75 FR 82070 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-29
... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). In... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico AGENCY: United States...) Chapter 19 panel proceeding in Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, USA-MEX-1904-04,...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-12-10
... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China and the Antidumping Duty Orders on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China,...
77 FR 3497 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-01-24
... Procedure (19 CFR 207.2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38691) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64105, October 17... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-13
... Value: Light- Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico, 73 FR 35649 (June 24, 2008). For purposes of...: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico, 73 FR 5521 (January 30, 2008). Therefore, pursuant... Than Fair Value, 73 FR 45403 (August 5, 2008) (Order). On August 3, 2009, the Department published...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-02-02
... Order; Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan, 54 FR 12467 (March 27, 1989). As... within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan, 77 FR 3497... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) and Certain Pipe and Tube From...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-04-01
... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010). The current deadline... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit... the antidumping duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-05-10
... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224 (September 22, 2009). The current deadline for the preliminary results of... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico; Extension of Time Limit... light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the period of January 30, 2008, to July...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-06-08
...: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). On May 3, 2010, the... Duty Order: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). These... Administrative Review, 75 FR 23236 (May 3, 2010) On May 28, 2010, Noksel requested an administrative review...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-16
... Commission found that the domestic interested party group responses to its notice of institution (78 FR 19526... COMMISSION Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey: Notice of Commission... countervailing duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from China and the antidumping duty orders...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-01-27
... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011) (Initiation Notice). This... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time Limits... administrative review for, inter alia, light- walled rectangular pipe and tube from Turkey for the May 1,...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-06
... Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty... and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 57953.... See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey, 73 FR...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-08
... Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 55186... Than Fair Value, 73 FR 45403, 45405 (August 5, 2008). In accordance with 19 CFR 356.8(a), the... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-06
... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 45403, 45405 (August 5, 2008); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 19647 (April 2, 2013) (Initiation). DATES: Effective...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-01-13
... Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 30052, August 25, 2009. The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey: Extension of Time...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-25
... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Extension of Time...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-07
... Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094 (August 2, 2010), covering, inter alia, LWR pipe and tube from... and Tube From Mexico, 73 FR 35649 (June 24, 2008), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico, 73 FR...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-05-10
... pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the period of August 1, 2010, to July 31, 2011. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 76 FR 61076... International Trade Administration Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-04-01
... pipe and tube from Turkey (73 FR 31065). On August 5, 2008, the Department of Commerce issued a countervailing duty order on imports of light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from China (73 FR 45405) and... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-10
...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094 (August 2, 2010). On August 16, 2010, the Department... Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076 (September 29, 2010...). The review covers Sun Group Co., Ltd. (Sun Group), a producer/exporter of light-walled...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-05-14
... Rectangular Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 35652 (June 24, 2008). On August 5, 2008... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 45403 (August 5, 2008). On August 3, 2009, the Department... Administrative Review, 74 FR 38397 (August 3, 2009). Based on a timely request from FitMAX for an...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-10-04
... Tube from Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 33779...-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). See Assessment of Antidumping... FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment of Antidumping Duties). This clarification will apply to...
OSCILLATING LIGHT WALL ABOVE A SUNSPOT LIGHT BRIDGE
Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Fayu; Xiang, Yongyuan
2015-05-10
With the high tempo-spatial Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph 1330 Å images, we find that many bright structures are rooted in the light bridge of NOAA 12192, forming a light wall. The light wall is brighter than the surrounding areas, and the wall top is much brighter than the wall body. The New Vacuum Solar Telescope Hα and the Solar Dynamics Observatory 171 and 131 Å images are also used to study the light-wall properties. In 1330, 171, and 131 Å, the top of the wall has a higher emission, while in the Hα line, the wall-top emission is very low. The wall body corresponds to bright areas in 1330 Å and dark areas in the other lines. The top of the light wall moves upward and downward successively, performing oscillations in height. The deprojected mean height, amplitude, oscillation velocity, and the dominant period are determined to be 3.6 Mm, 0.9 Mm, 15.4 km s{sup −1}, and 3.9 minutes, respectively. We interpret the oscillations of the light wall as the leakage of p-modes from below the photosphere. The constant brightness enhancement of the wall top implies the existence of some kind of atmospheric heating, e.g., via the persistent small-scale reconnection or the magneto-acoustic waves. In another series of 1330 Å images, we find that the wall top in the upward motion phase is significantly brighter than in the downward phase. This kind of oscillation may be powered by the energy released due to intermittent impulsive magnetic reconnection.
Light walls around sunspots observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Y. J.; Li, T.; Yang, S. H.; Zhang, J.
2016-05-01
Context. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission provides high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region. Using these data, some authors have reported the new finding of light walls above sunspot light bridges. Aims: We try to determine whether the light walls exist somewhere else in active regions in addition to the light bridges. We also examine how the material of these walls evolves. Methods: Employing six months of (from 2014 December to 2015 June) high tempo-spatial data from the IRIS, we find many light walls either around sunspots or above light bridges. Results: For the first time, we report one light wall near an umbral-penumbral boundary and another along a neutral line between two small sunspots. The former light wall has a multilayer structure and is associated with the emergence of positive magnetic flux in the ambient negative field. The latter light wall is associated with a filament activation, and the wall body consists of the filament material, which flowed to a remote plage region with a negative magnetic field after the light wall disappeared. Conclusions: These new observations reveal that these light walls are multilayer and multithermal structures that occur along magnetic neutral lines in active regions. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
A Solar Flare Disturbing a Light Wall above a Sunspot Light Bridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Leping; Li, Xiaohong
2016-10-01
With the high-resolution data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, we detect a light wall above a sunspot light bridge in the NOAA active region (AR) 12403. In the 1330 Å slit-jaw images, the light wall is brighter than the ambient areas while the wall top and base are much brighter than the wall body, and it keeps oscillating above the light bridge. A C8.0 flare caused by a filament activation occurred in this AR with the peak at 02:52 UT on 2015 August 28, and the flare’s one ribbon overlapped the light bridge, which was the observational base of the light wall. Consequently, the oscillation of the light wall was evidently disturbed. The mean projective oscillation amplitude of the light wall increased from 0.5 to 1.6 Mm before the flare and decreased to 0.6 Mm after the flare. We suggest that the light wall shares a group of magnetic field lines with the flare loops, which undergo a magnetic reconnection process, and they constitute a coupled system. When the magnetic field lines are pushed upward at the pre-flare stage, the light wall turns to the vertical direction, resulting in the increase of the light wall’s projective oscillation amplitude. After the magnetic reconnection takes place, a group of new field lines with smaller scales are formed underneath the reconnection site, and the light wall inclines. Thus, the projective amplitude notably decrease at the post-flare stage.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-02-18
... Administrative Review, 75 FR 55559 (September 13, 2010) (Preliminary Results). This first administrative review... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48225 (September 22, 2009). We invited... Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 774 (January 6, 2011). Period of...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-09-10
... Administrative Review, 77 FR 33395 (June 6, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective September 10, 2012. FOR... of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). Cash Deposit... Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). Notification to Importers This notice serves as a final reminder...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-17
... interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 38691, July 1, 2011) of the subject five... Commission's rules. Please consult the Commission's rules, as amended, 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the Commission's Handbook on Filing Procedures, 76 FR 62092 (Oct. 6, 2011), available on the Commission's...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-01-12
... Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 55352 (September 7, 2011) (Preliminary Results... review for two other companies. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 55353. \\2\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-08
... People's Republic of China, 73 FR 45405 (August 5, 2008). On April 2, 2013, the Department initiated the... Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 78 FR 19647 (April 2, 2013). The Department received a notice of intent to participate from the following domestic parties: Bull Moose Tube...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-06
... Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 55559 (September 13, 2010... FR at 55567. Respondent companies Nacional de Acero S.A. de C.V., Regiomontana de Perfiles y Tubos S... 13, 2010. On October 18, 2010, the domestic interested parties (Atlas Tube, Bull Moose Tube...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-21
... Administrative Review, 75 FR 27308 (May 14, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). We gave interested parties an... are Atlas Tube, Bull Moose Tube Company and Searing Industries, Inc. As explained in the...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-10-18
...) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011) (Notice of... FR 12467 (March 27, 1989). The Department received a notice of intent to participate in this sunset review from the domestic interested parties, Allied Tube and Conduit, Bull Moose Tube, California...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-09
... Administrative Review, 75 FR 45094 (August 2, 2010). On August 30, 2010, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Sun Group Co., Ltd. (``Sun Group'') to conduct an... Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 60076, 60082 (September 29, 2010). Rescission of Countervailing...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-06-15
... Tube From Turkey, 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). These deposit requirements, when imposed, shall remain in..., 73 FR 31065 (May 30, 2008). On May 1, 2009, the Department published the notice of opportunity to... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 20278 (May 1, 2009). On May...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-19
... Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 33200... filing case briefs. See Preliminary Results, 76 FR at 33204. No interested party submitted briefs. We... Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-09-07
... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 45773 (August 1, 2011). \\2\\ See..., 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). Both Maquilacero and Regiopytsa submitted responses to the Department... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 27424 (May 10, 2012). Period of...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-09-06
... Republic of Korea: Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 73 FR 45403...; Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). The Department clarified its ``automatic assessment... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). In accordance with 19 CFR...
Instability of rectangular jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Thies, Andrew T.
1992-01-01
The instability of rectangular jets is investigated using a vortex sheet model. It is shown that such jets support four linearly independent families of instability waves. Within each family there are infinitely many modes. A way to classify these modes according to the characteristics of their mode shapes or eigenfunctions is proposed. A parametric study of the instability wave characteristics has been carried out. A sample of the numerical results is reported here. It is found that the first and third modes of each instability wave family are corner modes. The pressure fluctuations associated with these instability waves are localized near the corners of the jet. The second mode, however, is a center mode with maximum fluctuations concentrated in the central portion of the jet flow. The center mode has the largest spatial growth rate. It is anticipated that as the instability waves propagate downstream the center mode would emerge as the dominant instability of the jet.
Multipactor in rectangular waveguides
Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Puech, J.
2007-03-15
Multipactor inside a rectangular waveguide is studied using both an analytical approach and numerical simulations. Particular attention is given to an analysis of the role of such effects as the velocity spread of secondary emitted electrons and the action of the rf magnetic field on the electron motion. Conventional resonance theory is shown to give correct predictions for the multipactor threshold in cases where the height of the waveguide is very small and first order resonance multipactor dominates. In cases of higher order resonances, an accurate prediction of the multipactor threshold requires that the spread of the normal component of the electron emission velocity is taken into account. Furthermore, the spread of the tangential component of the electron emission velocity and the action of the rf magnetic field are shown to be very important when the waveguide height exceeds a certain critical value, which depends on the waveguide width. A new theory is developed for predicting the multipactor threshold at higher order resonances and this theory is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Conformal mapping of rectangular heptagons
Bogatyrev, Andrei B
2012-12-31
A new effective approach to calculating the direct and inverse conformal mapping of rectangular polygons onto a half-plane is put forward; it is based on the use of Riemann theta functions. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, M. C.; Deshpande, M. D.
1984-01-01
The problem of microstrip antennas covered by a dielectric substrate is formulated in terms of coupled integro-differential equations with the current distribution on the conducting patch as an unknown quantity. The Galerkin method is used to solve for the unknown patch current. Using the present formulation, the radiation pattern, the resonant frequency, and the bandwidth of a rectangular microstrip antenna are computed. Design data for a rectangular microstrip antenna are also presented.
Synchronizability of random rectangular graphs
Estrada, Ernesto Chen, Guanrong
2015-08-15
Random rectangular graphs (RRGs) represent a generalization of the random geometric graphs in which the nodes are embedded into hyperrectangles instead of on hypercubes. The synchronizability of RRG model is studied. Both upper and lower bounds of the eigenratio of the network Laplacian matrix are determined analytically. It is proven that as the rectangular network is more elongated, the network becomes harder to synchronize. The synchronization processing behavior of a RRG network of chaotic Lorenz system nodes is numerically investigated, showing complete consistence with the theoretical results.
Rectangular groupoids and related structures
Boykett, Tim
2013-01-01
The quasivariety of groupoids (N,∗) satisfying the implication a∗b=c∗d⇒a∗d=c∗b=a∗b generalises rectangular semigroups and central groupoids. We call them rectangular groupoids and find three combinatorial structures based upon arrays, matrices and graphs that are closely related. These generalise several groupoids of independent interest. The quasivariety generates the variety of all groupoids; they satisfy no nontrivial equations. We see some strong connections with isotopy, this being one of the classes of algebras (along with quasigroups) closed under isotopy. We investigate some constructions and show that a regular automorphism exists iff the groupoid is derived from a group via a Cayley graph construction. PMID:23836949
Rectangular subsonic jet flowfield study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Tatterson, Gary B.; Swan, David H.
1987-01-01
The flowfield of a rectangular jet with 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at an axial Reynolds number of 127,000, using a three-dimensional laser anemometer. The flowfield surveys resulted in mean velocity vector field plots and contour plots of the Reynolds stress tensor components for the major and minor axes. These data contribute substantially to currently available data of jet flowfields.
Designing Rectangular RHCP Microstrip Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, Shayla E.
1987-01-01
RHCP, Right-Handed, Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna program, aids in design of rectangular microstrip-antenna element, given desired frequency of operation and characteristics of substrate. Begins design calculations on basis of square element with linear polarization. Effective dielectric constant and changes in electrical length due to fringing at edges of radiating element taken into account. Coaxial feed inset with 50 ohms input impedance. Placement of feed such that two orthonormal modes produced in antenna cavity, right- or left-handed circular polarization obtained. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S. H.; Lin, W. J.; Leung, A. Y. T.
2010-05-01
Some pre-tensioned 4-node rectangular elements and 8-node triangular elements are constructed for the free vibration analysis of membranes by finite element. The shape functions are given to derive the element stiffness and mass matrices in accordance with the minimum potential energy principle. Two typical examples show that the calculation by the 4-node rectangular element is very close to the theoretical solution, and 8-node rectangular element has higher accuracy than the 4-node rectangular element. For dense grid, the result is almost consistent with the theoretical solution.
A rectangular capillary suction apparatus
Lee, D.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Hsu, Y.H. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1994-06-01
Fluid flow and cake formation in a rectangular capillary suction apparatus (RCSA) are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol are used to study the effects of liquid properties, and CaCO[sub 3], kaolin, and bentonite slurries are employed for studying the effects of cake formation on capillary suction-time (CST). A theory based on a diffusion-like approach is developed. The liquid saturation under the inner cell will approach a constant value when the wet front distance is large. A method based on this experimental finding for estimating the cake specific resistance is proposed. The agreement between experiments and calculations is close. The RCSA is superior to the cylindrical CSA when treating liquids with small diffusivities or slurries with high solid concentration and/or with high averaged specific resistance.
Mapping from rectangular to harmonic representation
Schneider, W.; Bateman, G.
1986-08-01
An algorithm is developed to determine the Fourier harmonics representing the level contours of a scalar function given on a rectangular grid. This method is applied to the problem of computing the flux coordinates and flux surface average needed for 1-1/2-D transport codes and MHD stability codes from an equilibrium flux function given on a rectangular grid.
ac electroosmosis in rectangular microchannels.
Campisi, Michele; Accoto, Dino; Dario, Paolo
2005-11-22
Motivated by the growing interest in ac electroosmosis as a reliable no moving parts strategy to control fluid motion in microfluidic devices for biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip, we study transient and steady-state electrokinetic phenomena (electroosmosis and streaming currents) in infinitely extended rectangular charged microchannels. With the aid of Fourier series and Laplace transforms we provide a general formal solution of the problem, which is used to study the time-dependent response to sudden ac applied voltage differences in case of finite electric double layer. The Debye-Huckel approximation has been adopted to allow for an algebraic solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann problem in Fourier space. We obtain the expressions of flow velocity profiles, flow rates, streaming currents, as well as expressions of the complex hydraulic and electrokinetic conductances. We analyze in detail the dependence of the electrokinetic conductance on the extension of linear dimensions relative to the Debye length, with an eye on finite electric double layer effects. PMID:16351310
Flow through rotating rectangular ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandakumar, K.; Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.
1991-05-01
The bifurcation structure of two-dimensional, pressure-driven flows through a rectangular duct that is rotating about an axis perpendicular to its own is examined at a fixed Ekman number (Ek=ν/b2Ω) of 0.01. The solution structure for flow through a square duct (aspect ratio γ=1) is determined for Rossby numbers (Ro=U/bΩ) in the range of 0-5 using a computational scheme based on the arclength continuation method. The structure is much more complicated than reported earlier by Kheshgi and Scriven [Phys. Fluids 28, 2968 (1985)]. The primary branch with two limit points in Rossby number and a hysteresis behavior between the two- and four-cell flow structure that was computed by Kheshgi and Scriven is confirmed. An additional symmetric solution branch, which is disconnected from the primary branch (or rather connected via an asymmetric solution branch), is found. This has a two-cell flow structure at one end, a four-cell flow structure at the other and three limit points are located on the path. Two asymmetric solution branches emanating from symmetry breaking bifurcation points are also found for a square duct. Thus even within a Rossby number range of 0-5 a much richer solutions structure is found with up to five solutions at Ro=5. An eigenvalue calculation indicates that all two-dimensional solutions develop some form of unstable mode by the time Ro is increased to 5.0. In particular, the four-cell solution becomes unstable to asymmetric perturbations as found in a related problem of flow through a curved duct. The paths of the singular points are tracked with respect to variation in the aspect ratio using the fold following algorithm. A transcritical point is found at an aspect ratio of 0.815 and below which the four-cell solution is no longer on the primary branch. When the channel cross section is tilted even slightly (1°) with respect to the axis of rotation, the bifurcation points unfold and the two-cell solution evolves smoothly as Rossby number is
Turbulence Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles with Bevel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2015-01-01
This paper covers particle image velocimetry measurements of a family of rectangular nozzles with aspect ratios 2, 4, and 8, in the high subsonic flow regime. Far-field acoustic results, presented previously, showed that increasing aspect ratios increased the high frequency noise, especially directed in the polar plane containing the minor axis of the nozzle. The measurements presented here have important implications in the modeling of turbulent sources for acoustic analogy theories. While the nonaxisymmetric mean flow from the rectangular nozzles can be studied reliably using computational solutions, the nonaxisymmetry of the turbulent fluctuations, particularly at the level of velocity components, cannot; only measurements such as these can determine the impact of nozzle geometry on acoustic source anisotropy. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. The paper first documents the velocity fields, mean and variance, from the round, rectangular, and beveled rectangular nozzles at high subsonic speeds. A second section introduces measures of the isotropy of the turbulence, such as component ratios and lengthscales, first by showing them for a round jet and then for the rectangular nozzles. From these measures the source models of acoustic analogy codes can be judged or modified to account for these anisotropies.
Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette
Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E
2013-09-10
Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.
Mutual coupling between rectangular microstrip patch antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huynh, Tan; Lee, Kai-Fong; Chebolu, Siva R.; Lee, R. Q.
1992-01-01
The paper presents a comprehensive study of the mutual coupling between two rectangular microstrip patch antennas. The cavity model is employed to give numerical results for both mutual impedance and mutual coupling parameters for the E-plane, H-plane, diagonal, and perpendicular orientations. The effects of substrate thickness, substrate permittivity, and feed positions are discussed.
Rectangular Microstrip Antenna with Slot Embedded Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambresh, P. A.; Hadalgi, P. M.; Hunagund, P. V.; Sujata, A. A.
2014-09-01
In this paper, a novel design that improves the performance of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna is discussed. Design adopts basic techniques such as probe feeding technique with rectangular inverted patch structure as superstrate, air filled dielectric medium as substrate and slot embedded patch. Prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and various antenna performance parameters such as impedance bandwidth, return loss, radiation pattern and antenna gain are considered for Electromagnetic-study. The antennas are designed for the wireless application operating in the frequency range of 3.3 GHz to 3.6 GHz, and UK based fixed satellite service application (3 GHz to 4 GHz), and are named as single inverted patch conventional rectangular microstrip antenna (SIP-CRMSA) and slots embedded inverted patch rectangular microstrip antenna (SEIP-RMSA), respectively. Measurement outcomes for SEIP-RMSA1 and SEIP-RMSA2 showed the satisfactory performance with an achievable impedance bandwidth of 260 MHz (7 %) and 250 MHz (6.72 %), with return loss (RL) of -11.06 dB and -17.98 dB, achieved gain of 8.17 dB and 5.17 dB with 10% and 8% size reduction in comparison with the conventional patch antenna.
Comparing the Volumes of Rectangular Prisms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Assuah, Charles K.; Wiest, Lynda R.
2010-01-01
Can middle-grades students determine which of two rectangular prisms has a larger volume? Can they do so without using a formula? Geometry, and particularly the concept of volume, is important in many subjects, such as physics and chemistry. Students greatly enhance their mathematics knowledge when they make generalizations and construct arguments…
Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.
1993-01-01
Condensation heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular duct was experimentally and analytically investigated. To prevent the dripping of condensate on the film, the experiment was conducted inside a horizontal rectangular duct with vapor condensing only on the bottom cooled plate of the duct. R-113 and FC-72 (Fluorinert Electronic Fluid developed by the 3M Company) were used as the condensing fluids. The experimental program included measurements of film thickness, local and average heat transfer coefficients, wave length, wave speed, and a study of wave initiation. The measured film thickness was used to obtain the local heat transfer coefficient. The wave initiation was studied both with condensation and with an adiabatic air-liquid flow. The test sections used in both experiments were identical.
A clamped rectangular plate containing a crack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.
1985-01-01
The general problem of a rectangular plate clamped along two parallel sides and containing a crack parallel to the clamps is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations and the asymptotic behavior of the stress state near the corners is investigated. Numerical examples are considered for a clamped plate without a crack and with a centrally located crack, and the stress intensity factors and the stresses along the clamps are calculated.
Eddy viscosity measurements in a rectangular jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swan, David H.; Morrison, Gerald L.
1988-01-01
The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at a Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Velocity gradients, Reynolds stress tensor components, and scalar eddy viscosities are presented for the major and minor axis planes of the jet. The eddy viscosity model was found to be applicable only in the direction of maximum mean velocity gradient.
Rectangular Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator
Kishida, Yoshiaki; Katayama, Masahiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki
2010-10-13
Experimental investigation of impulse-bit and propellant consumption rate, or mass shot, per single pulse discharge was conducted to characterize the thrust performance of the rectangular laser-electromagnetic hybrid acceleration thruster with various propellant materials. From the result, alumina propellant showed significantly superior performance. The largest values of the measured impulse-bit, specific impulse and thrust efficiency were 49 {mu}Nsec, 6,200 sec and 22%, respectively.
Acoustic Measurements of Rectangular Nozzles With Bevel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bridges, James E.
2012-01-01
A series of convergent rectangular nozzles of aspect ratios 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were constructed with uniform exit velocity profiles. Additional nozzles were constructed that extended the wide lip on one side of these nozzles to form beveled nozzles. Far-field acoustic measurements were made and analyzed, and the results presented. The impact of aspect ratio on jet noise was similar to that of enhanced mixing devices: reduction in aft, peak frequency noise with an increase in broadside, high frequency noise. Azimuthally, it was found that rectangular jets produced more noise directed away from their wide sides than from their narrow sides. The azimuthal dependence decreased at aft angles where noise decreased. The effect of temperature, keeping acoustic Mach number constant, was minimal. Since most installations would have the observer on the wide size of the nozzle, the increased high frequency noise has a deleterious impact on the observer. Extending one wide side of the rectangular nozzle, evocative of an aft deck in an installed propulsion system, increased the noise of the jet with increasing length. The impact of both aspect ratio and bevel length were relatively well behaved, allowing a simple bilinear model to be constructed relative to a simple round jet.
Square wave analysis of dielectric rectangular waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabas, Deepender; Sharma, Jigyasa; Raghava, N. S.; De, Asok
2013-01-01
In this paper, rectangular wave guides have been analyzed using a square wave incidence which can be used for digital communicat ion techniques . The E 1/mnmode of propagation is solved using Eigen functions taking transverse propagation constant in different regions of dielectric waveguide and then the characteristic equations have been derived. The characteristic equations are solved graphically by mode matching inside and outside fields of waveguide. The normalized propagation constant so obtained, for square wave incidence is compared with the sinusoidal wave obtained by Marcatili method and other methods. The results match fairly well at frequencies near the cut-off of dielectric waveguide.
Numerical study on rectangular microhollow cathode discharge
He Shoujie; Ouyang Jiting; He Feng; Li Shang
2011-03-15
Rectangular microhollow cathode discharge in argon is investigated by using two-dimensional time-dependent self-consistent fluid model. The electric potential, electric field, particle density, and mean electron energy are calculated. The results show that hollow cathode effect can be onset in the present configuration, with strong electric field and high mean electron energy in the cathode fall while high density and quasineutral plasma in the negative glow. The potential well and electric filed reversal are formed in the negative glow region. It is suggested that the presence of large electron diffusion flux necessitates the field reversal and potential well.
Morphological transitions of droplets wetting rectangular domains.
Ferraro, Davide; Semprebon, Ciro; Tóth, Tamara; Locatelli, Emanuele; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Brinkmann, Martin
2012-10-01
We report the results of comprehensive experiments and numerical calculations of interfacial morphologies of water confined to the hydrophilic top face of rectangular posts of width W = 500 μm and lengths between L = 5W and 30W. A continuous evolution of the interfacial shape from a homogeneous liquid filament to a bulged filament and back is observed during changes in the liquid volume. Above a certain threshold length of L* = 16.0W, the transition between the two morphologies is discontinuous and a bistability of interfacial shapes is observed in a certain interval of the reduced liquid volume V/W(3).
Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.
1990-01-01
Flow field measurements of three subsonic rectangular cold air jets are presented. The three cases had aspect ratios of 1x2, 1x4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1x2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. The data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data are presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made.
Wall pressure fluctuations in rectangular partial enclosures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagliaroli, T.; Camussi, R.
2015-04-01
Wall pressure fluctuations generated within rectangular partial enclosures (RPEs) have been studied experimentally for a broad range of geometrical parameters. The geometry represents a simplified version of a new generation trapped vortex combustor and consisted of a rectangular cavity connected to a neck of smaller size. Wall pressure fluctuations have been measured through wall mounted microphones providing single and multi-variate pressure statistics both in the physical space and in the Fourier domain. In order to interpret the pressure signals, aerodynamic and acoustic investigations have been carried out as well for several cavity-neck ratios. The analysis of the acoustic response of the cavity has been conducted both numerically and experimentally and a simple theoretical model has been proposed to predict the frequency of the acoustic resonances. The aerodynamic study has been carried out through PIV measurements that provided characterization in terms of the geometrical parameters of both the large-scale vortex generated within the cavity and the recirculation zone formed upstream of the neck. The use of the POD decomposition permitted us to correlate the dynamics of the recirculation with the observed pressure statistics. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations allowed us to interpret exhaustively the wall pressure cross-statistics and to separate contributions induced by hydrodynamic and purely acoustic pressure fluctuations.
The flexural vibration of welded rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaldas, M. M.; Dickinson, S. M.
1981-03-01
A theoretical and experimental study of the effect of weld runs on the flexural vibrational characteristics of the common structural element, the rectangular plate, is described. A finite difference technique is utilized for the determination of the in-plane residual stress pattern due to the weld(s) and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, with beam characteristic functions, is used for the out-of-plane vibration analysis. The theoretical approach presented is applicable to rectangular plates of any practical aspect ratio, having any combination of out-of-plane boundary conditions for which beam functions may reasonably be used and subject to one or more weld runs parallel to any edge. Theoretical and experimental results for a number of specific plates are presented, demonstrating the effects of welding on the plate vibration and the capability and accuracy of the analytical approach in predicting these effects. Included is a study of the effect of using the full residual stress pattern as derived from the finite difference analysis, the effect of neglecting certain stress components and the effect of using simplified stress patterns developed primarily for the stress and buckling analysis of long plates.
Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves
Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho
2011-01-01
Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals. PMID:22355622
A transonic rectangular grid embedded panel method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, F. T.; Bussoletti, J. E.; James, R. M.; Young, D. P.; Woo, A. C.
1982-01-01
A method is presented that has the potential for solving transonic flow problems about the same complex aircraft configurations currently being analyzed by subsonic panel methods. This method does not require the generation of surface fitted grids. Instead it uses rectangular grids and subgrids together with embedded surface panels on which boundary conditions are imposed. Both the Euler and full potential equations are considered. The method of least squares is used to reduce the solution of these equations to the solution of a sequence of Poisson problems. The Poisson problems are solved using fast Fourier transforms and panel influence coefficient techniques. The overall method is still in its infancy but some two dimensional results are shown illustrating various key features.
Flow-Field Surveys for Rectangular Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for three rectangular nozzles are presented for a low subsonic condition obtained primarily by hot-wire anemometry. The three nozzles have aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1. A fourth case included has 2:1 aspect ratio with chevrons added to the long edges. Data on mean velocity, turbulent normal and shear stresses as well as streamwise vorticity are presented covering a streamwise distance up to sixteen equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. These detailed flow properties, including initial boundary layer characteristics, are usually difficult to measure in high speed flows and the primary objective of the study is to aid ongoing and future computational and noise modeling efforts.
Electro-osmotic flows in rectangular cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meleshko, Viatcheslav; Trofimchuk, Alexandre; Gourjii, Alexandre; Bezym'yana, Elina
2010-11-01
The talk presents the results of investigation of the microfluidics mixing processes in a rectangular cavity flows induced by elctro-osmotic excitation. Enhanced mixing plays an important role in biological and chemical pharmaceutics analysis in microfluidics systems. Analytical solution is presented for the velocity field in the cavity under various electric potential distributions. The location of the periodic points in the flow are accurately established and the structure of stable and unstable manifolds is discussed. The optimal form of excitation is suggested in order to obtain most effective mixing regime in the cavity. The regular and chaotic regions are identified under various condition of excitation. Finally, we compare numerical and analytical solutions with the results of laboratory experiments for real microfluidic flows.
The Lateral Instability of Deep Rectangular Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dumont, C; Hill, H N
1937-01-01
Experimental and analytical studies were made of solid and hollow deep rectangular beams to study their lateral instability under various conditions of loading and restraint. The tests were made on bars and tubes of 17ST aluminum alloy. Failure by lateral buckling occurred only in tests on the solid beams. It was found that, within the elastic range, the test results were in agreement with the classical theory for the lateral buckling of deep beams as given by Prandtl, Mitchell, and Timoshenko. The tests were extended to the inelastic range, where it was found that the substitution for Young's modulus of an average modulus of elasticity derived from the stress-strain curve made it possible to predict instability at high stresses.
Nonlinear vibrations of viscoelastic rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amabili, Marco
2016-02-01
Nonlinear vibrations of viscoelastic thin rectangular plates subjected to normal harmonic excitation in the spectral neighborhood of the lowest resonances are investigated. The von Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are used and geometric imperfections are taken into account. The material is modeled as a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic solid by retaining all the nonlinear terms. The discretized nonlinear equations of motion are studied by using the arclength continuation and collocation method. Numerical results are obtained for the fundamental mode of a simply supported square plate with immovable edges by using models with 16 and 22 degrees of freedom and investigating solution convergence. Comparison to viscous damping and the effect of neglecting nonlinear viscoelastic damping terms are shown. The change of the frequency-response with the retardation time parameter is also investigated as well as the effect of geometric imperfections.
Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.
1989-01-01
Flow field measurements are presented of 3 subsonic rectangular cold air jets. The 3 cases presented had aspect ratios of 1 x 2, 1 x 4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1 x 2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemoneter system. The presented data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data is presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made. All tabular data are available in ASCII format on MS-DOS compatible disks.
Experimental Modal Analysis of Rectangular and Circular Beams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emory, Benjamin H.; Zhu, Wei Dong
2006-01-01
Analytical and experimental methods are used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of Aluminum 6061-T651 beams with rectangular and circular cross-sections. A unique test stand is developed to provide the rectangular beam with different boundary conditions including clamped-free, clamped-clamped, clamped-pinned, and pinned-pinned.…
Helping Students Acquainted with Multiplication in Rectangular Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tasman, Fridgo; den Hertog, Jaap; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf
2011-01-01
Usually, multiplication is introduced to students to represent quantities that come in groups. However there is also rectangular array model which is also related to multiplication. Barmby et al. (2009) has shown that the rectangular model such as array representations encourage students to develop their thinking about multiplication as a binary…
Development of the mean velocity distribution in rectangular jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, G. L.; Swan, D. H.; Deotte, R. E., Jr.
1992-01-01
The mean flowfield of 1 x 2 and 1 x 4 aspect ratio rectangular jets has been measured using a laser Doppler anemometer system. The development of the downstream velocity distribution is analyzed with respect to centerline velocity decay, shear layer growth, axis switching, and velocity profile development. Comparisons are made with axisymmetric, planar, and other rectangular jets.
Method and structure for cache aware transposition via rectangular subsections
Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Gunnels, John A
2014-02-04
A method and structure for transposing a rectangular matrix A in a computer includes subdividing the rectangular matrix A into one or more square submatrices and executing an in-place transposition for each of the square submatrices A.sub.ij.
Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Razdolsky, A. G.
2015-11-01
It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.
Gleason's Theorem for Rectangular JBW-Triples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, C. Martin; Rüttimann, Gottfried T.
A JBW*-triple B is said to be rectangular if there exists a W*-algebra A and a pair (p,q) of centrally equivalent elements of the complete orthomodular lattice of projections in A such that B is isomorphic to the JBW*-triple pAq. Any weak*-closed injective operator space provides an example of a rectangular JBW*-triple. The principal order ideal of the complete *-lattice of centrally equivalent pairs of projections in a W*-algebra A, generated by (p,q), forms a complete lattice that is order isomorphic to the complete lattice of weak*-closed inner ideals in B and to the complete lattice of structural projections on B. Although not itself, in general, orthomodular, possesses a complementation that allows for definitions of orthogonality, centre, and central orthogonality to be given. A less familiar notion in lattice theory, that is well-known in the theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan triple systems, is that of rigid collinearity of a pair (e2,f2) and (e2,f2) of elements of . This is defined and characterized in terms of properties of . A W*-algebra A is sometimes thought of as providing a model for a statistical physical system. In this case B, or, equivalently, pAq, may be thought of as providing a model for a fixed sub-system of that represented by A. Therefore, may be considered to represent the set consisting of a particular kind of sub-system of that represented by pAq. Central orthogonality and rigid collinearity of pairs of elements of may be regarded as representing two different types of disjointness, the former, classical disjointness, and the latter, decoherence, of the two sub-systems. It is therefore natural to consider bounded measures m on that are additive on centrally orthogonal and rigidly collinear pairs of elements. Using results of J.D.M. Wright, it is shown that, provided that neither of the two hereditary sub-W*-algebras pAp and qAq of A has a weak*-closed ideal of Type I2, such measures are precisely those that are the restrictions of
Improving the characteristics of rectangular waveguide branchings by cylindrical obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gesche, Roland; Russenschuck, Stephan
1989-10-01
The scattering matrix of a transition between one or two parallel rectangular waveguides and a larger rectangular waveguide which contains two metallic or dielectric cylinders is investigated by means of the orthogonal expansion method. Mathematical programming is applied in order to improve the characteristics of the branchings. Reflection at a rectangular step discontinuity can be reduced by 30 dB using metallic or dielectric obstacles. Using Teflon cylinders, coupling of a transition can be reduced by 40 dB without debasing reflection. Physical interpretations are given with the help of field patterns.
Film condensation in a horizontal rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Qing; Suryanarayana, N. V.
1992-01-01
Condensation heat transfer in an annular flow regime with and without interfacial waves was experimentally investigated. The study included measurements of heat transfer rate with condensation of vapor flowing inside a horizontal rectangular duct and experiments on the initiation of interfacial waves in condensation, and adiabatic air-liquid flow. An analytical model for the condensation was developed to predict condensate film thickness and heat transfer coefficients. Some conclusions drawn from the study are that the condensate film thickness was very thin (less than 0.6 mm). The average heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing the inlet vapor velocity. The local heat transfer coefficient decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface, with the largest change at the leading edge of the test section. The interfacial shear stress, which consisted of the momentum shear stress and the adiabatic shear stress, appeared to have a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficients. In the experiment, the condensate flow along the condensing surface experienced a smooth flow, a two-dimensional wavy flow, and a three-dimensional wavy flow. In the condensation experiment, the local wave length decreased with the axial distance of the condensing surface and the average wave length decreased with increasing inlet vapor velocity, while the wave speed increased with increasing vapor velocity. The heat transfer measurements are reliable. And, the ultrasonic technique was effective for measuring the condensate film thickness when the surface was smooth or had waves of small amplitude.
The hydrodynamic focusing effect inside rectangular microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chang, Chih-Chang; Huang, Sung-Bin; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2006-05-01
This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic focusing effect in rectangular microchannels. Two theoretical models for two-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing are proposed. The first model predicts the width of the focused stream in symmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels of various aspect ratios. The second model predicts the location and the width of the focused stream in asymmetric hydrodynamic focusing in microchannels with a low or high aspect ratio. In both models, the theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Hence, the models provide a useful means of performing a theoretical analysis of flow control in microfluidic devices using hydrodynamic focusing effects. The ability of the proposed models to control the focused stream within a micro flow cytometer is verified in a series of experimental trials performed using polystyrene microparticles with a diameter of 20 µm. The experimental data show that the width of the focused stream can be reduced to the same order of magnitude as that of the particle size. Furthermore, it is shown that the microparticles can be successfully hydrodynamically focused and switched to the desired outlet port of the cytometer. Hence, the models presented in this study provide sufficient control to support cell/particle counting and sorting applications.
Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...
Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA
VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS ...
VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS USED FOR OBSERVATION EQUIPMENT AND PERISCOPE TOPS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL
INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTH STREET DOORS; SHOWING THE RECTANGULAR ...
INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SOUTH STREET DOORS; SHOWING THE RECTANGULAR DOORS INSIDE THE ARCHED OPENING, VIEW FACING SOUTH SOUTHEAST - Kakaako Fire Station, Hook & Ladder Building, 620 South Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI
28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...
28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA
VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...
VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PIT IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA
Natural frequencies of rectangular plates with free edges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizusawa, T.
1986-03-01
This note presents vibration analysis of isotropic rectangular plates with free edges by the Rayleigh-Ritz method with B-spline functions. To show the accuracy of the present method, the results are compared with existing results based on other numerical methods and found to be in good agreement. Accurate frequencies of rectangular plates are analyzed for different aspect ratios and boundary conditions. The effects of Poisson's ratio on natural frequencies of square plates with free edges are also investigated.
Consensus dynamics on random rectangular graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estrada, Ernesto; Sheerin, Matthew
2016-06-01
A random rectangular graph (RRG) is a generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) in which the nodes are embedded into a rectangle with side lengths a and b = 1 / a, instead of on a unit square [ 0 , 1 ] 2. Two nodes are then connected if and only if they are separated at a Euclidean distance smaller than or equal to a certain threshold radius r. When a = 1 the RRG is identical to the RGG. Here we apply the consensus dynamics model to the RRG. Our main result is a lower bound for the time of consensus, i.e., the time at which the network reaches a global consensus state. To prove this result we need first to find an upper bound for the algebraic connectivity of the RRG, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the combinatorial Laplacian of the graph. This bound is based on a tight lower bound found for the graph diameter. Our results prove that as the rectangle in which the nodes are embedded becomes more elongated, the RRG becomes a 'large-world', i.e., the diameter grows to infinity, and a poorly-connected graph, i.e., the algebraic connectivity decays to zero. The main consequence of these findings is the proof that the time of consensus in RRGs grows to infinity as the rectangle becomes more elongated. In closing, consensus dynamics in RRGs strongly depend on the geometric characteristics of the embedding space, and reaching the consensus state becomes more difficult as the rectangle is more elongated.
Corpectomy cage subsidence with rectangular versus round endcaps.
Deukmedjian, Armen R; Manwaring, Jotham; Le, Tien V; Turner, Alexander W L; Uribe, Juan S
2014-09-01
Corpectomy cages with rectangular endcaps utilize the stronger peripheral part of the endplate, potentially decreasing subsidence risk. The authors evaluated cage subsidence during cyclic biomechanical testing, comparing rectangular versus round endcaps. Fourteen cadaveric spinal segments (T12-L2) were dissected and potted at T12 and L2, then assigned to a rectangular (n=7) or round (n=7) endcap group. An L1 corpectomy was performed and under uniform conditions a cage/plate construct was cyclically tested in a servo-hydraulic frame with increasing load magnitude. Testing was terminated if the test machine actuator displacement exceeded 6mm, or the specimen completed cyclic loading at 2400 N. Number of cycles, compressive force and force-cycles product at test completion were all greater in the rectangular endcap group compared with the round endcap group (cycles: 3027 versus 2092 cycles; force: 1943 N versus 1533 N; force-cycles product: 6162kN·cycles versus 3973 kN·cycles), however these differences were not statistically significant (p ⩾ 0.076). After normalizing for individual specimen bone mineral density, the same measures increased to a greater extent with the rectangular endcaps (cycles: 3014 versus 1855 cycles; force: 1944 N versus 1444 N; force-cycles product: 6040 kN·cycles versus 2980 kN·cycles), and all differences were significant (p⩽0.030). The rectangular endcap expandable corpectomy cage displayed increased resistance to subsidence over the round endcap cage under cyclic loading as demonstrated by the larger number of cycles, maximum load and force-cycles product at test completion. This suggests rectangular endcaps will be less susceptible to subsidence than the round endcap design.
Corpectomy cage subsidence with rectangular versus round endcaps.
Deukmedjian, Armen R; Manwaring, Jotham; Le, Tien V; Turner, Alexander W L; Uribe, Juan S
2014-09-01
Corpectomy cages with rectangular endcaps utilize the stronger peripheral part of the endplate, potentially decreasing subsidence risk. The authors evaluated cage subsidence during cyclic biomechanical testing, comparing rectangular versus round endcaps. Fourteen cadaveric spinal segments (T12-L2) were dissected and potted at T12 and L2, then assigned to a rectangular (n=7) or round (n=7) endcap group. An L1 corpectomy was performed and under uniform conditions a cage/plate construct was cyclically tested in a servo-hydraulic frame with increasing load magnitude. Testing was terminated if the test machine actuator displacement exceeded 6mm, or the specimen completed cyclic loading at 2400 N. Number of cycles, compressive force and force-cycles product at test completion were all greater in the rectangular endcap group compared with the round endcap group (cycles: 3027 versus 2092 cycles; force: 1943 N versus 1533 N; force-cycles product: 6162kN·cycles versus 3973 kN·cycles), however these differences were not statistically significant (p ⩾ 0.076). After normalizing for individual specimen bone mineral density, the same measures increased to a greater extent with the rectangular endcaps (cycles: 3014 versus 1855 cycles; force: 1944 N versus 1444 N; force-cycles product: 6040 kN·cycles versus 2980 kN·cycles), and all differences were significant (p⩽0.030). The rectangular endcap expandable corpectomy cage displayed increased resistance to subsidence over the round endcap cage under cyclic loading as demonstrated by the larger number of cycles, maximum load and force-cycles product at test completion. This suggests rectangular endcaps will be less susceptible to subsidence than the round endcap design. PMID:24831343
Supersonic jet noise reduction by coaxial rectangular nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahuja, K. K.; Manes, J. P.; Massey, K. C.
1992-01-01
A physical understanding of noise reduction mechanisms in supersonic, single, and coaxial rectangular jets is quantified and obtained, with emphasis on shock noise reduction. For all conditions, corresponding acoustic measurements for an equivalent round jet are also obtained so that the noise characteristics of the two types of jets can be compared directly to quantify the noise reductions. Comparisons are thus provided for a single rectangular nozzle vs a single equivalent round nozzle, and a coaxial rectangular nozzle vs an equivalent round nozzle. It is shown that different operating conditions and nozzle arrangements for the same thrust, total exit area, and mass flow rate can produce different noise levels. With at least one stream operated supersonically, the coaxial rectangular nozzle operated in the inverted-velocity profile is always quieter than in the normal velocity profile mode for the same thrust, exit area, and mass flow rate. In general, the coaxial rectangular nozzle is shown to be quieter than an equivalent circular nozzle only for those conditions for which both nozzles are operated supersonically.
Resonance in cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound microstrip structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ali, Sami M.; Kong, Jin AU; Habashy, Tarek M.; Kiang, Jean-Fu
1989-01-01
A rigorous analysis of the resonance frequency problem of both the cylindrical-rectangular and the wraparound microstrip structure is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of a set of vector integral equations. Using Galerkin's method to solve the integral equations, the complex resonance frequencies are studied with sinusoidal basis functions which incorporate the edge singularity. The complex resonance frequencies are computed using a perturbation approach. Modes suitable for resonator or antenna applications are investigated. The edge singularity of the patch current is shown to have no significant effect on the accuracy of the results. It is shown that the HE10 modes of the cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound patches are more appropriate for resonator applications. The HE01 and TE01 modes of the cylindrical-rectangular and wraparound patches, respectively, are efficient radiating modes.
Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching
Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.
2011-05-04
A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.
Simulation of multipactor on the rectangular grooved dielectric surface
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Cheng, Guoxin; Zhu, Xiangqin; Xia, Hongfu
2015-11-15
Multipactor discharge on the rectangular grooved dielectric surface is simulated self-consistently by using a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5 D) electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Compared with the electromagnetic PIC code, the former can give much more accurate solution for the space charge field caused by the multipactor electrons and the deposited surface charge. According to the rectangular groove width and height, the multipactor can be divided into four models, the spatial distributions of the multipactor electrons and the space charge fields are presented for these models. It shows that the rectangular groove in different models gives very different suppression effect on the multipactor, effective and efficient suppression on the multipactor can only be reached with a proper groove size.
Enhancement of mixing in a rectangular jet by mechanical tabs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, W. H.; Ahuja, K. K.
1990-01-01
This effort was conducted to obtain additional test data/configurations required to better understand the effects of tab length and width on jet mixing enhancement for a rectangular nozzle. The configurations tested were a six-tab configuration defined by NASA, a full-height tab configuration, and two-tab configurations with selected tab lengths and widths. Additional test data were also required for all candidate configurations to better interpret the data. Test data from this effect are presented. On the basis of these data, the following general observations were noted: The six-tab rectangular nozzle configuration provided a lower peak velocity than either the two-tab or four-tab configuration; and the rectangular nozzle with a full-height tab had about the same peak velocity as the two-tab configuration; however, the full-height tab configuration had a somewhat lower centerline velocity.
The primary resonance of laminated piezoelectric rectangular plates.
Zhao, Shuai; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun
2009-11-01
Based on Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method, a model of a nonlinear dynamic laminated piezoelectric rectangular plate was established, and the governing equations were derived and solved for both the thin-plate and thick-plate models. In the present investigation, the nonlinear constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials were considered and the effects of the nonlinearity on the response of the plate were discovered. The primary resonance of rectangular plate is investigated with the use of the method of multiple scales. The results obtained in the present paper agree very well with the experiment results.
Free Vibration of a Rectangular Plate-Beam Coupled System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, M.; Yoshida, I.
1996-07-01
A free vibration analysis by the Rayleigh-Ritz method is presented for a rectangular plate-beam coupled system. The system consists of a cantilever rectangular plate and either a pair of beams or a single beam connected to the free end side furthest away from the support. Natural frequencies and vibration modes are provided for various system configurations: i.e., the length ratio between the plate and the beam, the aspect ratio of the plate, and the distance between beams. To confirm the validity of the analysis, an experiment was also conducted, with polystyrene test plates of 0·5 mm thickness. The respective results are in good agreement.
Solves Poisson's Equation in Axizymmetric Geometry on a Rectangular Mesh
1996-09-10
DATHETA4.0 computes the magnetostatic field produced by multiple point current sources in the presence of perfect conductors in axisymmetric geometry. DATHETA4.0 has an interactive user interface and solves Poisson''s equation using the ADI method on a rectangular finite-difference mesh. DATHETA4.0 uncludes models specific to applied-B ion diodes.
Rectangular-bore, high-gain laser plasma tube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mollo, R. A.
1969-01-01
Rectangular-bore tube improves population inversion obtained from upper and terminal laser states, resulting in a significant increase in unsaturated gain factor. Radial field produces efficient pumping of upper laser state. Narrow tube dimensions cause increased diffusion flow of neon is metastable states to tube walls.
A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bailey, M. C.
1980-01-01
The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.
Rectangular Array Model Supporting Students' Spatial Structuring in Learning Multiplication
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Wijaya, Surya
2012-01-01
We examine how rectangular array model can support students' spatial structuring in learning multiplication. To begin, we define what we mean by spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. For that reason, the eggs problem was chosen as the starting point in which the…
Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo
2010-05-01
This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.
Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.
Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers
Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.
2016-02-01
In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less
Free vibration of rectangular nanoplates using Rayleigh-Ritz method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraverty, S.; Behera, Laxmi
2014-02-01
Vibration analysis of isotropic rectangular nanoplates based on the classical plate theory in conjunction with Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is considered. Nanoplates are one of the structural units that are used in nanoscale applications. In this study, Rayleigh-Ritz method with algebraic polynomial displacement function is used to solve the vibration problem of isotropic rectangular nanoplates subjected to different boundary conditions. The advantage of the method is that one can easily handle the specified boundary conditions at the edges. A comparison of the results with those available in the literature has been made. The proposed method is also validated by convergence studies. Frequency parameters are given for different nonlocality parameters, length of nanoplates and boundary conditions. The study highlights that nonlocality effects increase with the increase in mode number and the influence of nonlocal effects becomes increasingly pronounced for higher order vibration modes. Three-dimensional mode shapes for the specified nanoplates have also been presented.
Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Scanning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, H. J.; Chambers, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Britten, J. A.; Shore, B. W.; Kavaya, M. J.
1999-01-01
The application of specialized rectangular relief transmission gratings to coherent lidar beam scanning is presented. Two types of surface relief transmission grating approaches are studied with an eye toward potential insertion of a constant thickness, diffractive scanner where refractive wedges now exist. The first diffractive approach uses vertically oriented relief structure in the surface of an optical flat; illumination of the diffractive scanner is off-normal in nature. The second grating design case describes rectangular relief structure slanted at a prescribed angle with respect to the surface. In this case, illumination is normal to the diffractive scanner. In both cases, performance predictions for 2.0 micron, circularly polarized light at beam deflection angles of 30 or 45 degrees are presented.
Flow Through a Rectangular-to-Semiannular Diffusing Transition Duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Jeff; Wendt, Bruce J.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Okiishi, Theodore H.
1997-01-01
Rectangular-to-semiannular diffusing transition ducts are critical inlet components on supersonic airplanes having bifucated engine inlets. This paper documents measured details of the flow through a rectangular-to-semiannular transition duct having an expansion area ratio of 1.53. Three-dimensional velocity vectors and total pressures at the exit plane of the diffuser are presented. Surface oil-flow visualization and surface static pressure data are shown. The tests were conducted with an inlet Mach number of 0.786 and a Reynolds number based on the inlet centerline velocity and exit diameter of 3.2 x 10(exp 6). The measured data are compared with previously published computational results. The ability of vortex generators to reduce circumferential total pressure distortion is demonstrated.
Differential expansion and rectangular HOMFLY for the figure eight knot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, A.
2016-10-01
Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern-Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso-Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R = [rs ], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations.
Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers.
Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S R J; Wang, George T
2016-03-14
We demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444 kW cm(-2) and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates. PMID:26899502
Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geerts, Jonathan Simon
Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Bandwidth Study of the Microwave Reflectors with Rectangular Corrugations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liang; He, Wenlong; Donaldson, Craig R.; Cross, Adrian W.
2016-09-01
The mode-selective microwave reflector with periodic rectangular corrugations in the inner surface of a circular metallic waveguide is studied in this paper. The relations between the bandwidth and reflection coefficient for different numbers of corrugation sections were studied through a global optimization method. Two types of reflectors were investigated. One does not consider the phase response and the other does. Both types of broadband reflectors operating at W-band were machined and measured to verify the numerical simulations.
Generation of rectangular optical waves by relativistic clipping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varró, Sándor
2013-05-01
Theoretical results are reported for the reflection and transmission of few-cycle laser pulses on a very thin conducting layer, which may represent the surface current density of the massless relativistic charges of graphene. It is shown that the pulse may undergo violent distortions to the extent that the scattered radiation contains rectangular trains, which are approximate physical realizations of Rademacher functions in the optical or terahertz regime.
Input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.
1982-01-01
A moment method solution to the problem of input impedance and mutual coupling of rectangular microstrip antenna elements is presented. The formulation uses the grounded dielectric slab Green's function to account rigorously for the presence of the substrate and surface waves. Both entire basis (EB) and piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) expansion modes are used, and their relative advantages are noted. Calculations of input impedance and mutual coupling are compared with measured data and other calculations.
Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Rectangular Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. M.; Chung, J. H.; Chung, T. Y.
1997-01-01
Free vibration analysis of symmetrically laminated composite rectangular plates with all edges elastically restrained against rotation was carried out based on the first order anisotropic shear deformation plate theory. The iterative Kantorovich method and the Rayleigh-Ritz method with three different sets of trial functions were applied to the analysis. The numerical results were compared with each other and with experimental ones, and they showed good agreement.
Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section
Rui Li
2012-07-01
In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.
Partitioning Rectangular and Structurally Nonsymmetric Sparse Matrices for Parallel Processing
B. Hendrickson; T.G. Kolda
1998-09-01
A common operation in scientific computing is the multiplication of a sparse, rectangular or structurally nonsymmetric matrix and a vector. In many applications the matrix- transpose-vector product is also required. This paper addresses the efficient parallelization of these operations. We show that the problem can be expressed in terms of partitioning bipartite graphs. We then introduce several algorithms for this partitioning problem and compare their performance on a set of test matrices.
Nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atta, E. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Mook, D. T.; Nayfeh, A. H.
1977-01-01
Nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads on rectangular and delta wings in an incompressible flow are calculated by using an unsteady vortex-lattice model. Examples include flows past fixed wings in unsteady uniform streams and flows past wings undergoing unsteady motions. The unsteadiness may be due to gusty winds or pitching oscillations. The present technique establishes a reliable approach which can be utilized in the analysis of problems associated with the dynamics and aeroelasticity of wings within a wide range of angles of attack.
The pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valueva, E. P.; Purdin, M. S.
2015-11-01
The finite difference method is used to solve the task of the developed pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel. The optimum of the difference scheme parameters was determined. Data on the amplitude and phase of the longitudinal velocity oscillations, the hydraulic and friction drag coefficients, the shear stress on the wall have been obtained. Using the dimensionless value of the frequency pulsations two characteristic regimes — the quasisteady-state regime and the high-frequency regime have been identified. In the quasi-steady-state regime, the values of all hydrodynamic quantities at each instant of time correspond to the velocity value averaged over the cross section at a given moment of time. It is shown that in the high-frequency regime, the dependences on the dimensionless oscillation frequency of oscillating components of hydrodynamic quantities are identical for rectilinear channels with a different cross-sectional form (round pipe, flat and a rectangular channels). The effect of the aspect ratio of the rectangular channel sides channel on the pulsating flow dynamics has been analyzed.
Single and Multi-channel Quantum Dragons from Rectangular Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhou; Novotny, Mark
2015-03-01
Recently quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostructures with correlated disorder that permit energy-independent total quantum transmission of electrons. Hence the electrical conductance G in a two-terminal measurement should be the conductance quantum G0 = 2e2 / h . The single-band tight banding model is used. An example of a single-channel quantum dragon is a rectangular nanotube with disorder along the direction z of the electron propagation. Quantum dragons are obtained by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation to obtain the electrical transmission calT as a function of the incoming electron energy E. A quantum dragon has calT (E) =1 for all energies. This work generalizes the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation to the case of more than one open channel, and applies the method to nanotubes formed from rectangular lattices. One can envision such single-walled rectangular nanotubes for iron starting from free-standing single-atom-thick Fe membranes which have recently been obtained experimentally. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.
Two-Channel Rectangular Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator Structure Experiment
Sotnikov, G. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Didenko, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.
2009-01-22
A design is presented for a two-channel 30-GHz rectangular dielectric wake field accelerator structure being built for experimental tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This structure allows for a transformer ratio T much greater than two, and permits continuous coupling of energy from drive bunches to accelerated bunches. It consists of three planar slabs of cordierite ceramic ({epsilon} = 4.7) supported within a rectangular copper block, forming a drive channel 12 mmx6 mm, and an accelerator channel 2 mmx6 mm. When driven by a 50 nC, 14 MeV single bunch available at ANL, theory predicts an acceleration field of 6 MeV/m, and T = 12.6. Inherent transverse wake forces introduce deflections and some distortion of bunch profiles during transit through the structure that are estimated to be tolerable. Additionally, a cylindrical two-channel DWFA is introduced which shares many advantages of the rectangular structure including high T, and the added virtue of axisymmetry that eliminates lowest-order transverse deflecting forces.
Melting Process of Clathrate in a Rectangular Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Takashi; Okada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Koji
In order to clarify the mechanism of heat transfer during melting of a clathrate in rectangular cells, two melting processes, namely, two-dimensional melting process with natural convection from a vertical wall and one-dimensional melting process by heat conduction from an upper horizontal wall, are studied experimentally. The R-141b was used for generating clathrate. One experiment was carried out by melting the clathrate filled into a 150mm high and 100mm wide rectangular cell from a vertical wall. And in the other experiment, the clathrate was melted from the upper horizontal wall of a rectangular cell with 88mm height and 180mm width. The temperature distributions in cells were measured. The melting front was measured by pictures taken on fixed times. The concentration of freon in the melt was measured by gas-chromatography. The following results are obtained. (1) In the melting process, the clathrate decomposes into an emulsion region which is a water-freon mixture and a liquid freon region under the emulsion. (2) Concentration gradient of freon in the emulsion plyas an important role in the natural convection in the melt. The Nusselt number on the heated vertical wall is depressed by the concentration gradients.
Augmented Beta rectangular regression models: A Bayesian perspective.
Wang, Jue; Luo, Sheng
2016-01-01
Mixed effects Beta regression models based on Beta distributions have been widely used to analyze longitudinal percentage or proportional data ranging between zero and one. However, Beta distributions are not flexible to extreme outliers or excessive events around tail areas, and they do not account for the presence of the boundary values zeros and ones because these values are not in the support of the Beta distributions. To address these issues, we propose a mixed effects model using Beta rectangular distribution and augment it with the probabilities of zero and one. We conduct extensive simulation studies to assess the performance of mixed effects models based on both the Beta and Beta rectangular distributions under various scenarios. The simulation studies suggest that the regression models based on Beta rectangular distributions improve the accuracy of parameter estimates in the presence of outliers and heavy tails. The proposed models are applied to the motivating Neuroprotection Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (PD) Long-term Study-1 (LS-1 study, n = 1741), developed by The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson's Disease (NINDS NET-PD) network. PMID:26289406
Lightweight design of the rectangular mirror using topology optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Meng; Li, Fu
2014-09-01
That minimizing the mass of space optical remote sensor at the same time guaranteeing of structural rigidity and surface shape accuracy, became a new critical research topic. This paper achieves detailed design of meniscus rectangular lens body structure by taking the choice of materials, design of supporting structure and lightweight form of mirror into account. And we established lightweight concrete of the mirror under self-weight by the method of topological optimization design. For the optimization, we used a 3-D model of the rectangular mirror and calculated based on that making minimum weight of the mirror as an objective function constrained by the displacement of the mirror surface. Finally finite element analysis method was adopted to get the optimization results analyzed and compared with the traditional triangular lightweight model. Analysis results prove that: the new mirror is superior to the traditional model in surface accuracy and structural rigidity, PV value, RMS value and the lightweight rate. With enough high dynamic-static stiffness and thermal stability, this kind of mirror can meet the demand under the self-weight and the random vibration environment respectively. So this article puts forward a new idea in the lightweight design of rectangular mirror.
Microwave corrosion detection using open ended rectangular waveguide sensors
Qaddoumi, N.; Handjojo, L.; Bigelow, T.; Easter, J.; Bray, A.; Zoughi, R.
2000-02-01
The use of microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods utilizing open ended rectangular waveguide sensors has shown great potential for detecting minute thickness variations in laminate structures, in particular those backed by a conducting plate. Slight variations in the dielectric properties of materials may also be detected using a set of optimal parameters which include the standoff distance and the frequency of operation. In a recent investigation, on detecting rust under paint, the dielectric properties of rust were assumed to be similar to those of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. These values were used in an electromagnetic model that simulates the interaction of fields radiated by a rectangular waveguide aperture with layered structures to obtain optimal parameters. The dielectric properties of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were measured to be very similar to the properties of paint. Nevertheless, the presence of a simulated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer under a paint layer was detected. In this paper the dielectric properties of several different rust samples from different environments are measured. The measurements indicate that the nature of real rust is quite diverse and is different from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and paint, indicating that the presence of rust under paint can be easily detected. The same electromagnetic model is also used (with the newly measured dielectric properties of real rust) to obtain an optimal standoff distance at a frequency of 24 GHz. The results indicate that variations in the magnitude as well as the phase of the reflection coefficient can be used to obtain information about the presence of rust. An experimental investigation on detecting the presence of very thin rust layers (2.5--5 x 10{sup {minus}2} mm [09--2.0 x 10{sup {minus}3} in.]) using an open ended rectangular waveguide probe is also conducted. Microwave images of rusted specimens, obtained at 24 GHz, are also presented.
Investigation of imaging properties for submillimeter rectangular pinholes
Xia, Dan; Moore, Stephen C. E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu Park, Mi-Ae E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu Cervo, Morgan E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu; Metzler, Scott D.
2015-12-15
Purpose: Recently, a multipinhole collimator with inserts that have both rectangular apertures and rectangular fields of view (FOVs) has been proposed for SPECT imaging since it can tile the projection onto the detector efficiently and the FOVs in transverse and axial directions become separable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the image properties of rectangular-aperture pinholes with submillimeter apertures sizes. Methods: In this work, the authors have conducted sensitivity and FOV experiments for 18 replicates of a prototype insert fabricated in platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) alloy with submillimeter square-apertures. A sin{sup q}θ fit to the experimental sensitivity has been performed for these inserts. For the FOV measurement, the authors have proposed a new formula to calculate the projection intensity of a flood image on the detector, taking into account the penumbra effect. By fitting this formula to the measured projection data, the authors obtained the acceptance angles. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of fitted sensitivity exponents q and effective edge lengths w{sub e} were, respectively, 10.8 (1.8) and 0.38 mm (0.02 mm), which were close to the values, 7.84 and 0.396 mm, obtained from Monte Carlo calculations using the parameters of the designed inserts. For the FOV measurement, the mean (standard deviation) of the transverse and axial acceptances were 35.0° (1.2°) and 30.5° (1.6°), which are in good agreement with the designed values (34.3° and 29.9°). Conclusions: These results showed that the physical properties of the fabricated inserts with submillimeter aperture size matched our design well.
Sloshing roof impact tests of a rectangular tank
Minowa, C.; Ogawa, N.; Harada, I.; Ma, D.C.
1994-06-01
Some tanks have been damaged at the roofs due to sloshing impact caused by strong earthquakes. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the impact force in the aseismic design code for tank roofs. However, there are few studies on the earthquake responses of storage and process tank roofs. As a first step to investigate the effects of sloshing impact a series of the shaking table tests of a rectangular tank have been conducted at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). The results of these shaking table tests are presented in the paper. The test tank is rectangular in shape having dimensions of 5 m {times} 3 m {times} 2 m length {times} width {times} height). The tank was constructed of glass-fiber reinforced plastic panels. Every panel had a flange on four edges, and each panel was connected by bolts along the flange. The test tank was set on the NIED shaking table (15 m by 15 m). Two types of liquid were used, water and a viscous liquid (water mixed with polymeric powders). The roof impact pressures and other quantities were measured. During the tests using the 400 pi El-Centro excitation, the roof deformation sensor steel beam was damaged. The response of side walls with different rigidity were measured in the wall bulging tests. The measured vibrations within the panel plates were larger than those in the panel flanges. The viscous liquid of 100 cp had little influence on wall bulging responses. However, the viscous effects on sloshing responses were observed in the sloshing tests. Approximate analyses of rectangular tanks, considering the influence of static water pressure, are also presented in this paper.
Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators
Reichner, Philip
1989-01-01
Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.
Width effects in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity
Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew
2015-07-24
A previous experiment by the present authors studied the flow over a finite-width rectangular cavity at freestream Mach numbers 1.5–2.5. In addition, this investigation considered the influence of three-dimensional geometry that is not replicated by simplified cavities that extend across the entire wind-tunnel test section. The latter configurations have the attraction of easy optical access into the depths of the cavity, but they do not reproduce effects upon the turbulent structures and acoustic modes due to the length-to-width ratio, which is becoming recognized as an important parameter describing the nature of the flow within narrower cavities.
Evaluation of Material Nonlinearities Using Rectangular Pulse Trains for Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaziachmetovas, Andrius; Svilainis, Linas; Kybartas, Darius; Aleksandrovas, Arturas; Liaukonis, Dobilas
Aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the suitability of the rectangular pulse trains for nonlinear material parameters study. It was assumed that if duty cycle of the excitation is 50% then second harmonic is significantly reduced. Excitation signal frequency was fixed to the A/D sampling frequency and signal carefully gated to reduce the signal leak into neighbouring frequency bins. Sine wave correlation was used to extract the harmonics content. Results of nonlinear parameters measurement for several materials are given as performance comparison.
Heat transfer behavior of a rectangular thermosyphon loop
Huang, B.J.; Zelaya, R. )
1988-05-01
The thermal performance of a rectangular thermosyphon loop was studied. The analysis, using a one-dimensional approximation, the convectional friction factor, and an empirical correlation for the overall heat transfer in the cooler, was shown to be able to predict accurately the loop performance at steady state or approaching steady state, if the effective length was used to replace the geometeric length in the calculation of loop friction. The steady-state natural circulation flow solution obtained was shown to be a function of a dimensionless group PY or (NuGr/Pr) Y and agrees very well with the experimental results.
The Gross-Pitaevskii Hierarchy on General Rectangular Tori
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herr, Sebastian; Sohinger, Vedran
2016-06-01
In this work, we study the Gross-Pitaevskii hierarchy on general—rational and irrational—rectangular tori of dimensions two and three. This is a system of infinitely many linear partial differential equations which arises in the rigorous derivation of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We prove a conditional uniqueness result for the hierarchy. In two dimensions, this result allows us to obtain a rigorous derivation of the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the dynamics of many-body quantum systems. On irrational tori, this question was posed as an open problem in the previous work of Kirkpatrick, Schlein, and Staffilani.
Extending the MODPATH algorithm to rectangular unstructured grids
Pollock, David W.
2016-01-01
The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development.
Micropolar modeling of planar orthotropic rectangular chiral lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai
2014-05-01
Rectangular chiral lattices possess a two-fold symmetry; in order to characterize the overall behavior of such lattices, a two-dimensional orthotropic chiral micropolar theory is proposed. Eight additional material constants are necessary to represent the anisotropy in comparison with triangular ones, four of which are devoted to chirality. Homogenization procedures are also developed for the chiral lattice with rigid or deformable circles, all material constants in the developed micropolar theory are derived analytically for the case of the rigid circles and numerically for the case of the deformable circles. The dependences of these material constants and of wave propagation on the microstructural parameters are also examined.
Extending the MODPATH Algorithm to Rectangular Unstructured Grids.
Pollock, David W
2016-01-01
The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development. PMID:25754305
Acoustic response of a rectangular levitator with orifices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Raheb, Michael; Wagner, Paul
1990-01-01
The acoustic response of a rectangular cavity to speaker-generated excitation through waveguides terminating at orifices in the cavity walls is analyzed. To find the effects of orifices, acoustic pressure is expressed by eigenfunctions satisfying Neumann boundary conditions as well as by those satisfying Dirichlet ones. Some of the excess unknowns can be eliminated by point constraints set over the boundary, by appeal to Lagrange undetermined multipliers. The resulting transfer matrix must be further reduced by partial condensation to the order of a matrix describing unmixed boundary conditions. If the cavity is subjected to an axial temperature dependence, the transfer matrix is determined numerically.
Acoustic response of a rectangular levitator with orifices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Raheb, Michael; Wagner, Paul
1990-11-01
The acoustic response of a rectangular cavity to speaker-generated excitation through waveguides terminating at orifices in the cavity walls is analyzed. To find the effects of orifices, acoustic pressure is expressed by eigenfunctions satisfying Neumann boundary conditions as well as by those satisfying Dirichlet ones. Some of the excess unknowns can be eliminated by point constraints set over the boundary, by appeal to Lagrange undetermined multipliers. The resulting transfer matrix must be further reduced by partial condensation to the order of a matrix describing unmixed boundary conditions. If the cavity is subjected to an axial temperature dependence, the transfer matrix is determined numerically.
Experimental study of subsonic microjet escaping from a rectangular nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.; Mukhin, K. A.
2016-10-01
The first experiments on the subsonic laminar microjets escaping from the nozzles of rectangular shape are carried out. The nozzle size is 83.3x3823 microns. Reynolds number calculated by the nozzle height and the average flow velocity at the nozzle exit ranged from 58 to 154. The working gas was air at room temperature. The velocity decay and velocity fluctuations along the center line of the jet are determined. The fundamental difference between the laminar microjets characteristics and subsonic turbulent jets of macro size is shown. Based on measurements of velocity fluctuations it is shown the presence of laminar-turbulent transition in microjets and its location is determined.
3-D LDA study of a rectangular jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Gerald L.; Tatterson, Gary B.; Swan, David H.
1988-01-01
The flow field of a rectangular jet with a 2:1 aspect ratio was studied at an axial Reynolds number of 100,000 (Mach number 0.09) using three-dimensional laser Doppler velocimetry. The flow field survey resulted in mean velocity vector field plots and contour plots of the Reynolds stress tensor components. This paper presents contour plots in the planes of the jet minor and major axes at different axial locations. These data contribute substantially to currently available data of jet flow fields and will provide a valuable database for three-dimensional modeling.
Steady flow OF non-Newtonian fluids through rectangular ducts
Gao, S.X.; Hartnett, J.P. )
1993-03-01
The present paper contains a numerical study for the secondary flow of a Reiner-Rivlin non-Newtonian fluid in laminar flow through ducts of square and rectangular cross section. Finite difference methods are developed to obtain the primary flow, the secondary flow, and friction factor. The influence of the second normal stress coefficient, the Reynolds number, and the aspect ratio on the magnitude of the secondary flow are considered. In general, the effect of the secondary flow on the primary flow rate and friction factor is found to be negligible.
Stresses Around Rectangular Cut-outs with Reinforced Coaming Stringers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul; Rafel, Norman; Griffith, George E
1947-01-01
Strain measurements and strength tests were made on six skin-stringer panels under axial load. Three of these panels had short rectangular cut-outs, and three a long one. The width of the cut-out was about one-half of the width of the panel. Three types of coating stringers were used: without reinforcement, with riveted-up reinforcement, or with integral reinforcement. The strain measurements were found to be in good agreement with a previously published theory adapted where necessary by making overlapping assumptions.
Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining
2013-02-01
Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.
Flow reversal and thermal limit in a heated rectangular channel
Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.; Yang, B.W.; OuYang, W.Y.; McAssey, E.
1994-07-01
The thermal limit in a vertical rectangular channel was determined in a series of experiments whereby the internal coolant underwent a change in flow direction from forced downflow to upward natural circulation. The tests were designed to simulate the flow reversal transient in the High Flux Beam Reactor. A number of parameters were varied in the flow reversal experiments to examine their effects on the thermal limit. Among the parameters varied were the rate of flow coastdown, inlet subcooling, water level in the upper plenum, bypass ratio (ratio of initial flow through the heated section to initial flow through the bypass orifice), and single- verses double-sided heating.
Rectangular waveguide calorimeter for single intense microwave pulses
Earley, L.M.; Ballard, W.P.; Roose, L.D.
1986-09-01
A new calorimeter for single intense microwave pulses has been designed and tested. The device was constructed in WR284 rectangular waveguide and was operated at frequencies from 2.5 to 4.3 GHz with a tunable instantaneous bandwidth of approximately 500 MHz. The calorimeter used a single thermistor to measure the energy deposited on a carbon absorber having a microwave power absorbance of 90%. The calorimeter was tested at power levels from 100 to 1000 MW for pulse lengths of 12--6 ns, respectively. The sensitivity of the device was 200--300 mV/J.
Nonlinear dynamics and control of a vibrating rectangular plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, J. V.
1983-01-01
The von Karman equations of nonlinear elasticity are solved for the case of a vibrating rectangular plate by meams of a Fourier spectral transform method. The amplification of a particular Fourier mode by nonlinear transfer of energy is demonstrated for this conservative system. The multi-mode system is reduced to a minimal (two mode) system, retaining the qualitative features of the multi-mode system. The effect of a modal control law on the dynamics of this minimal nonlinear elastic system is examined.
Directing Translational and Orientational Order of Rectangular Particle Monolayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, Mark; Truskett, Thomas; Bonnecaze, Roger
2015-03-01
Recent advances have shown that the tunability of nanoparticle interactions can lead to a large number of thermodynamically accessible structures. The role of an external field in the assembly of particulate systems, however, is still incompletely understood. The use of larger scale patterned substrates to drive smaller scale assembly of particle monolayers can potentially expand the set of achievable lattices, and could be used in nanopatterning processes or in the manufacture of functional materials. In this presentation, grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations are used to assess the suitability of graphoepitaxial assembly for particle monolayers. Our prior work has shown that topographically or chemically patterned substrates can sufficiently organize hard-spheres, but many motivating applications can utilize anisotropic particle shapes (e.g. rectangular particles for bit-patterned media). Here, we describe our recent GCMC results for structures formed by rectangular particles in the presence of sparse enthalpic barriers. We examine systems of varying chemical potential, template geometry, and particle aspect ratio. Templates are evaluated by their ability to induce orientational and translational order, while maximizing pattern multiplication effects.
Sampling requirements for forage quality characterization of rectangular hay bales
Sheaffer, C.C.; Martin, N.P.; Jewett, J.G.; Halgerson, J.; Moon, R.D.; Cuomo, G.R.
2000-02-01
Commercial lots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay are often bought and sold on the basis of forage quality. Proper sampling is essential to obtain accurate forage quality results for pricing of alfalfa hay, but information about sampling is limited to small, 20- to 40-kg rectangular bales. Their objectives were to determine the within-bale variation in 400-kg rectangular bales and to determine the number and distribution of core samples required to represent the crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and dry matter (DM) concentration in commercial lots of alfalfa hay. Four bales were selected from each of three hay lots and core sampled nine times per side for a total of 54 cores per bale. There was no consistent pattern of forage quality variation within bales. Averaged across lots, any portion of a bale was highly correlated with bale grand means for CP, ADF, NDF, and DM. Three lots of hay were probed six times per bale, one core per bale side from 55, 14, and 14 bales per lot. For determination of CP, ADF, NDF, and DM concentration, total core numbers required to achieve an acceptable standard error (SE) were minimized by sampling once per bale. Bootstrap analysis of data from the most variable hay lot suggested that forage quality of any lot of 400-kg alfalfa hay bales should be adequately represented by 12 bales sampled once per bale.
Measurement strategy for rectangular electrical capacitance tomography sensor
Ye, Jiamin; Ge, Ruihuan; Qiu, Guizhi; Wang, Haigang
2014-04-11
To investigate the influence of the measurement strategy for the rectangular electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) sensor, a Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to create the model for simulation. The simulation was carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics(trade mark, serif) and Matlab(trade mark, serif). The length-width ratio of the rectangular sensing area is 5. Twelve electrodes are evenly arranged surrounding the pipe. The covering ratio of the electrodes is 90%. The capacitances between different electrode pairs are calculated for a bar distribution. The air of the relative permittivity 1.0 and the material of the permittivity 3.0 are used for the calibration. The relative permittivity of the second phase is 3.0. The noise free and noise data are used for the image reconstruction using the Linear Back Projection (LBP). The measurement strategies with 1-, 2- and 4- electrode excitation are compared using the correlation coefficient. Preliminary results show that the measurement strategy with 2-electrode excitation outperforms other measurement strategies with 1- or 4-electrode excitation.
Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry
Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.
1995-12-31
The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.
RHCP- DESIGNING RECTANGULAR RIGHT-HANDED CIRCULARLY POLARIZED MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, S. E.
1994-01-01
RHCP, the Right-Handed, Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna program, aids in the design of a rectangular antenna element, given the desired frequency of operation and substrate characteristics. RHCP begins the design calculations based on a square element with linear polarization. The effective dielectric constant and changes in electrical length due to fringing at the radiating element edges are taken into account. A coaxial feed is inset with 50 ohms input impedance. By placing the feed such that two orthonormal modes are produced in the antenna cavity, right- or left-handed circular polarization is obtained. Input to RHCP consists of desired frequency, dielectric constant, and substrate thickness. Output consists of the final rectangular geometry, the proposed feed inset placement, and actual input impedance. RHCP has been used successfully for frequencies between 2 and 15 GHz for thin substrates. This program was used to fabricate antenna elements for the S-band quad antennas on board the Space Shuttle, and is a part of the design project for the S-band phased array antenna radiating aperture. RHCP is written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer operating under VMS. This program was developed in 1985.
Effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papautsky, Ian; Gale, Bruce K.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Ameel, Timothy A.; Frazier, A. Bruno
1999-08-01
In this paper, the effects of rectangular microchannel aspect ratio on laminar friction constant are described. The behavior of fluids was studied using surface micromachined rectangular metallic pipette arrays. Each array consisted of 5 or 7 pipettes with widths varying from 150 micrometers to 600 micrometers and heights ranging from 22.71 micrometers to 26.35 micrometers . A downstream port for static pressure measurement was used to eliminate entrance effects. A controllable syringe pump was used to provide flow while a differential pressure transducer was used to record the pressure drop. The experimental data obtained for water for flows at Reynolds numbers below 10 showed an approximate 20% increase in the friction constant for a specified driving potential when compared to macroscale predictions from the classical Navier-Stokes theory. When the experimental data are studied as a function of aspect ratio, a 20% increase in the friction constant is evident at low aspect ratios. A similar increase is shown by the currently available experimental data for low Reynolds number (< 100) flows of water.
Physics of the Flow over a Rectangular Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kegerise, M. A.; Spina, E. F.; Cattafesta, L. N., III
1998-11-01
Certain rectangular cavity flows, typified by the flow past aircraft wheel wells, are characterized by high-amplitude, periodic pressure fluctuations caused by self-sustaining oscillations. They are ripe for both active and passive flow control techniques, but additional flow physics details are needed first. The velocity and density fields of the flow over a rectangular cavity (L/D = 2) in a subsonic free stream (M=0.25) were measured. The velocity field was obtained using normal- and cross-wire anemometry. The time-resolved density-gradient field was obtained via a quantitative Schlieren technique in which real-time light-intensity fluctuations are measured at discrete points. The pressure signal from a microphone located in the rear wall of the cavity was acquired simultaneously with the velocity and density-gradient signals during surveys of the cavity and reattachment region. Using the microphone as a reference, phase-locked movies of the velocity and density fields were constructed for each cavity shear-layer mode. The movies provide excellent insight into the nature of the physical feedback loop, including the development and convection of vortical structures and their impingement at the trailing edge.
Richards Equation Solver; Rectangular Finite Volume Flux Updating Solution.
2002-01-18
Version: 00 POLYRES solves the transient, two-dimensional, Richards equation for water flow in unsaturated-saturated soils. The package is specifically designed to allow the user to easily model complex polygon-shaped regions. Flux, head, and unit gradient boundary conditions can be used. Spatial variation of the hydraulic properties can be defined across individual polygon-shaped subdomains, called objects. These objects combine to form a polygon-shaped model domain. Each object can have its own distribution of hydraulic parameters. Themore » resulting model domain and polygon-shaped internal objects are mapped onto a rectangular, finite-volume, computational grid by a preprocessor. This allows the user to specify model geometry independently of the underlying grid and greatly simplifies user input for complex geometries. In addition, this approach significantly reduces the computational requirements since complex geometries are actually modeled on a rectangular grid. This results in well-structured, finite difference-like systems of equations that require minimal storage and are very efficient to solve.« less
Versatile patterns of multiple rectangular noise-like pulses in a fiber laser.
Huang, Yu-Qi; Qi, You-Li; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng
2016-04-01
We report on the generation of versatile patterns of multiple rectangular noise-like pulses (NLPs) in a fiber laser mode-locked by nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). Benefiting from the strengthened nonlinear effect of a segment of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) in the loop, multiple rectangular NLPs with various patterns are formed depending on the cavity parameter settings. In particular, the multiple rectangular NLPs could possess unequal packet durations, which is different from the conventional multi-soliton patterns. The experimental results contribute to further understanding the characteristics of the rectangular NLP and the dynamics of multi-pulse patterns. PMID:27137025
Round versus rectangular: Does the plot shape matter?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iserloh, Thomas; Bäthke, Lars; Ries, Johannes B.
2016-04-01
Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. Extensive discussions at the Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 in Trier and the Splinter Meeting at EGU 2013 "Rainfall simulation: Big steps forward!" lead to the opinion that the rectangular shape is the more suitable plot shape compared to the round plot. A horizontally edging Gerlach trough is installed for sample collection without forming unnatural necks as is found at round or triangle plots. Since most research groups did and currently do work with round plots at the point scale (<1m²), a precise analysis of the differences between the output of round and square plots are necessary. Our hypotheses are: - Round plot shapes disturb surface runoff, unnatural fluvial dynamics for the given plot size such as pool development especially directly at the plot's outlet occur. - A square plot shape prevent these problems. A first comparison between round and rectangular plots (Iserloh et al., 2015) indicates that the rectangular plot could indeed be the more suitable, but the rather ambiguous results make a more elaborate test setup necessary. The laboratory test setup includes the two plot shapes (round, square), a standardised silty substrate and three inclinations (2°, 6°, 12°). The analysis of the laboratory test provide results on the best performance concerning undisturbed surface runoff and soil/water sampling at the plot's outlet. The analysis of the plot shape concerning its influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable. Reference
Oscillating laminar electrokinetic flow in infinitely extended rectangular microchannels.
Yang, J; Bhattacharyya, A; Masliyah, J H; Kwok, D Y
2003-05-01
This paper has addressed analytically the problem of laminar flow in microchannels with rectangular cross-section subjected to a time-dependent sinusoidal pressure gradient and a sinusoidal electric field. The analytical solution has been determined based on the Debye-Hückel approximation of a low surface potential at the channel wall. We have demonstrated that Onsager's principle of reciprocity is valid for this problem. Parametric studies of streaming potential have shown the dependence of the electroviscous effect not only on the Debye length, but also on the oscillation frequency and the microchannel width. Parametric studies of electroosmosis demonstrate that the flow rate decreases due to an increase in frequency. The obtained solutions for both the streaming potential and electroosmotic flows become those for flow between two parallel plates in the limit of a large aspect ratio. PMID:12725820
Unilateral buckling of elastically restrained rectangular mild steel plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, S. T.; Bradford, M. A.; Oehlers, D. J.
This paper considers the elastic unilateral buckling of rectangular mild steel plates that are restrained elastically and subjected to bending and axial actions. A variational formulation of the Ritz method using linear combinations of harmonic functions for the buckling deformations is used to establish an eigenproblem to determine the plate local buckling coefficients. The motivation for the study is the retrofit of reinforced concrete beams by gluing and then bolting steel plates to the sides of the beam. Such plates, when acting compositely with the concrete beam, are subjected to predominantly bending and axial actions which may cause unilateral local buckling. Whereas the bolts provide complete restraint against buckling at discrete points, the glue may also inhibit local buckling between these nodal points since it acts as a continuous elastic restraint. The influence of the glue stiffness, support conditions and plate proportions on the unilateral buckling of such plates are assessed.
Elastostatic stress analysis of orthotropic rectangular center-cracked plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gyekenyesi, G. S.; Mendelson, A.
1972-01-01
A mapping-collocation method was developed for the elastostatic stress analysis of finite, anisotropic plates with centrally located traction-free cracks. The method essentially consists of mapping the crack into the unit circle and satisfying the crack boundary conditions exactly with the help of Muskhelishvili's function extension concept. The conditions on the outer boundary are satisfied approximately by applying the method of least-squares boundary collocation. A parametric study of finite-plate stress intensity factors, employing this mapping-collocation method, is presented. It shows the effects of varying material properties, orientation angle, and crack-length-to-plate-width and plate-height-to-plate-width ratios for rectangular orthotropic plates under constant tensile and shear loads.
Counter-current flow limited CHF in thin rectangular channels
Cheng, L.Y.
1990-01-01
An analytical expression for counter-current-flow-limitation (CCFL) was used to predict critical heat flux (CHF) for downward flow in thin vertical rectangular channels which are prototypes of coolant channels in test and research nuclear reactors. Top flooding is the mechanism for counter-current flow limited CHF. The CCFL correlation also was used to determine the circulation and flooding-limited CHF. Good agreements were observed between the period the model predictions and data on the CHF for downflow. The minimum CHF for downflow is lower than the flooding-limited CHF and it is predicted to occur at a liquid flow rate higher than that at the flooding limit. 17 refs., 7 figs.
Generalized indical forces on deforming rectangular wings in supersonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lomax, Harvard; Fuller, Franklyn B; Sluder, Loma
1955-01-01
A method is presented for determining the time-dependent flow over a rectangular wing moving with a supersonic forward speed and undergoing small vertical distortions expressible as polynomials involving spanwise and chordwise distances. The solution for the velocity potential is presented in a form analogous to that for steady supersonic flow having the familiar "reflected area" concept discovered by Evvard. Particular attention is paid to indicial-type motions and results are expressed in terms of generalized indicial forces. Numerical results for Mach numbers equal to 1.1 and 1.2 are given for polynomials of the first and fifth degree in the chordwise and spanwise directions, respectively, on a wing having an aspect ratio of 4.
Rectangular Waveguides with Two Conventional and Two Superconducting Walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yalamanchili, Raj; Qiu, Zheng An; Wang, Yen-Chu
1995-01-01
The propagation properties of transverse electric TE(sup pm) modes and their dispersion relations in rectangular waveguides with two conventional and two superconducting walls, derived by using the Meissner boundary conditions on the superconducting walls, are presented. In addition to recovering some previously known results, some novel results have been obtained: the cut-off wavelength of the dominant TE(sup 10) mode is greater than that of the conventional TE(sub 10) mode, and the tangential electric field and normal magnetic field for the dominant mode TE(sup 10) exist on the superconducting surfaces. Expressions for electromagnetic components, surface currents, attenuation coefficient, maximum transmitted power, dispersion and wave impedance are also presented.
Some features of tones generated by an underexpanded rectangular jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krothapalli, A.; Baganoff, D.; Karamcheti, K.; Hsia, Y.
1981-01-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out on an underexpanded jet of air issuing from a convergent rectangular nozzle. Schlieren pictures of the flow field along with microphone and hot wire measurements in the near field of the jet were obtained at different pressure ratios. At the pressure ratio for maximum screech sound radiation, the schlieren photographs show a very strong organized cylindrical wave pattern on either side of the jet with their source being located at the end of the third shock cell. Associated with this wave pattern is a large angle of spread of the jet of about 36 degrees. Experiments using a reflecting surface near the nozzle exit show that the flow can be either destabilized or stabilized by a small rigid plate located only on one side, and in almost all positions.
Flow-Field Surveys for Rectangular Nozzles. Supplement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2012-01-01
Flow field survey results for three rectangular nozzles are presented for a low subsonic condition obtained primarily by hot-wire anemometry. The three nozzles have aspect ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1. A fourth case included has 2:1 aspect ratio with chevrons added to the long edges. Data on mean velocity, turbulent normal and shear stresses as well as streamwise vorticity are presented covering a streamwise distance up to sixteen equivalent diameters from the nozzle exit. These detailed flow properties, including initial boundary layer characteristics, are usually difficult to measure in high speed flows and the primary objective of the study is to aid ongoing and future computational and noise modeling efforts. This supplement contains data files, charts and source code.
Routes to Unicellular Convection in a Tilted Rectangular Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, Jiro; Hara, Yusuke
2000-08-01
Transitions of natural convection in a tilted rectangular cavity heated from below are investigated numerically and theoretically by assuming two-dimensional and incompressible flow fields. All the boundary walls are assumed to be perfectly thermally conducting. It is known that thermal convection in a horizontal cavity heated from below occurs above a critical Rayleigh number due to an instability and has almost the same integral number of cells as the aspect ratio of the cavity, whereas natural convection in a vertical cavity heated from one side wall occurs even for very small Rayleigh (or Grashof) numbers and exhibits unicellular global circulation. Routes from multicellular convection to unicellular convection when the cavity is inclined gradually from the horizontal plane are explored by bifurcation analyses of the numerical results.
Experimental characterization of water flow through smooth rectangular microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baviere, R.; Ayela, F.; Le Person, S.; Favre-Marinet, M.
2005-09-01
This article presents experimental results obtained in water flows through smooth rectangular microchannels. The experimental setup used in the present study enabled the investigation of both very small length scales (21-4.5μm) and a wide range of Reynolds numbers (0.1-300). The evolution of the friction coefficient was inferred from pressure drop versus flow-rate measurements for two types of water with different electrical conductivities. The channels were made of a silicon engraved substrate anodically bonded to a Pyrex cover. In these structures, pressure losses were measured internally with micromachined Cu-Ni strain gauges. When compared to macroscale correlations, the results demonstrate that in smooth silicon-Pyrex microchannels larger than 4μm in height, the friction law is correctly predicted by the Navier-Stokes equations with the classical no-slip boundary conditions, regardless of the water electrical conductivity (>0.1μScm-1).
Vibration analysis of rectangular plates with general elastic boundary supports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, W. L.
2004-06-01
In this investigation, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to determine the modal characteristics of a rectangular plate with general elastic supports alone its edges. Each of the admissible functions here is composed of a trigonometric function and an arbitrary continuous function that is introduced to ensure the sufficient smoothness of the so-called residual displacement function at the edges. As a result, a drastic improvement of the convergence can be expected of the solution expressed as a series expansion in terms of the admissible functions. Perhaps more importantly, this study has developed a general approach for deriving a complete set of admissible functions that can be universally applied to various boundary conditions. Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence of the current solution.
Oscillating flow and separation of species in rectangular channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hacioglu, A.; Narayanan, R.
2016-07-01
The mass transfer and separation of species in a tube using oscillatory flows are strongly affected by the fluid flow profiles in the tube. It has been well established that oscillatory motion in a one-dimensional flow configuration leads to a single tuning dimensionless frequency, where optimum separation may be effected. In this work, the effect on species separation by two-dimensional laminar flow arising in a rectangular cross section is studied and a surprising result is that a second tuning frequency may occur at lower dimensionless oscillation frequencies. The physics reveals that this new optimum disappears when the aspect ratio is either very large or close to unity. These observations are related to the flow profiles at different aspect ratios.
Performance analysis of SOI MOSFET with rectangular recessed channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, M.; Mishra, S.; Mohanty, S. S.; Mishra, G. P.
2016-03-01
In this paper a two dimensional (2D) rectangular recessed channel-silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (RRC-SOI MOSFET), using the concept of groove between source and drain regions, which is one of the channel engineering technique to suppress the short channel effect (SCE). This suppression is mainly due to corner potential barrier of the groove and the simulation is carried out by using ATLAS 2D device simulator. To have further improvement of SCE in RRC-SOI MOSFET, three more devices are designed by using dual material gate (DMG) and gate dielectric technique, which results in formation of devices i.e. DMRRC-SOI,MLSMRRC-SOI, MLDMRRC-SOI MOSFET. The effect of different structures of RRC-SOI on AC and RF parameters are investigated and the importance of these devices over RRC MOSFET regarding short channel effect is analyzed.
Rectification of elastic waves in beams with rectangular cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Yukihiro; Kono, Daichi; Nishiguchi, Norihiko
2016-10-01
We propose two types of acoustic-wave rectifiers composed of a beam with rectangular cross sections. One is a beam with a triangular void and the other is a beam with wedgewise cuts. Using a finite-difference time-domain method, we numerically investigate the propagation of compressional and flexural modes in both beams. For two flexural modes with different polarizations, the beams show an effective rectification in wide frequency regions, while for compressional modes, they do not have an efficient rectification. We find that the acoustic-wave rectification in a beam with wedgewise cuts is more effective than that in a beam with a triangular void from a practical viewpoint. The characteristic unique to acoustic rectifiers composed of a beam is that their performance depends on the position where the incident wave is excited.
Rankine combined vortex interaction with a rectangular prism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorecki, Piotr; Panneer Selvam, Rathinam
2015-01-01
Large eddy simulation is utilised to study the three-dimensional interaction between a travelling Rankine combined vortex and a rectangular prism. The study examines the strength and the topology of a vortex during the interaction with a prism that is much wider than the vortex core diameter. The physics of the interaction is revealed for the straight (β = 0°) and the oblique (β = 45°) impacts. For both cases, the low-level portion of the vortex undergoes displacements in the streamwise and the lateral directions. Also the vortex shape and the core vorticity are substantially disrupted. Behind the prism the full vortex circulation is recovered after a considerable distance. This created a low-velocity region. The sheltering effect of the prism is noticed for both straight and oblique impacts. The flow velocities in the sheltering region, right behind the prism, are reduced by more than 42% compared to the maximum flow speeds before the interaction.
Radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure bounded by gray walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Modest, M. F.
1975-01-01
Two-dimensional temperature and heat-flux distributions are calculated for an absorbing-emitting gray medium at radiative equilibrium in a rectangular enclosure. The bounding walls are gray and diffuse with arbitrary surface-temperature distributions, and heat generation may take place inside the medium. As a first approximation, the problem is solved for optically thick systems (differential approximation). These results are subsequently improved by the introduction of a number of geometrical parameters to yield good accuracy for all optical thicknesses. As examples, two cases are discussed in detail: (1) uniform heat generation in a black enclosure, and (2) an enclosure with one gray surface at constant temperature. Comparison with some numerical solutions generated by Hottel's /Hottel and Cohen (1958) and Einstein (1963)/ zonal method shows excellent agreement.
Optimization of pocket milling operation of rectangular shapes
Andijani, A.
1994-12-31
An optimization model to setup machine parameters (feed, speed, width, and depth of cut) for pocket milling on a vertical mill is developed. We propose an approach to determine the optimal set of operating conditions that minimize the total milling cost. The part to be milled has a square or a rectangular shape. The pocket milling mathematical model in this paper is an explicit, multi-variable, nonlinear objective function, and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. We provide a study of some optimization algorithms that are suitable for the optimization of the pocket milling operation. We describe the general and the relative features for each algorithm. However, the final choice of the best algorithm depends upon individual preference, experience, and the case being investigated. An illustrative example is presented.
An approximate algorithm for the flux from a rectangular volume source
Wallace, O.J.
1994-11-09
An exact semi-analytic formula for the flux from a rectangular surface source with a slab shield has been derived and the required function table has been calculated. This formula is the basis for an algorithm which gives a good approximation for the flux from a rectangular volume source. No other hand calculation method for this source geometry is available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Shaofang; Huo, Yiping; Xie, You; Hao, Limei
2016-12-01
In this paper, an asymmetric plasmonic waveguide structure is designed with a MIM waveguide and an oblique rectangular cavity, and its double Fano resonance characteristics and transmission properties are numerically investigated by the finite element method. The results show that double Fano resonances appear in the transmission spectra when the oblique rectangular cavity has different rotation angular θ. The double Fano resonances derive from different mechanisms, one of Fano resonances is induced by the interaction of horizontal and vertical resonance modes in the rectangular cavity, and the other is derived from rotating the rectangular cavity. So the Fano resonances can be easily tuned by the changing angle of rotation θ and structure parameters of rectangular cavity. Moreover, when the rectangular cavity is rotated to a certain angle, three Fano resonant peaks are appeared in the transmission spectra. The asymmetric plasmonic structure is also to detect the refractive index changes of the filled media inside of rectangular cavity and waveguide, which reveals a potential sensors application of the MIM waveguide with oblique rectangular cavity.
On the flow topology inside droplets moving in rectangular microchannels.
Ma, Shaohua; Sherwood, Joseph M; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula
2014-09-21
The flow topology in moving microdroplets has a significant impact on the behaviour of encapsulated objects and hence on applications of the technology. This study reports on a systematic investigation of the flow field inside droplets moving in a rectangular microchannel, by means of micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV). Various water/oil (w/o) fluid mixtures were studied in order to elucidate the effects of a number of parameters such as capillary number (Ca), droplet geometry, viscosity ratio and interfacial tension. A distinct change in flow topology was observed at intermediate Ca ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-1), in surfactant-laden droplets, which was attributed primarily to the viscosity ratio of the two phases rather than the Marangoni effect expected in such systems. W/o droplet systems of lower inner-to-outer viscosity ratios tend to exhibit the well-known flow pattern characterised by a parabola-like profile in the droplet bulk-volume, surrounded by two counter rotating recirculation zones on either side of the droplet axis. As the viscosity ratio between the two phases is increased, the flow pattern becomes more uniform, exhibiting low velocities in the droplet bulk-volume and higher-reversed velocities along the w/o interface. The Ca and droplet geometry had no effect on the observed flow topology change. The study highlights the complex, three-dimensional (3D) nature of the flow inside droplets in rectangular microchannels and demonstrates the ability to control the droplet flow environment by adjusting the viscosity ratio between the two phases.
Quantitative study of rectangular waveguide behavior in the THz.
Rowen, Adam M.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement
2009-10-01
This report describes our efforts to quantify the behavior of micro-fabricated THz rectangular waveguides on a configurable, robust semiconductor-based platform. These waveguides are an enabling technology for coupling THz radiation directly from or to lasers, mixers, detectors, antennas, and other devices. Traditional waveguides fabricated on semiconductor platforms such as dielectric guides in the infrared or co-planar waveguides in the microwave regions, suffer high absorption and radiative losses in the THz. The former leads to very short propagation lengths, while the latter will lead to unwanted radiation modes and/or crosstalk in integrated devices. This project exploited the initial developments of THz micro-machined rectangular waveguides developed under the THz Grand Challenge Program, but instead of focusing on THz transceiver integration, this project focused on exploring the propagation loss and far-field radiation patterns of the waveguides. During the 9 month duration of this project we were able to reproduce the waveguide loss per unit of length in the waveguides and started to explore how the loss depended on wavelength. We also explored the far-field beam patterns emitted by H-plane horn antennas attached to the waveguides. In the process we learned that the method of measuring the beam patterns has a significant impact on what is actually measured, and this may have an effect on most of the beam patterns of THz that have been reported to date. The beam pattern measurements improved significantly throughout the project, but more refinements of the measurement are required before a definitive determination of the beam-pattern can be made.
Underexpanded Screeching Jets From Circular, Rectangular, and Elliptic Nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Raman, G.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2004-01-01
The screech frequency and amplitude, the shock spacing, the hydrodynamic-acoustic standing wave spacing, and the convective velocity of large organized structures are measured in the nominal Mach number range of 1.1 less than or = Mj less that or = l0.9 for supersonic, underexpanded jets exhausting from a circular, a rectangular and an elliptic nozzle. This provides a carefully measured data set useful in comparing the importance of various physical parameters in the screech generation process. The hydrodynamic-acoustic standing wave is formed between the potential pressure field of large turbulent structures and the acoustic pressure field of the screech sound. It has been demonstrated earlier that in the currently available screech frequency prediction models replacement of the shock spacing by the standing wave spacing provides an exact expression. In view of this newly found evidence, a comparison is made between the average standing wavelength and the average shock spacing. It is found that there exists a small, yet important, difference, which is dependent on the azimuthal screech mode. For example, in the flapping modes of circular, rectangular, and elliptic jets, the standing wavelength is slightly longer than the shock spacing, while for the helical screech mode in a circular jet the opposite is true. This difference accounts for the departure of the existing models from predicting the exact screech frequency. Another important parameter, necessary in screech prediction, is the convective velocity of the large organized structures. It is demonstrated that the presence of the hydrodynamic-acoustic standing wave, even inside the jet shear layer, becomes a significant source of error in the convective velocity data obtained using the conventional methods. However, a new relationship, using the standing wavelength and screech frequency is shown to provide more accurate results.
Estimating the magnetization distribution within rectangular rock samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, A. L. A.; Oliveira, V. C.; Yokoyama, E.; Bruno, A. C.; Pereira, J. M. B.
2016-08-01
Over the last decades, scanning magnetic microscopy techniques have been increasingly used in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism. Different from standard paleomagnetic magnetometers, scanning magnetic microscopes produce high-resolution maps of the vertical component of the magnetic induction field (flux density) on a plane located over the sample. These high-resolution magnetic maps can be used for estimating the magnetization distribution within a rock sample by inversion. Previous studies have estimated the magnetization distribution within rock samples by inverting the magnetic data measured on a single plane above the sample. Here we present a new spatial domain method for inverting the magnetic induction measured on four planes around the sample in order to retrieve its internal magnetization distribution. We have presumed that the internal magnetization distribution of the sample varies along one of its axes. Our method approximates the sample geometry by an interpretation model composed of a one-dimensional array of juxtaposed rectangular prisms with uniform magnetization. The Cartesian components of the magnetization vector within each rectangular prism are the parameters to be estimated by solving a linear inverse problem. Our method automatically deals with the averaging of the measured magnetic data due to the finite size of the magnetic sensor, preventing the application of a deconvolution before the inversion. Tests with synthetic data show the performance of our method in retrieving complex magnetization distributions even in the presence of magnetization heterogeneities. Moreover, they show the advantage of inverting the magnetic data on four planes around the sample and how this new acquisition scheme improves the estimated magnetization distribution within the rock sample. We have also applied our method to invert experimentally measured magnetic data produced by a highly magnetized synthetic sample that was manufactured in the laboratory. The
Park, Wook; Han, Sangkwon; Kwon, Sunghoon
2010-10-21
Rectangular fluidic channels have rarely been used in microfluidic devices which use PDMS membrane-type microvalves, since the rectangular channel shape does not perfectly match the round shape of the membrane deformation. We present a polymer sealing method to fabricate PDMS membrane-type microvalves for rectangular microchannels. After fabricating the microfluidic device, photocurable oligomer is introduced into the fluidic channel and gas pressure is applied to the pneumatic channel to deform the membrane. The polymer seal is then locally polymerized by photolithography producing a structure matching the shape of the deformed membrane curvature. We compare the flow leakage between the membrane-type microvalve with and without a polymer seal. We also demonstrate a micropump and droplet generator using this embedded polymer membrane-type microvalve in a rectangular microfluidic channel. This polymeric seal technique enables the use of easily fabricated rectangular channel membrane microvalves with all the functionality of their curved channel counterparts with negligible flow leakage. PMID:20721367
Linear analysis of a rectangular waveguide cyclotron maser with a sheet electron beam
Zhao Ding; Ding Yaogen; Wang Yong; Ruan Cunjun
2010-11-15
A linear theory for a rectangular waveguide cyclotron maser with a sheet electron beam is developed by using the Laplace transformation approach. This theory can be applied to any TE{sub mn} rectangular waveguide mode. The corresponding equations for the TM{sub mn} mode in the rectangular waveguide are also derived as a useful reference. Especially, the effect from the coupling between degenerate modes, which is induced by the nonideal rectangular waveguide walls, on the dispersion relation is considered in order to provide a more accurate model for the real devices. Through numerical calculations, the linear growth rate, launching loss, and spontaneous oscillations (caused by the absolute instability and backward wave oscillation) of this new structure can be analyzed in detail. It is worthwhile to point out that the operation at higher power levels of the rectangular waveguide sheet beam system is possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowgey, Benjamin Reid
Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique
Generation of Higher Order Modes in a Rectangular Duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Brown, Donald E.
2004-01-01
Advanced noise control methodologies to reduce sound emission from aircraft engines take advantage of the modal structure of the noise in the duct. This noise is caused by the interaction of rotor wakes with downstream obstructions such as exit guide vanes. Mode synthesis has been accomplished in circular ducts and current active noise control work has made use of this capability to cancel fan noise. The goal of the current effort is to examine the fundamental process of higher order mode propagation through an acoustically treated, curved duct. The duct cross-section is rectangular to permit greater flexibility in representation of a range of duct curvatures. The work presented is the development of a feedforward control system to generate a user-specified modal pattern in the duct. The multiple-error, filtered-x LMS algorithm is used to determine the magnitude and phase of signal input to the loudspeakers to produce a desired modal pattern at a set of error microphones. Implementation issues, including loudspeaker placement and error microphone placement, are discussed. Preliminary results from a 9-3/8 inch by 21 inch duct, using 12 loudspeakers and 24 microphones, are presented. These results demonstrate the ability of the control system to generate a user-specified mode while suppressing undesired modes.
LEDA 074886: A Remarkable Rectangular-looking Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Lisker, Thorsten; Moore, Ben; Janz, Joachim
2012-05-01
We report the discovery of an interesting and rare rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of -17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2 R e, disk = 12'' = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported v rot/σ ≈ 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-on) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this "emerald cut galaxy" having very boxy isophotes with a 4/a = -0.05 to -0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both "wet" and "dry" galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.
Geometry, features, and panoramic views: ants in rectangular arenas.
Wystrach, Antoine; Cheng, Ken; Sosa, Sebastian; Beugnon, Guy
2011-10-01
When tested in rectangular arenas, the navigational behavior of the ant Gigantiops destructor can produce results similar to vertebrates. Such results are usually interpreted as supporting the ability of animals to segregate spatial geometry and features. Here, we combine a detailed analysis of ants' paths with panoramic images taken from the ant's perspective that can serve as a basis for developing view-based matching models. The corner choices observed in ants were better predicted by the use of panoramic views along with a simple matching process [rotational image difference function (rIDF)] than by models assuming segregation of geometry and features (G/F). Our view-based matching model could also explain some aspects of the ants' path (i.e., initial direction, length) resulting from the different visual conditions, suggesting that ants were using such a taxon-like strategy. Analyzed at the individual level, the results show that ants' idiosyncratic paths tend to evolve gradually from trial to trial, revealing that the ants were partially updating their route memory after each trial. This study illustrates the remarkable flexibilities that can arise from the use of taxon-like strategies and stresses the importance of considering them in vertebrates.
Eigenpairs of a coupled rectangular cavity and its fundamental properties.
Tanaka, Nobuo; Takara, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki
2012-03-01
This paper deals with the eigenvalue problem of a coupled rectangular cavity comprising five rigid walls and one flexible panel frequently employed in much literature. It is the purpose of this paper to derive explicitly the eigenpairs of the coupled cavity, which are yet to be found. First, the coupling orthogonality conditions the eigenpairs need to satisfy are derived, thereby enabling the verification of the eigenpairs newly sought or already existent. Using the coupling orthogonality conditions, the modal equation of the coupled cavity system is then obtained, permitting one to deal with a forced response of the coupled cavity. It is shown that the eigenfunctions governing the dynamics of the sound field are expressed as the infinite sum of degenerate eigenfunctions. The characteristic matrix equation is then derived, specifying the eigenpairs of the coupled cavity. In order to investigate the fundamental properties of the eigenpairs derived, a numerical analysis is conducted, revealing the presence of evanescent modes in addition to the conventional standing wave modes. Finally, an experiment is carried out, verifying the validity of the eigenpairs derived in the article.
Experimental investigation of crossflow jet mixing in a rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liscinsky, D. S.; True, B.; Holdeman, J. D.
1993-01-01
An experimental investigation of the mixing of nonreacting opposed rows of jets injected normal to a confined rectangular crossflow has been conducted. Planar Mie-scattering was used to measure the time-average concentration distribution of the jet fluid in planes perpendicular to the duct axis. The mixing effectiveness of round orifice injectors was measured as a function of orifice spacing and orifice diameter. Mixing effectiveness was determined using a spatial unmixedness parameter based on the variance of mean jet concentration distributions. Optimum mixing was obtained when the spacing-to-duct height ratio was inversely proportional to the square root of the jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio. For opposed rows of round holes with centerlines inline, mixing was similar for blockages up to 75 percent. Lower levels of unmixedness were obtained as a function of downstream location when axial injection length was minimized. Mixing may be enhanced if orifice centerlines of opposed rows are staggered, but note that blockage must be less than 50 percent for this configuration.
The effect of riblets in rectangular duct flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dean, Brian; Bhushan, Bharat
2012-02-01
Much is known about the benefits of surface structures which mimic the riblets found on the skin of fast swimming sharks. Structures have been fabricated for study and application which replicate and improve upon the natural shape of the shark skin riblets, providing a maximum drag reduction of nearly 10% in external turbulent fluid flow. Mechanisms of fluid drag in turbulent flow and riblet-drag reduction theories from experiment and simulation are discussed. A brief review of riblet performance studies is given, and optimal riblet geometries are defined for external flow. A discussion of the structure of internal turbulent fluid flow is provided, and existing data for riblet drag reduction benefit is presented. A flow cell for studying riblet effects in internal rectangular duct flow is discussed, and data collected using several riblet surfaces fabricated for the flow cell is presented and analyzed. A discussion of the effects of the riblets on fluid flow is given, and conclusions are drawn about the possible benefits of riblets in internal fluid flow.
Single-channel noise reduction using optimal rectangular filtering matrices.
Long, Tao; Chen, Jingdong; Benesty, Jacob; Zhang, Zhenxi
2013-02-01
This paper studies the problem of single-channel noise reduction in the time domain and presents a block-based approach where a vector of the desired speech signal is recovered by filtering a frame of the noisy signal with a rectangular filtering matrix. With this formulation, the noise reduction problem becomes one of estimating an optimal filtering matrix. To achieve such estimation, a method is introduced to decompose a frame of the clean speech signal into two orthogonal components: One correlated and the other uncorrelated with the current desired speech vector to be estimated. Different optimization cost functions are then formulated from which non-causal optimal filtering matrices are derived. The relationships among these optimal filtering matrices are discussed. In comparison with the classical sample-based technique that uses only forward prediction, the block-based method presented in this paper exploits both the forward and backward prediction as well as the temporal interpolation and, therefore, can improve the noise reduction performance by fully taking advantage of the speech property of self correlation. There is also a side advantage of this block-based method as compared to the sample-based technique, i.e., it is computationally more efficient and, as a result, more suitable for practical implementation. PMID:23363124
Single-channel noise reduction using optimal rectangular filtering matrices.
Long, Tao; Chen, Jingdong; Benesty, Jacob; Zhang, Zhenxi
2013-02-01
This paper studies the problem of single-channel noise reduction in the time domain and presents a block-based approach where a vector of the desired speech signal is recovered by filtering a frame of the noisy signal with a rectangular filtering matrix. With this formulation, the noise reduction problem becomes one of estimating an optimal filtering matrix. To achieve such estimation, a method is introduced to decompose a frame of the clean speech signal into two orthogonal components: One correlated and the other uncorrelated with the current desired speech vector to be estimated. Different optimization cost functions are then formulated from which non-causal optimal filtering matrices are derived. The relationships among these optimal filtering matrices are discussed. In comparison with the classical sample-based technique that uses only forward prediction, the block-based method presented in this paper exploits both the forward and backward prediction as well as the temporal interpolation and, therefore, can improve the noise reduction performance by fully taking advantage of the speech property of self correlation. There is also a side advantage of this block-based method as compared to the sample-based technique, i.e., it is computationally more efficient and, as a result, more suitable for practical implementation.
On the structure of an underexpanded rectangular jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krothapalli, A.; Hsia, Y.; Baganoff, D.; Karamcheti, K.
1982-07-01
An underexpanded jet of air issuing from a converging rectangular nozzle of moderate aspect ratio was investigated. Schileren pictures of the flow field along with hot-wire measurements in the jet were obtained at different pressure ratios. At the pressure ratio corresponding to the maximum screeching sound, Schlieren photographs show a very strong organized cylindrical wave pattern on either side of the jet, with their respective sources being located at the end of the third shock cell. Associated with this wave pattern is a large increase in the angle of spread of the jet. It is shown that the self excitation helps to induce large-scale vortical motions in the jet both in the plane containing the small dimension of the nozzle and in the plane containing the long dimension of the nozzle. However, the locations of these structures are different in the two planes. Nevertheless, the characteristic Strouhal number corresponding to these large-scale structures in both planes is the same and equal to 0.12. The influence of the self excitation on the mean velocities and rms intensities was also investigated. For the full range of pressure ratios studied, similarity was found in the mean velocity and rms intensity profiles in the two central planes beyond 80 widths downstream of the nozzle exit. However, the shapes of the similarity profiles are different in the two planes.
Efficient computation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, David A.
2016-09-01
We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight section. Working with a realistic longitudinal bunch form of r.m.s. length 10.4 μ m and a charge of 100 pC we conclude that the radiated power is quite small (28 W at a 1 MHz repetition rate), and all radiated energy is absorbed in the walls within 7 m along the straight section.
Design of Rectangular Coils for Control of Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniels, Ryan; Zhou, Changgong
2014-03-01
Over the last decade, cylindrical cross-section (CCS) coils have encompassed the majority of studies (i.e., ``Double-Helix'' coils): predominantly for use in particle accelerators (Goodzeit et al., Rochford et al., and Tominaka et al.). In this study, we investigate single and double-layered rectangular cross-section (RCS) coils of different inclination angles. RCS coils are a novel design, which does not require special machining of grooves on supporting structure for precise assembly of coils, and may lead to cost reduction. Numerical calculation of the field based on Biot-Savart's Law is conducted using Mathematica. Our goal is to generate a static and controllable time-varying magnetic field using a special configuration of four RCS coils, and impose the field on magnetic nanoparticles levitated by optical forces to study their behavior. The calculation provides guidance for optimizing the magnetic field in this application. Our current results indicate that the configuration produces highly uniform and controllable magnetic fields in the region where the nanoparticles are levitated. Natural Sciences Department at Lawrence Technological University.
Capillary driven flow of polydimethylsiloxane in open rectangular microchannels.
Sowers, Timothy W; Sarkar, Rohit; Eswarappa Prameela, Suhas; Izadi, Ehsan; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan
2016-06-29
The flow of liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Dow Corning Sylgard 184, 10 : 1 base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon microchannels, with and without a coating (100 nm) of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create microchannels with a range of widths (∼5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). Experimental PDMS flow rates in both PTFE-coated and uncoated channels were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates matched the predicted flow rates reasonably well when the channel aspect ratio (width to depth), p, was less than 2. For channels with p > 2, the observed flow rates progressively lagged model predictions with increasing p. The experimental data, including zero flow rates in certain high aspect ratio PTFE-coated channels, can largely be explained by changes in the front and upper meniscus morphology of the flow as the channel aspect ratio is varied. The results strongly suggest that meniscus morphology needs to be taken into account to accurately model capillary flow in microchannels, especially those with large aspect ratios. PMID:27301750
Complex Eigensolutions of Rectangular Plates with Damping Patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kung, S.-W.; Singh, R.
1998-09-01
A new analytical, energy based approach that predicts the vibration characteristics of a rectangular plate with multiple viscoelastic patches is presented. This paper extends the method presented earlier by the authors that was applied to the determination of the eigensolutions of viscoelacstically damped beams. The method first relates all motion variables of a sandwich plate in terms of the flexural displacement of the base structure. Then the flexural shape function sets are incorporated in the Rayleigh-Ritz minimization scheme to obtain a complex eigenvalue problem. This method allows for the visualization of complex models of all deformations of the viscoelastic core that are the major contributors to the overall energy dissipation. Comparison with the work of three prior investigators on a simply supported plate validates the model for the limiting case of full coverage. Benchmark experimental measurements are made on a plate with free edges, and five damping cases are considered. Analytical predictions of natural frequencies, modal loss factors and complex modes for all cases are in excellent agreement with modal measurements. A normalization scheme for complex mode shapes has also been developed. Finally, simplified loss factor estimation procedures are presented to illustrate the additive effect of damping patches.
Temperature dependent vibration analysis of functionally graded rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Wann
2005-06-01
A theoretical method is developed to investigate vibration characteristics of initially stressed functionally graded rectangular plates made up of metal and ceramic in thermal environment. The temperature is assumed to be constant in the plane of the plate and to vary in the thickness direction only. Two types of thermal condition are considered. The first type is that one value of the temperature is imposed on the upper surface and the other (or same) value on the lower surface. The second is that the heat flows from the upper surface to the lower one held at a prescribed temperature. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of the constituents. The third-order shear deformation plate theory to account for rotary inertia and transverse shear strains is adopted to formulate the theoretical model. The Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to obtain the frequency equation. The analysis is based on an expansion of the displacements in the double Fourier series that satisfy the boundary conditions. The effect of material compositions, plate geometry, and temperature fields on the vibration characteristics is examined. The present theoretical results are verified by comparing with those in literature.
On the electromagnetic scattering from infinite rectangular conducting grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christodoulou, C.
1985-01-01
The study and development of two numerical techniques for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering from a rectangular wire mesh are described. Both techniques follow from one basic formulation and they are both solved in the spectral domain. These techniques were developed as a result of an investigation towards more efficient numerical computation for mesh scattering. These techniques are efficient for the following reasons: (a1) make use of the Fast Fourier Transform; (b2) they avoid any convolution problems by converting integrodifferential equations into algebraic equations; and (c3) they do not require inversions of any matrices. The first method, the SIT or Spectral Iteration Technique, is applied for regions where the spacing between wires is not less than two wavelengths. The second method, the SDCG or Spectral Domain Conjugate Gradient approach, can be used for any spacing between adjacent wires. A study of electromagnetic wave properties, such as reflection coefficient, induced currents and aperture fields, as functions of frequency, angle of incidence, polarization and thickness of wires is presented. Examples and comparisons or results with other methods are also included to support the validity of the new algorithms.
Granular segregation in quasi-2d rectangular bin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharat, Sandip H.; Khakhar, D. V.
2013-06-01
Experiments are carried out in quasi two-dimensional rectangular bin (two vertical glass plate separated by a gap of 10 mm) to study the effect of feed composition on segregation of granular mixtures during heap formation by intermittent feeding. The stainless steel (SS 316) balls of different sizes (1 and 2 mm) are used as model granular materials. The heap is formed by repeatedly pouring a fixed mass of the mixture. Each feeding results in the formation of a layer of the mixture on the surface of the heap. Results presented here are for binary mixtures with different size and equal density. Profiles of the number fraction of big particles along the flow direction averaged across the depth of the layer are plotted. In each layer formed by a pouring, segregation results in the small particles being deposited first. Thus, the small particles are concentrated in the upper part of the layer and the large particles in the lower part with a mixed region between the two. The extent of segregation is found to increase with decrease in concentration of big particles in the mixture.
Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko
In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.
A seasonal Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritschel, Christoph; Agbéko Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Rust, Henning; Ulbrich, Uwe; Névir, Peter
2016-04-01
Precipitation time series with a high temporal resolution are needed as input for several hydrological applications, e.g. river runoff or sewer system models. As adequate observational data sets are often not available, simulated precipitation series come to use. Poisson-cluster models are commonly applied to generate these series. It has been shown that this class of stochastic precipitation models is able to well reproduce important characteristics of observed rainfall. For the gauge based case study presented here, the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model (BLRPM) has been chosen. As it has been shown that certain model parameters vary with season in a midlatitude moderate climate due to different rainfall mechanisms dominating in winter and summer, model parameters are typically estimated separately for individual seasons or individual months. Here, we suggest a simultaneous parameter estimation for the whole year under the assumption that seasonal variation of parameters can be described with harmonic functions. We use an observational precipitation series from Berlin with a high temporal resolution to exemplify the approach. We estimate BLRPM parameters with and without this seasonal extention and compare the results in terms of model performance and robustness of the estimation.
Electro-osmotic flow in a rotating rectangular microchannel
Ng, Chiu-On; Qi, Cheng
2015-01-01
An analytical model is presented for low-Rossby-number electro-osmotic flow in a rectangular channel rotating about an axis perpendicular to its own. The flow is driven under the combined action of Coriolis, pressure, viscous and electric forces. Analytical solutions in the form of eigenfunction expansions are developed for the problem, which is controlled by the rotation parameter (or the inverse Ekman number), the Debye parameter, the aspect ratio of the channel and the distribution of zeta potentials on the channel walls. Under the conditions of fast rotation and a thin electric double layer (EDL), an Ekman–EDL develops on the horizontal walls. This is essentially an Ekman layer subjected to electrokinetic effects. The flow structure of this boundary layer as a function of the Ekman layer thickness normalized by the Debye length is investigated in detail in this study. It is also shown that the channel rotation may have qualitatively different effects on the flow rate, depending on the channel width and the zeta potential distributions. Axial and secondary flows are examined in detail to reveal how the development of a geostrophic core may lead to a rise or fall of the mean flow. PMID:26345088
Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaoli; Yao, Youwei; Liu, Tianchen; Liu, Chian; Ulmer, M. P.; Cao, Jian
2016-08-01
As magnetic smart materials (MSMs), magnetostrictive materials have great potential to be selected as coating materials for lightweight x-ray telescope mirrors due to their capability to tune the mirror profile to the desired shape under a magnetic field. To realize this potential, it is necessary to study the deformation of the mirror substrate with the MSM coating subjected to a localized magnetic field. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to calculate the deformation of rectangular coated samples locally affected by magnetostrictive strains driven by an external magnetic field. As a specific case to validate the model, a square glass sample coated with MSMs is prepared, and its deformation is measured in a designed experimental setup by applying a magnetic field. The measured deformation of the sample is compared with the results calculated from the analytical model. The comparison results demonstrate that the analytical model is effective in calculating the deformation of a coated sample with the localized mismatch strains between the film and the substrate. In the experiments, different shape patterns of surface profile changes are achieved by varying the direction of the magnetic field. The analytical model and the experimental method proposed in this paper can be utilized to further guide the application of magnetostrictive coating to deformable lightweight x-ray mirrors in the future.
Flux characteristics of cell culture medium in rectangular microchannels.
Feng, Zhonggang; Fukuda, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Michio; Kitajima, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Takao; Umezu, Mitsuo
2011-09-01
Rectangular microchannels 50 μm high and 30, 40, 50, 60, or 70 μm wide were fabricated by adjusting the width of a gap cut in a polyethylene sheet 50 μm thick and sandwiching the sheet between an acrylic plate and a glass plate. Flux in the microchannels was measured under three different inner surface conditions: uncoated, albumin-coated, and confluent growth of rat fibroblasts on the bottom of the microchannels. The normalized flux in microchannels with cultured fibroblasts or albumin coating was significantly larger than that in the uncoated channels. The experimental data for all microchannels deviated from that predicted by classical hydrodynamic theory. At small aspect ratio the flux in the microchannels was larger than that predicted theoretically, whereas it became smaller at large aspect ratio. The aspect ratio rather than Reynolds number is the correct property for predicting the variation of the normalized friction factor. We postulate that two counteracting effects, rotation of large molecules and slip velocity at the corners of the microchannels, are responsible for the deviation. From these results we conclude that albumin coating should be carried out in the same way as when fabricating our integrating cell-culture system. The outcomes of this study are not only important for the design of our culture system, but also quite informative for general microfluidics.
Diversity of acoustic streaming in a rectangular acoustofluidic field.
Tang, Qiang; Hu, Junhui
2015-04-01
Diversity of acoustic streaming field in a 2D rectangular chamber with a traveling wave and using water as the acoustic medium is numerically investigated by the finite element method. It is found that the working frequency, the vibration excitation source length, and the distance and phase difference between two separated symmetric vibration excitation sources can cause the diversity in the acoustic streaming pattern. It is also found that a small object in the acoustic field results in an additional eddy, and affects the eddy size in the acoustic streaming field. In addition, the computation results show that with an increase of the acoustic medium's temperature, the speed of the main acoustic streaming decreases first and then increases, and the angular velocity of the corner eddies increases monotonously, which can be clearly explained by the change of the acoustic dissipation factor and shearing viscosity of the acoustic medium with temperature. Commercialized FEM software COMSOL Multiphysics is used to implement the computation tasks, which makes our method very easy to use. And the computation method is partially verified by an established analytical solution.
Capillary driven flow of polydimethylsiloxane in open rectangular microchannels.
Sowers, Timothy W; Sarkar, Rohit; Eswarappa Prameela, Suhas; Izadi, Ehsan; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan
2016-06-29
The flow of liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Dow Corning Sylgard 184, 10 : 1 base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon microchannels, with and without a coating (100 nm) of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create microchannels with a range of widths (∼5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). Experimental PDMS flow rates in both PTFE-coated and uncoated channels were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates matched the predicted flow rates reasonably well when the channel aspect ratio (width to depth), p, was less than 2. For channels with p > 2, the observed flow rates progressively lagged model predictions with increasing p. The experimental data, including zero flow rates in certain high aspect ratio PTFE-coated channels, can largely be explained by changes in the front and upper meniscus morphology of the flow as the channel aspect ratio is varied. The results strongly suggest that meniscus morphology needs to be taken into account to accurately model capillary flow in microchannels, especially those with large aspect ratios.
Experimental study on mixing efficiency in water supply rectangular tanks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Mujal, A.
2009-04-01
Phenomenon of mixing in drinking water storage tanks and reservoirs has a direct effect on the quality of water. Creation of poor mixing zones and volume stratification can have negative effects in public health. The design of a storage tank must consider the conditions of the inlet and outlets, and also their orientation (vertical or horizontal) to prevent the formation of these zones. Experiments done in a reduced scaled-model with a rectangular base and three different inlets (two waterfalls and a pipe inlet) had the objective to decide which of these inlets achieved the best mixing efficiency. Four situations were considered while three entrances, two unsteady: filling and drawing, and two steady with different outlets. Moreover the effects of columns that support the roof of the tank were studied by running the three entrances with and without columns in the four situations. Neglecting the viscous scale effects, the time taken to mix the volume stored depends on the distance between the inlet and the opposite wall as though as its orientation. Taking into account the whole tank columns have a negative effect on mixing efficiency although they divide the flux and create local zones of turbulence around them, increasing local mixing. Using a digital treating image technique the results are found in a quantitative way.
Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports
Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji
1995-11-01
An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.
On the existence of guided acoustic waves at rectangular anisotropic edges.
Pupyrev, Pavel D; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Nikodijevic, Aleksandar; Mayer, Andreas P
2016-09-01
The existence of acoustic waves with displacements localized at the tip of an isotropic elastic wedge was rigorously proven by Kamotskii, Zavorokhin and Nazarov. This proof, which is based on a variational approach, is extended to rectangular anisotropic wedges. For two high-symmetry configurations of rectangular edges in elastic media with tetragonal symmetry, a criterion is derived that allows identifying the boundary between the regions of existence for wedge modes of even and odd symmetry in regions of parameter space, where even- and odd-symmetry modes do not exist simultaneously. Furthermore, rectangular edges with non-equivalent surfaces are analyzed, and it is shown that at rectangular edges of cubic elastic media with one (110) surface and one (001) surface, a tip-localized guided wave always exists, apart from special cases that are characterized. PMID:27447889
Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu
2014-05-01
A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.
Hubbell rectangular source integral calculation using a fast Chebyshev wavelets method.
Manai, K; Belkadhi, K
2016-07-01
An integration method based on Chebyshev wavelets is presented and used to calculate the Hubbell rectangular source integral. A study of the convergence and the accuracy of the method was carried out by comparing it to previous studies. PMID:27152913
Pressure Distribution Over a Rectangular Monoplane Wing Model up to 90 Degree Angle of Attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Montgomery; Loeser, Oscar, Jr
1929-01-01
The pressure distribution tests described in this report, covering angles of attack up to 90 degrees, were made on a rectangular monoplane wing model in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. These tests indicate that a rectangular wing, by reason of its large tip loads, is uneconomical aerodynamically and structurally, has pronounced lateral instability above maximum lift, and is not adaptable to accurate calculation based on the classical wing theory. (author)
Thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet with quantum effects
Wang, Lifeng Hu, Haiyan
2014-06-21
The thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet is investigated by using a rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with quantum effects taken into account when the law of energy equipartition is unreliable. The relation between the temperature and the Root of Mean Squared (RMS) amplitude of vibration at any point of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet in simply supported case is derived first from the rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with the strain gradient of the second order taken into consideration so as to characterize the effect of microstructure of the graphene sheet. Then, the RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet simply supported on an elastic foundation is derived. The study shows that the RMS amplitude of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet predicted from the quantum theory is lower than that predicted from the law of energy equipartition. The maximal relative difference of RMS amplitude of thermal vibration appears at the sheet corners. The microstructure of the graphene sheet has a little effect on the thermal vibrations of lower modes, but exhibits an obvious effect on the thermal vibrations of higher modes. The quantum effect is more important for the thermal vibration of higher modes in the case of smaller sides and lower temperature. The relative difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet decreases monotonically with an increase of temperature. The absolute difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet increases slowly with the rising of Winkler foundation modulus.
Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azad, Abul K.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Smirnova, Evgenya; O'Hara, John F.
2008-01-01
We present the experimental characterization of planar terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular electric split-ring resonator designs. Comparisons to square-ring designs reveal that rectangular shapes greatly affect the overall metamaterial response by altering the spectral separation and coupling between multiple ring resonances. A simple model is used to help us understand this coupling behavior and the extent of its effects. Advantages and disadvantages of these unconventional ring designs are discussed in terms of possible applications.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with rectangular or square cross-section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizutani, Kanako; Kohno, Hideo
2016-06-01
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with rectangular or square cross-section are formed. The nanotubes are about 50-200 nm in width, and their walls are around 5-30 nm thick. It is very likely that the rectangular cross-section is shaped simultaneously when nanotubes are formed from catalyst Fe nanoparticles during chemical vapor deposition process, and the shape is stabilized by the bonding between adjoining graphene layers in the multi-walled structure.
Vibration characteristics of rectangular plate in compressible inviscid fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Chan-Yi; Ma, Chien-Ching
2016-02-01
This paper presents a mathematical derivation of the vibration characteristics of an elastic thin plate placed at the bottom of a three dimensional rectangular container filled with compressible inviscid fluid. A set of beam functions is used as the admissible functions of the plate in a fluid-plate system, and the motion of the fluid induced by the deformation of the plate is obtained from a three-dimensional acoustic equation. Pressure from the fluid over the fluid-plate interface is integrated to form a virtual mass matrix. The frequency equation of the fluid-plate system is derived by combining mass, stiffness, and the virtual mass matrix. Solving the frequency equation makes it possible to obtain the dynamic characteristic of the fluid-plate system, such as resonant frequencies, corresponding mode shapes, and velocity of the fluid. Numerical calculations were performed for plates coupled with fluids with various degrees of compressibility to illustrate the difference between compressible and incompressible fluids in a fluid-plate system. The proposed method could be used to predict resonant frequencies and mode shapes with accuracy compared to that of incompressible fluid theory (IFT). The proposed method can be used to analyze cases involving high value of sound velocity, such as incompressible fluids. When the sound velocity approaches infinity, the results obtained for compressible fluids are similar to those of incompressible fluids. We also examined the influence of fluid compressibility on vibration characteristics in which a decrease in sound velocity was shown to correspond to a decrease in resonant frequency. Additional modes, not observed in incompressible fluids, were obtained in cases of low sound velocity, particularly at higher resonant frequencies. Fluid velocity plots clearly reveal that the additional resonant modes can be attributed to the compressible behavior of the fluid.
Analytical modeling and vibration analysis of internally cracked rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, P. V.; Jain, N. K.; Ramtekkar, G. D.
2014-10-01
This study proposes an analytical model for nonlinear vibrations in a cracked rectangular isotropic plate containing a single and two perpendicular internal cracks located at the center of the plate. The two cracks are in the form of continuous line with each parallel to one of the edges of the plate. The equation of motion for isotropic cracked plate, based on classical plate theory is modified to accommodate the effect of internal cracks using the Line Spring Model. Berger's formulation for in-plane forces makes the model nonlinear. Galerkin's method used with three different boundary conditions transforms the equation into time dependent modal functions. The natural frequencies of the cracked plate are calculated for various crack lengths in case of a single crack and for various crack length ratio for the two cracks. The effect of the location of the part through crack(s) along the thickness of the plate on natural frequencies is studied considering appropriate crack compliance coefficients. It is thus deduced that the natural frequencies are maximally affected when the crack(s) are internal crack(s) symmetric about the mid-plane of the plate and are minimally affected when the crack(s) are surface crack(s), for all the three boundary conditions considered. It is also shown that crack parallel to the longer side of the plate affect the vibration characteristics more as compared to crack parallel to the shorter side. Further the application of method of multiple scales gives the nonlinear amplitudes for different aspect ratios of the cracked plate. The analytical results obtained for surface crack(s) are also assessed with FEM results. The FEM formulation is carried out in ANSYS.
Aspect Ratio Effects on Fluid Flow Fluctuations in Rectangular Cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalter, Rudi; Tummers, Mark J.; Wefers Bettink, Jeroen B.; Righolt, Bernhard W.; Kenjereš, Sasa; Kleijn, Chris R.
2014-12-01
The flow from a submerged bifurcated nozzle into rectangular liquid-filled cavities with width-to-thickness ratios W/ T = 6.5, 11, and 18 has been studied using free surface visualization and particle tracking. When W/ T = 11 and when W/ T = 18, self-sustained oscillations of the submerged jets and the free surface are present. When W/ T = 6.5, the self-sustained oscillations are no longer present, but oscillations with the frequency of gravity waves occur. We propose a critical value of W/ T above which self-sustained jet oscillations occur, based on the spreading angle of turbulent jets. When W/ T is larger than this critical value, the shear layers of the jet reach the front and back wall of the cavity before the jet can impinge the side wall, resulting in semi two-dimensional flow in the plane between the front and the back wall. Two-dimensional recirculation zones form alongside the jet leading to the jet oscillations. When W/ T is smaller than this critical value, the jet can develop like a free turbulent jet up to an impingement point at the narrow side wall. When the jet impinges the side wall, flow in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the front and back walls is possible, resulting in complex three-dimensional flow patterns. The critical value for W/ T, based on the known 12 deg spreading angle of turbulent jets is W/ T = 10, which is in good agreement with the experimental results.
On the structure of an underexpanded rectangular jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krothapalli, A.; Hsia, Y.; Baganoff, D.; Karamcheti, K.
1982-07-01
An experimental investigation was carried out on an underexpanded jet of air issuing from a converging rectangular nozzle of moderate aspect ratio. Schlieren pictures of the flow field along with hot-wire measurements in the jet were obtained at different pressure ratios. At the pressure ratio corresponding to the maximum screeching sound, Schlieren photographs show a very strong organized cylindrical wave pattern on either side of the jet, with their respective sources being located at the end of the third shock cell. Associated with this wave pattern is a large increase in the angle of spread of the jet. It is shown that the self excitation helps to induce large-scale vortical motions in the jet both in the plane containing the small dimension of the nozzle and in the plane containing the long dimension of the nozzle. However, the locations of these structures are different in the two planes. Nevertheless, the characteristic Strouhal number corresponding to these large-scale structures in both planes is the same and equal to 0.12. The influence of the self excitation on the mean velocities and rms intensities was investigated. For the full range of pressure ratios studied, similarity was found both in the mean velocity and rms intensity profiles in the two central planes beyond 80 widths downstream of the nozzle exit. However, the shapes of the similarity profiles are different in the two planes. For the downstream distances studied, complete axisymmetry (identical mean velocity profiles in both planes) was not found, which suggests it may persist for a large distance downstream of the nozzle exit.
Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2015-01-01
This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.
Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.
Cholesteric liquid crystals in rectangular microchannels: skyrmions and stripes.
Guo, Yubing; Afghah, Sajedeh; Xiang, Jie; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Selinger, Robin L B; Wei, Qi-Huo
2016-07-20
In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies on the microstructures of a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) confined in rectangular micron-channels. By using a sequence of microfabrication techniques we fabricated the micro-sized channels with accurately controlled size, aspect ratio and homeotropic surface anchoring. Through optical microscopic studies we established a phase diagram for the liquid crystal defect textures as a function of the channel depth and width. For the channel width larger than ∼2 times the cholesteric pitch p, the LC molecules are oriented primarily vertical to the channel when the channel depth is below 0.75p, form bubble domain defects when the channel depth is around 0.75p, and form stripe textures when the cell depth is above the cholesteric pitch p. In addition, the bubble domain size and the stripe texture periodicity are found to grow with the increase of the channel width. For the channel width smaller than ∼2p and the channel depth between 0.6p to 1.1p, no textures can be observed in the channels. Numerical simulations based on a director tensor relaxation approach yield detailed molecular director fields, and show that the bubble domain defects are baby-skyrmions and that the stripes are the first type of cholesteric fingerprints. A comparison with previous experiments and numerical simulations indicates that the size of the microchannels also influences what type of soliton-like topological textures form in the CLCs confined in the channels. PMID:27396898
Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard J.; Mavris, Dimitri N.
2014-01-01
This paper introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio and number of control surfaces. A doublet lattice approach is taken to compute generalized forces. A rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. Although, all parameters can be easily modified if desired.The focus of this paper is on tool presentation, verification and validation. This process is carried out in stages throughout the paper. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool. Therefore the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using V-g and V-f analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind tunnel results for the same structure. Finally a case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to V-g and V-f analysis. This also includes the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.
Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Philipp
2016-04-01
The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.
1997-01-01
The electromagnetic scattering from an arbitrarily shaped aperture backed by a rectangular cavity recessed in an infinite ground plane is analyzed by the integral equation approach. In this approach, the problem is split into two parts: exterior and interior. The electromagnetic fields in the exterior part are obtained from an equivalent magnetic surface current density assumed to be flowing over the aperture and backed by an infinite ground plane. The electromagnetic fields in the interior part are obtained in terms of rectangular cavity modal expansion functions. The modal amplitudes of cavity modes are determined by enforcing the continuity of the electric field across the aperture. The integral equation with the aperture magnetic current density as an unknown is obtained by enforcing the continuity of magnetic fields across the aperture. The integral equation is then solved for the magnetic current density by the method of moments. The electromagnetic scattering properties of an aperture backed by a rectangular cavity are determined from the magnetic current density. Numerical results on the backscatter radar cross-section (RCS) patterns of rectangular apertures backed by rectangular cavities are compared with earlier published results. Also numerical results on the backscatter RCS patterns of a circular aperture backed by a rectangular cavity are presented.
Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md
2016-06-01
This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.
A computer program for converting rectangular coordinates to latitude-longitude coordinates
Rutledge, A.T.
1989-01-01
A computer program was developed for converting the coordinates of any rectangular grid on a map to coordinates on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. Using this program in conjunction with groundwater flow models, the user can extract data and results from models with varying grid orientations and place these data into grid structure that is oriented parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. All cells in the rectangular grid must have equal dimensions, and all cells in the latitude-longitude grid measure one minute by one minute. This program is applicable if the map used shows lines of equal latitude as arcs and lines of equal longitude as straight lines and assumes that the Earth 's surface can be approximated as a sphere. The program user enters the row number , column number, and latitude and longitude of the midpoint of the cell for three test cells on the rectangular grid. The latitude and longitude of boundaries of the rectangular grid also are entered. By solving sets of simultaneous linear equations, the program calculates coefficients that are used for making the conversion. As an option in the program, the user may build a groundwater model file based on a grid that is parallel to lines of equal latitude and longitude. The program reads a data file based on the rectangular coordinates and automatically forms the new data file. (USGS)
A Theoretical Investigation of the Input Characteristics of a Rectangular Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, C. R.
1975-01-01
Equations which represent the magnetic and electric stored energies are derived for an infinite section of rectangular waveguide and a rectangular cavity. These representations which are referred to as being physically observable are obtained by considering the difference in the volume integrals appearing in the complex Poynting theorem. It is shown that the physically observable stored energies are determined by the field components that vanish in a reference plane outside the aperture. These physically observable representations are used to compute the input admittance of a rectangular cavity-backed slot antenna in which a single propagating wave is assumed to exist in the cavity. The slot is excited by a voltage source connected across its center; a sinusoidal distribution is assumed in the slot. Input-admittance calculations are compared with measured data. In addition, input-admittance curves as a function of electrical slot length are presented for several size cavities. For the rectangular cavity backed slot antenna, the quality factor and relative bandwidth were computed independently by using these energy relationships. It is shown that the asymptotic relationship which is usually assumed to exist between the quality bandwidth and the reciprocal of relative bandwidth is equally valid for the rectangular cavity backed slot antenna.
Free-form lens for rectangular illumination with the target plane rotating at a certain angle.
Liu, Dianhong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Chen
2015-11-01
We have proposed a method for rectangular illumination in a (u, v) coordinate system with high collection efficiency and favorable uniformity. In our proposed approach, with the target plane rotating at a certain angle around the z axis, one of the diagonals on the rectangular target plane moves to the coordinate axis; then, we partition the light source and target plane into grids. The intersection points of the grids are in one-to-one correspondence from the source to the target plane. This improved method will avoid the one-to-many correspondence topological relationship in the traditional (u, v) mapping method; uniformity of the illuminance pattern will be promoted. Based on this method, lenses are designed for rectangular target plane illumination; uniformity over 0.83 and efficiency of about 0.92 are obtained with a 1 mm×1 mm LED Lambertian source. PMID:26560910
Shear flow control of cold and heated rectangular jets by mechanical tabs. Volume 2: Tabulated data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, W. H.; Ahuja, K. K.
1989-01-01
The effects of mechanical protrusions on the jet mixing characteristics of rectangular nozzles for heated and unheated subsonic and supersonic jet plumes were studied. The characteristics of a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4 without the mechanical protrusions were first investigated. Intrusive probes were used to make the flow measurements. Possible errors introduced by intrusive probes in making shear flow measurements were also examined. Several scaled sizes of mechanical tabs were then tested, configured around the perimeter of the rectangular jet. Both the number and the location of the tabs were varied. From this, the best configuration was selected. This volume contains tabulated data for each of the data runs cited in Volume 1. Baseline characteristics, mixing modifications (subsonic and supersonic, heated and unheated) and miscellaneous charts are included.
Yu, J G; Zhang, Ch; Lefebvre, J E
2014-08-01
Wave propagation in multilayered piezoelectric structures has received much attention in past forty years. But the research objects of previous research works are only for semi-infinite structures and one-dimensional structures, i.e., structures with a finite dimension in only one direction, such as horizontally infinite flat plates and axially infinite hollow cylinders. This paper proposes an extension of the orthogonal polynomial series approach to solve the wave propagation problem in a two-dimensional (2-D) piezoelectric structure, namely, a multilayered piezoelectric bar with a rectangular cross-section. Through numerical comparison with the available reference results for a purely elastic multilayered rectangular bar, the validity of the extended polynomial series approach is illustrated. The dispersion curves and electric potential distributions of various multilayered piezoelectric rectangular bars are calculated to reveal their wave propagation characteristics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
Most microscopic cell electrophoretic work depends on the theortical prediction of stationary positions by Smoluchowski and Komagata. Their theoretical solutions are based on the assumption that the electroosmotic flow in a chamber is symmetric. Because experiences with the rectangular chamber indicate that symmetric flow occurs during less than 8% of the experiments, the existing theory for stationary position determination is expanded to include the more general case of asymmetric flow. Smoluchowski's equation for symmetric electroosmotic flow in a rectangular chamber having a width much smaller than its height or length is examined. Smoluchowski's approach is used to approximate stationary positions in rectangular chambers with height/width ratios greater than 40. Support for the theoretical prediction of stationary positions using is given by three types of experimental evidence.
One-dimensional nonlinear theory for rectangular helix traveling-wave tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chengfang; Wei, Yanyu; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Yudong; Ju, Yongfeng
2016-08-01
A 1-D nonlinear theory of a rectangular helix traveling-wave tube (TWT) interacting with a ribbon beam is presented in this paper. The RF field is modeled by a transmission line equivalent circuit, the ribbon beam is divided into a sequence of thin rectangular electron discs with the same cross section as the beam, and the charges are assumed to be uniformly distributed over these discs. Then a method of computing the space-charge field by solving Green's Function in the Cartesian Coordinate-system is fully described. Nonlinear partial differential equations for field amplitudes and Lorentz force equations for particles are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. The tube's gain, output power, and efficiency of the above TWT are computed. The results show that increasing the cross section of the ribbon beam will improve a rectangular helix TWT's efficiency and reduce the saturated length.
Design of Three-Dimensional Hypersonic Inlets with Rectangular to Elliptical Shape Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smart, M. K.
1998-01-01
A methodology has been devised for the design of three-dimensional hypersonic inlets which include a rectangular to elliptical shape transition. This methodology makes extensive use of inviscid streamtracing techniques to generate a smooth shape transition from a rectangular-like capture to an elliptical throat. Highly swept leading edges and a significantly notched cowl enable use of these inlets in fixed geometry configurations. The design procedure includes a three dimensional displacement thickness calculation and uses established correlations to check for boundary layer separation due to shock wave interactions. Complete details of the design procedure are presented and the characteristics of a modular inlet with rectangular to elliptical shape transition and a design point of Mach 7.1 are examined. Comparison with a classical two-dimensional inlet optimized for maximum total pressure recovery indicates that this three-dimensional inlet demonstrates good performance even well below its design point.
Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea
2015-10-01
This study numerically investigated the flow characteristics in a rectangular enclosure filled with oil-based ferrofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.) under the influence of external magnetic fields. The rectangular enclosure contained obstacles with different shapes, such as a rectangle and a triangle mounted on the top and bottom wall surfaces. In order to generate external magnetic fields, a permanent magnet was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and its direction was selected to be either horizontal or vertical. Our results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field direction and eddy flow phenomena in the working fluid were generated in the vicinity of high magnetic flux density distributions, such as at the edge of the permanent magnet. It was also confirmed that the magnetophoretic force distributions in the analysis model played a significant role in the development of the ferrofluid flow fields. PMID:26726349
Numerical simulation of sloshing in rectangular storage tank using coupled FEM-BEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saghi, Hassan; Ketabdari, Mohammad Javad
2012-12-01
Sloshing of liquid can increase the dynamic pressure on the storage sidewalls and bottom in tanker ships and LNG careers. Different geometric shapes were suggested for storage tank to minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter. In this research, a numerical code was developed to model liquid sloshing in a rectangular partially filled tank. Assuming the fluid to be inviscid, Laplace equation and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are solved using coupled FEM-BEM. The code performance for sloshing modeling is validated against available data. To minimize the sloshing pressure on tank perimeter, rectangular tanks with specific volumes and different aspect ratios were investigated and the best aspect ratios were suggested. The results showed that the rectangular tank with suggested aspect ratios, not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume, but also reduces the sloshing pressure efficiently.
Uniform patchy and hollow rectangular platelet micelles from crystallizable polymer blends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Huibin; Gao, Yang; Boott, Charlotte E.; Gould, Oliver E. C.; Harniman, Robert L.; Miles, Mervyn J.; Webb, Stephen E. D.; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Manners, Ian
2016-05-01
The preparation of colloidally stable, self-assembled materials with tailorable solid or hollow two-dimensional (2D) structures represents a major challenge. We describe the formation of uniform, monodisperse rectangular platelet micelles of controlled size by means of seeded-growth methods that involve the addition of blends of crystalline-coil block copolymers and the corresponding crystalline homopolymer to cylindrical micelle seeds. Sequential addition of different blends yields solid platelet block comicelles with concentric rectangular patches with distinct coronal chemistries. These complex nano-objects can be subject to spatially selective processing that allows their disassembly to form perforated platelets, such as well-defined hollow rectangular rings. The solid and hollow 2D micelles provide a tunable platform for further functionalization and potential for a variety of applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Jia-Yi
2013-03-01
In this study, the vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological (MR) elastomer damping treatment is presented. The rectangular plate is combined with a magnetorheological elastomer core layer and a constraining layer to improve the vibration behaviors of the sandwich system. The MR material shows variations in the rheological properties when subjected to varying magnetic fields. Additionally, the MR material exhibits a rapid time response and is applicable to structures or devices when a tunable system is required. The magnetorheological elastomer is found to have a significant effect on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich rectangular plate. The modal damper and the natural frequencies for the sandwich plate system are calculated for various magnetic fields and some designed parameters by utilizing the finite element method. The damping effects of the sandwich plate system can be controlled and changed when different magnetic field strengths are applied.
Left-Handed Effect of Composite Rectangular SRRs and Its Application in Patch Antennae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ming; Zhou, Yue-Qun; Shen, Ting-Gen
2010-01-01
We concentrate on describing the important influence and physical law of the split resonant ring (SRR) based left-handed materials on patch antennae. The finite-difference time-domain method, together with the finite element method is used to study the characteristics of patch antennae based on composite rectangular SRRs. A novel composite rectangular SRR system is formed by assembling the conventional patch antennae and SRRs, it is found that electromagnetic wave resonance occurs near f = 3.15 GHz, the equivalent permittivity and permeability are both negative, and the electromagnetic wave's tunnel effect and evanescent waves' enhancing effect are formed, which can improve the localization extent of electromagnetic wave's energy apparently. Such effects can improve the antenna's radiation gain and its matching condition. The phenomenon indicates that such composite rectangular patch antennae are promising in wireless communications such as mobile phones, satellite communication and aviation.
Mundis, Gregory M.; Moazzaz, Payam; Turner, Alexander W. L.; Cornwall, G. Bryan
2015-01-01
Background Expandable cages are gaining popularity in anterior reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy as they can provide adjustable distraction and deformity correction. Rectangular, rather than circular, endcaps provide increased resistance to subsidence by spanning the apophyseal ring; however their impact on construct stability is not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of expandable corpectomy cage endcap shape (round vs. rectangular) and fixation method (anterior plate vs. posterior pedicle screws) to the stability of an L1 sub-total corpectomy construct. Methods Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens (T11-L3) were subjected to multi-directional flexibility testing to 6 N·m with a custom spine simulator. Test conditions were: intact, L1 sub-total corpectomy defect, expandable cage (round endcap) alone, expandable cage (round endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (round endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) alone, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with anterior plate, expandable cage (rectangular endcap) with bilateral pedicle screws. Range-of-motion across T12-L2 was measured with an optoelectronic system. Results The expandable cage alone with either endcap provided significant stability to the corpectomy defect, reducing motion to intact levels in flexion-extension with both endcap types, and in lateral bending with rectangular endcaps. Round endcaps allowed greater motion than intact in lateral bending, and axial rotation ROM was greater than intact for both endcaps. Supplemental fixation provided the most rigid constructs, although there were no significant differences between instrumentation or endcap types. Conclusions These results suggest anterior-only fixation may be adequate when using an expandable cage in a sub-total corpectomy application and choice of endcap type may be driven by other factors such as subsidence resistance. PMID:26609508
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu
2015-04-01
For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.
Structures of cholesteric liquid crystals confined in rectangular micro-channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Qi-Huo; Guo, Yubing; Xiang, Jie; Lavrentovich, Oleg
When cholesteric liquid crystals are confined in various geometries, the interplays between the boundary conditions, the bulk structures and different length scales (pitch, penetration depth, and confinement size) may cause frustration and formation of intriguing topological defects and disclination lines. This paper presents our recent studies on the structures of cholesteric liquid crystals confined in rectangular microchannels with homeotropic alignments. The rectangular microchannels with various sizes and aspect ratios are made in glass substrates by using modern nanofabrication techniques. Detailed liquid crystal structures and their optical characterizations will be presented as a function of the channel depth and width. Work was supported by ACS PRF 53018-ND7.
Design and experiment study of compact circular-rectangular waveguide mode converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xuhao; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lishan
2016-07-01
A compact mode converter that transforms TM01 circular waveguide mode to TE10 rectangular waveguide mode is investigated. It consists of a circular waveguide with a short circuit terminal and a rectangular waveguide which is perpendicular to the circular waveguide. Simulation results show that conversion efficiency of the mode converter is about 99.8% at central frequency of 1.75 GHz, and the total return loss is approximately -30 dB. The experimental results are well consistent with the computer simulation, which demonstrates the feasibility and high power handling capacity of the mode converter.
Design and experiment study of compact circular-rectangular waveguide mode converter.
Zhao, Xuhao; Yuan, Chengwei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lishan
2016-07-01
A compact mode converter that transforms TM01 circular waveguide mode to TE10 rectangular waveguide mode is investigated. It consists of a circular waveguide with a short circuit terminal and a rectangular waveguide which is perpendicular to the circular waveguide. Simulation results show that conversion efficiency of the mode converter is about 99.8% at central frequency of 1.75 GHz, and the total return loss is approximately -30 dB. The experimental results are well consistent with the computer simulation, which demonstrates the feasibility and high power handling capacity of the mode converter.
A laser beam shaper for homogeneous rectangular illumination based on freeform micro lens array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, En-guo; Huang, Jia-min; Guo, Tai-liang; Wu, Reng-mao
2016-07-01
An effective design method of freeform micro lens array is presented for shaping varied laser beams into prescribed rectangular illumination. The variable separation mapping is applied to design concave freeform surfaces for constructing a freeform lens array. Several dedicated examples show that the designed freeform optical lens array can achieve a prescribed rectangular illumination pattern, especially without considering the initial states of incident laser beams. Both high collection efficiency and good spatial uniformity can be available simultaneously. Tolerance analysis is also performed to demonstrate that this optical device can well avoid fabricating difficulty in actual applications.
Imbibition in porous membranes of complex shape: quasi-stationary flow in thin rectangular segments.
Mendez, Sergio; Fenton, Erin M; Gallegos, Gil R; Petsev, Dimiter N; Sibbett, Scott S; Stone, Howard A; Zhang, Yi; López, Gabriel P
2010-01-19
The sustained liquid flow of a typical lateral flow assay can be mimicked by two-dimensional shaped, thin porous membranes, specifically rectangular membranes appended to circular sectors. In designing these fan-shaped devices, we have been aided by analytical equations and finite-element simulations. We show both mathematically and experimentally how a continuous increase in unwetted pore volume causes a deviation from traditional imbibition, and leads to quasi-stationary flow in the rectangular element. These results are both theoretically and practically important because they indicate how medical diagnostic test strips may be fabricated without incorporating an absorbent pad.
Forced motion of an initially stressed rectangular plate - An elasticity solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reismann, H.; Liu, H.-H.
1977-01-01
An initially stressed rectangular plate is subjected to a transverse, time dependent load. The initial stress field is constant and parallel to two of the plate edges. The transverse load is uniformly distributed over a rectangular area, the sides of which are parallel to the sides of the plate. The problem is formulated within the framework of classical, three-dimensional elasticity theory, and an exact solution is obtained in series form. The case of static stability under pre-stress is also considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xudong; Zhao, Daomu
2016-08-01
A model of electromagnetic rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (ERMGSM) beams is introduced. Its analytic expression for the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix of such beams passing through oceanic turbulence is derived. It is shown that the rectangular shape of the ERMGSM beams holds a small distance on propagation in oceanic turbulence. The spectral density, the degree of coherence and the degree of polarization of ERMGSM beams are also studied in detail. The results will be helpful for underwater communication by using ERMGSM beams.
Vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate with linearly thickness variations in both directions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, A. K.; Khanna, A.
2007-04-01
The analysis presented here is to study the effect of linear thickness variations in both directions on vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate having clamped boundary conditions on all the four edges. Using the separation of variables method, the governing differential equation has been solved for vibration of visco-elastic rectangular plate. An approximate but quite convenient frequency equation is derived by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique with a two-term deflection function. Logarithmic decrement, time period and deflection at different points for the first two modes of vibration are calculated for various values of taper constants and aspect ratio.
The analysis of Raman scattering in a free-electron laser with a rectangular hybrid wiggler
Kordbacheh, A. Shahsavand, M.
2015-10-15
A one dimensional theory of the stimulated Raman backscattering process in a free electron laser with rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is analyzed. The dispersion relation in the rest frame of the electron beam and also a formula for the lab-frame spatial growth rate are derived. A numerical computation of the growth rate for RHW is conducted and a comparison with that for coaxial hybrid wiggler is made away from the resonance. The growth rate is found larger for the rectangular wiggler than for the coaxial wiggler. A much narrower magnetoresonance associated with the third spatial harmonic is also obtained compared to the first one.
Yoneda, Tomoki; Kim, Taeyeon; Soya, Takanori; Neya, Saburo; Oh, Juwon; Kim, Dongho; Osuka, Atsuhiro
2016-03-18
A rectangular [28]hexaphyrin bearing outer straps at the long side has been synthesized by SN Ar reaction of [26]hexaphyrin with allyl alcohol, intramolecular olefin metathesis by using Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst, and reduction with NaBH4 . The peripheral straps enforce a rectangular conformation for the [28]hexaphyrin, which shows Hückel antiaromatic character, as confirmed by its planar X-ray structure, a strong paratropic ring current, characteristic UV/Vis/NIR absorption features, small electrochemical HOMO-LUMO gap, and very fast S1 decay. PMID:26870921
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niketic, Nemanja; Milanovic, Vitomir; Radovanovic, Jelena
2012-01-01
In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of the energy position and type of transmission maxima in rectangular quantum wells (QWs), taking into consideration the difference of electron effective masses in the barrier and well layers. Particular attention is given to transmission maxima that are less than unity and the implications of effective…
Nonlinear Theory of Entrainment in EEG Under Photo-Stimulation by Periodic Rectangular Pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konno, H.; Chatani, H.; Sakata, A.; Tobimatsu, S.
2007-07-01
Nonlinear theory of entrainment is presented based on a generalized Kubo oscillator (GKO) wherein effect of frequency modulation and that of photo-stimulation with periodic rectangular pulse are accounted. It is shown that the GKO model gives qualitative properties of nonlinear responses under the photo-stimulation in human brain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mastin, C. W.; Thompson, J. F.
1978-01-01
A transformation method is developed which may be used to solve various types of boundary value problems on three-dimensional regions with an arbitrary boundary. The implementation of the method is illustrated in the solution of a potential flow problem. All computations are performed on a cubic mesh in a rectangular region.
Effects of Aerodynamic Tabs onExhaust Noise from a Rectangular Plug Nozzle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Mikiya; Sano, Takayuki; Kojima, Takayuki; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Shiga, Seiichi; Obokata, Tomio
Effects of aerodynamic tabs on exhaust noise from a rectangular plug nozzle were investigated experimentally. In JAXA (Japan Aerospace Explanation Agency), a pre-cooled turbojet engine for the 1st stage propulsion of a TSTO (Two stage to orbit) is planned. In the present study, a 1/100-scaled model of the rectangular plug nozzle for the pre-cooled turbojet engine is manufactured and the exhaust noise characteristics were investigated. Compressed air is injected through the rectangular plug nozzle into the atmosphere. The nozzle pressure ratio was set at 2.7, which corresponds to the take-off condition of the vehicle. Aerodynamic tabs were installed at the ramp end (Upper AT), the cowl end (Lower AT) and the sidewall end (Side AT). The SPL (Sound pressure level) was measured with a high-frequency microphone. Without AT, the sound spectrum has a broadband peak at which the SPL is around 105dB. For Lower and Side ATs, the OASPL (Overall SPL) of the exhaust noise decreases, especially around ramp end. At the maximum, the OASPL was reduced by 2.4dB with about 2% loss of the main jet total pressure at the cowl exit. It is shown that the aerodynamic tabs are effective in noise reduction in a rectangular plug nozzle.
The Effects of a Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon on Vehicle Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian
2011-01-01
In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal…
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...
Reflector spillover loss of an open-ended rectangular and circular waveguide feed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Shung Wu; Zimmerman, Martin L.
1990-06-01
An important and frequently used parameter in the design of a feed for a reflector antenna is the spillover loss. A set of spillover curves is presented for several common feeds, namely circular waveguides with TE11 or TE21 excitations, rectangular guides for the monopulse application, etc. The difference between two common methods of normalizing the feed input power is also discussed.
Reflector spillover loss of an open-ended rectangular and circular waveguide feed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Shung WU; Zimmerman, Martin L.
1990-01-01
An important and frequently used parameter in the design of a feed for a reflector antenna is the spillover loss. A set of spillover curves is presented for several common feeds, namely circular waveguides with TE11 or TE21 excitations, rectangular guides for the monopulse application, etc. The difference between two common methods of normalizing the feed input power is also discussed.
Fast Poisson, Fast Helmholtz and fast linear elastostatic solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds
Wiegmann, A.
1999-06-01
FFT-based fast Poisson and fast Helmholtz solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds for periodic boundary conditions in one-, two and three space dimensions can also be used to solve Dirichlet and Neumann boundary value problems. For non-zero boundary conditions, this is the special, grid-aligned case of jump corrections used in the Explicit Jump Immersed Interface method. Fast elastostatic solvers for periodic boundary conditions in two and three dimensions can also be based on the FFT. From the periodic solvers we derive fast solvers for the new 'normal' boundary conditions and essential boundary conditions on rectangular parallelepipeds. The periodic case allows a simple proof of existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the discretization of normal boundary conditions. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the fast elastostatic solvers for non-periodic boundary conditions. More importantly, the fast solvers on rectangular parallelepipeds can be used together with the Immersed Interface Method to solve problems on non-rectangular domains with general boundary conditions. Details of this are reported in the preprint The Explicit Jump Immersed Interface Method for 2D Linear Elastostatics by the author.
Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea
2015-11-01
The characteristics of thermomagnetic convective flow in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and filled with oil-based nanofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.), so called ferrofluid, were numerically investigated. The enclosure contained obstacles with rectangular or triangular configurations mounted on the top and bottom walls. To generate homogeneous magnetic fields, a permanent magnet with a uniform magnetic field strength of 600 kA/m was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and specified the horizontal or vertical direction. Coupling calculations between thermal-flow field and magnetic field in the analysis model were performed using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field directions and that the eddy flow phenomena in the rectangular enclosure were generated in the vicinity of the section of high magnetic flux density fields such as the edge of the permanent magnet. The effect of parameters like temperature distributions and local Nusselt number (Nu) profiles on the thermomagnetic convective flow was graphically depicted with various flow conditions. PMID:26726559
Matrix of rectangular pores obtained by AFM nanoindentation and electrolytic oxidation of Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belca, I. D.; Petkovic, M.; Stojadinovic, S.; Kasalica, B.; Belca, J. S.; Zekovic, Lj. D.
2011-07-01
AFM nanoindentation is used for pretexturing of Al sample intended for anodic oxidation in porous film-forming electrolytes. The rectangular quadratic and non-quadratic matrices of nanoindents were made by means of an AFM with diamond tip. The period of the 2D array of nanoindented concaves ranged from ˜50 to ˜370 nm. The pitch of the holes ranged from 13 to 170 nm. After anodization in water solutions of three different acids (0.3 M sulfuric, 0.3 M oxalic and 0.3 M phosphoric) at voltages chosen according to matrix period (20, 30 and 160 V), the well-arranged matrices of rectangular pores were obtained. The rectangular symmetry of the pretextured Al surface almost ideally transferred on porous alumina matrix, maintaining the highly ordered arrangement of the pores and rectangular cross section trough the whole film thickness with high pore depth to aperture size aspect ratio. During prolonged anodization in phosphoric acid, standard cells on the boundary of nanoindented area disturbed the arrangement and shape of quadratic cells.
Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea
2015-11-01
The characteristics of thermomagnetic convective flow in a rectangular enclosure heated from below and filled with oil-based nanofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.), so called ferrofluid, were numerically investigated. The enclosure contained obstacles with rectangular or triangular configurations mounted on the top and bottom walls. To generate homogeneous magnetic fields, a permanent magnet with a uniform magnetic field strength of 600 kA/m was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and specified the horizontal or vertical direction. Coupling calculations between thermal-flow field and magnetic field in the analysis model were performed using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. Results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field directions and that the eddy flow phenomena in the rectangular enclosure were generated in the vicinity of the section of high magnetic flux density fields such as the edge of the permanent magnet. The effect of parameters like temperature distributions and local Nusselt number (Nu) profiles on the thermomagnetic convective flow was graphically depicted with various flow conditions.
Transverse coherent instability of a bunch in a rectangular potential well
Balbekov, V.; /Fermilab
2006-04-01
Theory of transverse instability of a bunch in a rectangular potential well is developed. Series of equations adequately describing the instability is derived and solved both analytically and numerically. Dependence of the instability increment and threshold on bunch factor is investigated for various beam coupling impedances. The theory is applied to the Fermilab Recycler Ring.
Developing Multiplicative Thinking with Rectangular Array Tasks in a Computer Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Amy I-Yu
2013-01-01
This study reports findings from a teaching experiment in which 4th grade children engaged in solving multiplication tasks with rectangular arrays in a computer environment. The environment provided flexible task-solving through dynamic virtual manipulatives (VMs) so children could use their existing knowledge of multiplication to complete array…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Qiang; Du, Xiuli; Zhou, Yihui; Lee, George C.
2013-09-01
To investigate the seismic performance of hollow reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns of rectangular cross section under constant axial load and cyclically biaxial bending, five specimens were tested. A parametric study is carried out for different axial load ratios, longitudinal reinforcement ratios and lateral reinforcement ratios. The experimental results showed that all tested specimens failed in the flexural failure mode and their ultimate performance was dominated by flexural capacity, which is represented by the rupture/buckling of tensile longitudinal rebars at the bottom of the bridge columns. Biaxial force and displacement hysteresis loops showed significant stiffness and strength degradations, and the pinching effect and coupling interaction effect of both directions severely decrease the structural seismic resistance. However, the measured ductility coefficient varying from 3.5 to 5.7 and the equivalent viscous damping ratio varying from 0.19 and 0.26 can meet the requirements of the seismic design. The hollow RC rectangular bridge columns with configurations of lateral reinforcement in this study have excellent performance under bidirectional earthquake excitations, and may be considered as a substitute for current hollow RC rectangular section configurations described in the Guideline for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges (JTG/T B02-01-2008). The length of the plastic hinge region was found to approach one sixth of the hollow RC rectangular bridge column height for all specimen columns, and it was much less than those specified in the current JTG/T. Thus, the length of the plastic hinge region is more concentrated for RC rectangular hollow bridge columns.
Tantawi, Sami G.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Yeremian, Anahid D.
2016-03-15
A high-power microwave RF window is provided that includes a cylindrical waveguide, where the cylindrical waveguide includes a ceramic disk concentrically housed in a central region of the cylindrical waveguide, a first rectangular waveguide, where the first rectangular waveguide is connected by a first elliptical joint to a proximal end of the cylindrical waveguide, and a second rectangular waveguide, where the second rectangular waveguide is connected by a second elliptical joint to a distal end of the cylindrical waveguide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashirbayev, Nurgali; Ashirbayeva, Zhansaya; Sultanbek, Turlybek; Bekmoldayeva, Raina
2016-08-01
In this work we consider the problem of the propagation of non stationary stress waves in an elastic body with a rectangular hole in the linear formulation. The wave process is caused by applying an external dynamic load on the front boundary of the rectangular region and the lateral boundaries are free of the stress. The lower boundary of the rectangular region is rigidly fixed, and the contour of the rectangular hole is free from the stress. The problem is solved by using the difference method of the spatial characteristics. On the basis of the developed numerical methods it is obtained the computational finite - difference relations of the dynamic problems at the corner points of the rectangular hole, where the first and second derivatives of the unknown functions have a discontinuity of the first kind. We analyze the dynamic stress fields in an elastic body with a rectangular hole and we studied the concentration of dynamic stresses in the vicinity of the corner points of the rectangular opening.
Zhang, H-Q; Akram, N; Skog, P; Soroka, I L; Trautmann, C; Schuch, R
2012-05-11
We report on an unexpected effect of tailoring transmission profiles of Ne(7+) ions through nanocapillaries of rhombic and rectangular cross sections in mica. We find that capillaries of rhombic cross sections produce rectangular shaped ion transmission profiles and, vice versa, that capillaries of rectangular geometry give a rhombic beam shape. This shaping effect only occurs for transmitted ions and is absent for the small fraction of neutralized particles. The experimental findings and simulations of the projectile trajectories give clear evidence that the observed effect is due to the image forces experienced by the transmitting ions. This novel beam shaping mechanism suggests applications for the guiding, focusing, and shaping of ion beams.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.-Q.; Akram, N.; Skog, P.; Soroka, I. L.; Trautmann, C.; Schuch, R.
2012-05-01
We report on an unexpected effect of tailoring transmission profiles of Ne7+ ions through nanocapillaries of rhombic and rectangular cross sections in mica. We find that capillaries of rhombic cross sections produce rectangular shaped ion transmission profiles and, vice versa, that capillaries of rectangular geometry give a rhombic beam shape. This shaping effect only occurs for transmitted ions and is absent for the small fraction of neutralized particles. The experimental findings and simulations of the projectile trajectories give clear evidence that the observed effect is due to the image forces experienced by the transmitting ions. This novel beam shaping mechanism suggests applications for the guiding, focusing, and shaping of ion beams.
Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark
Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.
1988-01-01
The effect of a standing wave field in a rectangular chamber on the shape and location of an acoustically positioned drop or bubble is calculated. The sample deformation and equilibrium position are obtained from an analysis of the spherical harmonic projections of the total surface stress tensor. The method of calculation relies on the assumed condition that the sample is only slightly distorted from a spherical form. The equilibrium location of a levitated drop is combined with a formula introduced by Hasegawa (1979) to calcualte the ka dependence of the radiation force function. The present theory is valid for large as well as small ka values. Calculations in the small ka limit agree with previous theories and experimental results. Examples are presented for nonplane-wave modes as well as plane-wave rectangular modes.
Scattered acoustic field above a grating of non-parallel rectangular cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanfir, A.; Faiz, A.; Ducourneau, J.; Chatillon, J.; Lami, S. Skali
2016-01-01
Geometric or acoustical irregularities induces acoustic scattering. In this paper, a generalization of the model proposed by Khanfir et al. [8] (Journal of Sound and Vibration 332 (4) (2013)) to determine the scattered acoustic field above gratings of parallel rectangular cavities is developed, addressing the case of gratings of non-parallel rectangular cavities. The results provided by the model were compared both to numerical results, obtained with the finite element method, and to experimental ones. The observed agreement between the analytical predictions and the numerical and experimental results supports the validity of the proposed model. The coupling between the different cavities was investigated, in order to attain an explanation for its dependence on frequency and on the spacing between cavities.
3D thermal analysis of rectangular microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes in a pulsed operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Y.; Bian, Z.; Li, Y.; Xing, Y.; Song, J.
2016-10-01
Microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (µ-ILEDs) have attracted much attention due to their excellent performance in biointegrated applications such as optogenetics. The thermal behaviors of µ-ILEDs are critically important since a certain temperature increase may degrade the LED performance and cause tissue lesion. The µ-ILEDs in a pulsed operation offer an advantage in thermal management. In this paper, a 3D analytic model, as validated by finite element analysis, is developed to study the thermal response of rectangular µ-ILEDs in a pulsed operation. A scaling law for the maximum normalized temperature increase of rectangular µ-ILEDs in terms of non-dimensional parameters is established. The influences of geometric (i.e. shape factor) and loading parameters (e.g. duty cycle and period) on the temperature increase are systematically investigated. These results are very helpful in designing µ-ILEDs by providing guidelines to avoid adverse thermal effects.
Blind, B.
1990-01-01
A scheme has been developed to produce a well-confined rectangular beam-intensity distribution of greatly enhanced uniformity from initially-peaked intensity distributions such as Gaussian or parabolic distributions without beam scraping. This scheme employs a system of linear and nonlinear transport-line elements. The linear elements prepare the beam for the nonlinear focusing and govern the beam size at the target. Uniformity is achieved with octupoles, and beam confinement is assured with duodecapoles. The scheme was applied to the target focus for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) system. An initially Gaussian-distributed beam of 1.6-GeV protons was shaped into a rectangular 4 m by 2 m beam spot of acceptably uniform intensity at the tritium-production target. The scheme eliminates the need for sweeping the beam in a raster pattern to produce uniform target illumination. Details of the scheme are discussed.
A calculation method for developing turbulent flow in rectangular ducts of arbitrary aspect ratio
Naimi, M.; Gessner, F.B.
1995-06-01
This paper describes a full Reynolds stress transport equation model for predicting developing turbulent flow in rectangular ducts. The pressure-strain component of the model is based on a modified form of the Launder, Reece and Rodi pressure-strain model and the use of a linear wall damping function. Predications based on this model are compared with predications referred to high Reynolds number and low Reynolds number {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equation models and with experimental data taken in square and rectangular ducts. The results indicate that the proposed model yields improved predictions of primary flow development and Reynolds stress behavior in a square duct. The proposed model also yields Reynolds stress anisotropy and secondary flow levels that are compatible and agree well with experiment, without recourse to a quadratic damping function to model near-wall pressure-strain behavior.
Natural Frequencies of Rectangular Plate With- and Without-Rotary Inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalita, Kanak; Haldar, Salil
2016-07-01
A nine-node isoparametric plate element, in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory, was used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates. Both thick and thin plate problems were solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this work, the primary focus is on the effect of rotary inertia on the natural frequencies of rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia significantly affects thick plates, while it can be ignored for thin plates. The numerical convergence is very rapid and based on a comparison with data from the literature; it is proposed that the present formulation can yield highly accurate results. Finally, some numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmarks for future research on similar problems.
Synthesis and Raman spectrum of crystalline indium oxide micro-rods with rectangular cross-section
Yadav, Kavita Mehta, B. R. Singh, J. P.
2014-04-24
Indium oxide (IO) micro-rods with rectangular cross section were synthesized without catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system by carbothermal reduction of indium oxide at 900 °C. The rectangular micro-rods (RMRs) were grown on Si substrate in presence of water vapors and Ar atmosphere. Water was used as oxidizing reagent which controls the In/O stoichiometry in RMRs. The IO RMRs have dimensions of about 20 μm in length and about 1 μm width. The growth process involved in formation of RMRs is vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. Raman analysis was performed to obtain the phonon modes of the RMRs and the peaks of Raman spectrum were indexed to the modes being associated with bcc−In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.
Acoustic plane waves incident on an oblique clamped panel in a rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unz, H.; Roskam, J.
1980-01-01
The theory of acoustic plane waves incident on an oblique clamped panel in a rectangular duct was developed from basic theoretical concepts. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the oblique incident acoustic plane wave in infinite space was considered in detail, and was used for the oblique clamped panel in the rectangular duct. The partial differential equation which governs the vibrations of the clamped panel (plate) was modified by adding to it stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces. The Transmission Loss coefficient and the Noise Reduction coefficient for oblique incidence were defined and derived in detail. The resonance frequencies excited by the free vibrations of the oblique finite clamped panel (plate) were derived and calculated in detail for the present case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molin, Bernard; Remy, Fabien
2013-11-01
Rectangular tanks partially filled with water and fitted with vertical perforated screens have been proposed as Tuned Liquid Dampers to mitigate the vibratory response of land buildings, under wind or earthquake excitation. Similar devices are used as anti-rolling tanks aboard ships. Experiments are performed on a rectangular tank with one screen at mid length. The tank is subjected to forced horizontal and rolling motions, harmonic and irregular. The open-area ratio of the screen is kept constant while the motion amplitudes and frequencies are varied. The frequency range covers the first three natural sloshing modes of the clean tank (without screen). Force measurements are converted into matrices of added mass/inertia and damping coefficients. A simple numerical model is proposed, based on linearized potential flow theory and quadratic discharge equation at the screen, following earlier works by the first author. Good agreement is reported between experimental and numerical hydrodynamic coefficients.
Aeroelastic Studies of a Rectangular Wing with a Hole: Correlation of Theory and Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conyers, Howard J.; Dowell, Earl H.; Hall, Kenneth C.
2010-01-01
Two rectangular wing models with a hole have been designed and tested in the Duke University wind tunnel to better understand the effects of damage. A rectangular hole is used to simulate damage. The wing with a hole is modeled structurally as a thin elastic plate using the finite element method. The unsteady aerodynamics of the plate-like wing with a hole is modeled using the doublet lattice method. The aeroelastic equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's equation. The flutter boundary is found using the V-g method. The hole's location effects the wing's mass, stiffness, aerodynamics and therefore the aeroelastic behavior. Linear theoretical models were shown to be capable of predicting the critical flutter velocity and frequency as verified by wind tunnel tests.
Qi, Jinyi; Klein, Gregory J.; Huesman, Ronald H.
2000-10-01
A positron emission mammography scanner is under development at our Laboratory. The tomograph has a rectangular geometry consisting of four banks of detector modules. For each detector, the system can measure the depth of interaction information inside the crystal. The rectangular geometry leads to irregular radial and angular sampling and spatially variant sensitivity that are different from conventional PET systems. Therefore, it is of importance to study the image properties of the reconstructions. We adapted the theoretical analysis that we had developed for conventional PET systems to the list mode likelihood reconstruction for this tomograph. The local impulse response and covariance of the reconstruction can be easily computed using FFT. These theoretical results are also used with computer observer models to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for lesion detection. The analysis reveals the spatially variant resolution and noise properties of the list mode likelihood reconstruction. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with Monte Carlo results.
High-Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch covered with a dielectric layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedra, Sami; Fortaki, Tarek
2016-05-01
This paper presents a full-wave method to calculate the resonant characteristics of rectangular microstrip antenna with and without dielectric cover, to explain the difference of performance with temperature between superconducting and normal conducting antenna. Especially the characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) antenna were almost ideal around the critical temperature (Tc). The dyadic Green's functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The computed results are found to be in good agreement with results obtained using other methods. Also, the effects of the superstrate on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of rectangular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. This type of configuration can be used for wider bandwidth by proper selection of superstrate thickness and its dielectric constants.
Stability of Capillary Surfaces in Rectangular Containers: The Right Square Cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weislogel, M. M.; Hsieh, K. C.
1998-01-01
The linearized governing equations for an ideal fluid are presented for numerical analysis for the stability of free capillary surfaces in rectangular containers against unfavorable disturbances (accelerations,i.e. Rayleigh-Taylor instability). The equations are solved for the case of the right square cylinder. The results are expressed graphically in term of a critical Bond number as a function of system contact angle. A critical wetting phenomena in the corners is shown to significantly alter the region of stability for such containers in contrast to simpler geometries such as the right circular cylinder or the infinite rectangular slot. Such computational results provide additional constraints for the design of fluids systems for space-based applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Chuanqiang; Gong, Xiangxiang; Qu, Yun; Han, Jie
2016-08-01
A modified interfacial polymerization of aniline is developed to fabricate hydrophobic and adhesive polyaniline (PANI) layer of rectangular microtubes on the glass substrate. The modified method uses pentanol as an organic medium to dissolve aniline monomer, with the water film of oxidant and surfactant on the glass substrate as water phase. The effects of some synthetic parameters (such as monomer concentration, alcohol molecular structure and surfactant type) on the morphology of PANI layer are studied for better understanding the fabrication of PANI nanostructures on the film. The alcohol molecular structure plays key role for the supermolecular assembly of PANI chains into nanostructures, while the surfactant may direct the array and deposition of these nanostructures on the glass substrate. The formation reason of PANI rectangular sub-microtubes is roughly interpreted according to our previous works. Wettability experiment indicates that the as-prepared PANI layer exhibits excellent hydrophobicity and high adhesive properties to water drop.
Application of a type of new admissible function to the vibration of rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhou
1994-07-01
A new fast converging series consisting of static beam functions under point load is used as admissible functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to study the problem of the flexural vibration of thin, isotropic rectangular plates. The admissible sets of displacement functions are obtained by varying the location of the point load applied to the beam. Which type of admissible function to be selected depends on the boundary conditions of the plate. Some numerical results are given for the rectangular plates with various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the method may be used to tackle such plate problems and has high accuracy and good convergence compared with the available results, the calculations of mass and rigid matrices being very simple.
Vibrations and stability of a periodically supported rectangular plate immersed in axial flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tubaldi, E.; Amabili, M.
2013-05-01
Vibrations and stability of a thin rectangular plate, infinitely long and wide, periodically supported in both directions (so that it is composed by an infinite number of supported rectangular plates with slope continuity at the edges) and immersed in axial liquid flow on its upper side is studied theoretically. The flow is bounded by a rigid wall and the model is based on potential flow theory. The Galerkin method is applied to determine the expression of the flow perturbation potential. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz method is used to discretize the system. The stability of the coupled system is analyzed by solving the eigenvalue problem as a function of the flow velocity; divergence instability is detected. The convergence analysis is presented to determine the accuracy of the computed eigenfrequencies and stability limits. Finally, the effects of the plate aspect ratio and of the channel height ratio on the critical velocity giving divergence instability and vibration frequencies are investigated.
Free in-plane vibration analysis of rectangular plates by the method of superposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorman, D. J.
2004-05-01
The superposition method is introduced as a means for obtaining analytical-type solutions for free in-plane vibration of rectangular plates. The governing differential equations and boundary conditions are expressed in dimensionless form. The problem of free in-plane vibration of the completely free rectangular plate is resolved for illustrative purposes. Convergence is found to be rapid and excellent agreement between computed results and those obtained by previous authors utilizing the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method is obtained. It is pointed out that following procedures analogous to those utilized in resolving lateral plate vibration problems, in-plane free vibration problems related to point supported plates, plates with in-plane elastic boundary support, etc., are now amenable to solution by this method.
Analysis of the flow-induced vibrations of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Junhong; Siegmund, Thomas; Mongeau, Luc
2003-03-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model for the flow-induced vibration of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates. In particular, the influence of the dynamic mechanical properties of the elements supporting the plate was investigated. The case of a homogeneous rectangular plate supported along all four edges by a complex viscoelastic element was treated. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used applying beam functions as the trial functions. This approach ensured a fast convergence rate, which is advantageous for vibration analysis of high order modes. The flow-induced vibration of the plate was calculated using the Corcos model for the surface pressure loading. The results suggest that there is an optimal support stiffness that minimizes the flow-induced vibration response of the plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chia-Nien; Chen, Lien-Wen
2016-07-01
Self-collimation is wave propagation in straight path without diffraction. The performance is evaluated by bandwidth, angular collimating range and straightness of equi-frequency contours. The present study aims to manipulate the self-collimated beam in square-array phononic crystals by means of orientated rectangular inclusions. Finite element simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the aspect ratio and orientation angle of rectangular inclusions on the self-collimated beam. The simulation results show that the proposed design successfully achieves all-angle self-collimation phenomenon. In addition, it also shows that the propagation direction of a self-collimated beam can be effectively manipulated by varying the orientation angle of inclusions. Numerical simulation result of the S-shaped bend demonstrates that acoustic collimated beam can be steered with negligible diffraction. Overall, the proposed design has significant potential for the realization of applications such as collimators, acoustic waveguides and other phononic crystals-based systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.; Shipley, C.
1988-11-01
The effect of a standing wave field in a rectangular chamber on the shape and location of an acoustically positioned drop or bubble is calculated. The sample deformation and equilibrium position are obtained from an analysis of the spherical harmonic projections of the total surface stress tensor. The method of calculation relies on the assumed condition that the sample is only slightly distorted from a spherical form. The equilibrium location of a levitated drop is combined with a formula introduced by Hasegawa (1979) to calcualte the ka dependence of the radiation force function. The present theory is valid for large as well as small ka values. Calculations in the small ka limit agree with previous theories and experimental results. Examples are presented for nonplane-wave modes as well as plane-wave rectangular modes.
Control of electromagnetic edge effects in electrically-small rectangular plasma reactors
Trampel, Christopher P.; Stieler, Daniel S.
2012-09-15
Electromagnetic fields supported by rectangular reactors for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are studied theoretically. Expressions for the fields in an electrically-small rectangular reactor with plasma in the chamber are derived. Modal field decompositions are employed under the homogeneous plasma slab approximation. The amplitude of each mode is determined analytically. It is shown that the field can be represented by the standing wave, evanescent waves tied to the edges, and an evanescent wave tied to the corners of the reactor. The impact of boundary conditions at the plasma edge on nonuniformity is quantified. Uniformity may be improved by placing a lossy magnetic layer on the reactor sidewalls. It is demonstrated that nonuniformity is a decreasing function of layer thickness.
Non-Newtonian fluid laminar flow and forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts
Gao, S.X.; Hartnett, J.P. . Energy Resources Center)
1992-09-01
Numerical solutions for fully developed laminar flow forced convection heat transfer of a power law non-Newtonian fluid in rectangular ducts are presented in this paper. Finite difference methods are developed for the governing equations to obtain the velocity and temperature distributions. Friction factor results are given for flow through rectangular ducts of aspect ratios of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 with power law index n values of 0.5 to 1.0. For the same flow conditions the Nusselt values, maximum wall temperatures, and minimum wall temperatures for the H2 thermal boundary condition for different combinations of heated and adiabatic walls are obtained. Also the Nusselt values for slug flow (n = 0) are presented for the H2 boundary condition.
Switching networks for realisation of variable DC transformers coupled to rectangular arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singer, S.
1982-06-01
The process by which the structure of a rectangular array with variable interconnections is changed can be described by an equivalent circuit in which a nonvariable array is coupled to the load by means of a variable 'DC transformer' (DCT). This kind of array can be applied in cases in which it is necessary to match the source and the load, when either one or both are composed of identical elements which can be organized into a rectangular array structure. Applications of the considered approach are related to maximum power trackers of photovoltaic systems, voltage multipliers, electric cars, and a special type of DC/AC convertor. A description is presented of the realization of a variable array by means of switching networks using a minimum number of switching elements.
Flows caused by rise of a rectangular bar partially immersed in shallow water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsovaa, V. V.; Ostapenko, V. V.
2016-03-01
The wave flows caused by the vertical rise of a rectangular bar partially immersed in shallow water filling a rectangular prismatic channel with a horizontal bottom are investigated. Such flows are modeled within the framework of the first approximation of the theory of shallow water disregarding the effect of drag, the viscosity of the fluid, and its surface tension. The case is considered when at the second stage of flow at which the edges of the lower surface of the bar start to come out from the water, the pressure in the region of contact of the bar with the fluid is less than atmospheric one. For this case, an explicit formula setting the law of motion of this boundary is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Lin; Ju, Shenghong; Liang, Xingang; Zhang, Xing
2016-09-01
Using the atomistic Green’s functions method in combination with the Landauer formula, we show that the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of periodic rectangular-shaped and triangular-shaped Si/Ge interfaces are both enhanced and tunable by roughness. For triangular-shaped interface, there is maximum phonon transmission and conductance with increasing roughness height, and the conductance can be tuned maximally by 22.3% compared with the flat interface. The maximum conductance of rectangular-shaped interface is enhanced by about 11.1%. The competing mechanisms between the broadening frequency transport window of rough interface and the increasing diffusing phonon scattering at the interface with higher roughness introduce the maximum transmission and conductance. Similar result is also obtained in non-periodic interfaces. The presented results provide insights into the thermal design of interfaces in nanoscale devices.
Jalinous, Reza; Lisanby, Sarah H.
2013-01-01
A novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device with controllable pulse width (PW) and near rectangular pulse shape (cTMS) is described. The cTMS device uses an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with appropriate snubbers to switch coil currents up to 7 kA, enabling PW control from 5 μs to over 100 μs. The near-rectangular induced electric field pulses use 22–34% less energy and generate 67–72% less coil heating compared to matched conventional cosine pulses. CTMS is used to stimulate rhesus monkey motor cortex in vivo with PWs of 20 to 100 μs, demonstrating the expected decrease of threshold pulse amplitude with increasing PW. The technological solutions used in the cTMS prototype can expand functionality, and reduce power consumption and coil heating in TMS, enhancing its research and therapeutic applications. PMID:18232369
Laser-Excited Electronic and Thermal Elastic Vibrations in a Semiconductor Rectangular Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todorović, D. M.; Cretin, B.; Vairac, P.; Song, Y. Q.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.
2013-09-01
Photoacoustic and photothermal effects can be important as driven mechanisms for micro-(opto)-electro-mechanical structures (MOEMS). A new approach for a producing a compact, lightweight, highly sensitive detector is provided by MOEMS technology, which is based on the elastic bending of microstructure generated by absorption of modulated optical power. The electronic and thermal elastic vibrations (the electronic deformation and thermoelastic mechanisms of elastic wave generation) in a semiconductor rectangular simply supported plate (3D geometry), photogenerated by a focused and intensity-modulated laser beam, were studied. The theoretical model for the elastic displacements space and frequency distribution by using the Green function method was given. The amplitude of the elastic bending in the rectangular plate was calculated and analyzed, including the thermalization and surface and volume recombination heat sources. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental data. These investigations are important for many practical experimental situations (atomic force microscopy, thermal microscopy, thermoelastic microscopy, etc.) and sensors and actuators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiss, Robert; Barton, Oscar; Thigpen, Lewis; Aung, Win; Qian, Bo
A new closed-form approximation for the fundamental frequency of symmetric rectangular laminates subject to all combinations of hinged and clamped boundary conditions is presented. The distributed parameter eigenvalue equation is cast in an equivalent infinitely-dimensional discrete form. The stiffness and mass matrices are each decomposed into the sum of two matrices, one of which is diagonal while the other contains zero diagonal elements. Design sensitivity analysis is used to expand the desired eigenfrequency in a Maclaurin series of the zero diagonal matrices. The general formula thus obtained is then specialized to rectangular symmetric laminated plates. The remarkable accuracy of this new formula is established by numerical comparisons of results calculated from it to those obtained from the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method.
Implementation of rectangular slit-inserted ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna.
Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You
2016-01-01
In this paper, a tapered slot antenna capable of ultra-wideband communication was designed. In the proposed antenna, rectangular slits were inserted to enhance the bandwidth and reduce the area of the antenna. The rectangular slit-inserted tapered slot antenna operated at a bandwidth of 8.45 GHz, and the bandwidth improved upon the basic tapered slot antenna by 4.72 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna was suitable for location recognition in a certain direction owing to an appropriate 3 dB beam width. The antenna gain was analyzed within the proposed bandwidth, and the highest gain characteristic at 7.55 dBi was exhibited at a 5-GHz band. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed tapered slot antenna were similar. PMID:27610306
Competitive growth of In2O3 nanorods with rectangular cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Youguo; Zhou, Lixia
2008-08-01
In2O3 nanorods with rectangular cross sections have been successfully synthesized using Au as a catalyst through chemical vapor deposition methods. The synthesized nanorods possessed larger size than that of the catalyst particle. The growth process was discussed through detailed theory analysis and experimental validation, and a competitive growth model between axial growth under the vapor liquid solid (VLS) mechanism and lateral growth controlled by the vapor solid (VS) mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of a rectangular cross section and the size change of the nanorods. The research regarding controlled growth under the two mechanisms, viz. VLS and VS, was beneficial for exploration into the controlled growth of complicated functional nanomaterials. Furthermore, the photoluminescence property was also studied.
Inelastic Stability Analysis Of Uniaxially Compressed Flat Rectangular Isotropic CCSS Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibearugbulem, O. M.; Eziefula, U. G.; Onwuka, D. O.
2015-08-01
This study investigates the inelastic stability of a thin flat rectangular isotropic plate subjected to uniform uniaxial compressive loads using Taylor-Maclaurin series formulated deflection function. The plate has clamped and simply supported edges in both characteristic directions (CCSS boundary conditions). The governing equation is derived using a deformation plasticity theory and a work principle. Values of the plate buckling coefficient are calculated for aspect ratios from 0.1 to 2.0 at intervals of 0.1. The results compared favourably with the elastic stability values and the percentage differences ranged from -0.353% to -7.427%. Therefore, the theoretical approach proposed in this study is recommended for the inelastic stability analysis of thin flat rectangular isotropic plates under uniform in-plane compression.
Simulation of natural convection in a rectangular loop using finite elements
Pepper, D W; Hamm, L L; Kehoe, A B
1984-01-01
A two-dimensional finite-element analysis of natural convection in a rectangular loop is presented. A psi-omega formulation of the Boussinesque approximation to the Navier-Stokes equation is solved by the false transient technique. Streamlines and isotherms at Ra = 10/sup 4/ are shown for three different modes of heating. The results indicate that corner effects should be considered when modeling flow patterns in thermosyphons.
Logically rectangular finite volume methods with adaptive refinement on the sphere.
Berger, Marsha J; Calhoun, Donna A; Helzel, Christiane; LeVeque, Randall J
2009-11-28
The logically rectangular finite volume grids for two-dimensional partial differential equations on a sphere and for three-dimensional problems in a spherical shell introduced recently have nearly uniform cell size, avoiding severe Courant number restrictions. We present recent results with adaptive mesh refinement using the GeoClaw software and demonstrate well-balanced methods that exactly maintain equilibrium solutions, such as shallow water equations for an ocean at rest over arbitrary bathymetry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peretti, Linda F.; Dowell, Earl H.
1989-01-01
Asymptotic modal analysis (AMA) is used to study a rectangular cavity with a flexible vibrating portion on one wall and five rigid walls. The agreement between mean square pressure levels of the cavity interior calculated from classical modal analysis and from the AMA method improved as the number of responding modes increased. It is shown that intensification effects were due to both the excitation location and the response location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. M.; Kim, K. C.
1995-11-01
An iterative Kantorovich method is presented for the vibration analysis of rectangular isotropic thick plates. Mindlin plate characteristic functions are derived in general forms by the Kantorovich method initially starting with Timoshenko beam functions consistent with the boundary conditions of the plate. Through numerical calculations of a natural pairs and dynamic responses of appropriate models, it has been confirmed that the method presented is superior to the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis or the FEM analysis in accuracy and computational efficiency.
The effects of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon on vehicle speed.
VanWagner, Michelle; Van Houten, Ron; Betts, Brian
2011-01-01
In 2008, nearly 31% of vehicle fatalities were related to failure to adhere to safe vehicle speeds (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2009). The current study evaluated the effect of a rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB) triggered by excessive speed on vehicle speed using a combined alternating treatments and reversal design. The percentage of vehicles traveling above 41 mph (66 km per hour) decreased by 20%, and speed distributions showed a shift toward lower speeds during the RRFB condition.
On the free flexural vibration of rectangular plates with straight or curved internal line supports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, P. G.; Dickinson, S. M.
1993-03-01
The Rayleigh-Ritz method is used, with simple polynomials as admissible functions, to obtain the eigenvalue equation for the free vibration of a rectangular plate which has an internal line support lying along a line describable in terms of a general polynomial. Numerical and graphical results are presented for plates with internal supports lying along straight lines, for which comparison results also exist, and for plates with the supports lying along different types of curves, including a central circular support.
Homogenization of rectangular cross-section fibre-reinforced materials: bending-torsion effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Jarroudi, Mustapha; Er-Riani, Mustapha
2016-07-01
We study the homogenization of an elastic material in contact with periodic parallel elastic rectangular cross-section fibres of higher rigidity. The interactions between the matrix and the fibres are described by a local adhesion contact law with interfacial adhesive stiffness parameter depending on the period. Assuming that the Lamé constants in the fibres and the stiffness parameter have appropriate orders of magnitude, we derive a class of energy functionals involving extension, flexure and torsion terms.
Interaction of a turbulent-jet noise source with transverse modes in a rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Succi, G. P.; Baumeister, K. J.; Ingard, K. U.
1978-01-01
A turbulent jet was used to excite transverse acoustic modes in a rectangular duct. The pressure spectrum showed asymmetric singularities (pressure spikes) at the resonant frequencies of the duct modes. This validates previously published theoretical results. These pressure spikes occurred over a range of jet velocities, orientations, and inlet turbulence levels. At the frequency of the spike, the measured transverse pressure shape matched the resonant mode shape.
Jet Surface Interaction Scrubbing Noise from High Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khavaran, Abbas; Bozak, Richard F.
2015-01-01
Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the airframe. Distributed propulsion system with exhaust configurations that resemble a high aspect ratio rectangular jet are among geometries of interest. Nearby solid surfaces could provide noise shielding for the purpose of reduced community noise. Interaction of high-speed jet exhaust with structure could also generate new sources of sound as a result of flow scrubbing past the structure, and or scattered noise from sharp edges. The present study provides a theoretical framework to predict the scrubbing noise component from a high aspect ratio rectangular exhaust in proximity of a solid surface. The analysis uses the Greens function (GF) to the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation in a transversely sheared mean flow. Sources of sound are defined as the auto-covariance function of second-rank velocity fluctuations in the jet plume, and are modeled using a RANS-based acoustic analogy approach. Acoustic predictions are presented in an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular exhaust at three subsonic Mach numbers. The effect of nearby surface on the scrubbing noise component is shown on both reflected and shielded sides of the plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y. L.; Zhu, Y. X.; Dong, W. Q.; Yang, H.
2013-01-01
Springback is inevitable for thin-walled rectangular 3A21 tube in rotary-draw bending process, and Young's modulus is a crucial material property parameter affecting springback simulation. Therefore, to improve the springback prediction precision, the variation of Young's modulus with plastic deformation for 3A21 material is studied through a repeated loading-unloading experiment, and a piecewise linear function is given out to describe the relationship between Young's modulus and plastic strain, which is considered into a new material constitutive model combined with the Von-Mises yield function and the Swift isotropic hardening rule. Furthermore, a finite element springback prediction model is established by means of this new constitutive model for rotary-draw bending process of thin-walled rectangular 3A21 tube, and its reliability is validated experimentally. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data show that, the accuracy of springback prediction can be improved significantly by 18.02% when the variation of Young's modulus is considered. On the basis of the established model, the stress distribution field of thin-walled rectangular 3A21 tube in the whole rotary-draw bending process is obtained and analyzed.
Off-axis negative-branch unstable resonator in rectangular geometry.
Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin Maria; Handke, Jürgen
2011-01-01
The application of an off-axis negative-branch unstable resonator to an active medium of rectangular geometry is examined. The presented unstable resonator consists of spherical mirrors and a scraper mirror. The adaptation to the rectangular cross section is performed by the scraper, which takes two different shapes. One shape resembles a rectangular bracket "[" and the other resembles the letter "L." The [ and L configurations correspond to a shift of the optical axis away from the center of the cross section, toward one of the edges or toward one of the corners, respectively. Both scraper setups are examined numerically and experimentally. Experiments are performed with a multikilowatt class chemical oxygen iodine laser. The active medium is characterized by a low amplification coefficient. Measured results of the intensity distribution in the far field and of the phase distribution in the near field are shown for both resonator configurations. Using the same resonator magnification, the setup with the L-shaped scraper has a lower output coupling and, therefore, a higher output power and a slightly higher beam divergence. The L-shaped scraper configuration is able to cover the gain medium completely. PMID:21221153
Buckling analysis of moderately thick rectangular plates using coupled displacement field method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meera Saheb, K.; Aruna, K.
2015-12-01
A simple and efficient coupled displacement field method is developed to study the buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates. This method has been successfully applied to study the same for the Timoshenko beams. A single term trigonometric admissible displacement field is assumed for one of the variables, say, the total rotations (in both X, Y directions). Making use of the coupling equations, the spatial variation for the remaining lateral displacement field is derived in terms of the total rotations. The coupled displacement field method makes the energy formulation to contains half the number of unknown independent coefficients, in the case of a rectangular plate, contrary to the conventional Rayleigh-Ritz method. The expressions for the non-dimensional buckling load parameters of the moderately thick rectangular plates with all the edges simply supported are derived. The numerical values of these parameters obtained using the coupled displacement field method match very well with open literature demonstrating the effectiveness of the coupled displacement field method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reichert, B. A.; Hingst, W. R.; Okiishi, T. H.
1991-01-01
Circular-to-rectangular transition ducts are used as exhaust system components of aircraft with rectangular exhaust nozzles. Often, the incoming flow of these transition ducts includes a swirling velocity component remaining from the gas turbine engine. Previous transition duct studies have either not included inlet swirl or when inlet swirl was considered, only overall performance parameters were evaluated. Circular-to-rectangular transition duct flows with and without inlet swirl were explored in order to understand the effect of inlet swirl on the transition duct flow field and to provide detailed duct flow data for comparison with numerical code predictions. A method was devised to create a swirling, solid body rotational flow with minimal associated disturbances. Coefficients based on velocities and total and static pressures measured incross stream planes at four axial locations within the transition duct, along with surface static pressure measurements and surface oil film visualization, are presented for both nonswirling and swirling incoming flow. In both cases the inlet centerline Mach number was 0.35. The Reynolds number based on the inlet centerline velocity and duct inlet diameter was 1,547,000 for nonswirling and 1,366,000 for swirling flow. The maximum swirl angle was 15.6 deg. Two pair of counter-rotating side wall vortices appeared in the duct flow without inlet swirl. These vortices were absent in the swirling incoming flow cases.
Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, James W.
1999-01-01
This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzales, Brian; Spronk, Derrek; Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Xiaochuan; Beckmann, Moritz; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping
2013-03-01
XinRay Systems Inc has a rectangular x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging setup using multibeam x-ray tubes. These multibeam x-ray tubes are based on cold cathodes using carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters. Due to their unique design, a CNT x-ray tube can contain a dense array of independently controlled electron emitters which generate a linear array of x-ray focal spots. XinRay uses a set of linear CNT x-ray tubes to design and construct a stationary CT setup which achieves sufficient CT coverage from a fixed set of views. The CT system has no moving gantry, enabling it to be enclosed in a compact rectangular tunnel. The fixed locations of the x-ray focal spots were optimized through simulations. The rectangular shape creates significant variation in path length from the focal spots to the detector for different x-ray views. The shape also results in unequal x-ray coverage in the imaged space. We discuss the impact of this variation on the reconstruction. XinRay uses an iterative reconstruction algorithm to account for this unique geometry, which is implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). The fixed focal spots prohibit the use of an antiscatter grid. Quantitative measure of the scatter and its impact on the reconstruction will be discussed. These results represent the first known implementation of a completely stationary CT setup using CNT x-ray emitter arrays.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simons, Rainee N.
2000-01-01
The paper demonstrates suspended rectangular and circular patch antennas with electromagnetically coupled inverted microstrip feed for linear as well as dual linear polarization/frequency applications. The measured results include the return loss and the impedance bandwidth of the antennas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, W. H.; Ahuja, K. K.
1989-01-01
The effects of mechanical protrusions on the jet mixing characteristics of rectangular nozzles for heated and unheated subsonic and supersonic jet plumes were studied. The characteristics of a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4 without the mechanical protrusions were first investigated. Intrusive probes were used to make the flow measurements. Possible errors introduced by intrusive probes in making shear flow measurements were also examined. Several scaled sizes of mechanical tabs were then tested, configured around the perimeter of the rectangular jet. Both the number and the location of the tabs were varied. From this, the best configuration was selected. The conclusions derived were: (1) intrusive probes can produce significant errors in the measurements of the velocity of jets if they are large in diameter and penetrate beyond the jet center; (2) rectangular jets without tabs, compared to circular jets of the same exit area, provide faster jet mixing; and (3) further mixing enhancement is possible by using mechanical tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simons, Rainee N.
2000-01-01
The paper demonstrates suspended rectangular and circular patch antennas with electromagnetically coupled inverted microstrip feed for linear as well as dual linear polarization/frequency applications. The measured results include the return loss and the impedance bandwidth of the antennas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pates, Carl S., III
1991-01-01
A boundary element formulation, along with detailed solution procedure for determining the acoustic field inside a three-dimensional, rectangular duct is presented in this paper. The results of classical and boundary element solutions are compared for a typical rectangular duct by restricting the input frequency in such a way that only plane wave propagation is possible. The effect of changing the type and number of discrete boundary elements on the computed sound pressure levels inside the duct is also presented.
Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor.
Wong, Serena H; Kupnik, Mario; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Lin, Der-Song; Butts-Pauly, Kim; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T
2008-09-01
Increasing fill factor is one design approach used to increase average output displacement, output pressure, and sensitivity of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). For rectangular cells, the cell-to-cell spacing and the aspect ratio determine the fill factor. In this paper, we explore the effects of these parameters on performance, in particular the nonuniformity of collapse voltage between neighboring cells and presence of higher order modes in air or immersed operation. We used a white light interferometer to measure nonuniformity in deflection between neighboring cells. We found that reducing the cell-to-cell spacing could cause bending of the center support post, which amplifies nonuniformities in collapse voltage to 18.4% between neighboring cells. Using a 2-D finite element model (FEM), we found that for our designs, increasing the support post width to 1.67 times the membrane thickness alleviated the post bending problem. Using impedance and interferometer measurements to observe the effects of aspect ratio on higher order modes, we found that the (1,3) modal frequency approached the (1,1) modal frequency as the aspect ratio of the rectangles increased. In air operation, under continuous wave (CW) excitation at the center frequency, the rectangular cells behaved in the (1,1) mode. In immersion, because of dispersive guided modes, these cells operated in a higher order mode when excited with a CW signal at the center frequency. This contributed to a loss of output pressure; for this reason our rectangular design was unsuitable for CW operation in immersion.
Excitation of a Parallel Plate Waveguide by an Array of Rectangular Waveguides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rengarajan, Sembiam
2011-01-01
This work addresses the problem of excitation of a parallel plate waveguide by an array of rectangular waveguides that arises in applications such as the continuous transverse stub (CTS) antenna and dual-polarized parabolic cylindrical reflector antennas excited by a scanning line source. In order to design the junction region between the parallel plate waveguide and the linear array of rectangular waveguides, waveguide sizes have to be chosen so that the input match is adequate for the range of scan angles for both polarizations. Electromagnetic wave scattered by the junction of a parallel plate waveguide by an array of rectangular waveguides is analyzed by formulating coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field at the junction. The integral equations are solved by the method of moments. In order to make the computational process efficient and accurate, the method of weighted averaging was used to evaluate rapidly oscillating integrals encountered in the moment matrix. In addition, the real axis spectral integral is evaluated in a deformed contour for speed and accuracy. The MoM results for a large finite array have been validated by comparing its reflection coefficients with corresponding results for an infinite array generated by the commercial finite element code, HFSS. Once the aperture electric field is determined by MoM, the input reflection coefficients at each waveguide port, and coupling for each polarization over the range of useful scan angles, are easily obtained. Results for the input impedance and coupling characteristics for both the vertical and horizontal polarizations are presented over a range of scan angles. It is shown that the scan range is limited to about 35 for both polarizations and therefore the optimum waveguide is a square of size equal to about 0.62 free space wavelength.
A new semi-analytical solution for inertial waves in a rectangular parallelepiped
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nurijanyan, S.; Bokhove, O.; Maas, L. R. M.
2013-12-01
A study of inertial gyroscopic waves in a rotating homogeneous fluid is undertaken both theoretically and numerically. A novel approach is presented to construct a semi-analytical solution of a linear three-dimensional fluid flow in a rotating rectangular parallelepiped bounded by solid walls. The three-dimensional solution is expanded in vertical modes to reduce the dynamics to the horizontal plane. On this horizontal plane, the two dimensional solution is constructed via superposition of "inertial" analogs of surface Poincaré and Kelvin waves reflecting from the walls. The infinite sum of inertial Poincaré waves has to cancel the normal flow of two inertial Kelvin waves near the boundaries. The wave system corresponding to every vertical mode results in an eigenvalue problem. Corresponding computations for rotationally modified surface gravity waves are in agreement with numerical values obtained by Taylor ["Tidal oscillations in gulfs and basins," Proc. London Math. Soc., Ser. 2 XX, 148-181 (1921)], Rao ["Free gravitational oscillations in rotating rectangular basins," J. Fluid Mech. 25, 523-555 (1966)] and also, for inertial waves, by Maas ["On the amphidromic structure of inertial waves in a rectangular parallelepiped," Fluid Dyn. Res. 33, 373-401 (2003)] upon truncation of an infinite matrix. The present approach enhances the currently available, structurally concise modal solution introduced by Maas. In contrast to Maas' approach, our solution does not have any convergence issues in the interior and does not suffer from Gibbs phenomenon at the boundaries. Additionally, an alternative finite element method is used to contrast these two semi-analytical solutions with a purely numerical one. The main differences are discussed for a particular example and one eigenfrequency.
Effects of spoiler surfaces on the aeroelastic behavior of a low-aspect-ratio rectangular wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, Stanley R.
1990-01-01
An experimental research study to determine the effectiveness of spoiler surfaces in suppressing flutter onset for a low-aspect-ratio, rectangular wing was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The wing model used in this flutter test consisted of a rigid wing mounted to the wind-tunnel wall by a flexible, rectangular beam. The flexible beam was connected to the wing root and cantilever mounted to the wind-tunnel wall. The wing had a 1.5 aspect ratio based on wing semispan and a NACA 64A010 airfoil shape. The spoiler surfaces consisted of thin, rectangular aluminum plates that were vertically mounted to the wing surface. The spoiler surface geometry and location on the wing surface were varied to determine the effects of these parameters on the classical flutter of the wing model. Subsonically, the experiment showed that spoiler surfaces increased the flutter dynamic pressure with each successive increase in spoiler height or width. This subsonic increase in flutter dynamic pressure was approximately 15 percent for the maximum height spoiler configuration and for the maximum width spoiler configuration. At transonic Mach numbers, the flutter dynamic pressure conditions were increased even more substantially than at subsonic Mach numbers for some of the smaller spoiler surfaces. But greater than a certain spoiler size (in terms of either height or width) the spoilers forced a torsional instability in the transonic regime that was highly Mach number dependent. This detrimental torsional instability was found at dynamic pressures well below the expected flutter conditions. Variations in the spanwise location of the spoiler surfaces on the wing showed little effect on flutter. Flutter analysis was conducted for the basic configuration (clean wing with all spoiler surface mass properties included). The analysis correlated well with the clean wing experimental flutter results.
Park, Dal Jae; Green, Anthony Ronald; Lee, Young Soon; Chen, Young-Cheng
2007-07-15
Experimental investigations were performed to assess the effects of different shaped obstructions on flame propagation in a rectangular confinement, 235 mm in height, with a 1000 x 950mm cross section and a large top-venting area of 1000 x 320mm. Four different single obstacles were used: rectangular, cylindrical, triangular, and square cross-sections with blockage ratios of 5 and 10%. Temporally resolved flame front images were recorded by a high-speed video camera to investigate the interaction between a propagating flame and the obstacle. The local flame displacement speeds and their probability density functions (pdfs) were obtained for the different obstacles. Before the freely propagating flame impinges on the obstacle, the flame propagation speed remains close to the laminar burning velocity, regardless of the obstacles used. As the propagating flame impinges on the obstacle, the local propagation speed increases due to the expansion of the burnt gas and the blockage of the obstacle. This local speed increase becomes larger in going from a circular to a triangular and to a square obstacle. The averaged flame displacement speeds were not significantly different with different blockage ratios for the same obstacle investigated in this work, nor were they significantly different for different shapes at the same blockage ratio investigated in this work. However, the fastest increase in the averaged flame speed with time was observed for the rectangular plate. In order to explain why the results obtained from this work were different from those published in the literature for large L/D, a discussion of both the flame speed and pressure was given. (author)
Mode-locked all-fiber laser producing radially polarized rectangular pulses.
Sun, Biao; Wang, Anting; Gu, Chun; Chen, Guoliang; Xu, Lixin; Chung, Dick; Zhan, Qiwen
2015-04-15
We propose and demonstrate a radially polarized mode-locked fiber laser through the use of a figure-8 cavity in combination with cascade fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The mode-locked laser emits rectangular pulses with width tunable from 2.8 to 23 ns under an increasing pump power at 1056.3 nm with 0.2-nm 30-dB linewidth. A polarization purity as high as 96% for the output transverse mode has been achieved simultaneously. PMID:25872049
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Yang-Yang; Lu, Rong-er; Yang, Bo; Huang, Huang; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan
2016-10-01
We take a theoretical investigation on the reciprocal property of a class of 2D nonlinear photonic quasicrystal proposed by Lifshitz et al. in PRL 95, 133901 (2005). Using the rectangular projection method, the analytical expression for the Fourier spectrum of the quasicrystal structure is obtained explicitly. It is interesting to find that the result has a similar form to the corresponding expression of the well-known 1D Fibonacci lattice. In addition, we predict a further extension of the result to higher dimensions. This work is of practical importance for the photonic device design in nonlinear optical conversion progresses.
Chung, Koo-Hyun; Reitsma, Mark G.
2010-02-15
This note outlines a calibration method for atomic force microscope friction measurement that uses the ''pivot'' method of [Bogdanovic et al., Colloids Surf. B 19, 397 (2000)] to generate optical lever sensitivities for known torque applied to rectangular cantilevers. We demonstrate the key calibration parameter to be a linear function of the position at which it is determined along the length of the cantilevers. In this way the optical lever system can be calibrated for cantilever torque by applying loads at locations along the length of a cantilever, away from the integrated tip, so that issues such as tip damage or interference can be avoided.
Pressure loss through sharp 180 deg turns in smooth rectangular channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzger, D. E.; Plevich, C. W.; Fan, C. S.
1984-07-01
Measured pressure distributions, pressure loss coefficients, and surface streamline visualizations are presented for 180-deg turns in smooth, rectangular cross-section channels. The flow geometry models situations that exist in multipass internal cooling of gas turbine engine airfoils. The turn geometry is characterized by parameters that include the ratio of upstream and downstream channel widths, the nondimensional channel depth, the nondimensional clearance height at the tip of the turn, and the nondimensional corner fillet radius. The present results cover a range of combinations of geometry parameters and Reynolds numbers to aid in prediction of coolant flow rates in present and future cooled airfoil designs.
Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.
2014-06-15
These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegel, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical solution was obtained by Siegel (1991, 1992) for local boundary heat fluxes by a radiating medium at uniform temperature in a 2D rectangular region. It is shown here that, after local fluxes from the medium to the walls have been evaluated, it is very easy to compute local fluxes arriving from the adjacent and opposite walls. This extends the previous analysis and provides convenient relations to include radiation from a black boundary, each side of the rectangle being at a different uniform temperature. The final expressions are helpful in performing spectral calculations that must be made for many spectral bands.
Vector rectangular-shape laser based on reduced graphene oxide interacting with a long fiber taper.
Gao, Lei; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Zeng, Jing
2014-10-01
A vector dual-wavelength rectangular-shape laser (RSL) based on a long fiber taper deposited with reduced graphene oxide is proposed, where nonlinearity is enhanced due to a large evanescent-field-interacting length and strong field confinement of an 8 mm fiber taper with a waist diameter of 4 μm. Graphene flakes are deposited uniformly on the taper waist with light pressure effect, so this structure guarantees both excellent saturable absorption and high nonlinearity. The RSL with a repetition rate of 7.9 MHz shows fast polarization switching in two orthogonal polarization directions, and temporal and spectral characteristics are investigated. PMID:25322232
Numerical investigation of a space-fractional model of turbulent fluid flow in rectangular ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churbanov, Alexander G.; Vabishchevich, Petr N.
2016-09-01
Models containing fractional derivatives are among the most promising new approaches for description of turbulent flows. In the present work, a steady-state flow in a duct is considered under the condition that the turbulent diffusion is governed by a fractional power of the Laplace operator. To study numerically flows in rectangular channels, finite-difference approximations are employed. The resulting discrete problem is solved by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. At each iteration, the problem with a fractional power of the grid Laplace operator is solved. Predictions of turbulent flows in ducts at different Reynolds numbers are presented via mean velocity fields.
Jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Robert S; Toll, Thomas A
1943-01-01
A detailed method for determining the jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnels is presented. The method includes the determination of the tunnel span local distribution and the derivation of equations for the corrections to the angle of attack, the lift and drag coefficients, and the pitching-, rolling-, yawing-, and hinge-moment coefficients. The principle effects of aerodynamic induction and of the boundary-induced curvature of the streamlines have been considered. An example is included to illustrate the method. Numerical values of the more important corrections for reflection-plane models in 7 by 10-foot closed wind tunnels are presented.
Computational Test Cases for a Rectangular Supercritical Wing Undergoing Pitching Oscillations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Robert M.; Walker, Charlotte E.
1999-01-01
Proposed computational test cases have been selected from the data set for a rectangular wing of panel aspect ratio two with a twelve-percent-thick supercritical airfoil section that was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The test cases include parametric variation of static angle of attack, pitching oscillation frequency, and Mach numbers from subsonic to transonic with strong shocks. Tables and plots of the measured pressures are presented for each case. This report provides an early release of test cases that have been proposed for a document that supplements the cases presented in AGARD Report 702.
Turcksin, B.; Ragusa, J. C.
2013-07-01
A DSA technique to accelerate the iterative convergence of S{sub n} transport solves is derived for bilinear discontinuous (BLD) finite elements on rectangular grids. The diffusion synthetic acceleration equations are discretized using BLD elements by adapting the Modified Interior Penalty technique, introduced in [4] for triangular grids. The MIP-DSA equations are SPD and thus are solved using a preconditioned CG technique. Fourier analyses and implementation of the technique in a BLD S{sub n} transport code show that the technique is stable is effective. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.
2014-06-01
These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Minxi; Cheng, Ming
2012-04-01
Iron losses in doubly salient permanent magnet (DSPM) machine are difficult to predict, as the flux waveforms are complex and dc bias existed. This paper measures iron losses at no load for different rotor speeds and these measured loss data are used to calibrate the iron loss model of the DSPM machine. Then the iron losses at rated load are predicted under three phase rectangular currents exerting on the armature windings. The result shows that small increment of iron losses is in the rotor at rated load which do benefit to the rotor thermal dissipation design.
Adhesion-delamination mechanics of a prestressed rectangular film adhered onto a rigid substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Ming-Fung; Duan, Gang; Wan, Kai-Tak
2007-01-01
A prestressed rectangular film clamped at both ends delaminates from a rigid punch. Based on a thermodynamic energy balance, the delamination mechanics is derived to relate the simultaneous external tensile force applied to the punch, punch displacement, and contact area. Effects of the coupled tensile residual membrane stress and adhesion energy at the punch-film interface are investigated. A "pinch off" (stable shrinking of the contact area to a line) is predicted, contrasting the nonzero "pull-off" radius in a clamped circular film. The model is useful in understanding the behavior of various adhesion-delamination phenomena, especially in one dimensional capacitive microelectromechanical systems radio frequency switches, microstructure network, and nanostructures.
Lift developed on unrestrained rectangular wings entering gusts at subsonic and supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lomax, Harvard
1954-01-01
The object of this report is to provide an estimate, based on theoretical calculations, of the forces induced on a wing that is flying at a constant forward speed and suddenly enters a vertical gust. The calculations illustrate the effects of Mach number (from 0 to 2) and aspect ratio (2 to infinity), and solutions are given by means of which the response to gusts having arbitrary distributions of velocity can be calculated. The effects of pitching and wing bending are neglected and only wings of rectangular plan form are considered. Specific results are presented for sharp-edged and triangular gusts and various wing-air density ratios.
Analytical solution for boundary heat fluxes from a radiating rectangular medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siegel, R.
1991-01-01
Reference is made to the work of Shah (1979) which demonstrated the possibility of partially integrating the radiative equations analytically to obtain an 'exact' solution. Shah's solution was given as a double integration of the modified Bessel function of order zero. Here, it is shown that the 'exact' solution for a rectangular region radiating to cold black walls can be conveniently derived, and expressed in simple form, by using an integral function, Sn, analogous to the exponential integral function appearing in plane-layer solutions.
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Guided modes in a rectangular waveguide with semiconductor metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tingting, Tang; Fushen, Chen; Bao, Sun
2010-05-01
The dispersion equations of bulk modes and surface modes in a rectangular waveguide of semiconductor metamaterial are derived by a modified “Marcatili's method". The cutoff frequencies of the lowest TM bulk mode are discussed, and the Brillouin diagrams of different bulk modes are drawn. They demonstrate that different heights correspond to different guidance frequency ranges which have no superposition with each other and a waveguide with a larger height possesses a wider passband of light. In addition, tendencies of degeneracy for different modes are observed. Finally, the existence of surface modes is verified by a graphical method.
Theory of the special Smith-Purcell radiation from a rectangular grating
Liu, Weihao He, Zhigang Jia, Qika; Li, Weiwei
2015-12-15
The recently uncovered special Smith-Purcell radiation (S-SPR) from the rectangular grating has significantly higher intensity than the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR). Its monochromaticity and directivity are also much better. Here we explored the mechanism of the S-SPR by applying the fundamental electromagnetic theory and simulations. We have confirmed that the S-SPR is exactly from the radiating eigen modes of the grating. Its frequency and direction are well correlated with the beam velocity and structure parameters, which indicates its promising applications in tunable wave generation and beam diagnostic.
Flow in a rectangular closed-loop thermosyphon with vertical heat transfer passages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durig, Brian R.; Shadday, Martin A., Jr.
1986-12-01
Closed-loop thermosyphons are pipe networks in which the flow is due to simultaneous heating and cooling of different sections of the pipe network. Thermosyphons are commonly modeled one-dimensionally, where wall shear is accounted for by a friction factor. When the heat transfer passages of a thermosyphon are oriented vertically, buoyancy drastically alters the flow, and forced convection friction factor and Nusselt number correlations are no longer applicable. A closed-loop rectangular thermosyphon with vertical heat transfer passages was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Friction factor and Nusselt number correlations for the combined forced/free flow in the vertical legs of the loop were determined numerically.
The rectangular array of magnetic probes on J-TEXT tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Fuming; Zhuang, Ge; Jian, Xiang; Zhu, Lizhi
2016-11-01
The rectangular array of magnetic probes system was newly designed and installed in the torus on J-TEXT tokamak to measure the local magnetic fields outside the last closed flux surface at a single toroidal angle. In the implementation, the experimental results agree well with the theoretical results based on the Spool model and three-dimensional numerical finite element model when the vertical field was applied. Furthermore, the measurements were successfully used as the input of EFIT code to conduct the plasma equilibrium reconstruction. The calculated Faraday rotation angle using the EFIT output is in agreement with the measured one from the three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system.
A theoretical study of Prandtl nanofluid in a rectangular duct through peristaltic transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellahi, Rahmat; Riaz, Arshad; Nadeem, S.
2014-08-01
In the current study, peristaltic transport of Prandtl nanofluid is investigated in a uniform rectangular duct. Interaction of peristaltic flow of non-Newtonian fluid model with nano particles is investigated under the long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The governing equations are solved by homotopy perturbation method to get the convergent series solution. Effects of all emerging physical parameters are demonstrated with the help of graphs for temperature distribution, nano particles concentration, pressure rise and pressure gradient. Trapping scheme is also described through streamlines.
Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, J. Gary
1991-01-01
Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, A.; Dominek, A. K.
1990-01-01
Constitutive parameter extraction from S parameter data using a rectangular waveguide whose cross section is partially filled with a material sample as opposed to being completely filled was examined. One reason for studying a partially filled geometry is to analyze the effect of air gaps between the sample and fixture for the extraction of constitutive parameters. Air gaps can occur in high temperature parameter measurements when the sample was prepared at room temperature. Single port and two port measurement approaches to parameter extraction are also discussed.
Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels
Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.
1991-01-01
A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHFs calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout. 17 refs., 7 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fertelli, Ahmet; Günhan, Gökhan; Buyruk, Ertan
2016-06-01
In the present study, it is aimed to calculate the effect of ice formation on different cylinder geometries placed in a rectangular cavity filled with water. For this aim Fluent package program was used to solve the flow domain numerically and temperature distribution and ice formation depending on time were illustrated. Water temperature in the cavity and cylinder surface temperature were assumed as 4, 8 and -10 °C respectively and firstly temperature distribution, velocity vector, liquid fraction and ratio of Ai/Ac (formed ice area/cross sectional area of cylinder) were determined for cylinders with different placement in fixed volume.
On the generation of secondary motion in circular to rectangular transition ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1993-01-01
A computer code has been developed for the calculation of three-dimensional turbulent flow in circular to rectangular transition ducts. The governing equations are written in a general curvilinear coordinate system so that all singly-connected geometrical configurations can be accommodated. Turbulence closure is through the standard k-epsilon model or a Reynolds stress closure model. Computed results show qualitative agreement with experimental data. Pressure-induced secondary flow is the dominant mode through the transition, but turbulence-induced secondary flow becomes prominent some distance downstream of the transition.
Flexural vibrations of a rectangular plate for the lower normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manzanares-Martínez, B.; Flores, J.; Gutiérrez, L.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Monsivais, G.; Morales, A.; Ramos-Mendieta, F.
2010-11-01
Theoretical and experimental results for flexural waves of a rectangular plate with free ends are obtained. Both the natural frequencies and mode shapes are analyzed for the lower normal modes. To take into account the boundary conditions, a plane wave expansion method is used to solve the thin plate theory also known as the 2D Kirchhoff-Love equation. The excitation and detection of the normal modes of the out-of-plane waves are performed using non-contact electromagnetic-acoustic transducers. We conclude that this experimental technique is highly reliable due to the good agreement between theory and experiment.
Three dimensional nonlinear analysis of a single-grating rectangular waveguide Cerenkov maser
Xie, Wenqiu; Wang, Zi-Cheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding
2015-04-15
A three dimensional (3-D) nonlinear model for illustrating the beam-wave interaction in a single-grating rectangular waveguide sheet-beam Cerenkov maser is presented. The dynamical equations and the equations of motion are solved self-consistently to predict the device performance. Space-charge effects and Ohmic losses are considered in the model. A 1.03 THz backward wave oscillator and a 0.65 THz traveling wave tube are discussed as two illustrative examples.
Effect of energetic electrons for dust charging in a large rectangular RF helium plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Soongook; Lho, Taehyeop; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Hanyang University Collaboration; Plasma Technology Research Center Collaboration
2015-09-01
A large rectangular RF plasma device (44 × 50 × 120 cm3) has been developed for the study of transport and removal of dusts. Effects of dust grains and properties of background plasma are investigated by a planar electric probe in dusty plasma, which is consisted of helium plasma and tungsten dust. To check effect of the energetic electrons on the charging process, low density energetic electrons are produced by applying negative bias to a meshed tungsten grid installed between the upper power electrodes of RF antenna and the bottom ground electrodes. Density and charge of dusts are deduced by comparing pure helium plasma to that of dusty helium plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narita, Y.
This work presents a method of analysis for solving the free vibration of symmetrically laminated composite rectangular plates having any combination of free, simply supported and clamped edges along four sides. This approach uses a Ritz method for the energy functional, and trial functions used for deflections are introduced so as to automatically include geometric boundary conditions for a prescribed boundary. A computer code was developed to calculate natural frequencies and mode shapes for the problem, and was used to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the present approach.
Computation of an Underexpanded 3-D Rectangular Jet by the CE/SE Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loh, Ching Y.; Himansu, Ananda; Wang, Xiao Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
2000-01-01
Recently, an unstructured three-dimensional space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) Euler solver was developed. Now it is also developed for parallel computation using METIS for domain decomposition and MPI (message passing interface). The method is employed here to numerically study the near-field of a typical 3-D rectangular under-expanded jet. For the computed case-a jet with Mach number Mj = 1.6. with a very modest grid of 1.7 million tetrahedrons, the flow features such as the shock-cell structures and the axis switching, are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.
Salim, S; Sadamori, S; Hamada, T
1992-06-01
The dimensional accuracy of rectangular acrylic resin specimens was examined when they were processed by three methods: a conventional method, the SR-Ivocap system, and a microwave curing method. The dimensional accuracy was evaluated by the change of the distance vector V, which is calculated by means of measurements of the distances between fixed points on specimens. The specimen cured by the SR-Ivocap system exhibited less dimensional change (p less than 0.05) than those cured by the conventional and the microwave curing methods. The SR-Ivocap system might produce a more accurate denture base than the conventional and the microwave curing methods.
Input impedance of coaxially fed rectangular microstrip antenna on electrically thick substrate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Wei; Lee, Kai-Fong; Lee, R. Q.
1993-01-01
A full-wave spectral domain analysis has been used to obtain input-impedance results for a probe-fed rectangular-patch antenna, modeling the source as a magnetic-current frill. Multiple modes are used in the probe surface current to account for axial and azimuthal variations. It is established that maximum resistance is dependent on the substrate loss tangent. The axial variation of the probe current must be taken into account for substrate thicknesses greater than about 0.02 wavelengths.
Cooling and Freezing Behaviors of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution in a Closed Rectangular Container
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narumi, Akira; Kashiwagi, Takao; Nakane, Ichirou
This paper investigates cooling and freezing behaviors of NaCl aqueous solution in a rectangular container equipped with horizontal partitions of micro porous film in order to determine the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer through cell wall for the purpose of freezing food. For comparison, experiments were performed using partitions of copper plate, no partition, and water. These processes were visualized and measured using real-time laser holographic interferometry. It was found that there was very little difference in the cooling process due to partitions, but that there were significant differences in freezing process when NaCl aqueous solution is used.
Photon exchange and entanglement formation during transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier
Sulyok, Georg; Durstberger-Rennhofer, Katharina; Summhammer, Johann
2015-01-01
When a quantum particle traverses a rectangular potential created by a quantum field both photon exchange and entanglement between particle and field take place. We present the full analytic solution of the Schrödinger equation of the composite particle–field system allowing investigation of these phenomena in detail and comparison to the results of a classical field treatment. Besides entanglement formation, remarkable differences also appear with respect to the symmetry between energy emission and absorption, resonance effects and if the field initially occupies the vacuum state. PMID:26345629
Theory of high-harmonic rectangular gyrotron for TE(mn) modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferendeci, A. M.; Han, C. C.
1984-01-01
In this paper, the linearized relativistic Vlasov equation is solved and a dispersion relation is calculated for the interaction between a relativistic electron beam and the electromagnetic fields of a rectangular waveguide supporting TE(mn) modes. The dispersion relation is simplified to the special case of a frame of reference moving with the electrons and the resulting coupling coefficient epsilon(mn)super l is calculated for various TE(mn) modes. The dependence of epsilon(mn)super l on the parity of the harmonic number l and various mn modes of the waveguide are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin
2013-12-01
Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy.Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of
A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadlin, Kenneth L.; Christopher, Kenneth W.
1959-01-01
A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 30 deg.
A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W
1958-01-01
A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.
Comparison of magnetoresistances of triangular and rectangular ballistic graphene npn junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morikawa, Sei; Masubuchi, Satroru; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Machida, Tomoki
2016-10-01
We compared the magnetotransport properties of ballistic graphene npn junctions with two different geometries. We found that a rectangular npn junction shows a positive magnetoresistance around zero magnetic field; this finding can be explained by the suppression of Klein tunneling in a finite magnetic field. In contrast, a triangular npn junction shows a negative magnetoresistance because the transmission is enhanced in a commensurability magnetic field where the ballistic carriers in a cyclotron motion are injected perpendicularly to both the np and pn interfaces. These results suggest possibilities for manipulating ballistic carrier trajectories through the designs of local-gate geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Cheng-Fang; Wei, Yan-Yu; Duan, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Gong, Yu-Bin
2009-07-01
This paper investigates the properties of traveling wave-beam interaction in a rectangular helix traveling-wave-tube (TWT) for a solid sheet electron beam. The 'hot' dispersion equation is obtained by means of the self-consistent field theory. The small signal analysis, which includes the effects of the beam parameters and slow-wave structure (SWS) parameters, is carried out by theoretical computation. The numerical results show that the bandwidth and the small-signal gain of the rectangular helix TWT increase as the beam current increases; and the beam voltage not obviously influences the small signal gain. Among different rectangular helix structures, the small-signal gain increases as the width of the rectangular helix SWS increases, however, the bandwidth decreases whether structure parameters a and L or Ψ and L are fixed or not. In addition, a comparison of the small-signal gain of this structure with a conventional round helix is made. The presented analysis will be useful for the design of the TWT with a rectangular helix circuit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Hill, Simon G.
2013-08-01
This study presents the feedback control of flexural waves propagating in a rectangular panel. The objective of this paper (part 1) is to theoretically investigate the fundamental properties of the feedback wave control system. First, a transfer matrix method in the Laplace domain is introduced which is based on a wave solution of a rectangular panel. This is followed by the derivation of the characteristic equation and the feedback control laws for absorbing the reflected waves. Then, from a viewpoint of numerical simulations, the control performance of the proposed method is clarified. It is found that the reflected wave absorbing control enables inactivation of vibration modes since standing waves which cause resonant phenomena disappear from the structural vibration. Finally, the stability verification of the proposed control system is conducted using Nyquist diagram. It is shown that although the controller has unstable poles in some cases, the nominal control system is stable irrespective of whether the collocation holds or not. Furthermore, it is clarified that a wave-absorbing control system becomes robust for the parameter fluctuation if the uncontrolled region does not exist.
SPH modeling of sway-sloshing notion in a partially filled rectangular tank
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozbulut, M.; Yildiz, M.; Goren, O.
2013-10-01
In this work, a two dimensional sway-sloshing for a partially filled rectangular tank is modeled by solving Euler's equation of motion utilizing Weakly Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH) method. A special treatment is introduced for the free surface particles which is an hybrid combination of Monaghan's [1] XSPH velocity variant algorithm with updated velocities (VXSPH) and artificial particle displacement (APD) algorithm [2]. The hybrid treatment presented here provides an artificial surface tension force for free surface particles thereby impeding the escape of individual particles from the free surface and keeping these particle being attached to the free surface. The time histories of free surface elevations on the left side wall of the rectangular tank are compared with experimental and numerical results available in the literature. It is shown that the VXSPH+APD treatment significantly improves the accuracy of the numerical simulations for violent flows with a free surface and lead to the results which are in very good agreement with experimental and numerical findings of the literature.
Mixing characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio screeching supersonic rectangular jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentich, Griffin; Upadhyay, Puja; Kumar, Rajan
2016-05-01
Flow field characteristics of a moderate aspect ratio supersonic rectangular jet were examined at two overexpanded, a perfectly expanded, and an underexpanded jet conditions. The underexpanded and one overexpanded operating condition were of maximum screech, while the second overexpanded condition was of minimum screech intensity. Streamwise particle image velocimetry was performed along both major and minor axes of the jet and the measurements were made up to 30 nozzle heights, h, where h is the small dimension of the nozzle. Select cross planes were examined using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to investigate the jet development and the role streamwise vortices play in jet spreading at each operating condition. The results show that streamwise vortices present at the nozzle corners along with vortices excited by screech tones play a major role in the jet evolution. All cases except for the perfectly expanded operating condition exhibited axis switching at streamwise locations ranging from 11 to 16 nozzle heights downstream of the exit. The overexpanded condition of maximum screech showed the most upstream switch over, while the underexpanded case showed the farthest downstream. Both of the maximum screeching cases developed into a diamond cross-sectional profile far downstream of the exit, while the ideally expanded case maintained a rectangular shape. The overexpanded minimum screeching case eventually decayed into an oblong profile.
Capillary flow enhancement in rectangular polymer microchannels with a deformable wall.
Anoop, R; Sen, A K
2015-07-01
We report the capillary flow enhancement in rectangular polymer microchannels, when one of the channel walls is a deformable polymer membrane. We provide detailed insight into the physics of elastocapillary interaction between the capillary flow and elastic membrane, which leads to significant improvements in capillary flow performance. As liquid flows by capillary action in such channels, the deformable wall deflects inwards due to the Young-Laplace pressure drop across the liquid meniscus. This, in turn, decreases the radius of curvature of the meniscus and increases the driving capillary pressure. A theoretical model is proposed to predict the resultant increase in filling speed and rise height, respectively, in deformable horizontal and vertical microchannels having large aspect ratios. A non-dimensional parameter J, which represents the ratio of the capillary force to the mechanical restoring force, is identified to quantify the elastocapillary effects in terms of the improvement in filling speed (for J>0.238) and the condition for channel collapse (J>1). The theoretical predictions show good agreement with experimental data obtained using deformable rectangular poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannels. Both model predictions and experimental data show that over 15% improvement in the Washburn coefficient in horizontal channels, and over 30% improvement in capillary rise height in vertical channels, are possible prior to channel collapse. The proposed technique of using deformable membranes as channel walls is a viable method for capillary flow enhancement in microfluidic devices.
An analytical solution for Dean flow in curved ducts with rectangular cross section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norouzi, M.; Biglari, N.
2013-05-01
In this paper, a full analytical solution for incompressible flow inside the curved ducts with rectangular cross-section is presented for the first time. The perturbation method is applied to solve the governing equations and curvature ratio is considered as the perturbation parameter. The previous perturbation solutions are usually restricted to the flow in curved circular or annular pipes related to the overly complex form of solutions or singularity situation for flow in curved ducts with non-circular shapes of cross section. This issue specifies the importance of analytical studies in the field of Dean flow inside the non-circular ducts. In this study, the main flow velocity, stream function of lateral velocities (secondary flows), and flow resistance ratio in rectangular curved ducts are obtained analytically. The effect of duct curvature and aspect ratio on flow field is investigated as well. Moreover, it is important to mention that the current analytical solution is able to simulate the Taylor-Görtler and Dean vortices (vortices in stable and unstable situations) in curved channels.
BUCKO- A BUCKLING ANALYSIS FOR RECTANGULAR PLATES WITH CENTRALLY LOCATED CUTOUTS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, M. P.
1994-01-01
BUCKO is a computer program developed to predict the buckling load of a rectangular compression-loaded orthotropic plate with a centrally located cutout. The plate is assumed to be a balanced, symmetric laminate of uniform thickness. The cutout shape can be elliptical, circular, rectangular, or square. The BUCKO package includes sample data that demonstrates the essence of the program and its ease of usage. BUCKO uses an approximate one-dimensional formulation of the classical two-dimensional buckling problem following the Kantorovich method. The boundary conditions are considered to be simply supported unloaded edges and either clamped or simply supported loaded edges. The plate is loaded in uniaxial compression by either uniformly displacing or uniformly stressing two opposite edges of the plate. The BUCKO analysis consists of two parts: calculation of the inplane stress distribution prior to buckling, and calculation of the plate axial load and displacement at buckling. User input includes plate planform and cutout geometry, plate membrane and bending stiffnesses, finite difference parameters, boundary condition data, and loading data. Results generated by BUCKO are the prebuckling strain energy, inplane stress resultants, buckling mode shape, critical end shortening, and average axial and transverse strains at buckling. BUCKO is written in FORTRAN V for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer operating under NOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 343K of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1984 and was last updated in 1990.
A rectangular waveguide equivalent for bilateral and unilateral fin-lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saad, A. M. K.; Schuenemann, K.
1981-08-01
It is pointed out that previous investigations regarding the rigorous analysis of fin-line eigenmodes have used numerical calculations requiring an excessive amount of computer time. There exists, therefore, the need for a suitable first-order design method. Saad and Schuenemann (1978) have indicated basic concepts for such a method. The current investigation has the objective to generalize this method and to apply it to the analysis of a metallic strip in both bilateral and unilateral fin-lines. The fundamental mode in fin-lines is a HE(10)-mode with dominating TE-part. It can be approximated by a pure TE(10)-mode, if the substrate thickness is small and the dielectric constant is moderate. There is a class of problems in fin-line circuits which may be described by the TE(m0)-modes only. The fin-line can then be effectively modelled by an infinite set of rectangular waveguides. The solution of a particular boundary value problem by means of this rectangular waveguide equivalent is much simpler than it would be if the original fin-line eigenmodes were used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, V. A.; Linnik, A. F.; Marshall, T. C.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Onishchenko, N. I.; Sotnikov, G. V.; Uskov, V. V.
2006-11-01
A rectangular dielectric-lined metallic structure was studied that has an advantage over a cylindrical structure from the possibility of exciting by a sequence of bunches many equally-spaced modes, thereby building up a larger mode-locked wakefield. A rectangular vacuum copper waveguide was lined with two dielectric slabs, the size of which was calculated to provide resonant excitation of the fundamental LSM mode by a sequence of bunches with repetition frequency f0=2805 MHz, produced by linear resonant electron accelerator (4.5 MeV, number of bunches 6.103, diameter 1cm, duration 60 ps each, distance between bunches 300 ps, number of electrons in each bunch 109). The waveguide has cross section 85 mm × 180 mm, and Teflon (ɛ = 2.1) plates were placed along the smaller sides of the waveguide, their thickness from the calculation being 22 mm. In experiments, the length of the resonator was 535mm. We found that the total wakefield is three times larger than the fundamental mode; thus a greater number of excited modes was excited compared with the cylindrical case, for which this ratio was only 1.5. We found considerably more energy loss of electron bunches for the resonator case compared with the waveguide case.
Underwood, H.R. ); Peterson, A.F. ); Magin, R.L. )
1992-02-01
A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low ([epsilon][sub r] = 10) and high ([epsilon][sub r] = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios ar 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power.
Asako, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Faghri, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Charmchi, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Bahrami, P.A. )
1994-02-01
An enthalpy method is employed to solve transport processes associated with melting of an unfixed rectangular phase change material (PCM) in a low-gravitational environment. This method permits the phase-change problems to be solved within fixed numerical grids, hence eliminating the need for coordinate transformation. The PCM, initially at its melting temperature, is placed inside a rectangular enclosure. The lower surface of the container is then exposed to a uniform temperature higher than the PCM melting temperature. The difference in densities of solid and liquid causes a force imbalance on the solid phase exceeds that of the liquid, the solid continually moves downward as melting progresses and hence generates a flow field within the liquid. The problem is formulated as a one-domain problem with the possibility of melting from all the PCM surfaces, and no approximation is made about the liquid film thickness under the melt. The governing equations are discretized by using a control-volume-based finite difference scheme with a new iterative method to correct for the downward solid-phase velocity. This will also speed up the convergence of the numerical procedure. The results are presented in the form of a parametric study of the effects of Archimedes number, Stefan number, Prandtl number, and the geometric parameters on the melt thickness, the downward solid velocity, the elevation of the top surface, and the volume of the solid PCM. They show that in a low-gravitational environment, the melting rate is very slow.
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-10-29
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson's ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bamber, M J; House, R O
1937-01-01
An investigation was made to determine the spinning characteristics of Clark Y monoplane wings with different plan forms. A rectangular wing and a wing tapered 5:2, both with rounded tips, were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. Also included is an estimate of the yawning moment that must be furnished by the parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moment for spinning equilibrium. The effects on the spin of changes in plan form and of variations of some of the important parameters are discussed and the results are compared with those for a rectangular wing with square tips. It is concluded that for a conventional monoplane using Clark Y wing the sideslip will be algebraically larger for the wing with the rounded tip than for the wing with the square tip and will be largest for the tapered wing. The effect of plan form on the spin will vary with the type of airplane; and the provision of a yawing-moment coefficient of -0.025 (i.e., opposing the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interference effects will insure against the attainment of equilibrium on a steady spin for any of the plan forms tested and for any of the parameters used in the analysis.
Yarmand, Hooman; Gharehkhani, Samira; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations.
Finite Element Analysis on Warm Hydroforming of Rectangular Mg Alloy Cups with a Step Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zheng, Wen-Tao; Xu, Yong-Chao; Wang, Zhong-Tang
2005-08-01
Magnesium alloys, as one of the lightest metal structural materials, are attracting more and more attention. At present, most of Mg alloy products are manufactured by die casting. For enlarging the applications of Mg alloys, many researchers are engaged in developing its plastic forming technology. However, the study on warm sheet hydroforming of Mg alloy is rarely reported. Therefore, a set of warm sheet hydroforming tools was designed for experimental research on the hydroforming of rectangular Mg alloy cups with a step cavity. The corners of the deeper cavity are difficult to form directly because of the severe stretching. Multi-stage hydroforming method was used to improve the sheet thickness reduction in the corners of the deeper cavity. Several different two-stage hydroforming methods were realized by elastic-plastic finite element simulation. According to the results of finite element simulation, the influence of forming methods on the minimum thickness of formed parts and the reasons were analyzed, and the optimal process for the rectangular Mg alloy cup with a step cavity was determined.
Minimum weight design of rectangular and tapered helicopter rotor blades with frequency constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.
1988-01-01
The minimum weight design of a helicopter rotor blade subject to constraints on coupled flap-lag natural frequencies has been studied. A constraint has also been imposed on the minimum value of the autorotational inertia of the blade in order to ensure that it has sufficient inertia to autorotate in the case of engine failure. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade modal analysis and CONMIN is used for the optimization. In addition, a linear approximation analysis involving Taylor series expansion has been used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis which consists of analytical derivatives of the objective function and the autorotational inertia constraint and central finite difference derivatives of the frequency constraints. Optimum designs have been obtained for both rectangular and tapered blades. Design variables include taper ratio, segment weights, and box beam dimensions. It is shown that even when starting with an acceptable baseline design, a significant amount of weight reduction is possible while satisfying all the constraints for both rectangular and tapered blades.
An experimental investigation of flow boiling in an asymmetrically heated rectangular microchannel
Huh, Cheol; Kim, Moo Hwan
2006-08-15
By using unique experimental techniques and carefully constructed experimental apparatus, the characteristics of flow boiling of water in microscale were investigated using a single horizontal rectangular microchannel. A polydimethylsiloxane rectangular microchannel (D{sub h}=103.5 and 133{mu}m) was fabricated by using the replica molding technique, a kind of soft lithography. A piecewise serpentine platinum microheater array on a Pyrex substrate was fabricated with the surface micromachining MEMS technique. Real time flow visualization of the phase change phenomena inside the microchannel was performed using a high speed CCD camera with microscope. The experimental local boiling heat transfer coefficients were studied, and single bubble inception, growth, and departure, as well as elongated bubble behavior were analyzed to elucidate the microscale heat transfer mechanisms. Tests were performed for mass fluxes of 77.5, 154.9, and 309.8kg/m{sup 2}s and heat fluxes of 180-500kW/m{sup 2}. The effects of mass flux, heat flux, and vapor qualities on flow boiling heat transfer in a microchannel were studied. (author)
Numerical Simulations of Noise Generated by Supersonic Rectangular Jets. Part One: Validation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viswanath, Kamal; Johnson, Ryan; Corrigan, Andrew; Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Sanchez, Pablo; Baier, Florian; Gutmark, Ephraim
2015-11-01
The noise from high performance jet engines of both civilian and military aircraft is an area of active concern. To date, much of the work on noise reduction techniques has focused on axisymmetric circular nozzles. Asymmetric exhaust nozzle configurations, in particular rectangular, are likely to become more important in the future. In this study we validate the far field noise for ideally and over expanded supersonic jets issuing from a low aspect ratio rectangular nozzle geometry. Validation of the acoustic data is performed against experimentally recorded sound pressure level (SPL) spectra for a host of observer locations around the asymmetric nozzle. Data is presented for the cold jet case and two heated jets for all nozzle pressure ratios. It is shown that elevated operating temperatures result in elevated sound levels across the frequency spectra at all locations. Screech tones, that are present for certain cases, diminish in amplitude or cease completely as the jet is heated. Supported by Office of Naval Research (ONR) through the Computational Physics Task Area under the NRL 6.1 Base Program.
Electromagnetic Scattering From a Rectangular Cavity Recessed in a 3-D Conducting Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, M. D.; Reddy, C. J.
1995-01-01
The problem of electromagnetic (EM) scattering from an aperture backed by a rectangular cavity recessed in a three-dimensional conducting body is analyzed using the coupled field integral equation approach. Using the free-space Green's function, EM fields scattered outside the cavity are determined in terms of (1) an equivalent electric surface current density flowing on the three-dimensional conducting surface of the object including the cavity aperture and (2) an equivalent magnetic surface current density flowing over the aperture only. The EM fields inside the cavity are determined using the waveguide modal expansion functions. Making the total tangential electric and magnetic fields across the aperture continuous and subjecting the total tangential electric field on the outer conducting three-dimensional surface of the object to zero, a set of coupled integral equations is obtained. The equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents are then obtained by solving the coupled integral equation using the Method of Moments. The numerical results on scattering from rectangular cavities embedded in various three-dimensional objects are compared with the results obtained by other numerical techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Ziqiang; Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu; Peng, Hao
2016-06-01
In this paper, a compact full Ka-band differential microstrip line (DML) to rectangular waveguide transition is proposed. The dipole antenna with semi-elliptic arms is introduced to transform the differential mode of DML to the TE10 mode of the rectangular waveguide directly. The two arms of the dipole antenna are connected together by a shorting strip to reduce the size of the dipole. Compared with the DML-to-waveguide transition using the fin-line topology, the size of the proposed transition has been reduced by 86 %. To verify this transition, a back-to-back structure is fabricated and tested. It provides a return loss of better than 15.2 dB and an insertion loss of 0.73 to 1.07 dB within a wide frequency range from 26.5 to 40 GHz. The measurement results show good agreement with the simulation results. Furthermore, a tolerance analysis is also performed via the simulation to prove that this transition is robust in the fabrication and mechanical assembly.
Underwood, H R; Peterson, A F; Magin, R L
1992-02-01
A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode-dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low (epsilon r = 10) and high (epsilon r = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios at 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power.
Non-Newtonian fluid model incorporated into elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.
1984-01-01
A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. The approach uses a Newtonian model as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Model Incorporated into Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Rectangular Contacts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.
1983-01-01
A procedure is outlined for the numerical solution of the complete elastohydrodynamic lubrication of rectangular contacts incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. The approach uses a Newtonian model as long as the shear stress is less than a limiting shear stress. If the shear stress exceeds the limiting value, the shear stress is set equal to the limiting value. The numerical solution requires the coupled solution of the pressure, film shape, and fluid rheology equations from the inlet to the outlet. Isothermal and no-side-leakage assumptions were imposed in the analysis. The influence of dimensionless speed, load, materials, and sliding velocity and limiting-shear-strength proportionality constant on dimensionless minimum film thickness was investigated. Fourteen cases were used in obtaining the minimum-film-thickness equation for an elastohydrodynamically lubricated rectangular contact incorporating a non-Newtonian fluid model. Computer plots are also presented that indicate in detail pressure distribution, film shape, shear stress at the surfaces, and flow throughout the conjunction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Steven A.; Morris, Philip J.
2010-01-01
Supersonic jets operating off-design produce broadband shock-associated noise. Broadband shock-associated noise is characterized by multiple broadband peaks in the far-field and is often the dominant source of noise towards the sideline and upstream direction relative to the jet axis. It is due to large scale coherent turbulence structures in the jet shear layers interacting with the shock cell structure. A broadband shock-associated noise model recently developed by the authors predicts this noise component from solutions to the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a two-equation turbulence model. The broadband shock-associated noise model is applied to dualstream and rectangular nozzles operating supersonically, heated, and off-design. The dualstream jet broadband shock-associated noise predictions are conducted for cases when the core jet is supersonic and the fan jet is subsonic, the core jet is subsonic and the fan jet is supersonic, and when both jet streams operate supersonically. Rectangular jet predictions are shown for a convergent-divergent nozzle operating both over- and under-expanded for cold and heated conditions. The original model implementation has been heavily modified to make accurate predictions for the dualstream jets. It is also argued that for over-expanded jets the oblique shock wave attached to the nozzle lip contributes little to broadband shock-associated noise. All predictions are compared with experiments.
Mixing noise reduction for rectangular supersonic jets by nozzle shaping and induced screech mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh
1993-01-01
Two methods of mixing noise modification were studied for supersonic jets flowing from rectangular nozzles with an aspect ratio of about five and a small dimension of about 1.4 cm. The first involves nozzle geometry variation using either single (unsymmetrical) or double bevelled (symmetrical) thirty degree cutbacks of the nozzle exit. Both converging (C) and converging-diverging (C-D) versions were tested. The double bevelled C-D nozzle produced a jet mixing noise reduction of about 4 dB compared to a standard rectangular C-D nozzle. In addition all bevelled nozzles produced an upstream shift in peak mixing noise which is conducive to improved attenuation when the nozzle is used in an acoustically treated duct. A large increase in high frequency noise also occurred near the plane of the nozzle exit. Because of near normal incidence, this noise can be easily attenuated with wall treatment. The second approach uses paddles inserted on the edge of the two sides of the jet to induce screech and greatly enhance the jet mixing. Although screech and mixing noise levels are increased, the enhanced mixing moves the source locations upstream and may make an enclosed system more amenable to noise reduction using wall acoustic treatment.
Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng
2014-09-22
We propose a rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber with bandwidth tuning from 50 MHz to 4 GHz at less than 15-MHz resolution. The rectangular shape of the filter is precisely achieved utilizing digital feedback control of the comb-like pump spectral lines. The passband ripple is suppressed to ~1 dB by mitigating the nonlinearity influences of the comb-like pump lines generated in electrical and optical components and fibers. Moreover a fiber with a single Brillouin peak is employed to further reduce the in-band ripple and the out-of-band SBS gain at the same time. Finally, we analyze the noise performance of the filter at different bandwidth cases and demonstrate the system performance of the proposed filter with 2.1-GHz bandwidth and 19-dB gain by amplifying a 2-GHz orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) on each subscriber.
Li, Rui; Ye, Hongfei; Zhang, Weisheng; Ma, Guojun; Su, Yewang
2015-01-01
Spring constant calibration of the atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is of fundamental importance for quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The calibration within the framework of thin plate theory undoubtedly has a higher accuracy and broader scope than that within the well-established beam theory. However, thin plate theory-based accurate analytic determination of the constant has been perceived as an extremely difficult issue. In this paper, we implement the thin plate theory-based analytic modeling for the static behavior of rectangular AFM cantilevers, which reveals that the three-dimensional effect and Poisson effect play important roles in accurate determination of the spring constants. A quantitative scaling law is found that the normalized spring constant depends only on the Poisson’s ratio, normalized dimension and normalized load coordinate. Both the literature and our refined finite element model validate the present results. The developed model is expected to serve as the benchmark for accurate calibration of rectangular AFM cantilevers. PMID:26510769
A Comparative Study of Strength of Two-Way Rectangular Slabs with and without Openings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravindra, M.; Rakesh, V.; Rambabu, K.
2016-09-01
The present work uses yield-line theory to find the strength of uniformly loaded rectangular reinforced concrete slabs with and without rectangular openings. Five positions of openings are considered, i.e. the slab centre, the slab corner, the centre of a short side, the centre of a long side and the opening eccentric to the slab centre. All possible admissible yield line patterns are considered for all given configurations of the slab subjected to uniformly distributed load keeping in view the basic principles of yield line theory. The ratios of the corresponding lengths of the sides of the opening and the slab are different and sizes of opening up to 0.4× the length of the slab sides are considered. Symmetric edge conditions like continuous slab, simply supported, two long sides continuous and two short sides continuous are considered for various sizes of openings in order to plot the design charts for isotropic reinforcement coefficients only. Affine transformation is also performed for slab with openings.
Venkatesham, B; Tiwari, Mayank; Munjal, M L
2010-10-01
This paper describes an analytical calculation of break-out noise from a rectangular plenum with four flexible walls by incorporating three-dimensional effects along with the acoustical and structural wave coupling phenomena. The breakout noise from rectangular plenums is important and the coupling between acoustic waves within the plenum and structural waves in the flexible plenum walls plays a critical role in prediction of the transverse transmission loss. The first step in breakout noise prediction is to calculate the inside plenum pressure field and the normal flexible plenum wall vibration by using an impedance-mobility approach, which results in a compact matrix formulation. In the impedance-mobility compact matrix (IMCM) approach, it is presumed that the coupled response can be described in terms of finite sets of the uncoupled acoustic subsystem and the structural subsystem. The flexible walls of the plenum are modeled as an unfolded plate to calculate natural frequencies and mode shapes of the uncoupled structural subsystem. The second step is to calculate the radiated sound power from the flexible walls using Kirchhoff-Helmholtz (KH) integral formulation. Analytical results are validated with finite element and boundary element (FEM-BEM) numerical models. PMID:20968352
Weak commutation relations and eigenvalue statistics for products of rectangular random matrices.
Ipsen, Jesper R; Kieburg, Mario
2014-03-01
We study the joint probability density of the eigenvalues of a product of rectangular real, complex, or quaternion random matrices in a unified way. The random matrices are distributed according to arbitrary probability densities, whose only restriction is the invariance under left and right multiplication by orthogonal, unitary, or unitary symplectic matrices, respectively. We show that a product of rectangular matrices is statistically equivalent to a product of square matrices. Hereby we prove a weak commutation relation of the random matrices at finite matrix sizes, which previously has been discussed for infinite matrix size. Moreover, we derive the joint probability densities of the eigenvalues. To illustrate our results, we apply them to a product of random matrices drawn from Ginibre ensembles and Jacobi ensembles as well as a mixed version thereof. For these weights, we show that the product of complex random matrices yields a determinantal point process, while the real and quaternion matrix ensembles correspond to Pfaffian point processes. Our results are visualized by numerical simulations. Furthermore, we present an application to a transport on a closed, disordered chain coupled to a particle bath. PMID:24730789
Twin Jet Effects on Noise of Round and Rectangular Jets: Experiment and Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bozak, Rick
2014-01-01
Many subsonic and supersonic aircraft concepts proposed by NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program have asymmetric, integrated propulsion systems. The asymmetries in the exhaust of these propulsion systems create an asymmetric acoustic field. The asymmetries investigated in the current study are from twin jets and rectangular nozzles. Each effect produces its own variation of the acoustic field. An empirical model was developed to predict the acoustic field variation from round twin jets with twin jet spacing from 2.6 to 5.6, where s is the center-to-center spacing over the jet diameter. The model includes parameters to account for the effects of twin jet spacing, jet static temperature ratio, flight Mach number, frequency, and observer angle (both polar and azimuthal angles). The model was then applied to twin 2:1 and 8:1 aspect ratio nozzles to determine the impact of jet aspect ratio. For the round and rectangular jets, the use of the model reduces the average magnitude of the error over all frequencies, observation angles, and jet spacings by approximately 0.5dB when compared against the assumption of adding two jets incoherently.
Cold test, spontaneous emission and gain in a rectangular Cerenkov amplifier
Scharer, J.E.; Joe, J.; Booske, J.H.; Basten, M.; Kirolous, H.
1994-12-31
The authors present experimental results for the rectangular Cerenkov grating amplifier. This research is being carried out to develop a Ka-band (35 GHz), low voltage (10 kV), moderate power (10 kW) source. They have constructed a Ku-band grating structure to study a scaled version of this source. The tapered grating consists of two tapered Ku-band smooth wave guide sections and two 3.5-inch sections of five-step-tapered gratings. Both tapered and untapered grating structures have been cold tested utilizing the network analyzer measurements. They find that their taper design reduced the reflection coefficient from {minus}5 dB to less than {minus}20 dB over a 12--15 GHz bandwidth. Spontaneous emission results resulting from passing the circular electron beam from a Litton thermionic gun over the grating structure will be presented. They have theoretically investigated the sheet beam interaction with hybrid modes in a deep groove rectangular grating waveguide. A complex dispersion relation, which includes a finite axial energy spread of the beam, describing the interaction has been solved. The authors find that the instability is always convective in the forward wave mode regime.
Kazi, Salim Newaz; Sadeghinezhad, Emad
2014-01-01
Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations. PMID:25254236
Yarmand, Hooman; Gharehkhani, Samira; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza
2014-01-01
Thermal characteristics of turbulent nanofluid flow in a rectangular pipe have been investigated numerically. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The symmetrical rectangular channel is heated at the top and bottom at a constant heat flux while the sides walls are insulated. Four different types of nanoparticles Al2O3, ZnO, CuO, and SiO2 at different volume fractions of nanofluids in the range of 1% to 5% are considered in the present investigation. In this paper, effect of different Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000 < Re < 25000 on heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through the channel is investigated. The numerical results indicate that SiO2-water has the highest Nusselt number compared to other nanofluids while it has the lowest heat transfer coefficient due to low thermal conductivity. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of the Reynolds number and the volume fraction of nanoparticles. The results of simulation show a good agreement with the existing experimental correlations. PMID:25254236
Patterning square and rectangular arrays using shear-aligned block copolymer thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, So Youn; Davis, Raleigh L.; Register, Richard A.; Gwyther, Jessica; Nunns, Adam; Manners, Ian; Chaikin, Paul M.
2014-03-01
Microphase separation of block copolymers in thin films can generate periodic structures: hexagonally packed arrays of dots from spherical or cylindrical phase block copolymers, or periodic stripes from cylindrical or lamellar phase block copolymers. Square or rectangular patterns, however, do not naturally form by spontaneous self-assembly of a simple diblock copolymer, and are a challenge to create. We present a simple way to create nano-square/rectangular arrays by building up a double-layer film of a cylinder-forming diblock, where each layer is sequentially deposited, shear-aligned independently, and cross-linked. Any block copolymer with at least one crosslinkable block can in principle be employed; in this study we use cylinder-forming polystyrene-b-poly(ferrocenylisopropylmethylsilane) and polystyrene-b-poly(hexylmethacrylate). The pitch of the array is tunable by varying polymer molecular weight. Oxygen reactive ion etching is used to reveal the grid structures, and these grids can in turn form nano-wells in the silicon substrate when the cylinder-forming block is very etch-resistant under the conditions used for silicon etching. Additionally, metal dots ordered in square arrays can be created using these grids as templates, via metal evaporation and lift-off.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, T. F.; Xing, Y. F.
2016-09-01
This article presents closed-form solutions for the frequency analysis of rectangular functionally graded material (FGM) thin plates subjected to initially in-plane loads and with an elastic foundation. Based on classical thin plate theory, the governing differential equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. A neutral surface is used to eliminate stretching-bending coupling in FGM plates on the basis of the assumption of constant Poisson's ratio. The resulting governing equation of FGM thin plates has the same form as homogeneous thin plates. The separation-of-variables method is adopted to obtain solutions for the free vibration problems of rectangular FGM thin plates with separable boundary conditions, including, for example, clamped plates. The obtained normal modes and frequencies are in elegant closed forms, and present formulations and solutions are validated by comparing present results with those in the literature and finite element method results obtained by the authors. A parameter study reveals the effects of the power law index n and aspect ratio a/b on frequencies.
Verification of equations for incipient motion studies for a rigid rectangular channel.
Bong, Charles Hin Joo; Lau, Tze Liang; Ghani, Aminuddin Ab
2013-01-01
The current study aims to verify the existing equations for incipient motion for a rigid rectangular channel. Data from experimental work on incipient motion from a rectangular flume with two different widths, namely 0.3 and 0.6 m, were compared with the critical velocity value predicted by the equations of Novak & Nalluri and El-Zaemey. The equation by El-Zaemey performed better with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.06 compared with the equation by Novak & Nalluri with an average discrepancy ratio value of 0.87. However, as the sediment deposit thickness increased, the equation by El-Zaemey became less accurate. A plot on the Shields Diagram using the experimental data had shown the significant effect of the sediment deposit thickness where, as the deposit becomes thicker, the dimensionless shear stress θ value also increased. A new equation had been proposed by incorporating the sediment deposit thickness. The new equation gave improved prediction with an average discrepancy ratio value of 1.02.
Underwood, H R; Peterson, A F; Magin, R L
1992-02-01
A rectangular microstrip antenna radiator is investigated for its near-zone radiation characteristics in water. Calculations of a cavity model theory are compared with the electric-field measurements of a miniature nonperturbing diode-dipole E-field probe whose 3 mm tip was positioned by an automatic three-axis scanning system. These comparisons have implications for the use of microstrip antennas in a multielement microwave hyperthermia applicator. Half-wavelength rectangular microstrip patches were designed to radiate in water at 915 MHz. Both low (epsilon r = 10) and high (epsilon r = 85) dielectric constant substrates were tested. Normal and tangential components of the near-zone radiated electric field were discriminated by appropriate orientation of the E-field probe. Low normal to transverse electric-field ratios at 3.0 cm depth indicate that the radiators may be useful for hyperthermia heating with an intervening water bolus. Electric-field pattern addition from a three-element linear array of these elements in water indicates that phase and amplitude adjustment can achieve some limited control over the distribution of radiated power. PMID:1612617
Quasi-optimal locations of piezo-elements on a rectangular plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koszewnik, Andrzej; Gosiewski, Zdzisław
2016-07-01
The optimal location of piezo-actuators and piezo-sensors for the vibration control of a rectangular plate with SFSF (Simply Supported - Free - Simply Supported - Free) boundary conditions is presented in the paper. Based on bending moments, Mx(x,y) and My(x,y), the modal control forces generated by the piezo-stripes are calculated for the first five mode shapes. Calculations are carried out for different locations of two piezo-strips directed along the X and Y axes. The obtained results are used to define performance indexes of modal control forces for the two considered directions of vibration. In a similar way the modal unit elongations of the piezo-sensors are calculated for two different orientations of the piezos on the plate. Based on these results the objective cost functions J_{ɛ - odd} and J_{ɛ - even} are defined separately for odd and even modes. The quasi-optimal locations of the piezo-actuators and piezo-sensors are determined by maximizing the proposed cost functions. After analytical and numerical investigations the process of the full model identification is carried out at the laboratory stand. A chirp signal is applied in the identification process. The rectangular plate is excited with the chirp force while output signals are measured by the piezo-sensors oriented in the perpendicular directions X and Y. In such a way two mathematical models are obtained to control the vibration of the plate separately for odd and even natural modes.-1
Numerical and experimental study of shock waves emanating from an open-ended rectangular tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koroteeva, E. Yu.; Znamenskaya, I. A.; Glazyrin, F. N.; Sysoev, N. N.
2016-05-01
We examine the dynamics of a high-speed shock-induced flow near the open end of a shock tube using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the background oriented schlieren (BOS) methods along with two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations. In experiments, planar shock waves (M=1.3-1.6) are discharged from a rectangular (24 mm × 48 mm) low-pressure section of a shock tube open to the atmosphere. Due to the rectangular exit geometry, the resulting flow is highly three-dimensional and, thus, more complicated, compared to well-studied circular/axisymmetric geometries. The study focuses on the spatio-temporal flow structure up to 1 ms after the shock wave diffraction. PIV and BOS visualization techniques share the same post-processing principle, and the iterative multi-step cross-correlation algorithm applied in the PIV software is adapted here for the calculation of background pattern displacement on the BOS images. Particular attention is given to the resolution of flow regions where sharp gradients are present, such as a diffracted shock front or embedded shocks. Computational fluid dynamic simulations of the problem are also conducted to validate the experimental results and methods and to gain more insight into the three-dimensional flow dynamics. PIV and BOS images are found to be consistent with the corresponding numerical flow visualizations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
1999-01-01
A linear spatial instability model for multiple spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets is solved using Floquet-Bloch theory. It is assumed that in the region of interest a coherent wave can propagate. For the case studied large spatial growth rates are found. This work is motivated by an increase in mixing found in experimental measurements of spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets with phase-locked screech and edge tone feedback locked subsonic jets. The results obtained in this paper suggests that phase-locked screech or edge tones may produce correlated spatially periodic jet flow downstream of the nozzles which creates a large span wise multi-nozzle region where a coherent wave can propagate. The large spatial growth rates for eddies obtained by model calculation herein are related to the increased mixing since eddies are the primary mechanism that transfer energy from the mean flow to the large turbulent structures. Calculations of spacial growth rates will be presented for a set of relative Mach numbers and spacings for which experimental measurements have been made. Calculations of spatial growth rates are presented for relative Mach numbers from 1.25 to 1.75 with ratios of nozzle spacing to nozzle width ratios from s/w(sub N) = 4 to s/w(sub N) = 13.7. The model may be of significant scientific and engineering value in the quest to understand and construct supersonic mixer-ejector nozzles which provide increased mixing and reduced noise.
Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin
2014-01-21
Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy. PMID:24292548
Measurement of heat transfer and pressure drop in rectangular channels with turbulence promoters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Ibrahim, M. Y.
1986-01-01
Periodic rib turbulators were used in advanced turbine cooling designs to enhance the internal heat transfer. The objective of the present project was to investigate the combined effects of the rib angle of attack and the channel aspect ratio on the local heat transfer and pressure drop in rectangular channels with two opposite ribbed walls for Reynolds number varied from 10,000 to 60,000. The channel aspect ratio (W/H) was varied from 1 to 2 to 4. The rib angle of attack (alpha) was varied from 90 to 60 to 45 to 30 degree. The highly detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on both the smooth side and the ribbed side walls from the channel sharp entrance to the downstream region were measured. The results showed that, in the square channel, the heat transfer for the slant ribs (alpha = 30 -45 deg) was about 30% higher that of the transverse ribs (alpha = 90 deg) for a constant pumping power. However, in the rectangular channels (W/H = 2 and 4, ribs on W side), the heat transfer at alpha = 30 -45 deg was only about 5% higher than 90 deg. The average heat transfer and friction correlations were developed to account for rib spacing, rib angle, and channel aspect ratio over the range of roughness Reynolds number.
Miyazaki, H; Makiguchi, T; Takayama, Y; Yokoo, S
2014-09-01
The use of a rectangular flap is a well known technique for upper lip repair in cleft lip, but is less common for lower lip repair after tumour resection. We have found this type of flap to be favourable for lower lip reconstruction, especially for the lip to mental region. We describe herein an improvement to the technique in which two opposing rectangular flaps, with the length of one side equal to the vertical distance from the mentolabial groove to the vermilion border, were raised on the lateral sides of a U-shaped defect. Reconstruction was performed by interdigitation of the two flaps and a bilateral vermilion advancement flap. This new approach allows a distinct mentolabial groove and mental protuberance to be created by utilizing two opposing rectangular flaps and redundant tissue, without sacrificing sensation and muscle function. Our results suggest that the technique provides excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes in restoration of the lower lip in properly selected patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shangyu; Cheng, Renxiang; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun
2016-04-01
The enlargement of the field of view (FOV) of a photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) system and the improvement of its lateral resolution are often two conflicting goals. A rectangular focused transducer is proposed to solve this problem. An asymmetric geometry of the transducer results in its asymmetric characteristics of the ultrasound (US) field. Both simulation and experiments confirm that the rectangular focused transducer can improve the FOV and lateral resolution of PAT systems simultaneously. The US transducer proposed in this study has the potential to improve the performance of a PAT system for practical biomedical applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vogel, J. M.
1973-01-01
The calculation of the outer inviscid flow about a rectangular wing moving at supersonic speeds is reported. The inviscid equations of motion governing the flow generated by the wing form a set of hyperbolic differential equations. The flow field about the rectangular wing is separated into three regions consisting of the forebody, the afterbody, and the wing wake. Solutions for the forebody are obtained using conical flow techniques while the afterbody and the wing wake regions are treated as initial value problems. The numerical solutions are compared in the two dimensional regions with known exact solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kravchenko, Sergey V.
2013-09-01
Design of LED optical elements producing uniform illumination in rectangular regions is one of the most actual and challenging problems in development of lighting devices. As a rule, LED optical element has at least two surfaces (inner and outer) that leads to computational complexity of design process and requires application of different optimization techniques. We present a new rapid computational method for automatical design of optical elements with two free-form surfaces which generate uniform irradiance distribution in the rectangular region. Such optical elements have high lighting efficiency (about 92 %) and can be produced by injection molding.
Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.
1994-03-01
Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical
Magnetic field effects on THz radiation from rectangular shape Bi2212 IJJ’s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaki, Kazuhiro; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kadowaki, Kazuo
2010-12-01
The effects of magnetic field on terahertz radiation emitted from the rectangular mesa of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ’s) made of Bi2212 single crystals were studied up to 150 Oe. Strong suppression of the radiation power was observed when magnetic field was applied to the c-axis of the sample, while in the case of H//ab-plane, the radiation power showed a weak and broad peak in the weak field region (˜50 Oe), then it decreased and diminished around 150 Oe. These magnetic field effects are interpreted by the strong influence of magnetic field on the I-V curve, which set up the condition for the THz radiation.
Self-Sustained Oscillation of a Submerged Jet in a Thin Rectangular Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawson, N. J.; Davidson, M. R.
2001-01-01
Self-sustained oscillating jet flow of water in a rectangular cavity, having thickness which is small relative to its width, is measured using LDA and PIV, and predicted using a transient two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model which incorporates a resistance coefficient for cross-flow. The basic geometry represents a scale model of a mould typical of thin slab steel casting. The frequency of the oscillation was found to be independent of cavity thickness. It also increased as the cavity width decreased down to some critical value, after which the oscillation ceased. The frequency was observed to increase with nozzle diameter and was found to decrease with increasing length/width ratio of the cavity. The numerical model, with a fixed dimensionless cross-flow resistance coefficient, was shown to predict the Strouhal number of the oscillation and the dimensionless mean velocity profiles in the jet extremely well.
High-efficiency transition between rectangular waveguide and domino plasmonic waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liangliang; Li, Zhuo; Xu, Bingzheng; Gu, Changqing; Chen, Chen; Ning, Pingping; Yan, Jian; Chen, Xingyu
2015-02-01
In this work, we propose an optimized transition structure to realize smooth and high efficiency conversion from the guided wave supported by a conventional rectangular waveguide (CRW) to the domino plasmon polaritons (DPPs) supported by a domino plasmonic waveguide (DPW) and vice versa in the X-band (8.2GHz˜12.4GHz). This transition structure consists of two tapered CRWs connected by a gradient domino array with optimized gradient heights and lateral widths. Experimental results of the S-parameters show excellent agreement with the simulations and the optimization scheme can be readily extended to other bands. Furthermore, a domino plasmonic power divider is implemented to demonstrate the application of the transition structure in the integration of conventional microwave circuits with plasmonic devices.
Mode-converters for rectangular-core fiber amplifiers to achieve diffraction-limited power scaling.
Sridharan, Arun Kumar; Pax, Paul H; Heebner, John E; Drachenberg, Derrek R; Armstrong, J Paul; Dawson, Jay W
2012-12-17
A rectangular-core (ribbon) fiber that guides and amplifies a single higher-order-mode (HOM) can potentially scale to much higher average powers than what is possible in traditional circular-core large-mode-area fibers. Such an amplifier would require mode-conversion at the input to enable interfacing with seed sources that typically output TEM(00) mode radiation and at the output to generate diffraction-limited radiation for end-user applications. We present the first simulation and experimental results of a mode conversion technique that uses two diffractive-optic-elements in conjugate Fourier planes to convert a diffraction limited TEM(00) mode to the HOM of a ribbon fiber. Mode-conversion-efficiency is approximately 84% and can theoretically approach 100%. We also demonstrate a mode-converter system that converts a single HOM of a ribbon fiber back to a diffraction-limited TEM(00) mode. Conversion efficiency is a record 80.5%.
The two-dimensional character of spin-up in a rectangular container
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavala Sansón, L.
2003-06-01
This study presents two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of the spin-up of a homogeneous fluid in a rectangular container, compared with the corresponding three-dimensional (3D) simulation presented by other authors. A 2D simulation is based on a recently derived model [Zavala Sansón and van Heijst, J. Fluid Mech. 412, 75 (2000)] including nonlinear Ekman friction effects, in addition to the well-known linear damping term. It is found that the inclusion of nonlinear Ekman terms provides a remarkable agreement between 2D and 3D simulations for times comparable with the Ekman timescale, which implies that this formulation is able to capture the essential viscous features of the 3D situation. In contrast, a simulation based on a 2D model with conventional linear friction is not able to represent the 3D case correctly.
Low-loss light transmission in a rectangular-shaped hybrid metal trench at 1550 nm.
Yang, Pengfei; Di, Zhigang; Xu, Hongxing
2013-07-15
A hybrid plasmonic waveguide consisting of a high-index dielectric core embedded inside a rectangular-shaped metallic trench is proposed and its guiding properties are investigated at the wavelength of 1550 nm. Numerical simulations based on the finite element method have demonstrated that the introduced dielectric core could greatly reduce the modal loss of the metal trench while maintaining strong confinement of light. The effects of dielectric core size, material of the cladding and the dielectric core on the modal properties have been systematically investigated. The proposed hybrid plasmonic structure can be realized employing fabrication techniques of the traditional metal trench waveguides and could be leveraged as important elements for highly-integrated photonic circuits.
Modeling induction heating and 3-D heat transfer for growth of rectangular crystals using FIDAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atherton, L. J.; Martin, R. W.
1988-09-01
We are developing a process to grow large rectangular crystals for use as solid state lasers by a Bridgman-like method. The process is based on induction heating of two graphite susceptors which transfer energy to an ampoule containing the melt and crystal. The induction heating version of FIDAP developed by Gresho and Derby is applied to this system to determine the power deposition profile in electrically conducting regions. The calculated power is subsequently used as a source term in the heat equation to calculate the temperature profile. Results are presented which examine the sensitivity of the system to electrical and thermal conductivities, and design modifications are illustrated which could improve the temperature field for crystal growth applications.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications. PMID:26563588
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyczółkowski, Rafał; Musiał, Dorota
2012-09-01
The paper describes tests intended to examine the occurrence of natural convection within the space occupied by 40×20 mm rectangular steel sections. Within these tests the bed of four layers of section was heated by the electric palate heater. Depending on the manner in which the heater was positioned, the tests were divided into two series. In the case of heating from above, the heat flowing through the bed is transferred only by conduction and radiation. When heating the bed from below, in addition to conduction and radiation, also a convective heat transfer will occur. Should this be the case, it will result in the intensification of the heat exchange. The results of measurements carried out have not demonstrated that the occurrence of any possible natural convection would influence the development of a temperature field in this type of charge.
Buckling tests of a 10 foot diameter stiffened cylinder with rectangular cutouts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Randall C.; Carder, Fred
1987-01-01
A 10-foot diameter aluminum cylinder with rectangular cutouts in its ring and stringer stiffened wall was loaded to failure by an end bending moment. A 24x27 inch cutout, centered on the compression side of the shell, was first cut into the cylinder. After testing, the cutout area was enlarged to a 36/36 inch square cutout that removed the material damaged by buckling during the first test. After the second buckling test, the cutout area was patched with an equivalent stiffness plate bolted over the cutout hole. The cylinder was rotated 120 deg. and a 18x18 inch square hole cut into the center of the new compression side of the shell. Test specimen details, test procedures, and test results are presented.
Use of Rectangular Capillary Chambers for Nondestructive Microscopic Observation of Biofilm on Sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochiai, N.; Dragila, M.; Parke, J.
2005-12-01
Slow sand filter removal of bacterial and fungal pathogens from water has been shown to depend on development of biofilms on sand near the filter surface. Over time, hydraulic conductivity of slow sand filters is considerably reduced, presumably due to excessive biofilm development or plugging of surface pores by particulate matter. Microscopic observation of biofilms in porous media typically requires destructive sampling of media or use of micromodels to simulate pore systems. We are developing a flow-thru chamber consisting of a thin-walled rectangular capillary attached to a mount that can be manipulated with a conventional microscope stage. Capillaries are easily packed with granular media and allow continuous, non-destructive observation of pore systems over time. Initial trials using epi-fluorescence microscopy demonstrate the potential to monitor biofilm development on pore faces or adsorption of particulate matter at the water-solid or air-water interface.
Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin
2013-11-15
By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
The electrophoretic mobility of a cell in solution is defined by its velocity divided by the electric field strength it experiences. An obvious way to measure the mobility of cells is to apply a constant electric field to a suspension of cells in a glass chamber and clock the velocities of individual cells through a microscope. This microscope method is the classic technique in cell electrophoresis and it has been used for the bulk of research in this field. Two aspects of the microscope method can critically affect the accuracy and consistency of its cell mobility measurements: (1) the electroosmotic fluctuations in the chamber from measurement to measurement; and (2) the number of cells which can be practically measured for statistically meaningful results. A new method of analyzing microelectrophoretic data using a computer program has been developed which addresses both of these aspects. It makes possible the mobility measurements of individual cells as positions throughout the rectangular chamber depth during asymmetric electroosmotic flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-01
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-01
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335
Husnik, Martin; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin
2013-11-15
By using a recently introduced approach combining a focus-modulation technique with a common-path interferometer, we measure quantitatively the extinction, scattering, and absorption cross-section spectra of individual optical antennas. The experimental results on thin-wire antennas, slot antennas, bow-tie antennas, rectangular antennas, and square-shaped antennas resonating at around 1.4 μm wavelength are discussed. We find increased resonant scattering cross sections for the latter four antennas compared to the thin-wire antenna, both in absolute terms and relative to the absorption cross section. The square-shaped antenna's resonant extinction cross section approaches the limit of a coherent point dipole. However, the ratio of the resonant extinction cross section to the geometrical cross section of 38 is largest for the simple thin-wire antenna. PMID:24322083
Noise transmission loss of a rectangular plate in an infinite baffle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roussos, L. A.
1985-01-01
An improved analytical procedure was developed that allows for the efficient calculation of the noise transmission characteristics of a finite rectangular plate. Both isotropic and symmetrically laminated composite plates are considered. The plate is modeled with classic thin-plate theory and is assumed to be simply supported on all four sides. The incident acoustic pressure is assumed to be a plane wave impinging on the plate at an arbitrary angle. The reradiated pressure is assumed to be negligible compared with the blocked pressure, and the plate vibrations are calculated by a normal-mode approach. A Green's function integral equation is used to link the plate vibrations to be transmitted far-field sound waves, and transmission loss is calculated from the ratio of incident to transmitted acoustic powers. The result is a versatile research and engineering analysis tool that predicts noise transmission loss and enables the determination of the modal behavior of the plate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, Jablonská; Milada, Kozubková; Daniel, Himr; Michal, Weisz
2016-08-01
Cavitation is a phenomenon with both positive and negative effects and with dynamic manifestations in hydraulic, food, chemical and other machinery. This article deals with the detection and dynamic behavior of cavitation clouds in water flows through a rectangular cross-section convergent-divergent nozzle. Cavitation was measured by methods applicable in engineering practice. Pressure, flow rate, noise, vibration, and amount of air dissolved in the liquid were measured and cavitation region was recorded with a high-speed camera. Evaluation of acquired images in connection with measured pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations was performed with the use of the FFT method. In certain cases, dimensionless parameters were used to generalize the measurements. The results will be used to specify multiphase mathematical cavitation model parameters.
Snow, David E.; Kim, Dae Jung; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Weeks, Brandon L.; Pitchimani, Rajasekar
2008-08-15
In order to address the issue of spring constant calibration in viscous fluids such as water, a new method is presented that allows for the experimental calibration of bimaterial cantilever spring constants. This method is based on modeling rectangular cantilever beam bending as a function of changing temperature. The temperature change is accomplished by heating water as it flows around the cantilever beams in an enclosed compartment. The optical static method of detection is used to measure the deflection of cantilever at the free end. Experimentally determined results are compared to Sader's method and to the Thermotune method most commonly used in cantilever calibrations. Results indicate that the new bimaterial thermal expansion method is accurate within 15%-20% of the actual cantilever spring constant, which is comparable to other nondestructive calibration techniques.
Resonant Interaction of a Rectangular Jet with a Flat-Plate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Fagan, A. F.; Clem, M. M.; Brown, C. A.
2014-01-01
A resonant interaction between a large aspect ratio rectangular jet and a flat-plate is addressed in this experimental study. The plate is placed parallel to but away from the direct path of the jet. At high subsonic conditions and for certain relative locations of the plate, the resonance accompanied by an audible tone is encountered. The trends of the tone frequency variation exhibit some similarities to, but also marked differences from, corresponding trends of the well-known edge-tone phenomenon. Under the resonant condition flow visualization indicates a periodic flapping motion of the jet column. Phase-averaged Mach number data obtained near the plate's trailing edge illustrate that the jet cross-section goes through large contortions within the period of the tone. Farther downstream a clear 'axis switching' takes place. These results suggest that the assumption of two-dimensionality should be viewed with caution in any analysis of the flow.
Liu, Chao; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Xingyu; Sun, Jiashu
2015-02-21
Inertial microfluidics has emerged as an important tool for manipulating particles and cells. For a better design of inertial microfluidic devices, we conduct 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments to determine the complicated dependence of focusing behaviour on the particle size, channel aspect ratio, and channel Reynolds number. We find that the well-known focusing of the particles at the two centers of the long channel walls occurs at a relatively low Reynolds number, whereas additional stable equilibrium positions emerge close to the short walls with increasing Reynolds number. Based on the numerically calculated trajectories of particles, we propose a two-stage particle migration which is consistent with experimental observations. We further present a general criterion to secure good focusing of particles for high flow rates. This work thus provides physical insight into the multiplex focusing of particles in rectangular microchannels with different geometries and Reynolds numbers, and paves the way for efficiently designing inertial microfluidic devices.
LDV measurement and Navier-Stokes computation of parallel jet mixing in a rectangular confinement
Kunz, R.F.; D`Amico, S.W.; Vassallo, P.F.; Zaccaria, M.A.; Aksoy, H.; So, R.M.C.
1995-06-01
Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements were taken in a rectangular confinement into which issues a row of parallel jets. Two-component measurements were taken with two optics orientations yielding three mean velocity components and four Reynolds stress components. As observed in isolated three dimensional wall bounded jets, the transverse diffusion of the jets is quite large. The data indicates that this rapid mixing process is due to strong secondary flows, transport of large inlet intensities and Reynolds stress anisotropy effects. Navier-Stokes analyses of this configuration underpredict the rate of transverse jet diffusion. Detailed numerical accuracy studies show that this is attributed to shortcomings in low-Reynolds number two-equation turbulence modelling. A low-Reynolds number full-Reynolds stress model is shown to provide improvement.
Convergence of intense aerial acoustic waves radiated by a rectangular transverse vibrating plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakai, Tomoki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru
2016-07-01
A stripe-mode rectangular transverse vibrating plate can be used as a sound source that emits intense ultrasonic waves in air by placing a jut driving point outside the vibrating plate. The aim of this research was to use this vibrating plate to focus sound waves in the direction perpendicular to the nodal lines of the vibrating plate, which differs from the conventional direction. In this study, we investigated new methods for focusing the emitted sound waves by arranging reflective plates around the vibrating plate, using a design equation for each node between nodes in the vibrating plate, and placing additional reflective plates at an outer position beyond the convergence point, and found that a powerful acoustic field can be formed at an arbitrary position.
Nami, Mohammad Rahim; Janghorban, Maziar
2013-12-30
In this article, a new higher order shear deformation theory based on trigonometric shear deformation theory is developed. In order to consider the size effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is used. An analytical method is adopted to solve the governing equations for static analysis of simply supported nanoplates. In the present theory, the transverse shear stresses satisfy the traction free boundary conditions of the rectangular plates and these stresses can be calculated from the constitutive equations. The effects of different parameters such as nonlocal parameter and aspect ratio are investigated on both nondimensional deflections and deflection ratios. It may be important to mention that the present formulations are general and can be used for isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic nanoplates.
Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques
2016-09-01
The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t ≫1 . This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O (t ) and thus much beyond the O (t1 /2) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, G. V.; Nee, A. E.
2016-05-01
The mathematical modeling of the conjugate heat transfer in a closed rectangular region has been carried out under the conditions of the radiation supply of energy. The temperature and stream function fields obtained by the modeling illustrate a substantially unsteady nature of the conjugate heat exchange process under study. An analysis of temperature distributions in typical cross sections of the solution domain has shown a considerable inhomogeneity of the temperature field. It is found that an increase in the Rayleigh number leads to substantial modifications of the temperature and stream function fields. The influence of the distribution of radiation fluxes over the internal interfaces on the temperature fields and the airflow character is shown. The influence of the turbulization on the heat transfer intensity near the interfaces between media has been estimated. Comparisons of the obtained numerical results with experimental data have shown their good agreement.
Trévisan, Benjamin; Ege, Kerem; Laulagnet, Bernard
2016-01-01
This paper is focused on the vibroacoustic behavior of a rectangular ribbed wood panel. This is done by developing an analytical model based on a variational approach, taking into account the kinetic and strain energies of a special orthotropic plate, 11 ribs oriented in a first direction and 1 other strong stiffener oriented in the perpendicular direction, which are considered as beams tied to the plate. A modal decomposition is adopted on the basis of the simply supported orthotropic plate. This allows calculating the modes of the wood panel (ribbed modes) in the frequency range 0-5000 Hz. The acoustical radiation of the baffled panel is also calculated. The radiation coefficients of the ribbed modes are presented and compared, when possible, to similar unribbed plate modes. Finally, the vibroacoustic analysis of the structure shows that an excitation placed on the hard point makes the panel particularly radiative and decreases the apparent critical frequency. PMID:26827020
Modelling of laminar flow in the inlet section of rectangular microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinelli, Matteo; Viktorov, Vladimir
2009-02-01
This paper is a study of laminar flow in rectangular microchannels. The behaviour of compressible and incompressible fluids in microchannels was simulated using CFD software. Numerical data were compared to experimental measurements to test the validity of CFD models. The velocity profile of flow developing inside the channel is described as a function of the Reynolds number Re, varying from 100 to 2000, and the aspect ratio h/w, ranging from 1 to 0.125. The fundamental importance of the entrance length of microchannels is highlighted. Numerical data were applied to define analytical formulae covering the minimum entrance length for fully developed laminar flow of compressible fluids, viscous stress and incremental pressure drop effect during flow development, and the velocity profiles of flow for compressible and incompressible fluids.
Study of compressible flow through a rectangular-to-semiannular transition duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Jeffry; Okiishi, Theodore H.; Wendt, Bruce J.; Reichert, Bruce A.
1995-01-01
Detailed flow field measurements are presented for compressible flow through a diffusing rectangular-to-semiannular transition duct. Comparisons are made with published computational results for flow through the duct. Three-dimensional velocity vectors and total pressures were measured at the exit plane of the diffuser model. The inlet flow was also measured. These measurements are made using calibrated five-hole probes. Surface oil flow visualization and surface static pressure data were also taken. The study was conducted with an inlet Mach number of 0.786. The diffuser Reynolds based on the inlet centerline velocity and the exit diameter of the diffuser was 3,200,000. Comparison of the measured data with previously published computational results are made. Data demonstrating the ability of vortex generators to reduce flow separation and circumferential distortion is also presented.
On the attenuation of sound by three-dimensionally segmented acoustic liners in a rectangular duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koch, W.
1979-01-01
Axial segmentation of acoustically absorbing liners in rectangular, circular or annual duct configurations is a very useful concept for obtaining higher noise attenuation with respect to the bandwidth of absorption as well as the maximum attenuation. As a consequence, advanced liner concepts are proposed which induce a modal energy transfer in both cross-sectional directions to further reduce the noise radiated from turbofan engines. However, these advanced liner concepts require three-dimensional geometries which are difficult to treat theoretically. A very simple three-dimensional problem is investigated analytically. The results show a strong dependence on the positioning of the liner for some incident source modes while the effect of three-dimensional segmentation appears to be negligible over the frequency range considered.
Monk, S D; Selwood, M
2011-03-01
A Monte Carlo-based simulation of the transport of a series of monoenergetic neutron sources through first a rectangular block of 0.93 g cm(-3) density polyethylene and secondly through a sphere made of the same substance is presented here. In both instances, the neutron fields are monitored at closely spread intervals through the moderator mass, producing a lot of data in the process. To reduce the amount of data presented, a figure of merit is created by estimating the cross section for each discrete neutron energy and by applying this to the number of neutrons present of each energy giving an arbitrary response figure. This work was undertaken in order to aid the design and development of a novel neutron spectrometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Sun, M.
2016-05-01
This paper reports an experimental investigation on the effects of explosion depth and tube width on the water jet induced by an underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube. The water jet formation and bubble structure were evaluated from the images recorded by a high-speed video camera. Two typical patterns of jet formation and four general patterns of bubble implosion were observed, depending on the explosion depth and tube width. The velocity of the water jet was calculated from the recorded images. The jet velocity was observed to depend on not only the explosion depth and energy, but also on the tube width. We proposed an empirical formula defining the water jet velocity in the tube as a function of the tube width and explosion depth and energy.
Liquid-metal flow in a rectangular duct with a non-uniform magnetic field
Walker, J.S.
1986-04-01
This paper treats liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls. A transverse magnetic field changes from a uniform strength upstream to a weaker uniform strength downstream. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. If the magnetic field changes gradually over a long duct length, the velocity and pressure are nearly uniform in each cross section and the flow differs slightly from locally fully developed flow. If the magnetic field changes more abruptly over a shorter duct length, the velocity and pressure are much larger near the walls parallel to the magnetic field than in the central part of duct. Solutions for the pressure drops due to the magnetic field change are presented.
Free Vibration of Line Supported Rectangular Plates Using a Set of Static Beam Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, D.; Cheung, Y. K.
1999-06-01
The free vibration of thin orthotropic rectangular plates, which may be continuous over a number of intermediate line supports in one or two directions, is analyzed by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. A new set of admissible functions which are the static solutions of a point supported beam under a series of sine loads is developed. The eigenfrequency equation for the plate is derived by minimizing the potential energy. A very simple and general computer programme has been compiled. The basic concept to form the set of static beam functions is very clear and requires no complicated mathematical knowledge. Some numerical results presented are compared with those obtained by other numerical methods in the literature. It is shown that this set of static beam functions has some advantages in terms of computational cost, application versatility and numerical accuracy, especially for the plate problem with a large number of intermediate line supports and/or when higher vibrating modes need to be calculated.
Li, Rui; Wang, Pengcheng; Tian, Yu; Wang, Bo; Li, Gang
2015-01-01
A unified analytic solution approach to both static bending and free vibration problems of rectangular thin plates is demonstrated in this paper, with focus on the application to corner-supported plates. The solution procedure is based on a novel symplectic superposition method, which transforms the problems into the Hamiltonian system and yields accurate enough results via step-by-step rigorous derivation. The main advantage of the developed approach is its wide applicability since no trial solutions are needed in the analysis, which is completely different from the other methods. Numerical examples for both static bending and free vibration plates are presented to validate the developed analytic solutions and to offer new numerical results. The approach is expected to serve as a benchmark analytic approach due to its effectiveness and accuracy. PMID:26608602
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K. M.; Yu, Z.
2009-10-01
This paper provides empirical formulas for rapidly calculating the resonant frequencies of an orthotropic, rectangular plate with its edges constrained by elastic supports. In particular, the classical boundary condition with guided supports at its edges is considered. Other boundary conditions, such as the guided-free edges, guided-clamped edges and guided-free support edges have also been included in the present study. Simple and closed form empirical formulas have been derived to allow straightforward computations of the modal resonant frequencies. The empirical formulas are based on the analytical results obtained from the Rayleigh-Ritz method. However, the coefficient is determined empirically from the results obtained by other more accurate computational scheme, e.g. finite element method. The method is further generalized to predict the resonant frequencies for general boundary conditions of a square, orthotropic plate.
Modes of empty off-axis unstable resonators with rectangular mirrors.
Weiner, M M
1979-06-01
The effect of Fresnel edge diffraction on mode loss and far-field beam quality is investigated for empty offaxis unstable resonators with rectangular mirrors. For the cases investigated, mode-loss separation and beam quality of the lowest-loss mode are maximized nonconcurrently when the optical axis intersects the small convex mirror near one of its corners rather than its center. Although these properties indicate that the near-corner off-axis resonator can achieve superior beam quality to that achieved by an on-axis resonator, it is also shown that a large instability in beam quality can occur near the operating point which gives maximum mode-loss separation and superior beam quality. PMID:20212557
Microwave breakdown for the TE{sub 10} mode in a rectangular waveguide
Malik, Hitendra K.; Aria, Anil K.
2013-08-15
Microwave breakdown is studied for the lowest order TE{sub 10} mode in a rectangular waveguide with the help of direct variational approach via the continuity equation along with the use of ionisation and attachment frequency. We investigate the role of the ionisation, attachment of electron with neutral gas or air molecules and the diffusion on microwave breakdown threshold in the waveguide filled with air or Ar Gas. We examine the effect of different gases and microwave parameters on the diffusion length and the breakdown threshold of electric field of continuous microwave and pulsed microwave. We also employ numerical approach for obtaining the results and compare them with the ones of variational approach.
Density modification by two superposing TE{sub 10} modes in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide
Tomar, Sanjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.
2013-07-15
Microwave and plasma interaction is examined via two fundamental TE{sub 10} modes propagating in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide after superposing at a smaller angle. The propagation of the resultant mode realized from these two modes is governed by a wave equation obtained using the Maxwell's equations. This equation is solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the field amplitude of the microwave in the waveguide considering the waveguide to be made up of a perfect conductor and filled with different types of initial plasma density distributions, viz. homogeneous density, linear density with gradient in the propagation direction, and the density with Gaussian profile along the waveguide width. A phenomenon similar to the duct formation by high power microwaves is found to take place, where the plasma density attains interesting profiles. These profiles can be controlled by the angle of superposition, phase difference between the fields of the two modes, microwave frequency and microwave field amplitude.
Performance and rotor loads measurements of the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, Benton H.; Louie, Alexander W.; Griffiths, Nicholas; Sotiriou, Costantinos P.
1993-01-01
This report presents the results of a series of flight tests on the Lynx XZ170 helicopter with rectangular blades. The test objectives were to explore the flight envelope and to measure the performance and structural loads of the Lynx main-rotor system. The tests were conducted as part of the British Experimental Rotor Program (BERP) under a contract with the Ministry of Defense in England. Data were acquired for steady-level flights at five weight coefficients. Some flight conditions were tested at beyond the retreating-blade stall boundary, which was defined by a predetermined limit on the pitchlink vibratory load. In addition to documenting the flight conditions and data, this report describes the aircraft, particularly the rotor system, in detail.
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-07
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet's principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet's principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies.
In-plane vibrations of a rectangular plate: Plane wave expansion modelling and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arreola-Lucas, A.; Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.
2015-04-01
Theoretical and experimental results for in-plane vibrations of a uniform rectangular plate with free boundary conditions are obtained. The experimental setup uses electromagnetic-acoustic transducers and a vector network analyzer. The theoretical calculations were obtained using the plane wave expansion method applied to the in-plane thin plate vibration theory. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent for the lower 95 modes covering a very wide frequency range from DC to 20 kHz. Some measured normal-mode wave amplitudes were compared with the theoretical predictions; very good agreement was observed. The excellent agreement of the classical theory of in-plane vibrations confirms its reliability up to very high frequencies
Finite amplitude vibrations of cantilevers of rectangular cross sections in viscous fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phan, Catherine N.; Aureli, Matteo; Porfiri, Maurizio
2013-07-01
In this paper, we study finite amplitude vibrations of a cantilever beam of rectangular cross section immersed in a viscous fluid under harmonic base excitation. Fluid-structure interactions are modeled through a complex hydrodynamic function that describes added mass and damping effects in response to moderately large oscillation amplitudes. The hydrodynamic function is identified from the analysis of the two-dimensional flow physics generated by a rigid rectangle undergoing harmonic oscillations in a quiescent fluid. Computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the effects of three salient non-dimensional parameters on the flow physics and inform the formulation of a tractable expression for the hydrodynamic function. Theoretical results are validated against experimental findings on underwater vibration of compliant beams of varying cross sections.
Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function.
Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques
2016-09-01
The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t≫1. This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O(t) and thus much beyond the O(t^{1/2}) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large. PMID:27661692
Laser velocimeter and total pressure measurements in circular-to-rectangular transition ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patrick, William P.; Mccormick, Duane C.
1988-01-01
A comprehensive set of total pressure and three-component laser velocimetry (LV) data were obtained within two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts at low subsonic speeds. This set of reference data was acquired for use in identifying secondary flow mechanisms and for assessing the accuracy of computational procedures for calculating such flows. Data were obtained at the inlet and exit planes of an aspect ratio three duct having a length-to-diameter ratio of one (AR310) and an aspect ratio six duct having a length-to-diameter ratio of three (AR630). Each duct was unseparated throughout its transition section. It is therefore concluded that secondary flows can play an important part in the fluid dynamics of transition ducts and needs to be addressed in computational analysis. The strength of the secondary flows depends on both the aspect ratio and relative axial duct length.
Lee, Dukhyung; Kim, Dai-Sik
2016-01-01
We study light scattering off rectangular slot nano antennas on a metal film varying incident polarization and incident angle, to examine which field vector of light is more important: electric vector perpendicular to, versus magnetic vector parallel to the long axis of the rectangle. While vector Babinet’s principle would prefer magnetic field along the long axis for optimizing slot antenna function, convention and intuition most often refer to the electric field perpendicular to it. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that in accordance with vector Babinet’s principle, the incident magnetic vector parallel to the long axis is the dominant component, with the perpendicular incident electric field making a small contribution of the factor of 1/|ε|, the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dielectric constant of the metal, owing to the non-perfectness of metals at optical frequencies. PMID:26740335
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.
1977-01-01
The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses, and the stress-intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress-intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center-cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress-intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gyekenyesi, J. P.; Mendelson, A.
1975-01-01
The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement field in a finite geometry bar containing a variable depth rectangular surface crack under extensionally applied uniform loading. The application of this method to these equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. Using the obtained displacement field, normal stresses and the stress intensity factor variation along the crack periphery are calculated for different crack depth to bar thickness ratios. Crack opening displacements and stress intensity factors are also obtained for a through-thickness, center cracked bar with variable thickness. The reported results show a considerable potential for using this method in calculating stress intensity factors for commonly encountered surface crack geometries in finite solids.
Design of Combustor for Long-range Ram-jet Engine and Performance of Rectangular Analog
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rayle, Warren D; Koch, Richard G
1954-01-01
The report describes the design of a piloted combustor intended for a ram-jet engine of long flight range. The unit comprises a large annular basket of V-type cross-section, the inner surface of which is slotted and bent into small V-gutters. At the trailing edge of the basket, eight V-gutters are used to propagate the flame into the main stream. A rectangular analog of this combustor was tested at air-flow conditions corresponding to those that might be obtained during cruise. At these conditions, combustion efficiencies of as much as 90 percent were calculated for the combustor at the design equivalence ratio of 0.52. The performance of the unit was relatively insensitive to mounting and flow variables; the greatest effect on efficiency was that of the manner and location of the fuel injection. A full-scale version of this combustor has been designed for a 48-inch-diameter engine.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Dong-Gwang; Park, Jung; Jun, So-Yeon; Song, Woon; Chong, Yonuk
2013-03-01
We present our design, fabrication and characterization of superconducting transmon qubits and resonators for circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). We have made coplanar waveguide resonators and rectangular waveguide resonators. The characteristics of the resonators are well controlled by the design parameters, with the fundamental frequencies in the range of 1 to 8 GHz and the quality factors in the range of 102 to 106, respectively. We measured the resonator characteristics as a function of temperature. The excitation power dependence of the resonator characteristics was also investigated. For transmon qubits, we fabricated 100 nm-scale Al/Al2Ox/Al tunnel junctions with e-beam lithography and double angle evaporation. The junctions were characterized at low temperature down to 10 mK. Furthermore, quantum state measurement and manipulation in circuit QED structure will be discussed.
Magnetic vortex-antivortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a rectangular Permalloy pattern
Kim, D.-H.; Mesler-Lai, B.; Anderson, E.; Fischer, P.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.
2009-06-25
We report our experimental finding that there exists a pair of magnetic vortex and antivortex generated during an excited motion of a magnetic vortex core. Two vortices structure in 2 x 4 {micro}m{sup 2} rectangular Permalloy pattern is excited by an external field pulse of 1-ns duration, where each vortex is excited and followed by the vortex core splitting. X-ray microscopy with high spatiotemporal resolution enables us to observe a linking domain between two temporarily generated pairs of vortex-antivortex cores only surviving for several hundreds of picoseconds. The linking domain structure is found to depend on the combinational configuration of two original vortex cores, which is supported by micromagnetic simulations with a very good agreement.
Large deformation contact mechanics of long rectangular membranes. I. Adhesionless contact
Srivastava, Abhishek; Hui, Chung-Yuen
2013-01-01
In part I of this work, we study adhesionless contact of a long rectangular elastic membrane with a rigid substrate. Our model is based on finite strain theory and is valid for arbitrarily large deformations. Both frictionless and no-slip contact conditions are considered. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for frictionless contact. For small contact, the differences between these two contact conditions are small. However, significant differences occur for large contacts. For example, frictionless contact predicts a maximum pressure (and contact region) beyond which there is no solution; while the no-slip model places no restriction on both quantities. The effect of adhesion will be considered in part II of this work. PMID:24353471
Sommer, Christian; Quint, Stephan; Spang, Peter; Walther, Thomas; Bassler, Michael
2014-07-01
According to the Segré-Silberberg effect, spherical particles migrate to a lateral equilibrium position in parabolic flow profiles. Here, for the first time, the corresponding equilibrium velocity is studied experimentally for micro particles in channels with rectangular cross section. Micro channels are fabricated in PMMA substrate based on a hot embossing process. To measure individual particle velocities at very high precision, the technique of spatially modulated emission is applied. It is found that the equilibrium velocity is size-dependent and the method offers a new way to measure particle size in microfluidic systems. The method is of particular interest for microfluidic flow cytometry as it delivers an alternative to the scatter signal for cell size determination.
Damping Solitary Wave in a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Geometry Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yanqiu; Li, Gun; Duan, Wenshan
2016-02-01
The solitary waves of a viscous plasma confined in a cuboid under the three types of boundary condition are theoretically investigated in the present paper. By introducing a three-dimensional rectangular geometry and employing the reductive perturbation theory, a quasi-KdV equation is derived in the viscous plasma and a damping solitary wave is obtained. It is found that the damping rate increases as the viscosity coefficient increases, or increases as the length and width of the rectangle decrease, for all kinds of boundary condition. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the damping rate is dominated by the types of boundary condition. We thus observe the existence of a damping solitary wave from the fact that its amplitude disappears rapidly for a → 0 and b → 0, or v‧ → + ∞. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 91026005, 11275156, 11047010, 61162017)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Dan; Chen, Bing
2015-11-01
The extraordinary transmission (ET) due to localized surface plasmon (LSP) and propagating surface plasmon (PSP) resonances of terahertz wave through a copper film perforated with circular and rectangular apertures is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Considering that the field distributions of LSP and PSP resonances are determined by the shape and periods of the apertures on the film, the relations between extraordinary and the geometrical parameters of the apertures are investigated. The intensities of the ETs induced by the PSP resonances mode [1, 1] are much stronger than the fundamental ones [1, 0] and [0, 1]. Our finds provide another effective method to tailor the extraordinary THz transmission in sub-wavelength metallic aperture structures.
Thermal Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Panels Subjected to Humped Temperature Profile Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William I.
2004-01-01
This research investigates thermal buckling characteristics of rectangular panels subjected to different types of humped temperature profile heating. Minimum potential energy and finite-element methods are used to calculate the panel buckling temperatures. The two methods give fairly close thermal buckling solutions. 'Buckling temperature magnification factor of the first kind, eta' is established for the fixed panel edges to scale up the buckling solution of uniform temperature loading case to give the buckling solution of the humped temperature profile loading cases. Also, 'buckling temperature magnification factor of the second kind, xi' is established for the free panel edges to scale up the buckling solution of humped temperature profile loading cases with unheated boundary heat sinks to give the buckling solutions when the boundary heat sinks are heated up.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings.
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokatilov, E. P.; Nika, D. L.; Balandin, A. A.
2005-09-01
We have theoretically studied acoustic phonon spectra and phonon propagation in rectangular nanowires embedded within elastically dissimilar materials. As example systems, we have considered GaN nanowires with AlN and plastic barrier layers. It has been established that the acoustically mismatched barriers dramatically influence the quantized phonon spectrum of the nanowires. The barriers with lower sound velocity compress the phonon energy spectrum and reduce the phonon group velocities in the nanowire. The barriers with higher sound velocity have an opposite effect. The physical origin of this effect is related to redistribution of the elastic deformations in the acoustically mismatched nanowires. In the case of the “acoustically slow” barriers, the elastic deformation waves are squeezed in the barrier layer. The effect predicted for the nanowires embedded with elastically dissimilar materials could be used for reengineering phonon spectrum in nanostructures.
Shock wave bifurcation in convergent-divergent channels of rectangular cross section
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzmin, A.
2016-02-01
This work addresses two- and three-dimensional turbulent flow in simple channels, modeling the air intakes of rectangular cross section. Flow regimes with a supersonic free stream and supersonic velocities at the throat or immediately downstream of the throat are considered. Bifurcations of the shock wave arising ahead of the cowl are studied numerically. Solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are obtained with a finite-volume solver of second-order accuracy on fine computational meshes. The solutions reveal jumps of the shock leg position with variations of the free-stream Mach number. The dependence of the shock position on the cowl slope and streamwise location of the throat is examined.
Impact of nonlinear absorption on propagation of microwave in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobhani, H.; Vaziri, M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2016-07-01
In collisional and ponderomotive predominant regimes, the propagation of microwave in rectangular waveguide filled with collisional plasma is investigated numerically. The dominant mode is excited through an evacuated waveguide and then enters a similar and co-axis waveguide filled with plasma. In collisional predominant regime, the amplitude of electric field is oscillated along propagation path; outset of propagation path due to the electron-ion collision, the intensity oscillations are reduced. Afterward, under competition between the collisional nonlinearity and absorption, the intensity is increased, so the electron density peak is created in middle of waveguide. In ponderomotive predominant regime, the intensity is slowly decreased due to collision, so the electron density is ramped. Control parameters, like the frequency, input power, collision frequency, and background electron density are surveyed that can be used to control propagation characteristics of microwave. This method can be used to control heating of fusion plasma and accelerate charged particle.
Vibration of shear-deformable rectangular plates using a spline-function Rayleigh-Ritz approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S.; Dawe, D. J.
1993-02-01
The prediction of the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular plates or orthotropic laminates is described, through the use of B-spline functions as trial functions in a Rayleigh Ritz approach. Through-thickness shear deformation effects are included in the analysis and hence assumptions have to be made for the spatial variation over the plate middle surface of each of the lateral deflection and the two rotation components. Two versions of the spline-function Rayleigh-Ritz approach are described: in one of these the deflection and rotations are represented by functions of the same polynomial order, while in the other a lower-order representation is used for each rotation component in one of the coordinate directions. It is shown in a number of applications that the former version leads to shear-locking behavior while the latter version avoids this behavior and is suitable for the analysis of both thick and thin plates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajalingham, C.; Bhat, R. B.; Xistris, G. D.
1996-06-01
The plate characteristic functions are used to express the deflection shapes in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to study rectangular plate vibrations. Since the plate characteristic functions are reasonable approximations to the vibration modes, they are found to improve the convergence of vibration frequencies. These plate frequencies are used to check the accuracy of the Rayleigh frequencies associated with the plate characteristic function modes. Computations are carried out for each of the four mode categories of a clamped square plate. In each mode category, the first 30 natural frequencies are tabulated and the first nine mode diagrams are drawn. The results show that the choice of specific shape functions enhances the effectiveness of the Rayleigh-Ritz method.
Ma, Zelin; Chen, Hui; Wu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Yujie; Yu, Siyuan
2015-02-23
We study the propagation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in rectangular multimode waveguides. Due to the multimode interference effect, an OAM mode input forms self-images at certain propagation distances. As OAM modes can be decomposed as the superposition of a pair of quarter-wave phase-shifted even and odd modes, their symmetry properties lead to two different self-imaging categories - forming the OAM-maintaining and the field-splitting self-images. We analyze these phenomena using multimode interference theory, and establish the rules governing the OAM-maintaining self-imaging, which allows the multi-mode interference waveguides to be used as OAM mode splitters and couplers.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings.
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications. PMID:26563588
Influence of the synchrotron radiation on particle dynamics in a rectangular undulator
Chin, Yong Ho
1989-03-01
This paper is concerned with the synchrotron radiation from an undulating electron beam in a rectangular waveguide. It is shown analytically and numerically that the radiated energy spectrum may differ significantly from the free space result when the undulator length divided by the Lorentz factor of the electron beam is larger than the transverse size of the waveguide. The undulator radiation is identified with the awake field in beam instabilities. The concepts of wake function and impedance are introduced to formulate the present problem in the same manner as the beam instability problem. It is shown that the obtained impedances satisfy the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem and other properties inevitable for wake fields. 5 refs., 2 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dongliang; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Sining; Liu, Yi; Chu, Guanquan
2007-01-01
In order to explore the flame propagation characteristics and tulip flame formation mechanism of premixed methane/air mixture in horizontal rectangular ducts, the techniques of Schlieren and high-speed video camera are used to study the flame behaviors of the premixed gases in a closed duct and opened one respectively, and the propagation characteristics in both cases and the formation mechanism of the tulip flame are analyzed. The results show that, the propagation flame in a closed duct is prior to form a tulip flame structure than that in an opened duct, and the tulip flame structure formation in a closed duct is related to the flame propagation velocity decrease. The sharp decrease of the flame propagation velocity is one of the reasons to the tulip flame formation, and the decrease of the flame propagation velocity is due to the decrease of the burned product flow velocity mainly.
Acoustic response of a rectangular waveguide with a strong transverse temperature gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zorumski, William E.
1989-01-01
An acoustic wave equation was developed for a perfect gas with spatially-variable temperature. The strong-gradient wave equation was used to analyze the response of a rectangular wave guide containing a thermally-stratified gas. It was assumed that the temperature gradient is constant, representing one-dimensional heat transfer with a constant coefficient of conductivity. The analysis of the waveguide shows that the resonant frequencies of the waveguide are shifted away from the values that would be expected from the average temperature of the waveguide. For small gradients, the frequency shift is proportional to the square of the gradient. The factor of proportionality is a quadratic function of the natural frequency of the waveguide with uniform temperature. An experiment is designed to verify the essential features of the strong-gradient theory.
High-sensitivity strain sensor based on in-fiber rectangular air bubble.
Liu, Shen; Yang, Kaiming; Wang, Yiping; Qu, Junle; Liao, Changrui; He, Jun; Li, Zhengyong; Yin, Guolu; Sun, Bing; Zhou, Jiangtao; Wang, Guanjun; Tang, Jian; Zhao, Jing
2015-01-01
We demonstrated a unique rectangular air bubble by means of splicing two sections of standard single mode fibers together and tapering the splicing joint. Such an air bubble can be used to develop a promising high-sensitivity strain sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference. The sensitivity of the strain sensor with a cavity length of about 61 μm and a wall thickness of about 1 μm was measured to be up to 43.0 pm/με and is the highest strain sensitivity among the in-fiber FPI-based strain sensors with air cavities reported so far. Moreover, our strain sensor has a very low temperature sensitivity of about 2.0 pm/°C. Thus, the temperature-induced strain measurement error is less than 0.046 με/°C. PMID:25557614
Optimisation of the blank shape for micro deep drawing of rectangular parts
Hu Zhenyu; Vollertsen, Frank
2011-05-04
In this investigation the blank shape for micro deep drawing of rectangular parts was for the first time optimized using FEM method with consideration of the real process conditions in micro forming, i.e. the coefficient of friction and the flow curves of thin foils. The acquired optimized blank shape was then validated by applying it to experiments. For both numerical and experimental investigations a punch with a section of 2x1 mm{sup 2} was used. Aluminum Al99.5 with a sheet thickness of 20 {mu}m was used as blank material in this investigation. A flange free drawn part was successfully obtained from experiment using the blank shape and blank holder force optimized using FEM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryeva, N. Yu.; Popov, D. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.
2014-09-01
A theory has been constructed that strictly describes the spectrum of dipole-exchange spin waves in an arbitrarily magnetized anisotropic ferrite waveguide with a rectangular cross section. The theory takes into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field in the waveguide cross section. The influence of parameters of the ferrite waveguide on the distribution of the internal magnetic field in the waveguide cross section is analyzed. The dispersion characteristics of two waveguide types most widely used in practice are investigated. The dipole-exchange spin wave spectra calculated for a transversely magnetized waveguide are presented and the distributions of the dynamic magnetization in the waveguide cross section for several types of volume and localized spin-wave modes are constructed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, William L.
1994-01-01
The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.
Unification of bosonic and fermionic Z2 spin liquids on a rectangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Shubhayu; Steinberg, Julia; Sachdev, Subir
Recent theories have postulated the presence of a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) in the pseudogap metal phase of cuprates. The FL* phase can be described as a spin liquid co-existing with fermionic charge carrying quasiparticles. Underdoped cuprates also show a variety of competing orders, including nematic order which reduce the C4 symmetry of the square lattice to C2. Motivated by this, we classify mean-field bosonic spin liquids on a rectangular lattice using projective symmetry groups (PSG), and find equivalent descriptions in terms of fermionic partons. In particular, we find a fermionic spin liquid ansatz corresponding to a bosonic Z2 spin liquid with favorable mean field energy. The fermionic ansatz might be useful to investigate the transition from a FL* to a fermi liquid.
Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function.
Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques
2016-09-01
The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t≫1. This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O(t) and thus much beyond the O(t^{1/2}) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large.
Transport ac loss in a rectangular thin strip with power-law E (J) relation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing; Fan, Yu; Fang, Jin
2015-01-01
Transport ac losses of a rectangular thin strip obeying relation E /Ec =(J /Jc) n with a fixed critical current Ic and n = 5, 10, 20, 30 , and 40 are accurately computed at a fixed frequency f as functions of the current amplitude Im . The results may be interpolated and scaled to those at any values of Ic, f , and 5 ⩽ n ⩽ 40 . Normalized in the same way as that in Norris' analytical formula derived from the critical-state model and converting f to a critical frequency fc , the modeling results may be better compared with the Norris formula and experimental data. A complete set of calculated modeling data are given with necessary formulas to be easily used by experimentalists in any particular case.
Effect of Thermal Gradient on Vibration of Non-uniform Visco-elastic Rectangular Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanna, Anupam; Kaur, Narinder
2016-04-01
Here, a theoretical model is presented to analyze the effect of bilinear temperature variations on vibration of non-homogeneous visco-elastic rectangular plate with non-uniform thickness. Non-uniformity in thickness of the plate is assumed linear in one direction. Since plate's material is considered as non-homogeneous, authors characterized non-homogeneity in poisson ratio and density of the plate's material exponentially in x-direction. Plate is supposed to be clamped at the ends. Deflection for first two modes of vibration is calculated by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique and tabulated for various values of plate's parameters i.e. taper constant, aspect ratio, non-homogeneity constants and thermal gradient. Comparison of present findings with existing literature is also provided in tabular and graphical manner.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everhart, Joel L.
2008-01-01
Impact and debris damage to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles is a random phenomenon, occurring at random locations on the vehicle surface, resulting in random geometrical shapes that are exposed to a definable range of surface flow conditions. In response to the 2003 Final Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, wind tunnel aeroheating experiments approximating a wide range of possible damage scenarios covering both open and closed cavity flow conditions were systematically tested in hypersonic ground based facilities. These data were analyzed and engineering assessment tools for damage-induced fully-laminar heating were developed and exercised on orbit. These tools provide bounding approximations for the damaged-surface heating environment. This paper presents a further analysis of the baseline, zero-pressure-gradient, idealized, rectangular-geometry cavity heating data, yielding new laminar correlations for the floor-averaged heating, peak cavity endwall heating, and the downstream decay rate. Correlation parameters are derived in terms of cavity geometry and local flow conditions. Prediction Limit Uncertainty values are provided at the 95%, 99% and 99.9% levels of significance. Non-baseline conditions, including non-rectangular geometries and flows with known pressure gradients, are used to assess the range of applicability of the new correlations. All data variations fall within the 99% Prediction Limit Uncertainty bounds. Importantly, both open-flow and closed-flow cavity heating are combined into a single-curve parameterization of the heating predictions, and provide a concise mathematical model of the laminar cavity heating flow field with known uncertainty.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unruh, Oliver
2016-09-01
In order to reduce noise emitted by vibrating structures additional damping treatments such as constraint layer damping or embedded elastomer layers can be used. To save weight and cost, the additional damping is often placed at some critical locations of the structure, what leads to spatially inhomogeneous distribution of damping. This inhomogeneous distribution of structural damping leads to an occurrence of complex vibration modes, which are no longer dominated by pure standing waves, but by a superposition of travelling and standing waves. The existence of complex vibration modes raises the question about their influence on sound radiation. Previous studies on the sound radiation of complex modes of rectangular plates reveal, that, depending on the direction of travelling waves, the radiation efficiency of structural modes can slightly decrease or significantly increase. These observations have been made using a rectangular plate with a simple inhomogeneous damping configuration which includes a single plate boundary with a higher structural damping ratio. In order to answer the question about the influence of other possible damping configurations on the sound radiation properties, this paper addresses the self- and mutual-radiation efficiencies of the resulting complex vibration modes. Numerical simulations are used for the calculation of complex structural modes of different inhomogeneous damping configurations with varying geometrical form and symmetry. The evaluation of self- and mutual-radiation efficiencies reveals that primarily the symmetry properties of the inhomogeneous damping distribution affect the sound radiation characteristics. Especially the asymmetric distributions of inhomogeneous damping show a high influence on the investigated acoustic metrics. The presented study also reveals that the acoustic cross-coupling between structural modes, which is described by the mutual-radiation efficiencies, generally increases with the presence of
Test Outline for Flutter Analysis of Rectangular Panels in Rarefied Flow Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akl, Fred A.
1996-01-01
Jet plume impingement forces acting on large flexible space structures may precipitate dynamically unstable behavior during space flights. Typical operating conditions in space involve rarefied gas flow regimes which are intrinsically distinct from continuum gas flow and are normally modeled using the kinetic theory of gas flow. Docking and undocking operations of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir space laboratory represent a scenario in which the stability boundaries of solar panels may be of interest. Extensive literature review of research work on the dynamic stability of rectangular panels in rarefied gas flow conditions indicated the lack of published reports dealing with this phenomenon. A recently completed preliminary study for NASA JSC dealing with the mathematical analysis of the stability of two-degree-of-freedom elastically supported rigid panels under the effect of rarefied gas flow was reviewed. A test plan outline is prepared for the purpose of conducting a series of experiments on four rectangular rigid test articles in a vacuum chamber under the effect of continuous and pulsating Nitrogen jet plumes. The purpose of the test plan is to gather enough data related to a number of key parameters to allow the validation of the two-degree-of-freedom mathematical model. The hardware required careful design to select a very lightweight material while satisfying rigidity and frequency requirements within the constraints of the test environment. The data to be obtained from the vacuum chamber tests can be compared with the predicted behavior of the theoretical two-degree-of-freedom model. Using the data obtained in this study, further research can identify the limitations of the mathematical model. In addition modifications to the mathematical model can be made, if warranted, to accurately predict the behavior of rigid panels under rarefied gas flow regimes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tracy, M. B.; Plentovich, E. B.; Chu, Julio
1992-01-01
An experiment was performed in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel to study the internal acoustic field generated by rectangular cavities in transonic and subsonic flows and to determine the effect of Reynolds number and angle of yaw on the field. The cavity was 11.25 in. long and 2.50 in. wide. The cavity depth was varied to obtain length-to-height (l/h) ratios of 4.40, 6.70, 12.67, and 20.00. Data were obtained for a free stream Mach number range from 0.20 to 0.90, a Reynolds number range from 2 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6) per foot with a nearly constant boundary layer thickness, and for two angles of yaw of 0 and 15 degs. Results show that Reynolds number has little effect on the acoustic field in rectangular cavities at angle of yaw of 0 deg. Cavities with l/h = 4.40 and 6.70 generated tones at transonic speeds, whereas those with l/h = 20.00 did not. This trend agrees with data obtained previously at supersonic speeds. As Mach number decreased, the amplitude, and bandwidth of the tones changed. No tones appeared for Mach number = 0.20. For a cavity with l/h = 12.67, tones appeared at Mach number = 0.60, indicating a possible change in flow field type. Changes in acoustic spectra with angle of yaw varied with Reynolds number, Mach number, l/h ratios, and acoustic mode number.
Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Rubert, R.R.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Stallard, B.W.; Gallagher, N.C. Jr.; Sweeney, D.W.
1983-11-18
The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here.
The rectangular mesh and the variable-size mesh process in the two-dimensional TLM method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saguet, P.; Pic, E.
1986-04-01
The introduction of rectangular meshes, and of a variable-size mesh process, in the original two-dimensional transmission-line matrix (TLM) method, leads to a dramatic reduction of computer CPU time for many problems. The theory of these modifications is given, as are some results for fin-line structures.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Groundwater studies face computational limitations when providing local detail (such as well drawdown) within regional models. We adapt the Analytic Element Method (AEM) to extend separation of variable solutions for a rectangle to domains composed of multiple interconnected rectangular elements. Ea...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamajaya, Ketut; Umar, Efrizon; Sudjatmi, K. S.
2012-06-01
This study focused on natural convection heat transfer using a vertical rectangular sub-channel and water as the coolant fluid. To conduct this study has been made pipe heaters are equipped with thermocouples. Each heater is equipped with five thermocouples along the heating pipes. The diameter of each heater is 2.54 cm and 45 cm in length. The distance between the central heating and the pitch is 29.5 cm. Test equipment is equipped with a primary cooling system, a secondary cooling system and a heat exchanger. The purpose of this study is to obtain new empirical correlations equations of the vertical rectangular sub-channel, especially for the natural convection heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders rectangular arrangement sub-channels. The empirical correlation equation can support the thermo-hydraulic analysis of research nuclear reactors that utilize cylindrical fuel rods, and also can be used in designing of baffle-free vertical shell and tube heat exchangers. The results of this study that the empirical correlation equations of natural convection heat transfer coefficients with rectangular arrangement is Nu = 6.3357 (Ra.Dh/x)0.0740.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-04-26
... final remand determination made by the United States International Trade Commission, in the matter of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, Secretariat File No. USA-MEX-2008-1904-04. SUMMARY... Commission concerning Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico. The Secretariat was instructed...
Boiling heat transfer with three fluids in small circular and rectangular channels
Tran, T.N.; Wambsganss, M.W.; France, D.M.
1995-01-01
Small circular and noncircular channels are representative of flow passages act evaporators and condensers. This report describes results of an ental study on heat transfer to the flow boiling of refrigerants (R-12) and refrigerant-134a (R-134a) in a small horizontal circular-cross-section tube. The tube diameter of 2.46 mm was chosen to approximate the hydraulic diameter of a 4.06 {times} 1.70 mm rectangular channel previously studied with R-12, and a 2.92-mm-diameter circular tube previously studied with R-113. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of channel geometry and fluid properties on the heat transfer coefficient and to obtain additional insights relative to the heat transfer mechanism(s). The current circular flow channel for the R-12 and R-134a tests was made of brass and had an overall length of 0.9 in. The channel wall was electrically heated, and thermocouples were installed on the channel wall and in the bulk fluid stream. Voltage taps were located at the same axial locations as the stream thermocouples to allow testing over an exit quality range to 0.94 and a large range of mass flux (58 to 832 kg/m{sup 2}s) and heat flux (3.6 to 59 kW/m{sup 2}). Saturation pressure was nearly constant, averaging 0.82 MPa for most of the testing, with some tests performed at a lower pressure of 0.4--0.5 MPa. Local heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally as a function of quality along the length of the test section. Analysis of all data for three tubes and three fluids supported the conclusion that a nucleation mechanism dominates for flow boiling in small channels. Nevertheless, a convection-dominant region was obtained experimentally in this study at very low values of wall superheat (< {approx} 2.75{degrees}C). The circular and rectangular tube data for three fluids were successfully correlated in the nucleation-dominant region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthick, S. K.; Rao, Srisha M. V.; Jagadeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.
2016-07-01
We use the rectangular gaseous supersonic ejector as a platform to study the mixing characteristics of a confined supersonic jet. The entrainment ratio (ER) of the ejector, the non-mixed length (LNM), and potential core length (LPC) of the primary supersonic jet are measures to characterize mixing within the supersonic ejector. Experiments are carried out on a low area ratio rectangular supersonic ejector with air as the working fluid in both primary and secondary flows. The design Mach number of the nozzle (MPD = 1.5-3.0) and primary flow stagnation pressure (Pop = 4.89-9.89 bars) are the parameters that are varied during experimentation. Wall static pressure measurements are carried out to understand the performance of the ejector as well as to estimate the LNM (the spatial resolution is limited by the placement of pressure transducers). Well-resolved flow images (with a spatial resolution of 50 μm/pixel and temporal resolution of 1.25 ms) obtained through Planar Laser Mie Scattering (PLMS) show the flow dynamics within the ejector with clarity. The primary flow and secondary flow are seeded separately with acetone that makes the LNM and LPC clearly visible in the flow images. These parameters are extracted from the flow images using in-house image processing routines. A significant development in this work is the definition of new scaling parameters within the ejector. LNM, non-dimensionalized with respect to the fully expanded jet height hJ, is found to be a linear function of the Mach number ratio (Mach number ratio is defined as the ratio of design Mach number (MPD) and fully expanded Mach number (MPJ) of the primary jet). This definition also provides a clear demarcation of under-expanded and over-expanded regimes of operation according to [MPD/MPJ] > 1 and [MPD/MPJ] < 1, respectively. It is observed that the ER increased in over-expanded mode (to 120%) and decreased in under-expanded mode (to 68%). Similarly, LNM decreased (to 21.8%) in over-expanded mode
Flow patterns and heat convection in a rectangular water bolus for use in superficial hyperthermia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birkelund, Yngve; Jacobsen, Svein; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.
2009-07-01
This paper investigates both numerically and experimentally the spatio-temporal effects of water flow in a custom-made water bolus used for superficial hyperthermia generated by a 915-MHz, 4 × 3 microwave applicator array. Similar hyperthermia models referenced in the literature use a constant water temperature and uniform heat flux to describe conduction and convection energy exchange within the heating apparatus available to cool the tissue surface. The results presented in this paper show that the spatially varying flow pattern and rate are vital factors for the overall heat control applicability of the 5 mm thick bolus under study. Regions with low flow rates and low heat convection clearly put restrictions on the maximum microwave energy possible within the limits of skin temperature rise under the bolus. Our analysis is illustrated by experimental flow front studies using a contrast liquid set-up monitored by high definition video and complemented by numerical analysis of liquid flow and heat exchange within the rectangular water bolus loaded by malignant tissue. Important factors for the improvement of future bolus designs are also discussed in terms of diameter and configuration of the water input and output tubing network.
Sound amplification at a rectangular T-junction with merging mean flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Lin; Holmberg, Andreas; Karlsson, Mikael; Åbom, Mats
2016-04-01
This paper reports a numerical study on the aeroacoustic response of a rectangular T-junction with merging mean flows. The primary motivation of the work is to explain the high sound amplification, recently seen experimentally, when introducing a small merging bias flow. The acoustic results are found solving the compressible Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations (LNSEs) in the frequency domain, where the base flow is first obtained using RANS with a k-ε turbulence model. The model predicts the measured scattering data well, including the amplitude and Strouhal number for the peak amplification, if the effect of eddy viscosity damping is included. It is found that the base flow changes significantly with the presence of a small bias flow. Compared to pure grazing flow a strong unstable shear layer is created in the downstream main duct starting from the T-junction trailing edge. This means that the main region of vortex-sound interaction is moved away from the junction to a downstream region much larger than the junction width. To analyze the sound amplification in this region Howe's energy corollary and the growth of acoustic density are used.