely to be found in a similar form in many, if not all, vertebrate species. The data also show conclusively that the dog and avian signal peptidases have at least one protein subunit in common. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1546959

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hua-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Duo; Xiao, Ming-Ming; Li, Ying; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Methods Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. Results A total of 2,280 protein groups were identified in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. Conclusion A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC. PMID:26487969

  1. Expression and solubilization of insect cell-based rabies virus glycoprotein and assessment of its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramya, R; Mohana Subramanian, B; Sivakumar, V; Senthilkumar, R L; Sambasiva Rao, K R S; Srinivasan, V A

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of serious public health and economic significance worldwide. The rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) has been the major target for subunit vaccine development, since it harbors domains responsible for induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies, infectivity, and neurovirulence. The glycoprotein (G) was cloned using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells. In order to obtain a soluble form of G suitable for experimentation in mice, 18 different combinations of buffers and detergents were evaluated for their ability to solubilize the insect cell membrane-associated G. The combination that involved 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) detergent in lysis buffer 1, formulated with Tris, NaCl, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and EDTA, gave the highest yield of soluble G, as evidenced by the experimental data. Subsequently, several other parameters, such as the concentration of CHAPS and the duration and temperature of the treatment for the effective solubilization of G, were optimized. The CHAPS detergent, buffered at a concentration of 0.4% to 0.7% (wt/vol) at room temperature (23 to 25°C) for 30 min to 1 h using buffer 1, containing 10% DMSO, resulted in consistently high yields. The G solubilized using CHAPS detergent was found to be immunogenic when tested in mice, as evidenced by high virus-neutralizing antibody titers in sera and 100% protection upon virulent intracerebral challenge with the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of rabies virus. The results of the mice study indicated that G solubilized with CHAPS detergent retained the immunologically relevant domains in the native conformation, thereby paving the way for producing a cell-free and efficacious subunit vaccine.

  2. Simultaneous determination of paclitaxel and a new P-glycoprotein inhibitor HM-30181 in rat plasma by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paek, In Bok; Ji, Hye Young; Kim, Maeng Seop; Lee, Gwan Sun; Lee, Hye Suk

    2006-03-01

    An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of a new P-glycoprotein inhibitor 4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxylic acid [2-(2-(4-[2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-ethyl]-phenyl)-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4,5-dimethoxy-phenyl]-amide (HM-30181) and a P-glycoprotein substrate paclitaxel in rat plasma was developed to simultaneously evaluate the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel and HM-30181 in the rats. HM-30181, paclitaxel, HM-30059 (internal standard (I.S.) for HM-30181), and docetaxel (I.S. for paclitaxel) were extracted from rat plasma with methyl-tert-butyl ether and analyzed on an Atlantis C18 column (5 microm, 2.1 x 100 mm) with the mobile phase of ACN/10 mM ammonium formate (75:25 v/v). The analytes were detected using an ESI MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The standard curves for HM-30181 and paclitaxel in plasma were linear (r > 0.999) over the concentration range of 2.0-500 ng/mL with a weighting of 1/concentration2. The method showed a satisfactory sensitivity (2 ng/mL using 50 microL plasma), precision (CV: < or = 6.6%), accuracy (relative error: -6.3 to 2.0%), and selectivity. This method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of HM-30181 and paclitaxel in rat plasma after oral-coadministration of paclitaxel and HM-30181 to male Sprague- Dawley rats.

  3. Polymethoxylated flavones and other phenolic derivates from citrus in their inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; De Castro, Whocely Victor; Manthey, John A; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2007-04-04

    Many studies investigating drug interactions with citrus compounds focus on the major grapefruit furanocoumarins bergamottin, dihydroxybergamottin, and the flavonoid naringenin. This study evaluated the influence of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), tangeretin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3,4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and sinensetin, as well as other minor occurring citrus phenols, hesperetin, limettin, 7-OH-coumarin, 7-geranyloxycoumarin, and eriodictyol, on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the beta-blocker talinolol using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model and was used to determine the structure-function aspects of the interaction. The transport of talinolol across Caco-2 cells monolayers was determined in the absence and presence of distinct concentrations of the calcium-channel blocker verapamil (a known inhibitor of P-glycoprotein) and citrus compounds. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to fit the data and to estimate the IC50 values of the potential inhibitors. Results from this study show that PMFs significantly decreased talinolol transport from the basolateral to apical side, where tangeretin had the lowest IC50 of 3.2 micromol/L, followed by nobiletin, heptamethoxyflavone, and sinensetin with IC50 values of 3.5, 3.8, and 3.9 micromol/L, respectively. However, the efficacy of the compounds did not appear to be dependent on the number of methoxy groups. Other citrus compounds did not have any significant effect on the transport of talinolol. This study suggests that PMFs have a high potential in the interaction with P-gp-mediated talinolol transport in Caco-2 cells. Based on their relatively low concentrations (< or =3 microg/mL) in citrus, the clinical relevance of these interactions needs to be further elucidated in in vivo studies.

  4. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  5. Drug transport by reconstituted P-glycoprotein in proteoliposomes. Effect of substrates and modulators, and dependence on bilayer phase state.

    PubMed

    Lu, P; Liu, R; Sharom, F J

    2001-03-01

    The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (Pgp) is an active efflux pump for chemotherapeutic drugs, natural products and hydrophobic peptides. Pgp is envisaged as a 'hydrophobic vacuum cleaner', and drugs are believed to gain access to the substrate binding sites from within the membrane, rather than from the aqueous phase. The intimate association of both Pgp and its substrates with the membrane suggests that its function may be regulated by the biophysical properties of the lipid bilayer. Using the high affinity fluorescent substrate tetramethylrosamine (TMR), we have monitored, in real time, transport in proteoliposomes containing reconstituted Pgp. The TMR concentration gradient generated by Pgp was collapsed by the addition of either the ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, or Pgp modulators. TMR transport by Pgp obeyed Michaelis--Menten kinetics with respect to both of its substrates. The Km for ATP was 0.48 mM, close to the K(m) for ATP hydrolysis, and the K(m) for TMR was 0.3 microM. TMR transport was inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by verapamil and cyclosporin A, and activated (probably by a positive allosteric effect) by the transport substrate colchicine. TMR transport by Pgp reconstituted into proteoliposomes composed of two synthetic phosphatidylcholines showed a highly unusual biphasic temperature dependence. The rate of TMR transport was relatively high in the rigid gel phase, reached a maximum at the melting temperature of the bilayer, and then decreased in the fluid liquid crystalline phase. This pattern of temperature dependence suggests that the rate of drug transport by Pgp may be dominated by partitioning of drug into the bilayer.

  6. Ascites interferes with the activity of lurbinectedin and trabectedin: Potential role of their binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Erba, E; Romano, M; Gobbi, M; Zucchetti, M; Ferrari, M; Matteo, C; Panini, N; Colmegna, B; Caratti, G; Porcu, L; Fruscio, R; Perlangeli, M V; Mezzanzanica, D; Lorusso, D; Raspagliesi, F; D'Incalci, M

    2017-11-15

    Trabectedin and its analogue lurbinectedin are effective drugs used in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Since the presence of ascites is a frequent event in advanced ovarian cancer we asked the question whether ascites could modify the activity of these compounds against ovarian cancer cells. The cytotoxicity induced by trabectedin or lurbinectedin against A2780, OVCAR-5 cell lines or primary culture of human ovarian cancer cells was compared by performing treatment in regular medium or in ascites taken from either nude mice or ovarian cancer patients. Ascites completely abolished the activity of lurbinectedin at up to 10nM (in regular medium corresponds to the IC90), strongly reduced that of trabectedin, inhibited the cellular uptake of lurbinectedin and, to a lesser extent, that of trabectedin. Since α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is present in ascites at relatively high concentrations, we tested if the binding of the drugs to this protein could be responsible for the reduction of their activity. Adding AGP to the medium at concentration range of those found in ascites, we reproduced the anticytotoxic effect of ascites. Erythromycin partially restored the activity of the drugs, presumably by displacing them from AGP. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that both drugs bind AGP, but the affinity of binding of lurbinectedin was much greater than that of trabectedin. KD values are 8±1.7 and 87±14nM for lurbinectedin and trabectedin, respectively. The studies intimate the possibility that AGP present in ascites might reduce the activity of lurbinectedin and to a lesser extent of trabectedin against ovarian cancer cells present in ascites. AGP plasma levels could influence the distribution of these drugs and thus they should be monitored in patients receiving these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Phytochemical P-Glycoprotein Modulators on the Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution of Doxorubicin in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Shin, Soyoung; Yoo, Sun Dong; Shin, Beom Soo

    2018-02-07

    Pungent spice constituents such as piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol consumed via daily diet or traditional Chinese medicine, have been reported to possess various pharmacological activities. These dietary phytochemicals have also been reported to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and act as an alternative to synthetic P-gp modulators. However, the in vivo effects on P-gp inhibition are currently unknown. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that phytochemical P-gp inhibitors, i.e., piperine, capsaicin and [6]-gingerol, modulate the in vivo tissue distribution of doxorubicin, a representative P-gp substrate. Mice were divided into four groups and each group was pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of control vehicle, piperine, capsaicin, or [6]-gingerol and doxorubicin (1 mg/kg) was administered via the penile vein. The concentrations of the phytochemicals and doxorubicin in the plasma and tissues were determined by LC-MS/MS. The overall plasma concentration-time profiles of doxorubicin were not significantly affected by piperine, capsaicin, or [6]-gingerol. In contrast, doxorubicin accumulation was observed in tissues pretreated with piperine or capsaicin. The tissue to plasma partition coefficients, K p , for the liver and kidney were higher in the piperine-pretreated group, while the K p for kidney, brain and liver were higher in the capsaicin-pretreated group. [6]-Gingerol did not affect doxorubicin tissue distribution. The data demonstrated that the phytochemicals modulated doxorubicin tissue distribution, which suggested their potential to induce food-drug interactions and act as a strategy for the delivery of P-gp substrate drugs to target tissues and tumors.

  8. Co-treatment with grapefruit juice inhibits while chronic administration activates intestinal P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux.

    PubMed

    Panchagnula, R; Bansal, T; Varma, M V S; Kaul, C L

    2005-12-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux is recognized as a significant biochemical barrier affecting oral absorption for a number of drugs. Various conflicting reports have been published regarding the effects of grapefruit juice (GFJ) on P-gp-mediated drug efflux, in which GFJ has been shown both to inhibit and activate it. Hence, the present study adopted a two-way approach, involving both co-treatment and chronic administration. Bi-directional transport of paclitaxel (PCL) was carried out in the absence and presence of GFJ extract, in rat everted ileum sac. Further, the effect of chronic administration of GFJ to rats was characterized by permeability studies with indinavir (INDI). Co-treatment of GFJ extract at 100% concentration reduced the asymmetric transport of PCL (efflux ratio = 20.8) by increasing absorptive (A --> B) transport by 921% and reducing secretory (B --> A) transport by 41%. Further, GFJ showed a concentration dependent effect on PCL permeability. Imipramine, a passive permeability marker with absorptive permeability of 15.33 +/- 4.26 x 10(-6) cm/s showed no asymmetric transport and also no significant (P < 0.05) change in permeability in the presence of GFJ. Chronic administration of GFJ resulted in a significant decrease in absorptive transport of indinavir, which was even greater than that produced by rifampicin pretreatment. No change in permeability of propranolol, a passive permeability marker, was observed. Further, the decrease in absorptive transport of INDI was reversed by the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. In conclusion, GFJ extract inhibited P-gp-mediated efflux in co-treatment, whereas chronic administration led to increased levels of P-gp expression, thus having a profound effect on intestinal absorption and GFJ-drug interactions in vivo.

  9. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs) and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis), and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs), mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs), proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM). This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages) of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP treatment showed

  10. Functional Interplay Between Murine Leukemia Virus Glycogag, Serinc5, and Surface Glycoprotein Governs Virus Entry, with Opposite Effects on Gammaretroviral and Ebolavirus Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ahi, Yadvinder S; Zhang, Shu; Thappeta, Yashna; Denman, Audrey; Feizpour, Amin; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Reinhard, Bjoern; Muriaux, Delphine; Fivash, Matthew J; Rein, Alan

    2016-11-22

    Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others. In contrast, however, glycogag was detrimental to MLVs carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. Conversely, Serinc5 expression abrogated the negative effects of glycogag upon the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes. Many murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) encode a protein called "glycogag." The function of glycogag is not fully understood, but it can assist HIV-1 replication in the absence of the HIV-1 protein Nef under some circumstances. In turn, Nef counteracts the cellular protein Serinc5. Glycogag enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some but not all

  11. Surface glycoproteins of an African henipavirus induce syncytium formation in a cell line derived from an African fruit bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Nadine; Hoffmann, Markus; Weis, Michael; Drexler, Jan Felix; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Winter, Christine; Corman, Victor Max; Gützkow, Tim; Drosten, Christian; Maisner, Andrea; Herrler, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Serological screening and detection of genomic RNA indicates that members of the genus Henipavirus are present not only in Southeast Asia but also in African fruit bats. We demonstrate that the surface glycoproteins F and G of an African henipavirus (M74) induce syncytium formation in a kidney cell line derived from an African fruit bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus. Despite a less broad cell tropism, the M74 glycoproteins show functional similarities to glycoproteins of Nipah virus.

  12. Decreased levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein are related to the mortality of septic patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Lobo, Romulo R.; Mendonça, Patricia R.; Memória, Renan R.; Spiller, Fernando; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Pazin-Filho, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein as a novel biomarker for mortality in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: We prospectively included patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at the emergency department at a single tertiary referral teaching hospital. All of the patients were enrolled within the first 24 hours of emergency department admission, and clinical data and blood samples were obtained. As the primary outcome, we investigated the association of serum levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and 96-hour mortality with logistic regression analysis and generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, sex, shock status and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. RESULTS: Patients with septic shock had lower alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels at the time of emergency department admission compared to patients without shock (respectively, 149.1±42.7 vs. 189.8±68.6; p = 0.005). Similarly, non-survivors in the first 96 hours were also characterized by lower levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein at the time of emergency department admission compared to survivors (respectively, 132.18±50.2 vs. 179.8±61.4; p = 0.01). In an adjusted analysis, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels ≤120 mg/dL were significantly associated with 96-hour mortality (odds ratio = 14.37; 95% confidence interval = 1.58 to 130.21). CONCLUSION: Septic shock patients exhibited lower circulating alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels than patients without shock. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels were independently associated with 96-hour mortality in individuals with severe sepsis. PMID:24037010

  13. Decreased levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein are related to the mortality of septic patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Lobo, Romulo R; Mendonça, Patricia R; Memória, Renan R; Spiller, Fernando; Cunha, Fernando Q; Pazin-Filho, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the validity of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein as a novel biomarker for mortality in patients with severe sepsis. We prospectively included patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at the emergency department at a single tertiary referral teaching hospital. All of the patients were enrolled within the first 24 hours of emergency department admission, and clinical data and blood samples were obtained. As the primary outcome, we investigated the association of serum levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and 96-hour mortality with logistic regression analysis and generalized estimating equations adjusted for age, sex, shock status and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Patients with septic shock had lower alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels at the time of emergency department admission compared to patients without shock (respectively, 149.1 ±42.7 vs. 189.8 ±68.6; p = 0.005). Similarly, non-survivors in the first 96 hours were also characterized by lower levels of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein at the time of emergency department admission compared to survivors (respectively, 132.18 ±50.2 vs. 179.8 ±61.4; p = 0.01). In an adjusted analysis, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels ≤120 mg/dL were significantly associated with 96-hour mortality (odds ratio = 14.37; 95% confidence interval = 1.58 to 130.21). Septic shock patients exhibited lower circulating alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels than patients without shock. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein levels were independently associated with 96-hour mortality in individuals with severe sepsis.

  14. Association between MDR1 gene of gastrointestinal tumors, the expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Li; Wang, Cheng-Hong; Kang, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Bao-Zhong; Liu, Mei-Rong; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and discuss the association between multidrug resistance 1 gene ( MDR1 ) of gastrointestinal tumors, the expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, 126 cases of patients with gastrointestinal tumors admitted to hospital from February 2013 to February 2015 were selected. The expression levels of MDR1 gene were obsreved in the control population and patients before and after treatment by fluoresecent quantitative PCR. The protein expression level of P-glycoprotein was determined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, drug resistance was assessed by ATP-TCA chemosensitivity experiments. The results showed that before treatment, the expression of mRNA in MDR1 of tissues of gastrointestinal tract of the 126 cases was 108-fold larger than that of the gastrointestinal tract of the controls (p<0.05), P-glycoprotein was 87-fold larger than the expression level of the controls (p<0.05). The sensitivity of 126 tumor tissues to different chemotherapeutic drugs was determined, and the results showed that most of the tumor tissues were sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs, and the sensitivity rate reached 96.4%. Following chemotherapy, the expression of mRNA in MDR1 of tumor tissues and the expression of P-glycoprotein decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein have a positive correlation with the occurrence of gastrointestinal tumors, and a negative correlation between the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein with resistance of chemotherapeutic drugs. Therefore, the MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein can be used as references in the identification and diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors.

  15. The macromolecular properties of blood-group-specific glycoproteins. Characterization of a series of fractions obtained by solvent fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Creeth, J. Michael; Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Donald, Alastair S. R.; Morgan, Walter T. J.

    1974-01-01

    1. The glycoprotein components of a human ovarian-cyst fluid were isolated by a solvent [95% (w/w) phenol]-extraction procedure; the phenol-insoluble water-soluble glycoprotein was further fractionated by (NH4)2SO4 and by ethanol to yield eight fractions. 2. The fractions were analysed in terms of amino acids, fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid. Variations occurred, particularly in the proportion of peptide; these were partly correlated with varying extent of serological activity. 3. The fractions were characterized physicochemically in terms of buoyant density and degree of spreading in a density gradient, sedimentation velocity and molecular weight; their partial specific volumes and specific refraction increments were also determined. 4. The fractions showed wide variations in their sedimentation-velocity and density-gradient patterns, and gave evidence of pauci-dispersity in density. The fraction regarded as the most typical blood-group-specific glycoprotein sedimented as a single rapidly spreading peak and was of high molecular weight. 5. Significant correlations were observed between the physical properties of the glycoprotein fractions and the amount of their peptide component. The buoyant densities and sedimentation coefficients varied in a manner that suggested the existence of two families of glycoproteins. 6. It is suggested that variability in the extent of glycosylation, or in the degree of cross-linking, might account for the two families of glycoproteins, and that the extent of cross-linkage might also be a factor determining the solubility of these glycoproteins in hot saturated (NH4)2SO4. ImagesFig. 1.PLATE 1 PMID:4219280

  16. Ultrasonic atomization and subsequent desolvation for monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the glycoprotein (GP) IIIa receptor into drug eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Wang, G X; Luo, L L; Yin, T Y; Li, Y; Jiang, T; Ruan, C G; Guidoin, R; Chen, Y P; Guzman, R

    2010-01-01

    An eluting-stent system with mAb dispersed in the PLLA (poly (L-lactic acid)) was validated in vitro. Specifically designed spray equipment based on the principle of ultrasonic atomization was used to produce a thin continuous PLLA (poly (L-lactic acid)) polymer coating incorporating monoclonal antibody (mAb). This PLLA coating was observed in light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa receptor and the eluting rate were then measured by a radioisotope technique with (125)I-labelled GP IIIa mAb. An in vitro perfusion circuit was designed to evaluate the release rates at different velocities (10 or 20 ml min(-1)). The PLLA coating was thin and transparent, uniformly distributed on the surface of the stent. Three factors influenced its thickness: PLLA concentration, duration and gas pressure. The concentration of mAb was influenced by the duration of absorption and the concentration of the mAb solution; the maximum was 1662.23 + or - 38.83 ng. The eluting rate was fast for the first 2 h, then decreased slowly and attained 80% after 2 weeks. This ultrasonic atomization spray equipment and technological process to prepare protein eluting-stents were proved to be effective and reliable.

  17. Functional Interplay Between Murine Leukemia Virus Glycogag, Serinc5, and Surface Glycoprotein Governs Virus Entry, with Opposite Effects on Gammaretroviral and Ebolavirus Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Zhang, Shu; Thappeta, Yashna; Denman, Audrey; Feizpour, Amin; Reinhard, Bjoern; Muriaux, Delphine; Fivash, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called “glycogag” (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others. In contrast, however, glycogag was detrimental to MLVs carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. Conversely, Serinc5 expression abrogated the negative effects of glycogag upon the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes. PMID:27879338

  18. Effect of collecting duct-specific deletion of both Rh B Glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhcg) on renal response to metabolic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Verlander, Jill W.; Handlogten, Mary E.; Han, Ki-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins, Rh B and Rh C Glycoprotein (Rhbg and Rhcg, respectively), are ammonia-specific transporters expressed in renal distal nephron and collecting duct sites that are necessary for normal rates of ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current studies was to determine the effect of their combined deletion from the renal collecting duct (CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO) on basal and acidosis-stimulated acid-base homeostasis. Under basal conditions, urine pH and ammonia excretion and serum HCO3− were similar in control (C) and CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice. After acid-loading for 7 days, CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice developed significantly more severe metabolic acidosis than did C mice. Acid loading increased ammonia excretion, but ammonia excretion increased more slowly in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO and it was significantly less than in C mice on days 1–5. Urine pH was significantly more acidic in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO mice on days 1, 3, and 5 of acid loading. Metabolic acidosis increased phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Na+/H+ exchanger NHE-3 and decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) expression in both genotypes, and these changes were significantly greater in CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO than in C mice. We conclude that 1) Rhbg and Rhcg are critically important in the renal response to metabolic acidosis; 2) the significantly greater changes in PEPCK, NHE-3, and GS expression in acid-loaded CD-Rhbg/Rhcg-KO compared with acid-loaded C mice cause the role of Rhbg and Rhcg to be underestimated quantitatively; and 3) in mice with intact Rhbg and Rhcg expression, metabolic acidosis does not induce maximal changes in PEPCK, NHE-3, and GS expression despite the presence of persistent metabolic acidosis. PMID:24338819

  19. The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport processes that are involved in the intestinal transport of the H(2) receptor antagonist nizatidine. The intestinal epithelial efflux transport mechanisms of nizatidine were investigated and characterized across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the concentration range 0.05-10 mM in both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions, and the transport constants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity were calculated. The concentration-dependent effects of various P-gp (verapamil, quinidine, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine A), multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2; MK-571, probenecid, indomethacin, and p-aminohipuric acid), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Fumitremorgin C) inhibitors on nizatidine bidirectional transport were examined. Nizatidine exhibited 7.7-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. All P-gp inhibitors investigated displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on nizatidine secretion in both directions. The IC(50) of verapamil on nizatidine P-gp secretion was 1.2 x 10(-2) mM. In the absence of inhibitors, nizatidine displayed concentration-dependent secretion, with one saturable (J(max) = 5.7 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and K(m) = 2.2 mM) and one nonsaturable component (K(d) = 7 x 10(-4) microL cm(-2) s(-1)). Under complete P-gp inhibition, nizatidine exhibited linear secretory flux, with a slope similar to the nonsaturable component. V(max) and K(m) estimated for nizatidine P-gp-mediated secretion were 4 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 mM, respectively. No effect was obtained with the MRP2 or the BCRP inhibitors. Being a drug commonly used in pediatrics, adults, and elderly, nizatidine susceptibility to efflux transport by P-gp revealed in this paper may be of significance in its absorption, distribution, and clearance, as well as possible drug-drug interactions.

  20. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Branco, Luis M; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Goba, Augustine; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambu; Schoepp, Randal J; Bausch, Daniel G; Garry, Robert F

    2010-11-09

    Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV) GP1 (sGP1) in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC) gene [1, 2]. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV), a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90 percent fatality rates [3 - 5]. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW), in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for detection of sGP1 as the sole

  1. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV) GP1 (sGP1) in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC) gene [1,2]. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV), a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates [3-5]. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW), in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for detection of sGP1 as the

  2. Multiple Strategies Reveal a Bidentate Interaction between the Nipah Virus Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jacquelyn A; Vemulapati, Bhadra M; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Aguilar, Hector C

    2016-12-01

    The paramyxoviral family contains many medically important viruses, including measles virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the deadly zoonotic henipaviruses Hendra and Nipah virus (NiV). To both enter host cells and spread from cell to cell within infected hosts, the vast majority of paramyxoviruses utilize two viral envelope glycoproteins: the attachment glycoprotein (G, H, or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN]) and the fusion glycoprotein (F). Binding of G/H/HN to a host cell receptor triggers structural changes in G/H/HN that in turn trigger F to undergo a series of conformational changes that result in virus-cell (viral entry) or cell-cell (syncytium formation) membrane fusion. The actual regions of G/H/HN and F that interact during the membrane fusion process remain relatively unknown though it is generally thought that the paramyxoviral G/H/HN stalk region interacts with the F head region. Studies to determine such interactive regions have relied heavily on coimmunoprecipitation approaches, whose limitations include the use of detergents and the micelle-mediated association of proteins. Here, we developed a flow-cytometric strategy capable of detecting membrane protein-protein interactions by interchangeably using the full-length form of G and a soluble form of F, or vice versa. Using both coimmunoprecipitation and flow-cytometric strategies, we found a bidentate interaction between NiV G and F, where both the stalk and head regions of NiV G interact with F. This is a new structural-biological finding for the paramyxoviruses. Additionally, our studies disclosed regions of the NiV G and F glycoproteins dispensable for the G and F interactions. Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes high mortality rates in humans, with no approved treatment or vaccine available for human use. Viral entry into host cells relies on two viral envelope glycoproteins: the attachment (G) and fusion (F

  3. Characterization of anti-Toxoplasma activity of SDZ 215-918, a cyclosporin derivative lacking immunosuppressive and peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase-inhibiting activity: possible role of a P glycoprotein in Toxoplasma physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, J A; Hayes, M L; Luft, B J; Joiner, K A

    1997-01-01

    The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA) also possesses broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Previous investigators have reported that the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is sensitive to CsA. We have measured the sensitivity of Toxoplasma to 26 CsA derivatives that maintain only a subset of the parent compound's activity. We identified one compound, SDZ 215-918, that is a particularly potent inhibitor of parasite invasion and replication, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.45 microg/ml, which is 10-fold lower than that of CsA. Kinetic studies demonstrate that activity has a rapid onset (half-life, < or = 20 min) and is initially reversible, although long-term exposure (> 24 h) to 5 microg/ml is lethal; in contrast, this concentration had no effect on host cell protein synthesis or cell division. SDZ 215-918 acts directly on the parasite, as demonstrated by inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in host-free extracellular parasites. Inhibition of invasion is due to a reduction in parasite motility. SDZ 215-918 does not bind to cyclophilins, the ubiquitous cyclosporin-binding proteins, but is a potent inhibitor of the mammalian P glycoprotein, a member of the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily and the pump responsible for multidrug resistance in cancer and parasite cell lines. SDZ 215-918 blocks the efflux of rhodamine 123 from extracellular parasites, consistent with inhibition of a P glycoprotein-like pump. We suggest that a P glycoprotein or a related transporter plays a crucial role in the biology of Toxoplasma and may be a novel target for antiparasitic compounds. Preliminary studies with animals indicate that SDZ 215-918 inhibits parasite growth in vivo; its relationship to CsA may make it suitable for clinical development. PMID:9303374

  4. Emerging structural insights into glycoprotein quality control coupled with N-glycan processing in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2015-01-30

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the sugar chain is initially introduced onto newly synthesized proteins as a triantennary tetradecasaccharide (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2). The attached oligosaccharide chain is subjected to stepwise trimming by the actions of specific glucosidases and mannosidases. In these processes, the transiently expressed N-glycans, as processing intermediates, function as signals for the determination of glycoprotein fates, i.e., folding, transport, or degradation through interactions of a series of intracellular lectins. The monoglucosylated glycoforms are hallmarks of incompletely folded states of glycoproteins in this system, whereas the outer mannose trimming leads to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation. This review outlines the recently emerging evidence regarding the molecular and structural basis of this glycoprotein quality control system, which is regulated through dynamic interplay among intracellular lectins, glycosidases, and glycosyltransferase. Structural snapshots of carbohydrate-lectin interactions have been provided at the atomic level using X-ray crystallographic analyses. Conformational ensembles of uncomplexed triantennary high-mannose-type oligosaccharides have been characterized in a quantitative manner using molecular dynamics simulation in conjunction with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These complementary views provide new insights into glycoprotein recognition in quality control coupled with N-glycan processing.

  5. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2005-02-01

    The influence of Scoparia dulcis, a traditionally used plant for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was examined in streptozotocin diabetic rats on dearrangement in glycoprotein levels. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. An aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally for 6 weeks. The effect of the Scoparia dulcis extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma and tissue glycoproteins studied was in comparison to glibenclamide. The levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins were increased significantly whereas the level of plasma insulin was significantly decreased in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Oral administration of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) to diabetic rats led to decreased levels of blood glucose and plasma glycoproteins. The levels of plasma insulin and tissue sialic acid were increased whereas the levels of tissue hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal. The present study indicates that Scoparia dulcis possesses a significant beneficial effect on glycoproteins in addition to its antidiabetic effect.

  6. Crystal Structure of the Pre-fusion Nipah Virus Fusion Glycoprotein Reveals a Novel Hexamer-of-Trimers Assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Chan, Yee-Peng; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Akyol-Ataman, Zeynep; Zhu, Yongqun; Dutta, Somnath; Yan, Lianying; Feng, YanRu; Wang, Lin-Fa; Skiniotis, Georgios; Lee, Benhur; Zhou, Z Hong; Broder, Christopher C; Aguilar, Hector C; Nikolov, Dimitar B

    2015-12-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that infects host cells through the coordinated efforts of two envelope glycoproteins. The G glycoprotein attaches to cell receptors, triggering the fusion (F) glycoprotein to execute membrane fusion. Here we report the first crystal structure of the pre-fusion form of the NiV-F glycoprotein ectodomain. Interestingly this structure also revealed a hexamer-of-trimers encircling a central axis. Electron tomography of Nipah virus-like particles supported the hexameric pre-fusion model, and biochemical analyses supported the hexamer-of-trimers F assembly in solution. Importantly, structure-assisted site-directed mutagenesis of the interfaces between F trimers highlighted the functional relevance of the hexameric assembly. Shown here, in both cell-cell fusion and virus-cell fusion systems, our results suggested that this hexamer-of-trimers assembly was important during fusion pore formation. We propose that this assembly would stabilize the pre-fusion F conformation prior to cell attachment and facilitate the coordinated transition to a post-fusion conformation of all six F trimers upon triggering of a single trimer. Together, our data reveal a novel and functional pre-fusion architecture of a paramyxoviral fusion glycoprotein.

  7. Induction of apoptosis and reversal of permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM by ginsenoside Rh2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Huilai; Kong, Di

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a phenomenon that cancer cells develop a cross-resistant phenotype against several unrelated drugs, and permeability glycoprotein derived from the overexpression of multidrug resistance gene 1 has been taken as the most significant cause of multidrug resistance. In the present study, ginsenoside Rh2 was used to reverse permeability glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADM cell line. Effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on the apoptotic process and caspase-3 activity of MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cell lines were determined using flow cytometry and microplate reader. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test was conducted to assess the IC50 values of ginsenoside Rh2 and adriamycin on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADM cultures; Rhodamin 123 assay was used to assess the retention of permeability glycoprotein after ginsenoside Rh2 treatment; flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1 in drug-resistant cells and their parental cells after exposure to ginsenoside Rh2. The results showed that ginsenoside Rh2, except for inducing apoptosis, had the ability to reverse multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADM cell line without changing the expression levels of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance gene 1. Our findings provided some valuable information for the application of ginsenoside Rh2 in cancer therapy, especially for multidrug resistance reversal in clinic.

  8. Dimeric Architecture of the Hendra Virus Attachment Glycoprotein: Evidence for a Conserved Mode of Assembly▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Thomas A.; Crispin, Max; Harvey, David J.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Stuart, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Hendra virus is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus within the Paramyxoviridae family which, together with Nipah virus, forms the Henipavirus genus. Infection with bat-borne Hendra virus leads to a disease with high mortality rates in humans. We determined the crystal structure of the unliganded six-bladed β-propeller domain and compared it to the previously reported structure of Hendra virus attachment glycoprotein (HeV-G) in complex with its cellular receptor, ephrin-B2. As observed for the related unliganded Nipah virus structure, there is plasticity in the Glu579-Pro590 and Lys236-Ala245 ephrin-binding loops prior to receptor engagement. These data reveal that henipaviral attachment glycoproteins undergo common structural transitions upon receptor binding and further define the structural template for antihenipaviral drug design. Our analysis also provides experimental evidence for a dimeric arrangement of HeV-G that exhibits striking similarity to those observed in crystal structures of related paramyxovirus receptor-binding glycoproteins. The biological relevance of this dimer is further supported by the positional analysis of glycosylation sites from across the paramyxoviruses. In HeV-G, the sites lie away from the putative dimer interface and remain accessible to α-mannosidase processing on oligomerization. We therefore propose that the overall mode of dimer assembly is conserved for all paramyxoviruses; however, while the geometry of dimerization is rather closely similar for those viruses that bind flexible glycan receptors, significant (up to 60°) and different reconfigurations of the subunit packing (associated with a significant decrease in the size of the dimer interface) have accompanied the independent switching to high-affinity protein receptor binding in Hendra and measles viruses. PMID:20375167

  9. Epitope Dampening Monotypic Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoprotein Results in Resistance to Cocktail of Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Tobin, Gregory J.; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D.; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P.; Russell, Stephen J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs. PMID:23300970

  10. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  11. Serological diagnosis and prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis by analysis of serum glycoprotein 2.

    PubMed

    Roggenbuck, Dirk; Goihl, Alexander; Hanack, Katja; Holzlöhner, Pamela; Hentschel, Christian; Veiczi, Miklos; Schierack, Peter; Reinhold, Dirk; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Glycoprotein 2 (GP2), the pancreatic major zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein, was reported to be elevated in acute pancreatitis in animal models. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed to evaluate human glycoprotein 2 isoform alpha (GP2a) and total GP2 (GP2t) as specific markers for acute pancreatitis in sera of 153 patients with acute pancreatitis, 26 with chronic pancreatitis, 125 with pancreatic neoplasms, 324 with non-pancreatic neoplasms, 109 patients with liver/biliary disease, 67 with gastrointestinal disease, and 101 healthy subjects. GP2a and GP2t levels were correlated with procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in 152 and 146 follow-up samples of acute pancreatitis patients, respectively. The GP2a ELISA revealed a significantly higher assay accuracy in contrast to the GP2t assay (sensitivity ≤3 disease days: 91.7%, specificity: 96.7%, positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 24.6, LR-: 0.09). GP2a and GP2t levels as well as prevalences were significantly elevated in early acute pancreatitis (≤3 disease days) compared to all control cohorts (p<0.05, respectively). GP2a and GP2t levels were significantly higher in patients with severe acute pancreatitis at admission compared with mild cases (p<0.05, respectively). Odds ratio for GP2a regarding mild vs. severe acute pancreatitis with lethal outcome was 7.8 on admission (p=0.0222). GP2a and GP2t levels were significantly correlated with procalcitonin [Spearman's rank coefficient of correlation (ρ)=0.21, 0.26; p=0.0110, 0.0012; respectively] and C-reactive protein (ρ=0.37, 0.40; p<0.0001; respectively). Serum GP2a is a specific marker of acute pancreatitis and analysis of GP2a can aid in the differential diagnosis of acute upper abdominal pain and prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis.

  12. Cell Surface Expression of Biologically Active Influenza C Virus HEF Glycoprotein Expressed from cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Pekosz, Andrew; Lamb, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The hemagglutinin, esterase, and fusion (HEF) glycoprotein of influenza C virus possesses receptor binding, receptor destroying, and membrane fusion activities. The HEF cDNAs from influenza C/Ann Arbor/1/50 (HEF-AA) and influenza C/Taylor/1223/47 (HEF-Tay) viruses were cloned and expressed, and transport of HEF to the cell surface was monitored by susceptibility to cleavage by exogenous trypsin, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Previously it has been found in studies with the C/Johannesburg/1/66 strain of influenza C virus (HEF-JHB) that transport of HEF to the cell surface is severely inhibited, and it is thought that the short cytoplasmic tail, Arg-Thr-Lys, is involved in blocking HEF cell surface expression (F. Oeffner, H.-D. Klenk, and G. Herrler, J. Gen. Virol. 80:363–369, 1999). As the cytoplasmic tail amino acid sequences of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay are identical to that of HEF-JHB, the data indicate that cell surface expression of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay is not inhibited by this amino acid sequence. Furthermore, the abundant cell surface transport of HEF-AA and HEF-Tay indicates that their cell surface expression does not require coexpression of another viral protein. The HEF-AA and HEF-Tay HEF glycoproteins bound human erythrocytes, promoted membrane fusion in a low-pH and trypsin-dependent manner, and displayed esterase activity, indicating that the HEF glycoprotein alone mediates all three known functions at the cell surface. PMID:10482635

  13. Alphavirus vector-based replicon particles expressing multivalent cross-protective Lassa virus glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Jokinen, Jenny; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S.

    2018-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is the most prevalent rodent-borne arenavirus circulated in West Africa. With population at risk from Senegal to Nigeria, LASV causes Lassa fever and is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. High genetic diversity of LASV is one of the challenges for vaccine R&D. We developed multivalent virus-like particle vectors (VLPVs) derived from the human Venezuelan equine encephalitis TC-83 IND vaccine (VEEV) as the next generation of alphavirus-based bicistronic RNA replicon particles. The genes encoding VEEV structural proteins were replaced with LASV glycoproteins (GPC) from distantly related clades I and IV with individual 26S promoters. Bicistronic RNA replicons encoding wild-type LASV GPC (GPCwt) and C-terminally deleted, non-cleavable modified glycoprotein (ΔGPfib), were encapsidated into VLPV particles using VEEV capsid and glycoproteins provided in trans. In transduced cells, VLPVs induced simultaneous expression of LASV GPCwt and ΔGPfib from 26S alphavirus promoters. LASV ΔGPfib was predominantly expressed as trimers, accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum, induced ER stress and apoptosis promoting antigen cross-priming. VLPV vaccines were immunogenic and protective in mice and upregulated CD11c+/CD8+ dendritic cells playing the major role in cross-presentation. Notably, VLPV vaccination resulted in induction of cross-reactive multifunctional T cell responses after stimulation of immune splenocytes with peptide cocktails derived from LASV from clades I-IV. Multivalent RNA replicon-based LASV vaccines can be applicable for first responders, international travelers visiting endemic areas, military and lab personnel. PMID:29287681

  14. Characterization of the Bas-Congo virus glycoprotein and its function in pseudotyped viruses.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Imke; Liss, Nathan M; Schneider, Bradley S; Fair, Joseph N; Chiu, Charles Y; Simmons, Graham

    2013-09-01

    Bas-Congo virus (BASV) is a novel rhabdovirus recently identified from a patient with acute hemorrhagic fever in the Bas-Congo province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here we show that the BASV glycoprotein (BASV-G) can be successfully used to pseudotype glycoprotein-deficient vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), allowing studies of BASV-G-driven membrane fusion and viral entry into target cells without replication-competent virus. BASV-G displayed broad tissue and species tropism in vitro, and BASV-G-mediated membrane fusion was pH dependent. The conformational changes induced in BASV-G by acidification were fully reversible and did not lead to inactivation of the viral fusion protein. Our data combined with comparative sequence similarity analyses suggest that BASV-G shares structural and functional features with other rhabdovirus glycoproteins and falls into the group of class III viral fusion proteins. However, activation of BASV-G-driven fusion required a lower pH and higher temperatures than did VSV-G-mediated fusion. Moreover, in contrast to VSV-G, mature BASV-G in VSV pseudotypes consists of a mixture of high-mannose and complex glycans that enables it to bind to certain C-type lectins, thereby enhancing its attachment to target cells. Taken together, the results presented in this study will facilitate future investigations of BASV-G-mediated cell entry and its inhibition in the absence of an infectious cell culture assay for BASV and at lower biosafety levels. Moreover, serology testing based on BASV-G pseudotype neutralization can be used to uncover the prevalence and importance of BASV as a potential novel human pathogen in the DRC and throughout Central Africa.

  15. Ebola virus glycoprotein needs an additional trigger, beyond proteolytic priming for membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Bale, Shridhar; Liu, Tong; Li, Sheng; Wang, Yuhao; Abelson, Dafna; Fusco, Marnie; Woods, Virgil L; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2011-11-01

    Ebolavirus belongs to the family filoviridae and causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with 50-90% lethality. Detailed understanding of how the viruses attach to and enter new host cells is critical to development of medical interventions. The virus displays a trimeric glycoprotein (GP(1,2)) on its surface that is solely responsible for membrane attachment, virus internalization and fusion. GP(1,2) is expressed as a single peptide and is cleaved by furin in the host cells to yield two disulphide-linked fragments termed GP1 and GP2 that remain associated in a GP(1,2) trimeric, viral surface spike. After entry into host endosomes, GP(1,2) is enzymatically cleaved by endosomal cathepsins B and L, a necessary step in infection. However, the functional effects of the cleavage on the glycoprotein are unknown. We demonstrate by antibody binding and Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (DXMS) of glycoproteins from two different ebolaviruses that although enzymatic priming of GP(1,2) is required for fusion, the priming itself does not initiate the required conformational changes in the ectodomain of GP(1,2). Further, ELISA binding data of primed GP(1,2) to conformational antibody KZ52 suggests that the low pH inside the endosomes also does not trigger dissociation of GP1 from GP2 to effect membrane fusion. The results reveal that the ebolavirus GP(1,2) ectodomain remains in the prefusion conformation upon enzymatic cleavage in low pH and removal of the glycan cap. The results also suggest that an additional endosomal trigger is necessary to induce the conformational changes in GP(1,2) and effect fusion. Identification of this trigger will provide further mechanistic insights into ebolavirus infection.

  16. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins from Diverse Clades Differentiate Antibody Responses and Durability among Vaccinees

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Induction of broadly cross-reactive antiviral humoral responses with the capacity to target globally diverse circulating strains is a key goal for HIV-1 immunogen design. A major gap in the field is the identification of diverse HIV-1 envelope antigens to evaluate vaccine regimens for binding antibody breadth. In this study, we define unique antigen panels to map HIV-1 vaccine-elicited antibody breadth and durability. Diverse HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins were selected based on genetic and geographic diversity to cover the global epidemic, with a focus on sexually acquired transmitted/founder viruses with a tier 2 neutralization phenotype. Unique antigenicity was determined by nonredundancy (Spearman correlation), and antigens were clustered using partitioning around medoids (PAM) to identify antigen diversity. Cross-validation demonstrated that the PAM method was better than selection by reactivity and random selection. Analysis of vaccine-elicited V1V2 binding antibody in longitudinal samples from the RV144 clinical trial revealed the striking heterogeneity among individual vaccinees in maintaining durable responses. These data support the idea that a major goal for vaccine development is to improve antibody levels, breadth, and durability at the population level. Elucidating the level and durability of vaccine-elicited binding antibody breadth needed for protection is critical for the development of a globally efficacious HIV vaccine. IMPORTANCE The path toward an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will require characterization of vaccine-induced immunity that can recognize and target the highly genetically diverse virus envelope glycoproteins. Antibodies that target the envelope glycoproteins, including diverse sequences within the first and second hypervariable regions (V1V2) of gp120, were identified as correlates of risk for the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. To build upon this discovery, we experimentally and computationally evaluated humoral

  17. Characterization of glycoprotein biopharmaceutical products by Caliper LC90 CE-SDS gel technology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace; Ha, Sha; Rustandi, Richard R

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, science has greatly improved in the area of protein sizing and characterization. Efficient high-throughput methods are now available to substitute for the traditional labor-intensive SDS-PAGE methods, which alternatively take days to analyze a very limited number of samples. Currently, PerkinElmer(®) (Caliper) has designed an automated chip-based fluorescence detection method capable of analyzing proteins in minutes with sensitivity similar to standard SDS-PAGE. Here, we describe the use and implementation of this technology to characterize and screen a large number of formulations of target glycoproteins in the 14-200 kDa molecular weight range.

  18. Inactivated Recombinant Rabies Viruses Displaying Canine Distemper Virus Glycoproteins Induce Protective Immunity against Both Pathogens.

    PubMed

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Hudacek, Andrew; Sawatsky, Bevan; Krämer, Beate; Yin, Xiangping; Schnell, Matthias J; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-04-15

    The development of multivalent vaccines is an attractive methodology for the simultaneous prevention of several infectious diseases in vulnerable populations. Both canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RABV) cause lethal disease in wild and domestic carnivores. While RABV vaccines are inactivated, the live-attenuated CDV vaccines retain residual virulence for highly susceptible wildlife species. In this study, we developed recombinant bivalent vaccine candidates based on recombinant vaccine strain rabies virus particles, which concurrently display the protective CDV and RABV glycoprotein antigens. The recombinant viruses replicated to near-wild-type titers, and the heterologous glycoproteins were efficiently expressed and incorporated in the viral particles. Immunization of ferrets with beta-propiolactone-inactivated recombinant virus particles elicited protective RABV antibody titers, and animals immunized with a combination of CDV attachment protein- and fusion protein-expressing recombinant viruses were protected from lethal CDV challenge. However, animals that were immunized with only a RABV expressing the attachment protein of CDV vaccine strain Onderstepoort succumbed to infection with a more recent wild-type strain, indicating that immune responses to the more conserved fusion protein contribute to protection against heterologous CDV strains. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus and canine distemper virus (CDV) cause high mortality rates and death in many carnivores. While rabies vaccines are inactivated and thus have an excellent safety profile and high stability, live-attenuated CDV vaccines can retain residual virulence in highly susceptible species. Here we generated recombinant inactivated rabies viruses that carry one of the CDV glycoproteins on their surface. Ferrets immunized twice with a mix of recombinant rabies viruses carrying the CDV fusion and attachment glycoproteins were protected from lethal CDV challenge, whereas all animals that received

  19. The sea urchin egg jelly coat consists of globular glycoproteins bound to a fibrous fucan superstructure.

    PubMed

    Bonnell, B S; Keller, S H; Vacquier, V D; Chandler, D E

    1994-03-01

    Intact egg jelly (EJ) coats surrounding eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were visualized in stereo images of platinum replicas produced by the quick-freeze, deep-etch, rotary-shadowing technique. The hydrated EJ coat forms an extensive fibrous network that makes contact with the vitelline layer at the egg surface. Fibers are decorated along their length with particles, particle density being highest in the interior regions of the coat. The macromolecular components making up the EJ network were visualized by rotary-shadowing of mica-adsorbed EJ samples. Whole EJ coats solubilized in pH 5 sea-water and spread on the mica surface consist of complex networks of branching fibers decorated with large patches of amorphous material. As we have previously shown (Keller and Vacquier, 1994), EJ boiled in a dissolution buffer containing SDS and beta-mercaptoethanol and applied to a Sephacryl-500 gel filtration column can be separated into three fractions: a 380-kDa fucose sulfate polymer (FSP), which elutes in the void volume, and two column-included fractions consisting of intermediate (300 kDa) and low-molecular-weight (30- to 138-kDa) glycoproteins. Rotary-shadowing of the FSP fraction reveals branched fibrous components similar in appearance to that of solubilized whole EJ but devoid of any particulate decoration. In contrast, intermediate- and low-molecular-weight EJ components are strictly globular in appearance but are distinguishable on the basis of size. Ion-exchange purification of whole EJ yields two glycoproteins, of 82 and 138 kDa, having AR-inducing activity (Keller and Vacquier, 1994). Platinum replication shows these active components to be small spherical molecules about 8 nm in diameter. The above fractionation scheme requires harsh dissociation conditions. Indeed, if EJ is not boiled in SDS buffer before fractionation, the 300-kDa fraction and the FSP appear together in the void volume. Rotary-shadowing of this complex reveals a

  20. Structures of the Oligosaccharides of the Glycoprotein Coded by Early Region E3 of Adenovirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Kornfeld, Rosalind; Wold, William S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Early region E3 of adenovirus 2 encodes a glycoprotein, E3-gp25K, that is a good model with which to study structure-function relationships in transmembrane glycoproteins. We have determined the structures of the oligosaccharides linked to E3-gp25K. The oligosaccharides were labeled with [2-3H]mannose in adenovirus 2-early infected KB cells for 5.5h (pulse) or for 5.5 h followed by a 3-h chase (pulse-chase). E3-gp25K was extracted and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel in 7 M urea, followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. An analysis of the purified protein by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that it was >95% pure. The oligosaccharides were isolated by pronase digestion followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel P-6, then by digestion with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, and finally by paper chromatography. The pulse sample contained equal amounts of Man9GlcNAc and Man8GlcNAc and small amounts of Man7GlcNAc and Man6GlcNAc. The pulse-chase sample had predominantly Man8GlcNAc and much less Man9GlcNAc, indicating that processing of the Man9GlcNAc to Man8GlcNAc had occurred during the chase period. Thus, Man8GlcNAc is the major oligosaccharide on mature E3-gp25K. The structures of these oligosaccharides were established by digestion with α-mannosidase, methylation analysis, and acetolysis. The oligosaccharides found had typical high-mannose structures that have been observed in other membrane and soluble glycoproteins, and the branching patterns and linkages of the mannose residues of Man9GlcNAc were identical to those of the lipid-linked Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 donor. Thus, adenovirus 2 infection (early stages) apparently does not affect the usual cellular high-mannose glycosylation pathways, and despite being virus coded, E3-gp25K is glycosylated in the same manner as a typical mammalian cell-coded glycoprotein. Images PMID:7321093

  1. Structures of the oligosaccharides of the glycoprotein coded by early region E3 of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, R; Wold, W S

    1981-11-01

    Early region E3 of adenovirus 2 encodes a glycoprotein, E3-gp25K, that is a good model with which to study structure-function relationships in transmembrane glycoproteins. We have determined the structures of the oligosaccharides linked to E3-gp25K. The oligosaccharides were labeled with [2-(3)H]mannose in adenovirus 2-early infected KB cells for 5.5h (pulse) or for 5.5 h followed by a 3-h chase (pulse-chase). E3-gp25K was extracted and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel in 7 M urea, followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. An analysis of the purified protein by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that it was >95% pure. The oligosaccharides were isolated by pronase digestion followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel P-6, then by digestion with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, and finally by paper chromatography. The pulse sample contained equal amounts of Man(9)GlcNAc and Man(8)GlcNAc and small amounts of Man(7)GlcNAc and Man(6)GlcNAc. The pulse-chase sample had predominantly Man(8)GlcNAc and much less Man(9)GlcNAc, indicating that processing of the Man(9)GlcNAc to Man(8)GlcNAc had occurred during the chase period. Thus, Man(8)GlcNAc is the major oligosaccharide on mature E3-gp25K. The structures of these oligosaccharides were established by digestion with alpha-mannosidase, methylation analysis, and acetolysis. The oligosaccharides found had typical high-mannose structures that have been observed in other membrane and soluble glycoproteins, and the branching patterns and linkages of the mannose residues of Man(9)GlcNAc were identical to those of the lipid-linked Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) donor. Thus, adenovirus 2 infection (early stages) apparently does not affect the usual cellular high-mannose glycosylation pathways, and despite being virus coded, E3-gp25K is glycosylated in the same manner as a typical mammalian cell

  2. Development of recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing the Gn glycoprotein of Seoul virus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziguo; Zhang, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Ye; Gao, Shengyan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiaohu; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-05-01

    Seoul virus glycoprotein Gn is a major structural protein and candidate antigen of hantavirus that induces a highly immunogenic response for hantavirus vaccine. In this study, a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing Gn was constructed by the in vitro ligation method. The Gn expression cassette, including the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) promoter/enhancer and the SV40 early mRNA polyadenylation signal, was cloned into the SspI site of the E3 region which is not essential for proliferation of CAV-2. Expression of Gn was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.

  3. Structural analysis of glycoproteins: building N-linked glycans with Coot.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Paul; Crispin, Max

    2018-04-01

    Coot is a graphics application that is used to build or manipulate macromolecular models; its particular forte is manipulation of the model at the residue level. The model-building tools of Coot have been combined and extended to assist or automate the building of N-linked glycans. The model is built by the addition of monosaccharides, placed by variation of internal coordinates. The subsequent model is refined by real-space refinement, which is stabilized with modified and additional restraints. It is hoped that these enhanced building tools will help to reduce building errors of N-linked glycans and improve our knowledge of the structures of glycoproteins.

  4. The Neutralizing Linear Epitope of Human Herpesvirus 6A Glycoprotein B Does Not Affect Virus Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Wakata, Aika; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Mahmoud, Nora Fahmy; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-03-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) glycoprotein B (gB) is a glycoprotein consisting of 830 amino acids and is essential for the growth of the virus. Previously, we reported that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) called 87-y-13 specifically reacts with HHV-6A gB, and we identified its epitope residue at asparagine (Asn) 347 on gB. In this study, we examined whether the epitope recognized by the neutralizing MAb is essential for HHV-6A infection. We constructed HHV-6A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomes harboring substitutions at Asn347, namely, HHV-6A BACgB(N347K) and HHV-6A BACgB(N347A). These mutant viruses could be reconstituted and propagated in the same manner as the wild type and their revertants, and MAb 87-y-13 could not inhibit infection by either mutant. In a cell-cell fusion assay, Asn at position 347 on gB was found to be nonessential for cell-cell fusion. In addition, in building an HHV-6A gB homology model, we found that the epitope of the neutralizing MAb is located on domain II of gB and is accessible to solvents. These results indicate that Asn at position 347, the linear epitope of the neutralizing MAb, does not affect HHV-6A infectivity. IMPORTANCE Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the most conserved glycoproteins among all herpesviruses and is a key factor for virus entry. Therefore, antibodies targeted to gB may neutralize virus entry. Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) encodes gB, which is translated to a protein of about 830 amino acids (aa). Using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for HHV-6A gB, which has a neutralizing linear epitope, we analyzed the role of its epitope residue, N347, in HHV-6A infectivity. Interestingly, this gB linear epitope residue, N347, was not essential for HHV-6A growth. By constructing a homology model of HHV-6A gB, we found that N347 was located in the region corresponding to domain II. Therefore, with regard to its neutralizing activity against HHV-6A infection, the epitope on gB might be exposed to solvents

  5. HIV envelope glycoprotein imaged at high resolution | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The outer surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is surrounded by an envelope studded with spike-shaped glycoproteins called Env that help the deadly virus identify, bind, and infect cells. When unbound, Env exists in a “closed” conformational state. Upon binding with target cells, such as CD4+ T cells, the protein transitions to an “open” configuration. Given that Env is the only viral protein expressed on HIV’s surface, knowing its detailed structure—especially in the unbound state—may be critical for designing antibodies and vaccines against HIV.

  6. Immunohistochemistry of carcinoembryonic antigen: characterisation of cross-reactions with other glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, P; Judd, M A

    1977-01-01

    In the course of demonstrating carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in normal human small intestine cross-reactivity of specific antiserum against red blood cells, vascular endothelium, and Paneth cell granules was noted. Pretreatment of sections with periodic acid eliminated these cross-reactions without affecting the staining of CEA, indicating that the antigenic determinants shared between CEA and other glycoproteins are in the carbohydrate portion of the molecules. These findings emphasise the caution with which immunohistochemical results should be regarded even when they are apparently well controlled. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:73495

  7. Immune response to synthetic peptides representing antigenic sites on the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Huang, C.; LaPatra, S.; Winton, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Summary ― Monoclonal antibodies against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus have been used to react with recombinant expression products in immunoblots and to select neutralization-resistant mutants for sequence analysis. These strategies identified neutralizing and non-neutralizing antigenic sites on the viral glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides based upon the amino acid sequences of these antigenic sites were synthesized and were injected together with an adjuvant into rainbow trout. The constructs generally failed to stimulate neutralizing antibodies in the fish. These results indicate that we need to understand more about the ability of peptide antigens to stimulate fish immune systems.

  8. Genotyping of Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, W.-S.; Oh, M.-J.; Nishizawa, T.; Park, J.-W.; Kurath, G.; Yoshimizu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein (G) gene nucleotide sequences of four Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. All Korean isolates were closely related to Japanese isolates of genogroup JRt rather than to those of North American and European genogroups. It is believed that Korean IHNV has been most likely introduced from Japan to Korea by the movement of contaminated fish eggs. Among the Korean isolates, phylogenetically distinct virus types were obtained from sites north and south of a large mountain range, suggesting the possibility of more than one introduction of virus from Japan. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Glycan shield and fusion activation of a deltacoronavirus spike glycoprotein fine-tuned for enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Snijder, Joost; Yoshioka, Craig; Walls, Alexandra C; Li, Wentao; McGuire, Andrew T; Rey, Félix A; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Veesler, David

    2017-11-01

    Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to initiate infection. The S protein is a major determinant of the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and is also the main target of the host humoral immune response. We report here the 3.5 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S glycoprotein trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which belongs to the recently identified delta genus. Structural and glycoproteomics data indicate that the glycans of PDCoV S are topologically conserved when compared with the human respiratory coronavirus HCoV-NL63 S, resulting in similar surface areas being shielded from neutralizing antibodies and implying that both viruses are under comparable immune pressure in their respective hosts. The structure further reveals a shortened S 2 ' activation loop, containing a reduced number of basic amino acids, which participates to rendering the spike largely protease-resistant. This property distinguishes PDCoV S from recently characterized betacoronavirus S proteins and suggests that the S protein of enterotropic PDCoV has evolved to tolerate the protease-rich environment of the small intestine and to fine-tune its fusion activation to avoid premature triggering and reduction of infectivity. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses use transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein trimers to promote host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We determined a near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S ectodomain trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which is responsible for diarrhea in piglets and has had devastating consequences for the swine industry worldwide. Structural and glycoproteomics data reveal that PDCoV S is

  10. Functional studies of P-glycoprotein in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles derived from murine erythroleukemia cells overexpressing MDR 3. Properties and kinetics of the interaction of vinblastine with P-glycoprotein and evidence for its active mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, S R; Sirotnak, F M

    1994-12-09

    Active [3H]vinblastine (VBL) transport (efflux) was documented for inside-out plasma membrane vesicles from murine erythroleukemia cells (MEL/VCR-6) resistant to vinca alkaloids and overexpressing MDR 3 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) 80-fold. Uptake of [3H]VBL at 37 degrees C by these inside-out vesicles, but not rightside-out vesicles or inside-out vesicles from wild-type cells, was obtained in the form of a rapid, initial phase (0-1 min) and a slower, later phase (> 1 min). The rapidity of each phase correlated with relative P-gp content among different MEL/VCR cell lines. The initial MDR-specific phase was temperature- and pH-dependent (optimum at pH 7), osmotically insensitive, and did not require ATP. The second MDR-specific phase was temperature-dependent, osmotically sensitive, and strictly dependent upon the presence of ATP (Km = 0.37 +/- 0.04 mM). Although other triphosphate nucleotides were partially effective in replacing ATP, the nonhydrolyzable analogue ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate)) was ineffective. This time course appears to represent tandem binding of [3H]VBL by P-gp and its mediated transport, with the latter process representing the rate-limiting step. In support of this conclusion, both binding and transport were inhibited by verapamil, quinidine, and reserpine, all known to be inhibitors of photoaffinity labeling of P-gp, but only transport was inhibited by C219 anti-P-gp antibody or orthovanadate. Although the rate of transport of [3H]VBL was 7-7.5-fold lower than the rate of binding (Vmax = 104 +/- 15 pmol/min/mg protein, Kon = 1.5 - 2 x 10(5) mol-1 s-1) to P-gp, each phase exhibited saturation kinetics and values for apparent Km and KD for each process were approximately the same (215 +/- 35 and 195 +/- 30 nM). Intravesicular accumulation of [3H]VBL was almost completely eliminated by high concentrations of nonradioactive VBL, suggesting that simple diffusion does not contribute appreciably to total accumulation of [3H]VBL in this

  11. Evidence for changes in the transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in response to emamectin benzoate exposure.

    PubMed

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Burka, John F; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2007-05-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoproteins (Pgps) is assumed to be a principal mechanism of resistance of nematodes and arthropods to macrocyclic lactones. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) was used to demonstrate changes in transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes, designated here as SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) following exposure to emamectin benzoate (EMB). Pre-adult L. salmonis were challenged in an EMB bioassay for 24h and gene expression was studied from lice surviving EMB concentrations of 0, 10, and 30ppb. Gene expression was measured using Q-RT-PCR with elongation factor 1 (eEF1alpha) as an internal reference gene. The results show that both target genes, SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, had significantly increased levels of expression with exposure to 10ppb EMB (p=0.11 and p=0.17, respectively) whereas the group exposed to 30ppb was on the verge of being significant (p=0.053) only in the expression of SL-Pgp1. Gene expression for SL0525 and SL-Pgp1 were increased over five-fold at 10ppb EMB. Therefore, the upregulation of these target genes may offer protection by increasing Pgp expression when lice are exposed to EMB. Our optimized Q-RT-PCR can be used to determine if over-expression of these genes could be the basis for development of resistance in sea lice and thus allow suitable alternative chemotherapeutic options to be assessed.

  12. Functional Regulation of Sugar Assimilation by N-Glycan-specific Interaction of Pancreatic α-Amylase with Glycoproteins of Duodenal Brush Border Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma-Date, Kimie; Hirano, Yuki; Le, Na; Sano, Kotone; Kawasaki, Nana; Hashii, Noritaka; Hiruta, Yoko; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Umemura, Mariko; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Sakagami, Hiromi; Ogawa, Haruko

    2012-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) binds to N-linked glycans of glycoproteins (Matsushita, H., Takenaka, M., and Ogawa, H. (2002) J. Biol Chem., 277, 4680–4686). Immunostaining revealed that PPA is located at the brush-border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes in the duodenum and that the binding is inhibited by mannan but not galactan, indicating that PPA binds carbohydrate-specifically to BBM. The ligands for PPA in BBM were identified as glycoprotein N-glycans that are significantly involved in the assimilation of glucose, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and Na+/Glc cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). Binding of SI and SGLT1 in BBM to PPA was dose-dependent and inhibited by mannan. Using BBM vesicles, we found functional changes in PPA and its ligands in BBM due to the N-glycan-specific interaction. The starch-degrading activity of PPA and maltose-degrading activity of SI were enhanced to 240 and 175%, respectively, while Glc uptake by SGLT1 was markedly inhibited by PPA at high but physiologically possible concentrations, and the binding was attenuated by the addition of mannose-specific lectins, especially from Galanthus nivalis. Additionally, recombinant human pancreatic α-amylases expressed in yeast and purified by single-step affinity chromatography exhibited the same carbohydrate binding specificity as PPA in binding assays with sugar-biotinyl polymer probes. The results indicate that mammalian pancreatic α-amylases share a common carbohydrate binding activity and specifically bind to the intestinal BBM. Interaction with N-glycans in the BBM activated PPA and SI to produce much Glc on the one hand and to inhibit Glc absorption by enterocytes via SGLT1 in order to prevent a rapid increase in blood sugar on the other. PMID:22584580

  13. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. PMID:26217333

  14. Analysis of Glycoproteins in Human Serum by Means of Glycospecific Magnetic Bead Separation and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF Analysis with Automated Glycopeptide Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sparbier, Katrin; Asperger, Arndt; Resemann, Anja; Kessler, Irina; Koch, Sonja; Wenzel, Thomas; Stein, Günter; Vorwerg, Lars; Suckau, Detlev; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive proteomic analyses require efficient and selective pre-fractionation to facilitate analysis of post-translationally modified peptides and proteins, and automated analysis workflows enabling the detection, identification, and structural characterization of the corresponding peptide modifications. Human serum contains a high number of glycoproteins, comprising several orders of magnitude in concentration. Thereby, isolation and subsequent identification of low-abundant glycoproteins from serum is a challenging task. selective capturing of glycopeptides and -proteins was attained by means of magnetic particles specifically functionalized with lectins or boronic acids that bind to various structural motifs. Human serum was incubated with differentially functionalized magnetic micro-particles (lectins or boronic acids), and isolated proteins were digested with trypsin. Subsequently, the resulting complex mixture of peptides and glycopeptides was subjected to LC-MALDI analysis and database searching. In parallel, a second magnetic bead capturing was performed on the peptide level to separate and analyze by LC-MALDI intact glycopeptides, both peptide sequence and glycan structure. Detection of glycopeptides was achieved by means of a software algorithm that allows extraction and characterization of potential glycopeptide candidates from large LC-MALDI-MS/MS data sets, based on N-glycopeptide-specific fragmentation patterns and characteristic fragment mass peaks, respectively. By means of fast and simple glycospecific capturing applied in conjunction with extensive LC-MALDI-MS/MS analysis and novel data analysis tools, a high number of low-abundant proteins were identified, comprising known or predicted glycosylation sites. According to the specific binding preferences of the different types of beads, complementary results were obtained from the experiments using either magnetic ConA-, LCA-, WGA-, and boronic acid beads, respectively. PMID:17916798

  15. Expression and regulation of glycoprotein C gene of herpes simplex virus 1 resident in a clonal L-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Arsenakis, M; Tomasi, L F; Speziali, V; Roizman, B; Campadelli-Fiume, G

    1986-01-01

    Ltk- cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the entire domain of glycoprotein C (gC), a true gamma or gamma 2 gene of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and the methotrexate-resistant mouse dihydrofolate reductase mutant gene. The resulting methotrexate-resistant cell line was cloned; of the 39 clonal lines tested only 1, L3153(28), expressed gC after infection with HSV-1(MP), a gC- mutant, and none expressed gC constitutively. The induction of gC was optimal at multiplicities ranging between 0.5 and 2 PFU per cell, and the quantities produced were equivalent to or higher than those made by methotrexate-resistant gC- L cells infected with wild-type (gC+) virus. The gC gene resident in the L3153(28) cells was regulated as a beta gene inasmuch as the amounts of gC made in infected L3153(28) cells exposed to concentrations of phosphonoacetate that inhibited viral DNA synthesis were higher than those made in the absence of the drug, gC was induced at both permissive and nonpermissive temperatures by the DNA- mutant tsHA1 carrying a lesion in the gene specifying the major DNA-binding protein and which does not express gamma 2 genes at the nonpermissive temperature, and gC was induced only at the permissive temperature in cells infected with ts502 containing a mutation in the alpha 4 gene. The gC induced in L3153(28) cells was made earlier and processed faster to the mature form than that induced in a gC- clone of methotrexate-resistant cells infected with wild-type virus. Unlike virus stocks made in gC- cells, HSV-1(MP) made in L3153(28) cells was susceptible to neutralization by anti-gC monoclonal antibody. Images PMID:3009854

  16. Differential phosphorylation patterns of P-glycoprotein reconstituted into a proteoliposome system: insight into additional unconventional phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle H; Cardarelli, Carol O

    2005-01-01

    Membrane vesicles from the multidrug-resistant KB-V1 and KB-C1 cell lines overexpressing P-glycoprotein (Pgp), responsible for pleiotropic chemotherapeutic agents resistance, were solubilized with octyl-glucoside (OG-EX) and further fractionated on DEAE-sepharose column with increased concentrations of NaCl. The fraction containing Pgp (F3) was reconstituted into proteoliposomes (F3-PLP). Comparisons of the phosphorylation levels of Pgp achieved throughout the purification and reconstitution steps were addressed in this study. The [delta32 P] ATP-driven phosphorylation of Pgp was strongly increased in OG-EX, decreased in F3 and not detected in F3-PLP, when compared to Pgp phosphorylation in native plasma membrane vesicles. [delta32 P]ATP-phosphorylation of Pgp in F3-PLP could be restored by exogenously added PKC or by the catalytic sub-unit of PKA. The vanadate-induced hyperphosphorylation effect on Pgp by [delta32 P]ATP observed with plasma membrane vesicles was maintained in OG-EX, but was lost in F3 and did not enable labelling in F3-PLP. Enhancement of [delta32 P]-labelling of native Pgp via [delta32 P]ATP combined with GTP was maintained and also triggered phosphorylation of purified/reconstituted Pgp in F3-PLP as well. Altogether, our data suggest differential phosphorylation patterns of the transporter linked to environmental molecular composition (lipids, presence of detergent) and structure (unfolded versus embedded). In addition, restoration by GTP of Pgp phosphorylation by [delta32 P]ATP in the frame of F3-PLP suggests intra-molecular modulations and hints that other phosphorylation sites and processes, different from the classic ones involving PKC and/or PKA, may participate in the transporter's mechanism.

  17. Indole-3-acetic acid UDP-glucosyltransferase from immature seeds of pea is involved in modification of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Hetmann, Anna; Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The glycosylation of auxin is one of mechanisms contributing to hormonal homeostasis. The enzyme UDPG: indole-3-ylacetyl-β-D-glucosyltransferase (IAA glucosyltransferase, IAGlc synthase) catalyzes the reversible reaction: IAA+UDPG↔1-O-IA-glucose+UDP, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of IAA-ester conjugates in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, we report IAA-glucosyltransferase isolated using a biochemical approach from immature seed of pea (Pisum sativum). The enzyme was purified by PEG fractionation, DEAE-Sephacel anion-exchange chromatography and preparative PAGE. LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic peptides of the enzyme revealed the high identity with maize IAGlc synthase, but lack of homology with other IAA-glucosyltransferases from dicots. Biochemical characterization showed that of several acyl acceptors tested, the enzyme had the highest activity on IAA as the glucosyl acceptor (Km=0.52 mM, Vmax=161 nmol min(-1), kcat/Km=4.36 mM s(-1)) and lower activity on indole-3-propionic acid and 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Whereas indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-propionic acid were competitive inhibitors of IAGlc synthase, D-gluconic acid lactone, an inhibitor of β-glucosidase activity, potentiated the enzyme activity at the optimal concentration of 0.3mM. Moreover, we demonstrated that the 1-O-IA-glucose synthesized by IAGlc synthase is the substrate for IAA labeling of glycoproteins from pea seeds indicating a possible role of this enzyme in the covalent modification of a class of proteins by a plant hormone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin in rats treated with turpentine oil.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, H; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S

    2000-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin (TAM) was investigated using male Sprague-Dawley rats in which plasma alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (alpha(1)-AGP) levels were elevated by the subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mL/kg of turpentine oil. alpha(1)-AGP levels increased about eight times after turpentine oil treatment, causing a threefold decrease in plasma unbound fraction (f(u)) of TAM. When 0.3 mg/kg of TAM was dosed intravenously, total and nonrenal clearances (CL(tot) and CL(nr)) in turpentine-treated rats were 47% and 44% lower than those in nontreated controls, respectively. The area under the concentration-time curve of plasma unbound TAM (AUC(inf,u)) was lower than that in the control. When 1 mg/kg of TAM was dosed orally, oral clearance (CL(oral)) in alpha1-AGP-induced rats was 65% lower than in the control. The AUC(inf,u) and unbound oral clearance (CL(oral,u)) were nearly equal in both groups. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between fu and CL(oral) of TAM (r(2) = 0.603, P < 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between f(u) and CL(oral,u). The absolute bioavailability (BA) increased from 19.2% to 46.9% by induction of alpha(1)-AGP. These results suggest that decreased f(u) caused by the elevation of plasma alpha(1)-AGP level affects the pharmacokinetics of TAM, but does not affect the CL(oral,u,) which represents the hepatic metabolism of TAM. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. P-glycoprotein mediated efflux in Caco-2 cell monolayers: the influence of herbals on digoxin transport.

    PubMed

    Oga, Enoche F; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

    2012-12-18

    Several herbal medicines are concomitantly used with conventional medicines with a resultant increase in the recognition of herb-drug interactions. The phytomedicines Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VA), family Asteraceae; Azadiractha indica A. Juss (NL), family Meliaceae; Morinda lucida Benth (MLB), family Rubiaceae; Cymbopogon citratus Stapf (LG), family Poaceae; Curcuma longa L. (CUR), family Zingiberaceae; Carica papaya L. (CP), family Caricaceae and Tapinanthus sessilifolius Blume (ML), family Loranthaceae are used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. They are also used in several regions world over in managing other ailments like cancer and diabetes. This study investigated their interaction with digoxin (DIG) with a view to predict the potential of P-glycoprotein (p-gp) mediated drug-herb interactions occurring with p-gp substrate drugs. To assess p-gp mediated transport and inhibition, bidirectional transport studies were carried out on Caco-2 cell monolayers using digoxin (DIG) as a model p-gp substrate. Cell functionality was demonstrated using the determinations of transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), cell cytotoxicity testing utilizing the MTT assay as well as the inclusion of inhibition controls. Under the conditions of this study, extracts of ML, VA and CP showed significant inhibition to (3)H-Digoxin basolateral-to-apical (B-A) transport at 0.02-20mg/mL; the concentrations examined. Their apical-to-basolateral (A-B) transport was further investigated. Increases in the mean A-B transport and significant decreases in the B-A transport and efflux ratio values were observed. The apparent permeability coefficient and efflux ratio were computed providing an estimate of drug absorption. The findings show that extracts of ML, VA and CP significantly inhibit p-gp in vitro and interactions with conventional p-gp substrate drugs are likely to occur on co-administration which may result in altered therapeutic outcomes. Copyright

  20. Inhibition of vinblastine efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein by grapefruit juice components in caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Takanaga, H; Ohnishi, A; Matsuo, H; Sawada, Y

    1998-10-01

    We investigated the effect of components in grapefruit juice (GFJ) on the transport of vinblastine, a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), across Caco-2 cells. The apical to basolateral flux of [3H]vinblastine was increased in the presence of GFJ extracts. The steady-state uptake of [3H]vinblastine from the apical side was significantly increased in the presence of GFJ in a dose-dependent manner within the range of 2.5 to 50% (v/v) of GFJ. Although naringin and naringenin reduced apical efflux of [3H]vinblastine at the concentration present in GFJ and increased steady-state uptake from the apical side to 124 and 240%, respectively, the observed effect of naringin was not enough to account for the effect of GFJ and naringenin is not naturally present in GFJ. To investigate the effective components in GFJ, we examined the inhibitory effect of several organic solvent extracts of GFJ on the transport of [3H]vinblastine in Caco-2 cells. Organic solvent extracts of GFJ enhanced the apical to basolateral transcellular transport and inhibited the apical efflux. The permeability coefficient of apical to basolateral transport of [3H]vinblastine increased in the order of the ethyl acetate>diethyl ether>methylene chloride extracts of GFJ. Since the extracted amount of naringenin by ethyl acetate was less than that with the other organic solvents, the primary inhibitor in GFJ is suggested to be different from this flavonoid. The present study demonstrated the existence of inhibitory components in GFJ for the P-gp function in Caco-2 cells, which are distinct from known components such as naringin or naringenin.

  1. Activated glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP)-expressing regulatory T cells inhibit allergen-induced intestinal inflammation in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Eschborn, Melanie; Weigmann, Benno; Reissig, Sonja; Waisman, Ari; Saloga, Joachim; Bellinghausen, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Recently, we developed a humanized mouse model of allergen-induced IgE-dependent gut inflammation in PBMC-engrafted immunodeficient mice. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their activation status in this model. Nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency-γc(-/-) mice were injected intraperitoneally with human PBMCs from allergic donors together with the respective allergen or NaCl as control in the presence or absence of different concentrations of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells of the same donor. After an additional allergen boost 1 week later, mice were challenged with the allergen rectally on day 21 and gut inflammation was monitored by a high-resolution video mini-endoscopic system evaluating translucency, granularity, fibrin production, vascularity, and stool. Allergen-specific human IgE in mouse sera, which was detectable only in PBMC plus allergen-treated mice, was strongly inhibited by coinjection of Treg cells at a ratio of at least 1:10. Consequently, the presence of Treg cells significantly decreased IgE-dependent allergen-induced gut inflammation after rectal allergen challenge. In addition, Treg cells reduced allergen-specific proliferation and cytokine production of recovered human CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Activation of Treg cells before injection further increased all inhibitory effects. Prevention of gut inflammation also occurred by the administration of glycoprotein A repetitions predominant, a molecule expressed by activated Treg cells, whereas its blockade completely abrogated inhibition by Treg cells. These results demonstrate that allergen-specific gut inflammation in human PBMC-engrafted mice can be avoided by enhancing the numbers or activity of autologous Treg cells, which is of great interest for therapeutic intervention of allergic diseases of the intestine. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. P-glycoprotein limits oral availability, brain penetration, and toxicity of an anionic drug, the antibiotic salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Lagas, Jurjen S; Sparidans, Rolf W; van Waterschoot, Robert A B; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2008-03-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether organic anion that is extensively used as a coccidiostatic antibiotic in poultry and commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. However, salinomycin also causes severe toxicity when accidentally fed to animals in high doses. In addition, humans are highly sensitive to salinomycin and severe toxicity has been reported. Multidrug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp), BCRP, and MRP2 are highly expressed in the intestine and can restrict the oral uptake and tissue penetration of xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anionic drug salinomycin is a substrate for one or more of these efflux pumps. Salinomycin was actively transported by human MDR1 P-gp expressed in polarized MDCK-II monolayers but not by the known organic anion transporters human MRP2 and murine Bcrp1. Using P-gp-deficient mice, we found a marked increase in plasma salinomycin concentrations after oral administration and decreased plasma clearance after intravenous administration. Furthermore, absence of P-gp resulted in significantly increased brain penetration. P-gp-deficient mice also displayed clearly increased susceptibility to salinomycin toxicity. Thus far, P-gp was thought to affect mainly hydrophobic, positively charged or neutral drugs in vivo. Our data show that P-gp can also be a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicity of an organic anionic drug. Variation in P-gp activity might thus directly affect the effective exposure to salinomycin and possibly to other anionic drugs and toxin substrates. Individuals with reduced or absent P-gp activity could therefore be more susceptible to salinomycin toxicity.

  3. Immune Responses to a Recombinant Glycoprotein E Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas C; Lal, Himal; Godeaux, Olivier; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; McElhaney, Janet E; Vesikari, Timo; Andrews, Charles; Choi, Won Suk; Esen, Meral; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Choma, Martina Kovac; Pauksens, Karlis; Ravault, Stéphanie; Salaun, Bruno; Schwarz, Tino F; Smetana, Jan; Abeele, Carline Vanden; Van den Steen, Peter; Vastiau, Ilse; Weckx, Lily Yin; Levin, Myron J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su), consisting of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE) and AS01B Adjuvant System, was highly efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 trials. We present immunogenicity results from those trials. Methods Participants (ZOE-50: ≥50; ZOE-70: ≥70 years of age) received 2 doses of HZ/su or placebo, 2 months apart. Serum anti-gE antibodies and CD4 T cells expressing ≥2 of 4 activation markers assessed (CD42+) after stimulation with gE-peptides were measured in subcohorts for humoral (n = 3293) and cell-mediated (n = 466) immunogenicity. Results After vaccination, 97.8% of HZ/su and 2.0% of placebo recipients showed a humoral response. Geometric mean anti-gE antibody concentrations increased 39.1-fold and 8.3-fold over baseline in HZ/su recipients at 1 and 36 months post-dose 2, respectively. A gE-specific CD42+ T-cell response was shown in 93.3% of HZ/su and 0% of placebo recipients. Median CD42+ T-cell frequencies increased 24.6-fold (1 month) and 7.9-fold (36 months) over baseline in HZ/su recipients and remained ≥5.6-fold above baseline in all age groups at 36 months. The proportion of CD4 T cells expressing all 4 activation markers increased over time in all age groups. Conclusions Most HZ/su recipients developed robust immune responses persisting for 3 years following vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01165177; NCT01165229. PMID:29529222

  4. Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial virus with attachment and fusion glycoproteins replaced by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Stope, M B; Karger, A; Schmidt, U; Buchholz, U J

    2001-10-01

    Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV) expressing glycoproteins of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) instead of BRSV glycoproteins were generated from cDNA. In the BRSV antigenome cDNA, the open reading frames of the major BRSV glycoproteins, attachment protein G and fusion protein F, were replaced individually or together by those of the BPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and/or fusion (F) glycoproteins. Recombinant virus could not be recovered from cDNA when the BRSV F open reading frame was replaced by the BPIV-3 F open reading frame. However, cDNA recovery of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HNF, with both glycoproteins replaced simultaneously, and of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HN, with the BRSV G protein replaced by BPIV-3 HN, was successful. The replication rates of both chimeras were similar to that of standard rBRSV. Moreover, rBRSV-HNF was neutralized by antibodies specific for BPIV-3, but not by antibodies specific to BRSV, demonstrating that the BRSV glycoproteins can be functionally replaced by BPIV-3 glycoproteins. In contrast, rBRSV-HN was neutralized by BRSV-specific antisera, but not by BPIV-3 specific sera, showing that infection of rBRSV-HN is mediated by BRSV F. Hemadsorption of cells infected with rBRSV-HNF and rBRSV-HN proved that BPIV-3 HN protein expressed by rBRSV is functional. Colocalization of the BPIV-3 glycoproteins with BRSV M protein was demonstrated by confocal laser scan microscopy. Moreover, protein analysis revealed that the BPIV-3 glycoproteins were present in chimeric virions. Taken together, these data indicate that the heterologous glycoproteins were not only expressed but were incorporated into the envelope of recombinant BRSV. Thus, the envelope glycoproteins derived from a member of the Respirovirus genus can together functionally replace their homologs in a Pneumovirus background.

  5. P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein are involved in the regulation of extracellular levels of the major antiepileptic drug carbamazepine in the brain.

    PubMed

    Potschka, H; Fedrowitz, M; Löscher, W

    2001-11-16

    Despite considerable advances in the pharmacotherapy of epilepsy, about 30% of epileptic patients are refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In most cases, a patient who is resistant to one major AED is also refractory to other AEDs, although these drugs act by different mechanisms. The mechanisms that lead to drug resistance in epilepsy are not known. Recently, over-expression of multidrug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), has been reported in surgically resected epileptogenic human brain tissue and suggested to contribute to the drug resistance of epilepsy. However, it is not known to what extent multidrug transporters such as PGP or MRP are involved in transport of AEDs. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study whether the concentration of carbamazepine in the extracellular fluid of the cerebral cortex can be enhanced by inhibition of PGP or MRP, using the PGP inhibitor verapamil and the MRP inhibitor probenecid. Local perfusion with verapamil or probenecid via the microdialysis probe increased the extracellular concentration of carbamazepine. The data indicate that both PGP and MRP participate in the regulation of extracellular brain concentrations of the major AED carbamazepine.

  6. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein enhances transport of imipramine across the blood-brain barrier: microdialysis studies in conscious freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, F E; Clarke, G; Fitzgerald, P; Dinan, T G; Griffin, B T; Cryan, J F

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that efflux of antidepressants by the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by limiting intracerebral antidepressant concentrations. In addition, clinical experience shows that adjunctive treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil may improve the clinical outcome in TRD. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of P-gp inhibition on the transport of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and its active metabolite desipramine across the BBB. Intracerebral microdialysis in rats was used to monitor brain levels of imipramine and desipramine following i.v. imipramine administration, with or without pretreatment with one of the P-gp inhibitors verapamil or cyclosporin A (CsA). Plasma drug levels were also determined at regular intervals. Pretreatment with either verapamil or CsA resulted in significant increases in imipramine concentrations in the microdialysis samples, without altering imipramine plasma pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, pretreatment with verapamil, but not CsA, led to a significant elevation in plasma and brain levels of desipramine. The present study demonstrated that P-gp inhibition enhanced the intracerebral concentration of imipramine , thus supporting the hypothesis that P-gp activity restricts brain levels of certain antidepressants, including imipramine. These findings may help to explain reports of a beneficial response to adjunctive therapy with verapamil in TRD. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layermore » of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.« less

  8. An unusual dependence of human herpesvirus-8 glycoproteins-induced cell-to-cell fusion on heparan sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Vaibhav; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific and College of Optometry, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766

    2009-12-18

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is known to interact with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) for entry into a target cell. Here we investigated the role of HS during HHV-8 glycoproteins-induced cell fusion. Interestingly, the observed fusion demonstrated an unusual dependence on HS as evident from following lines of evidence: (1) a significant reduction in cell-to-cell fusion occurred when target cells were treated with heparinase; (2) in a competition assay, when the effector cells expressing HHV-8 glycoproteins were challenged with soluble HS, cell-to-cell fusion was reduced; and, (3) co-expression of HHV-8 glycoproteins gH-gL on target cells resulted in inhibition of cell surfacemore » HS expression. Taken together, our results indicate that cell surface HS can play an additional role during HHV-8 pathogenesis.« less

  9. A combined cell based approach to identify P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors in a single assay.

    PubMed

    Balimane, Praveen V; Chong, Saeho

    2005-09-14

    The objective of this project was to develop a cell based in vitro experimental procedure that can differentiate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates from inhibitors in a single assay. Caco-2 cells grown to confluency on 12-well Transwell were used for this study. The efflux permeability (B to A) of P-gp specific probe (viz., digoxin) in the presence of test compounds (e.g. substrates, inhibitors and non-substrates of P-gp) was monitored, and the influx permeability (A to B) of test compounds was evaluated after complete P-gp blockade. Radiolabelled digoxin was added on the basolateral side with buffer on the apical side. The digoxin concentration appearing on the apical side represents digoxin efflux permeability during the control phase (0-1 h period). After 1 h, a test compound (10 microM) was added on the apical side. The reduced efflux permeability of digoxin suggests that the added test compound is an inhibitor. The influx permeability of test compound is also determined during the 1-2 h study period by measuring the concentration of the test compound in the basolateral side. At the end of 2 h, a potent P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was added. The increased influx permeability of test compound during the 2-3 h incubation period indicates that the added test compound is a substrate. Samples were taken from both sides at the end of 1-3 h and the concentrations of the test compounds and digoxin were quantitated. Digoxin efflux permeability remained unchanged when incubated with P-gp substrates (e.g., etoposide, rhodamine123, taxol). However, when a P-gp inhibitor was added to the apical side, the digoxin efflux (B to A permeability) was significantly reduced (ketoconazole=51% reduction) as expected. The influx permeability of substrates increased significantly (rhodamine123=70%, taxol=220%, digoxin=290%) after the P-gp inhibitor (GF120918) was introduced, whereas the influx permeability of P-gp inhibitor and non-substrates was not affected by GF120918. Thus, this

  10. Curcumin Regulates Colon Cancer by Inhibiting P-Glycoprotein in In-situ Cancerous Colon Perfusion Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Neerati, Prasad; Sudhakar, Yakkanti A; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2013-07-08

    Studies on p-glycoprotein was carried out world vide with cell lines like Caco2, MDR1-LLC-PK1 and MDR1-MDCK in-vitro , but most of the results were failed to produce similar results in-vivo. In the present study curcumin inhibitory action on p-glycoprotein increased permeability of irinotecan, so in the colon cancer it would be beneficial if curcumin used as add on therapy. Intra-rectal administered of N-Nitroso N-methyl urea (2 mg/Kg) induced colon cancer. Single pass whole length of colon in-situ perfusion was carried out in rats with irinotecan to study the influence of p-glycoprotein modulators like verapamil and curcumin. The rats were divided in to 5 groups (n=6), Group I served as control perfused with 30 μg/ml of irinotecan, propronolol and phenol red. Group II was cancerous group, induced by N-methyl N-nitroso urea. Group III was perfused with irinotican in cancerous rats. Group IV, perfused with irinotican in presence of verapamil and group V was pre-treated with curcumin and then perfused with irinotican and was estimated by HPLC-UV to effective permeability coefficient. Our qRT-PCR and Western blot results confirmed that about 15-fold decreases in the expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) in curcumin treated colon cancer cells. Irinotecan was increased to 0.00066 cm/s and about 11-fold increase in verapamil-coperfused group, where curcumin pre-treated group irinotecan was increases 0.00006 cm/s to 0.00042 cm/s that is about 7-fold increase p-glycoprotein inhibitory activity by verapamil and curcumin found to be significantly enhanced the cancerous colon permeability of irinotecan. Any safe suitable p-glycoprotein inhibitors along with irinotecan will enhance the therapeutic benefit in the treatment of the colon cancer.

  11. Efficacy of soluble glycoprotein fraction from Allium sativum purified by size exclusion chromatography on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni.

    PubMed

    Aly, Ibrahim; Taher, Eman E; El-Sayed, Hoda; Mohammed, Faten A; ELnain, Gehan; Hamad, Rabab S; Bayoumy, Elsayed M

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the efficiency of crude MeOH extracts and soluble glycoprotein fraction of Allium sativum purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) on parasitological, histopathological and some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice were investigated. Animals were infected by tail immersion with 100 cercariae/each mouse and divided into five groups in addition to the normal control. The results revealed a significant decrease in mean worm burden in all treated mice especially in the group treated with soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum as compared to infected non-treated control with the disappearance of female worms. Administration of the studied extracts revealed remarkable amelioration in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice. In addition, treatment of mice with crude A. sativum MeOH extract and soluble glycoprotein fraction of A. sativum decreased significantly the activities of studied enzymes as compared to the infected untreated group. The highest degrees of enha