Science.gov

Sample records for a-201-838 seamless refined

  1. 75 FR 71146 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of June 11, 2010 (75 FR 33330). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the... seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``SRC pipe and tube'') from China and Mexico provided for...

  2. 75 FR 8677 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and... investigations of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation...

  3. 78 FR 35251 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``copper pipe and tube'') from the People's... August 7, 2012, the Department published Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's...

  4. 75 FR 33330 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR. 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document... Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico AGENCY: International Trade...

  5. 77 FR 73422 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value From Mexico, 75 FR... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  6. 78 FR 35244 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010- 2011, 77 FR 73422 (December 10, 2012) (Preliminary Results) and... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011); see also Seamless Refined..., 77 FR 10476 (February 22, 2012). DATES: Effective Date: June 12, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  7. 78 FR 22515 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico covering the period November 1... Affiliates S. de R.L. de C.V. (Golden Dragon); 2) IUSA, S.A. de C.V. (IUSA); 3) Luvata Juarez S. de R.L. de...

  8. 76 FR 39850 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Mexico, 75 FR 71070 (November 22, 2010) (Order). In accordance with section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Tariff... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (copper pipe...

  9. 75 FR 71070 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 60723 (October 1, 2010) (``Final... of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 60725 (October 1, 2010). On... Determination, 75 FR 26726 (May 12, 2010), as corrected by Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From...

  10. 76 FR 80333 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 39850 (July 7... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Extension of Time Limit for... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time...

  11. 78 FR 77651 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 77 FR... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value From Mexico, 75 FR 71070 (Nov. 22, 2010) (Order). \\2\\ The Department... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). ] We intend to issue instructions...

  12. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  13. The seamless computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, T.J.; Papadopoulos, P.M.; Alexander, R.

    1997-06-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC) are in the midst of a project through which their supercomputers are linked via high speed networks. The goal of this project is to solve national security and scientific problems too large to run on a single machine. This project, as well as the desire to maximize the use of high performance computing systems, has provided the impetus to develop and implement software tools and infrastructure to automate the tasks associated with running codes on one or more heterogeneous machines from a geographically distributed pool. The ultimate goal of this effort is the Seamless Computing Environment (SCE). SCE is a production environment to which a user submits a job and receives results without having to worry about scheduling resources or even which resources the system uses. The compilation, data migration, scheduling, and execution will take place with minimal user intervention.

  14. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  15. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  16. A seamless ubiquitous telehealthcare tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-08-02

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.

  17. A seamless ubiquitous telehealthcare tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-08-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  18. Mobile Seamless Technology Enhanced CSL Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating how mobile seamless technology can be used to enhance the pragmatic competence of learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL). 34 overseas CSL learners participated in this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the classroom group, executing language tasks in fake contexts in a traditional…

  19. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  20. Seamless Distributed Observing with eSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; White, R. R.; Seaman, R. L.

    2007-10-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate. Single isolated telescopes are being integrated into expanding ``smart'' telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. This development has led to a renaissance in the science of time-domain astrophysics, which is rapidly changing the way astronomers work. Using the emerging field of intelligent agent architectures to provide crucial decision making in software, we have built a distributed system that allows users to schedule observations seamlessly over a peer-to-peer network of geographically widely separated, heterogeneous telescopes. We present the current operations paradigm of the eSTAR (http://www.estar.org.uk/) network and explain how our recent work on event driven observing now provides a seamless cradle-to-grave system for autonomous observations of transient events.

  1. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Eremeev, Grigory

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  2. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter K.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Jelezov, I.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  3. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    PubMed

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos.

  4. Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ye, Fei; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a recently proposed, highly flexible vertical grid system (Zhang et al., A new vertical coordinate system for a 3D unstructured-grid model. Ocean Model. 85, 2015), leads to model polymorphism that unifies 1D/2DH/2DV/3D cells in a single model grid. Results from several test cases demonstrate the model's good performance in the eddying regime, which presents greater challenges for unstructured-grid models and represents the last missing link for our cross-scale model. The model can thus be used to simulate cross-scale processes in a seamless fashion (i.e. from deep ocean into shallow depths).

  5. 75 FR 26716 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 55194 (October 27, 2009) (``Initiation Notice''). In the Initiation... (Zhongshan) Ltd. (``Luvata Alltop'').\\5\\ \\3\\ See Initiation Notice, 74 FR at 55198. \\4\\ See Letter from... Nos. 731-TA-1174-1175 (Preliminary), 74 FR 62595 (November 30, 2009). On December 3, 2009,...

  6. 75 FR 29990 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Final Determination, 75 FR 26726 (May 12, 2010) (``Mexico Preliminary Determination''). Subsequent to... China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 55194, 55199 (October 27, 2009...--Lead 1.5 S--Sulfur 0.7 Sn--Tin 0.8 Te--Tellurium 0.8 Zn--Zinc 1.0 Zr--Zirconium 0.3 Other...

  7. Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  9. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  10. Parallel object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Balsara, D.; Quinlan, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper we study adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for elliptic and hyperbolic systems. We use the Asynchronous Fast Adaptive Composite Grid Method (AFACX), a parallel algorithm based upon the of Fast Adaptive Composite Grid Method (FAC) as a test case of an adaptive elliptic solver. For our hyperbolic system example we use TVD and ENO schemes for solving the Euler and MHD equations. We use the structured grid load balancer MLB as a tool for obtaining a load balanced distribution in a parallel environment. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement poses difficulties in expressing both the basic single grid solver, whether elliptic or hyperbolic, in a fashion that parallelizes seamlessly. It also requires that these basic solvers work together within the adaptive mesh refinement algorithm which uses the single grid solvers as one part of its adaptive solution process. We show that use of AMR++, an object-oriented library within the OVERTURE Framework, simplifies the development of AMR applications. Parallel support is provided and abstracted through the use of the P++ parallel array class.

  11. Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies: An Opportunity for Seamless Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Bovio, Becka

    2014-01-01

    In working to develop undergraduate student leadership capacity, Florida State University created the Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies. This program, grounded in leadership theory and framed by a seamless learning model, has been influential in development of student leadership perceptions and capacity. This article addresses the…

  12. Collaborative Partnerships that Promote Seamless Learning for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    This instrumental case study employed a qualitative approach to explore ways that partnerships were built on a large, decentralized campus to support the seamless learning for students with disabilities. The number of college students with disabilities is increasing today, yet higher education lacks coordinated systems that provide a coherent…

  13. Seamless measurement technology of transient signals based on approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Lianping; Huang, Wuhuang

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of waveforms and the analysis of transient characteristics of signals are the fundamental tasks for time-domain measurement, while the reduction of the measuring gap till seamless measurement is extremely important to the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of transient signals. This paper, aimed at the seamless time-domain measurement of non-stationary transient signals, proposes an approximate entropy-based characteristic signal extraction algorithm on the basis of information entropy theories. The algorithm quantitatively describes the complexity (amount of information) of sampled signals using the approximate entropy value, self-adaptively captures characteristic signals under the control of the approximate entropy in real time, extracts the critical or useful information, and removes redundant or useless information so as to reduce the time consumption of processing data and displaying waveforms and realize the seamless time-domain measurement of transient signals finally. Experimental results show that the study could provide a new method for the design of electronic measuring instrument with seamless measurement capability.

  14. Moving from Seemless to Seamless Pathways for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Glennis; Ross, Richard

    In 1994, the Nebraska Articulation Planning Team (NAPT) was created to investigate opportunities for establishing horizontal and vertical articulation, curriculum integration, and staff development in the state to provide students with seamless pathways in their movement along the educational continuum. During the 1994-95 academic year, NAPT…

  15. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Taylorwilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taylor-wilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 12 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Seamless contiguity method for parallel segmentation of remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Geng; Wang, Guanghui; Yu, Mei; Cui, Chengling

    2015-12-01

    Seamless contiguity is the key technology for parallel segmentation of remote sensing data with large quantities. It can be effectively integrate fragments of the parallel processing into reasonable results for subsequent processes. There are numerous methods reported in the literature for seamless contiguity, such as establishing buffer, area boundary merging and data sewing. et. We proposed a new method which was also based on building buffers. The seamless contiguity processes we adopt are based on the principle: ensuring the accuracy of the boundary, ensuring the correctness of topology. Firstly, block number is computed based on data processing ability, unlike establishing buffer on both sides of block line, buffer is established just on the right side and underside of the line. Each block of data is segmented respectively and then gets the segmentation objects and their label value. Secondly, choose one block(called master block) and do stitching on the adjacent blocks(called slave block), process the rest of the block in sequence. Through the above processing, topological relationship and boundaries of master block are guaranteed. Thirdly, if the master block polygons boundaries intersect with buffer boundary and the slave blocks polygons boundaries intersect with block line, we adopt certain rules to merge and trade-offs them. Fourthly, check the topology and boundary in the buffer area. Finally, a set of experiments were conducted and prove the feasibility of this method. This novel seamless contiguity algorithm provides an applicable and practical solution for efficient segmentation of massive remote sensing image.

  18. "Seamlessly" Learning Chinese: Contextual Meaning Making and Vocabulary Growth in a Seamless Chinese as a Second Language Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.; Chai, Ching Sing; Liu, May

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners are typically hampered by the lack of a natural environment to use the target language for authentic communication purpose (as a means for "learning by applying"). Thus, we propose MyCLOUD, a mobile-assisted seamless language learning approach that aims to nurture a second language social network that bridges…

  19. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  20. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  1. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  2. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  3. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  4. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  5. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.46 Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. (a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum...

  6. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.46 Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. (a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum...

  7. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.46 Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. (a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum...

  8. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.46 Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders. (a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum...

  9. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  10. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  11. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  12. Seamless Synthetic Aperture Radar Archive for Interferometry Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Baru, C.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Crosby, C.; Fielding, E.; Meertens, C.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived interferometric SAR (InSAR) data products. A unified application programming interface (API) has been created to search the SAR archives at ASF and UNAVCO, 30 and 90-m SRTM DEM data available through OpenTopography, and tropospheric data from the NASA OSCAR project at JPL. The federated query service provides users a single access point to search for SAR granules, InSAR pairs, and corresponding DEM and tropospheric data products from the four archives, as well as the ability to search and download pre-processed InSAR products from ASF and UNAVCO.

  13. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture. PMID:26796352

  14. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  15. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture.

  16. Dynamic diversification: hospitals pursue physician alliances, 'seamless' care.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1992-02-01

    In the 1980s, "diversification" in health care meant creating new corporate entities to boost revenues. In the 1990s, in places like New Ulm, MN, Long Beach, CA, and Boston, hospitals and physicians are exploring diversifications that utilize their core patient care strengths. This is creating new entities that benefit patient care and help prepare for health care delivery in the future. In fact, despite predictions that RBRVS would drive physicians into competition with hospitals, the opposite is taking place, as the new "seamless" delivery systems take advantage of pooled resources and economies of scale.

  17. Texture Evolution and Twinning During the Expansion of Hot Extruded AZ31 + Sr Seamless Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Alireza; Martin, Étienne; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2014-12-01

    Seamless tubes of AZ31, AZ31 + 0.4, and 0.8 wt pctSr were extruded at elevated temperatures. By compressing pure copper inserts inside the tubes, the extruded tubes were expanded at room and elevated temperatures [373 K and 473 K (100 °C and 200 °C)]. Microstructural examinations reveal the formation of twining in the as-extruded and expanded tubes. The amount of twinning decreased with increasing level of Sr in the expanded microstructures as a result of grain refinement and of decreasing Al in solution that facilitates dislocation motion. During expansion at room temperature, AZ31 shows higher elongation and lower strength than the alloys containing Sr. At 473 K (200 °C), compared to the lower temperatures, the Sr containing alloys exhibit lower flow stress and no fracture in the strain range investigated (40 pct reduction in cylinder height). The textures of the extruded alloys contain two main components named as RD ( c-axis parallel to the radial direction) and HD ( c-axis parallel to the hoop direction) based on their orientation with the sample coordinates. During expansion, extension twinning in the HD grains reorients the lattice to strengthen the RD and form a new ED ( c-axis parallel to the extrusion direction) component. By increasing the temperature or level of Sr, the ED component is weakened due to the decrease in twinning. During expansion, the RD grains undergo contraction and double twining which reduce the overall texture strength.

  18. Texture Evolution and Twinning During the Expansion of Hot Extruded AZ31 + Sr Seamless Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Alireza; Martin, Étienne; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2014-09-01

    Seamless tubes of AZ31, AZ31 + 0.4, and 0.8 wt pctSr were extruded at elevated temperatures. By compressing pure copper inserts inside the tubes, the extruded tubes were expanded at room and elevated temperatures [373 K and 473 K (100 °C and 200 °C)]. Microstructural examinations reveal the formation of twining in the as-extruded and expanded tubes. The amount of twinning decreased with increasing level of Sr in the expanded microstructures as a result of grain refinement and of decreasing Al in solution that facilitates dislocation motion. During expansion at room temperature, AZ31 shows higher elongation and lower strength than the alloys containing Sr. At 473 K (200 °C), compared to the lower temperatures, the Sr containing alloys exhibit lower flow stress and no fracture in the strain range investigated (40 pct reduction in cylinder height). The textures of the extruded alloys contain two main components named as RD (c-axis parallel to the radial direction) and HD (c-axis parallel to the hoop direction) based on their orientation with the sample coordinates. During expansion, extension twinning in the HD grains reorients the lattice to strengthen the RD and form a new ED (c-axis parallel to the extrusion direction) component. By increasing the temperature or level of Sr, the ED component is weakened due to the decrease in twinning. During expansion, the RD grains undergo contraction and double twining which reduce the overall texture strength.

  19. Convection in grain refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fluid flow phenomena, nucleation, and grain refinement in solidifying metals both in the presence and in the absence of a gravitational field was investigated. The reduction of grain size in hard-to-process melts; the effects of undercooling on structure in solidification processes, including rapid solidification processing; and control of this undercooling to improve structures of solidified melts are considered. Grain refining and supercooling thermal modeling of the solidification process, and heat and fluid flow phenomena in the levitated metal droplets are described.

  20. Zone Refining by Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    System developed for studying use of laser beam for zone-refining semiconductors and metals. Specimen scanned with focused CO2 laser beam in such way that thin zone of molten material moves along specimen sweeps impurities with it. Zone-melting system comprises microcomputer, laser, electromechanical and optical components for beam control, vacuum chamber that holds specimen, and sensor for determining specimen temperature.

  1. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  2. A New Seamless Transfer Control Strategy of the Microgrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described. PMID:24967431

  3. Summary of STARNet: Seamless Transitions and (Re)admissions Network

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tamara D.; Cooperberg, David; Gay, James; Kuo, Dennis Z.; Saysana, Michele; Stille, Christopher J.; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Wallace, Sowdhamini; Berry, Jay; Coghlin, Daniel; Jhaveri, Vishu; Kairys, Steven; Logsdon, Tina; Shaikh, Ulfat; Srivastava, Rajendu; Starmer, Amy J.; Wilkins, Victoria; Shen, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The Seamless Transitions and (Re)admissions Network (STARNet) met in December 2012 to synthesize ongoing hospital-to-home transition work, discuss goals, and develop a plan to centralize transition information in the future. STARNet participants consisted of experts in the field of pediatric hospital medicine quality improvement and research, and included physicians and key stakeholders from hospital groups, private payers, as well as representatives from current transition collaboratives. In this report, we (1) review the current knowledge regarding hospital-to-home transitions; (2) outline the challenges of measuring and reducing readmissions; and (3) highlight research gaps and list potential measures for transition quality. STARNet met with the support of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Quality Improvement Innovation Networks and the Section on Hospital Medicine. PMID:25489017

  4. A new seamless transfer control strategy of the microgrid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described. PMID:24967431

  5. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  6. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

  7. Method and apparatus for providing a seamless tiled display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael J. (Inventor); Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A display for producing a seamless composite image from at least two discrete images. The display includes one or more projectors for projecting each of the discrete images separately onto a screen such that at least one of the discrete images overlaps at least one other of the discrete images by more than 25 percent. The amount of overlap that is required to reduce the seams of the composite image to an acceptable level over a predetermined viewing angle depends on a number of factors including the field-of-view and aperture size of the projectors, the screen gain profile, etc. For rear-projection screens and some front projection screens, an overlap of more than 25 percent is acceptable.

  8. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on May 11, 2010 (75 FR 26273). The hearing was... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings...

  9. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  10. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure... the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed...

  11. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure... the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed...

  12. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure... the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed...

  13. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure... the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed...

  14. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure... the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed...

  15. Seamless Learning Environments in Higher Education with Mobile Devices and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Jääskelä, Päivikki; Häkkinen, Päivi; Juntunen, Merja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The use of seamless learning environments that have the potential to support lifelong learning anytime and anywhere has become a reality. In this sense, many educational institutions have started to consider introducing seamless learning environments into their programs. The aim of this study is to analyze how various educational university…

  16. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  17. Toward seamless weather-climate and environmental prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Gilbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade or so, predicting the weather, climate and atmospheric composition has emerged as one of the most important areas of scientific endeavor. This is partly because the remarkable increase in skill of current weather forecasts has made society more and more dependent on them day to day for a whole range of decision making. And it is partly because climate change is now widely accepted and the realization is growing rapidly that it will affect every person in the world profoundly, either directly or indirectly. One of the important endeavors of our societies is to remain at the cutting-edge of modelling and predicting the evolution of the fully coupled environmental system: atmosphere (weather and composition), oceans, land surface (physical and biological), and cryosphere. This effort will provide an increasingly accurate and reliable service across all the socio-economic sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of adverse weather and climatic conditions, whether now or in the future. This emerging challenge was at the center of the World Weather Open Science Conference (Montreal, 2014).The outcomes of the conference are described in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G. Brunet, S. Jones, P. Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, 2015). It is freely available on line at the WMO website. We will discuss some of the outcomes of the conference for the WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) long term goals and provide examples of seamless modelling and prediction across a range of timescales at convective and sub-kilometer scales for regional coupled forecasting applications at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).

  18. Federated query services provided by the Seamless SAR Archive project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Meertens, C. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Fielding, E. J.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a 2-year collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived data products (i.e. interferograms). A major milestone for the first year of the SSARA project was a unified application programming interface (API) for SAR data search and results at ASF and UNAVCO (WInSAR and EarthScope data archives) through the use of simple web services. A federated query service was developed using the unified APIs, providing users a single search interface for both archives (http://www.unavco.org/ws/brokered/ssara/sar/search). A command line client that utilizes this new service is provided as an open source utility for the community on GitHub (https://github.com/bakerunavco/SSARA). Further API development and enhancements added more InSAR specific keywords and quality control parameters (Doppler centroid, faraday rotation, InSAR stack size, and perpendicular baselines). To facilitate InSAR processing, the federated query service incorporated URLs for DEM (from OpenTopography) and tropospheric corrections (from the JPL OSCAR service) in addition to the URLs for SAR data. This federated query service will provide relevant QC metadata for selecting pairs of SAR data for InSAR processing and all the URLs necessary for interferogram generation. Interest from the international community has prompted an effort to incorporate other SAR data archives (the ESA Virtual Archive 4 and the DLR TerraSAR-X_SSC Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories collections) into the federated query service which provide data for researchers outside the US and North America.

  19. Issues in adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William Wenlong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

  20. 77 FR 47030 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268, 82273-74 (December 30, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). On February 6, 2012... FR 60725, 60727 (October 1, 2010). Surrogate Country Section 773(c)(1) of the Act directs the... equally comparable to the PRC in terms of economic development.\\7\\ Consistent with its practice,...

  1. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Determination, 75 FR 26726 (May 12, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination).\\1\\ We selected the following companies... Fair Value 75 FR 29990 (May 28, 2010) and Postponement of Final Determination to correct the Scope section of the Preliminary Determination. See Preliminary Determination, 75 FR at 26726. As provided...

  2. 77 FR 25136 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value From Mexico, 75 FR... Shipper Review, 76 FR 39850 (July 7, 2011). On July 1, 2011, the Department issued its new shipper... Shipper Review, 76 FR 80333 (December 23, 2011). Scope of the Order For the purpose of the order,...

  3. 77 FR 59178 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 77 FR 25136... Sn--Tin 0.8 Te--Tellurium 0.8 Zn--Zinc 1.0 Zr--Zirconium 0.3 Other elements (each) 0.3 Excluded from... merchandise by Golden Dragon entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after the...

  4. 75 FR 26726 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Determination: Canned Pineapple Fruit From Thailand, 60 FR 2734 (January 11, 1995) at 2734-2735. See also; Final... Fair Value: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 60 FR 29553 (June 5, 1995) and accompanying Issues... China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 74 FR 55194 (October 27,...

  5. 75 FR 60725 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Fair Value: Static Random Access Memory Semiconductors From Taiwan, 63 FR 8909, 8932 (February 23, 1998... Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 75 FR 26716 (May 12, 2010) (``Preliminary... weight Ag--Silver 0.25 As--Arsenic 0.5 Cd--Cadmium 1.3 Cr--Chromium 1.4 Mg--Magnesium 0.8 Pb--Lead 1.5...

  6. 78 FR 69820 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Sales at Less Than Fair Value From Mexico, 75 FR 71070 (November 22, 2010). Tolling of Deadlines for... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Final Rescission, in Part, 72 FR 58809 (October...

  7. 77 FR 10476 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 67413 (November 1, 2011). \\2\\ Cerro Flow... Reviews and Requests for Revocation in part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011) (``Initiation Notice... Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 21781 (May 11, 2009); see also Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe...

  8. Opening Doors to the Seismic Data Community: IRIS Developments for Seamless Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Laughbon, C.; Muench, J.; Schoch, S.

    2006-05-01

    For the past five years, IRIS has enabled programmatic access to seismological databases worldwide through a data service technology called the Data Handling Interface (DHI). Basing the DHI on industry-standard CORBA technology has allowed a number of client programs to be developed in Java, Matlab and C/C++ which can access data from 6 regional and 2 global-area seismic data centers. More recently, the commonly used program SAC (Seismic Analysis Code) has been updated to interface with DHI, bringing seamless data access and powerful analysis tools together. In addition, noting the maturation of web services into an accepted data service technology, IRIS has developed a prototype web service version of the DHI using the SOAP protocol. As work continues in refining and expanding the utility of DHI, IRIS is also developing a searchable data product repository to allow registered data producers from locations across the globe to make their products available to the community. Here, scientists will be able to discover a myriad of data sources through a single web-service-oriented interface, searching via both common geographic and time-oriented attributes as well as product-specific metadata attributes. A facility for packaging and downloading these products is also being provided. As we move forward towards fully developing a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for IRIS data sources and facilities, we are creating software to allow data discovery and workflow computing to be at anyone's fingertips. Web service and portlet technologies allow easy incorporation of IRIS tools and data into research programs, educational websites and government planning. Data conversion and presentation are also concepts that are being explored in this growing field of cyberinfrastructure development.

  9. What Seams Do We Remove in Mobile-Assisted Seamless Learning? A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    Seamless learning refers to the seamless integration of the learning experiences across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. Inspired by the exposition by Chan et al. (2006) on the seamless learning model supported by the setting of one or more mobile…

  10. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  11. Worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

  12. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  13. Seamless Insertion of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest CT Images.

    PubMed

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications, such as training and testing of computer-aided diagnosis systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of data and establishment of ground truth for medical images are both costly and difficult. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a lesion extracted from a source image into a target image. In this study, we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the composite image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around a nodule in the source, and, then, selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate the performance of our system on clinical samples, and report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted nodules compared to clinical nodules. We further evaluate our image blending techniques using phantoms simulated under different noise levels and reconstruction filters. Specifically, we compute the area under the ROC curve of the Hotelling observer (HO) and noise power spectrum of regions of interest enclosing native and inserted nodules, and compare the detectability, noise texture, and noise magnitude of inserted and native nodules. Our results indicate the viability of our approach for insertion of pulmonary nodules in clinical CT images. PMID:26080378

  14. Characterizing seamless ligation cloning extract for synthetic biological applications.

    PubMed

    Messerschmidt, Katrin; Hochrein, Lena; Dehm, Daniel; Schulz, Karina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    Synthetic biology aims at designing and engineering organisms. The engineering process typically requires the establishment of suitable DNA constructs generated through fusion of multiple protein coding and regulatory sequences. Conventional cloning techniques, including those involving restriction enzymes and ligases, are often of limited scope, in particular when many DNA fragments must be joined or scar-free fusions are mandatory. Overlap-based-cloning methods have the potential to overcome such limitations. One such method uses seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) prepared from Escherichia coli cells for straightforward and efficient in vitro fusion of DNA fragments. Here, we systematically characterized extracts prepared from the unmodified E. coli strain DH10B for SLiCE-mediated cloning and determined DNA sequence-associated parameters that affect cloning efficiency. Our data revealed the virtual absence of length restrictions for vector backbone (up to 13.5 kbp) and insert (90 bp to 1.6 kbp). Furthermore, differences in GC content in homology regions are easily tolerated and the deletion of unwanted vector sequences concomitant with targeted fragment insertion is straightforward. Thus, SLiCE represents a highly versatile DNA fusion method suitable for cloning projects in virtually all molecular and synthetic biology projects. PMID:27311554

  15. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  16. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  17. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Silvia C.; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu’s), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu’s. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å. PMID:25295177

  18. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  19. Refining Radchem Detectors: Iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Vieira, D. J.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Moody, W. A.; Ullmann, J. L.; Couture, A. J.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Accurate determination of neutron fluence is an important diagnostic of nuclear device performance, whether the device is a commercial reactor, a critical assembly or an explosive device. One important method for neutron fluence determination, generally referred to as dosimetry, is based on exploiting various threshold reactions of elements such as iridium. It is possible to infer details about the integrated neutron energy spectrum to which the dosimetry sample or ``radiochemical detector'' was exposed by measuring specific activation products post-irradiation. The ability of radchem detectors like iridium to give accurate neutron fluence measurements is limited by the precision of the cross-sections in the production/destruction network (189Ir-193Ir). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) located at LANSCE is ideal for refining neutron capture cross sections of iridium isotopes. Recent results from a measurement of neutron capture on 193-Ir are promising. Plans to measure other iridium isotopes are underway.

  20. Method and apparatus for an optical function generator for seamless tiled displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael (Inventor); Chen, Chung-Jen (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Producing seamless tiled images from multiple displays includes measuring a luminance profile of each of the displays, computing a desired luminance profile for each of the displays, and determining a spatial gradient profile of each of the displays based on the measured luminance profile and the computed desired luminance profile. The determined spatial gradient profile is applied to a spatial filter to be inserted into each of the displays to produce the seamless tiled display image.

  1. Hatch: Moving towards seamless database protocols for ecological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Blair, C.; Smith, S.; Weigel, D.; Newsom, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Data collection and ecological processes do not occur at similar scales. Monitoring our environment, therefore, requires research approaches that integrate data across spatial and temporal scales. Despite the enormous amount of data being collected annually, many government agencies are only now beginning to build coordinated data management systems. With efficient data flows and coded analysis tools, researchers will be better prepared to quickly answer key ecological questions across datasets. In this project, we designed an online platform for seamless data management, called Hatch. Our aim is to improve database protocols and data access to allow timely analysis of existing data, across time and space. Hatch is being developed for ecological monitoring of stream ecosystems in the Methow River basin in Washington State; however, the platform is general enough for managing multiple forms of database types. Hatch currently applies both a schema and schema-less database structure to link data collection events. It applies data standards developed and accepted across the Columbia River Basin. Initial data capture is driven by data needs for a mechanism-based model of ecosystem processes (namely periphyton production). Input data files, both past and current flows, are validated and stored along with metadata. Data search tools are being designed in accordance with data sharing agreements with appropriate security. The goal of Hatch is to defragment the analysis workspace by integrating data capture, search and analysis. Hatch helps researchers capture, search and analyze data in an online, flexible platform while conforming to project a specific schema. With less fragmented database protocols, scientists will be better prepared to efficiently answer scientific questions at relevant ecological scales.

  2. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  3. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  4. Grain refinement in undercooled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, J.Z.; Yang, H.; Kui, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    Recently, it was demonstrated that grain refinement in metals can take place through two mechanisms, namely, dynamic nucleation and remelting of initially formed dendrites. In this study, it was found that Ni{sub 99.45}B{sub 0.55} undergoes grain refinement, both by dynamic nucleation or by remelting, depending on the initial bulk undercooling just before crystallization. The nature of the grain refinement process is confirmed by microstructural analysis of the undercooled specimens.

  5. Rejection of seamless pipe noise in magnetic flux leakage data obtained from gas pipeline inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Udpa, Satish; Udpa, Lalita; Lord, William

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas is traditionally transmitted from production facilities to customer locations through a vast pipeline network. A major segment of this network employs seamless pipes. This is especially true for smaller diameter transmission and distribution lines. Manufacturing process associated with the production of seamless pipes contribute to a helical variation in the pipe along the axis. The deformation introduces an artifact in the data obtained from MFL inspection of these pipelines. This seamless pipe noise is usually correlated with signals generated by defects and other elements (joints, tees, etc.) in pipelines, and can therefore, mask their indications in MFL data. This warrants the need for methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in MFL data from seamless pipes. This paper presents a technique for detecting signals in MFL data from seamless pipes. The approach processes the data in various steps. First, a wavelet based denoising technique is applied to reduce the noise due to instrumentation and other sources. An adaptive filtering approach is then applied to reject seamless noise in the data. Since the inspection of pipelines typically generates vast amounts of data, it is imperative that the algorithm be computationally efficient. The processing method has to be robust in that it should be data independent. The approach described in this paper meet these criteria. Results from application of the approach to data from field tests are presented.

  6. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  7. Modern refining and petrochemical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pugach, V.V.

    1995-07-01

    Petroleum refining and petroleum chemistry are characterized by a whole set of manufacturing processes and methods, whose application depends on the initial raw material and the final products. Therefore, refining and petrochemical equipment has many different operational principles, design solutions, and materials. The activities of the Russian Petroleum Industry are discussed.

  8. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  9. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  10. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  11. Seamless health care for chronic diseases in a dual health care system: managed care and the role of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, A

    1998-01-01

    Neither private nor state run health care systems are perfect. Although there is increasing evidence that Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) provide comparable care at lower cost, HMOs tend to select healthy patients. The dual health care system in Hong Kong spends about 3.9 per cent of GDP, with health indices among the best in the world. Hong Kong still faces the problem of escalating health care expenditure. One should take advantage of the dual health care system to evolve a new paradigm for a primary-led seamless health care service. The Diabetes Centre of a university teaching hospital together with the University of Community and Family Medicine has started a structured shared care programme in diabetes mellitus, involving general practitioners in both the private and public sectors integrating the primary and secondary care, and the private and public sectors. This programme starts to develop an infrastructure for providing quality care at an affordable cost for a large pool of patients with chronic disease. Unlike other "managed care schemes", this one is not run by profit-oriented companies, but by health professionals with an interest in providing best possible care at an affordable cost. The "disease management" approach needs a care delivery system without traditional boundaries; and a continuous improvement process which develops and refines the knowledge base, guidelines and delivery system. PMID:10351265

  12. Monitoring, Controlling, Refining Communication Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiess, John

    1975-01-01

    Because internal communications are essential to school system success, monitoring, controlling, and refining communicative processes have become essential activities for the chief school administrator. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author/IRT)

  13. Refining the shifted topological vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H.

    2009-01-15

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

  14. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David

    1999-05-04

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems.

  15. Evaluation of seamless ligation cloning extract preparation methods from an Escherichia coli laboratory strain.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Motohashi, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) is a simple and efficient method for DNA cloning without the use of restriction enzymes. Instead, SLiCE uses homologous recombination activities from Escherichia coli cell lysates. To date, SLiCE preparation has been performed using an expensive commercially available lytic reagent. To expand the utility of the SLiCE method, we evaluated different methods for SLiCE preparation that avoid using this reagent. Consequently, cell extracts prepared with buffers containing Triton X-100, which is a common and low-cost nonionic detergent, exhibited sufficient cloning activity for seamless gene incorporation into a vector.

  16. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect

    Okihira, K.; Hara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Inoue, F.; Sennyu, K.; Geng, Rongli; Rimmer, Robert A.; Kako, E.

    2014-12-01

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  17. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 18163 (April 1, 2011). The Department received... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  18. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  19. 78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Unless we otherwise determine that... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure...

  20. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017 (December 31, 2012) (``Initiation Notice... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic...

  1. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 19643 (April 2, 2012) (Sunset Initiation... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and...

  2. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1,...

  3. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  4. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... of large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania (65 FR... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania (71 FR 26746). The Commission is now conducting..., subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009)....

  5. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... FR 19711) and determined on July 6, 2012, that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42763... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation...

  6. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... pipe from Romania. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on April 1, 2011 (76 FR 18251) and determined on July 5, 2011 that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 44608, July 26, 2011... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania...

  7. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a document is permitted, certain... Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). Additional written submissions to the... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China...

  8. A Field Study of a Video Supported Seamless-Learning-Setting with Elementary Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fößl, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Schön, Sandra; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seamless Learning shall initiate human learning processes that exceeds lesson and classroom limits. At the same time this approach fosters a self-regulated learning, by means of inspirational, open education settings. Advanced learning materials are easily accessible via mobile digital devices connected to the Internet. In this study it was…

  9. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water... follows: (i) Three samples must be subjected to 100,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and service pressure or 10,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and test pressure, at a rate not in excess of...

  10. Seamless Assessment in Science: A Guide for Elementary & Middle School. Grades: K - 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    When a classroom is opened to inquiry-based learning, teachers can no longer rely solely on traditional end-of-unit tests. "Seamless Assessment" is a one-stop guide to strategies that mirror the investigatory spirit. Working with the popular 5E model as an instructional framework, the authors have designed methods for embedding formative and…

  11. Interprofessional education for students of the health professions: the "Seamless Care" model.

    PubMed

    Mann, K V; Mcfetridge-Durdle, J; Martin-Misener, R; Clovis, J; Rowe, R; Beanlands, H; Sarria, M

    2009-05-01

    "Seamless Care" was one of 21 grants awarded by Health Canada to inform policymakers of the effectiveness of interprofessional education in promoting collaborative patient-centred practice among health professionals. The "Seamless Care" model of interprofessional education was designed with input from three Faculties at Dalhousie University (Medicine, Dentistry and Health Professions). The design was grounded in relevant learning theories--Social Cognitive Theory, Self-efficacy, Situated Learning theory and Constructivism. The intervention was informed by principles of active learning, problem-based learning, reflection and role modeling. The primary goal of Seamless Care was to develop students' interprofessional patient-centred collaborative skills through experiential learning. Fourteen student teams, each including one student from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry and dental hygiene, learned with, from and about each other while they were mentored in the collaborative care of patients transitioning from acute care to the community. Student teams providing collaborative care assisted patients experiencing a chronic illness to become more active in managing their health through development of self-management and decision-making skills. This paper describes the Seamless Care model of interprofessional education and discusses the theoretical underpinnings of this experiential model of interprofessional education designed to extend classroom-based interprofessional education to the clinical setting.

  12. Creating More Seamless Connections between University-Based Coursework and School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    New accreditation standards for teacher preparation programs call for more seamless and effective connections between methods courses, clinical experiences, and school-based mentoring. Intentional clinical experiences and intermediate instructional strategies can foster collaboration between teacher preparation programs and teacher leaders in K-12…

  13. A Wiki Technology-Supported Seamless Learning Approach for Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Tay, Boon-Pei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention study on Singapore primary five (fifth Grade) students' ICT (information and communication technology)-mediated Chinese idiom learning. We introduced "seamless learning" to the learning design, that is, the bridging of formal and informal learning, and individual and social learning, conforming to the current…

  14. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  15. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water... surface is not originally free from the defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to... of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water compressed to the specified test pressure....

  16. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  17. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  18. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  19. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of...: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. (c) Identification of material. Material must be... by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure...

  20. Enculturating Seamless Language Learning through Artifact Creation and Social Interaction Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…

  1. Providing a Seamless Service System from Hospital to Home: The NICU Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyly, M. Virginia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A training model is described that promotes collaboration between neonatal intensive care unit professionals and early intervention staff regarding the care of premature infants. The goal is to train service providers to implement a seamless system of family-centered interventions and to transition from inpatient to community services. (Author/SW)

  2. Status of the seamless coupled modelling system ICON-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Bernhard; Rieger, Daniel; Schroeter, Jenniffer; Bischoff-Gauss, Inge; Deetz, Konrad; Eckstein, Johannes; Foerstner, Jochen; Gasch, Philipp; Ruhnke, Roland; Vogel, Heike; Walter, Carolin; Weimer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The integrated modelling framework ICON-ART [1] (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) extends the numerical weather prediction modelling system ICON by modules for gas phase chemistry, aerosol dynamics and related feedback processes. The nonhydrostatic global modelling system ICON [2] is a joint development of German Weather Service (DWD) and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with local grid refinement down to grid sizes of a few kilometers. It will be used for numerical weather prediction, climate projections and for research purposes. Since January 2016 ICON runs operationally at DWD for weather forecast on the global scale with a grid size of 13 km. Analogous to its predecessor COSMO-ART [3], ICON-ART is designed to account for feedback processes between meteorological variables and atmospheric trace substances. Up to now, ICON-ART contains the dispersion of volcanic ash, radioactive tracers, sea salt aerosol, as well as ozone-depleting stratospheric trace substances [1]. Recently, we have extended ICON-ART by a mineral dust emission scheme with global applicability and nucleation parameterizations which allow the cloud microphysics to explicitly account for prognostic aerosol distributions. Also very recently an emission scheme for volatile organic compounds was included. We present first results of the impact of natural aerosol (i.e. sea salt aerosol and mineral dust) on cloud properties and precipitation as well as the interaction of primary emitted particles with radiation. Ongoing developments are the coupling with a radiation scheme to calculate the photolysis frequencies, a coupling with the RADMKA (1) chemistry and first steps to include isotopologues of water. Examples showing the capabilities of the model system will be presented. This includes a simulation of the transport of ozone depleting short-lived trace gases from the surface into the stratosphere as well as of long-lived tracers. [1] Rieger, D., et al

  3. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  4. Successive refinement lattice vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debargha; Mitra, Sanjit K

    2002-01-01

    Lattice Vector quantization (LVQ) solves the complexity problem of LBG based vector quantizers, yielding very general codebooks. However, a single stage LVQ, when applied to high resolution quantization of a vector, may result in very large and unwieldy indices, making it unsuitable for applications requiring successive refinement. The goal of this work is to develop a unified framework for progressive uniform quantization of vectors without having to sacrifice the mean- squared-error advantage of lattice quantization. A successive refinement uniform vector quantization methodology is developed, where the codebooks in successive stages are all lattice codebooks, each in the shape of the Voronoi regions of the lattice at the previous stage. Such Voronoi shaped geometric lattice codebooks are named Voronoi lattice VQs (VLVQ). Measures of efficiency of successive refinement are developed based on the entropy of the indices transmitted by the VLVQs. Additionally, a constructive method for asymptotically optimal uniform quantization is developed using tree-structured subset VLVQs in conjunction with entropy coding. The methodology developed here essentially yields the optimal vector counterpart of scalar "bitplane-wise" refinement. Unfortunately it is not as trivial to implement as in the scalar case. Furthermore, the benefits of asymptotic optimality in tree-structured subset VLVQs remain elusive in practical nonasymptotic situations. Nevertheless, because scalar bitplane- wise refinement is extensively used in modern wavelet image coders, we have applied the VLVQ techniques to successively refine vectors of wavelet coefficients in the vector set-partitioning (VSPIHT) framework. The results are compared against SPIHT and the previous successive approximation wavelet vector quantization (SA-W-VQ) results of Sampson, da Silva and Ghanbari.

  5. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Garmella, Rao

    2009-01-01

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  6. A Title I Refinement: Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelton, Alexander E.; And Others

    Through joint planning with a number of school districts and the Region X Title I Technical Assistance Center, and with the help of a Title I Refinement grant, Alaska has developed a system of data storage and retrieval using microcomputers that assists small school districts in the evaluation and reporting of their Title I programs. Although this…

  7. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  8. Vacuum Refining of Molten Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarian, Jafar; Tangstad, Merete

    2012-12-01

    Metallurgical fundamentals for vacuum refining of molten silicon and the behavior of different impurities in this process are studied. A novel mass transfer model for the removal of volatile impurities from silicon in vacuum induction refining is developed. The boundary conditions for vacuum refining system—the equilibrium partial pressures of the dissolved elements and their actual partial pressures under vacuum—are determined through thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. It is indicated that the vacuum removal kinetics of the impurities is different, and it is controlled by one, two, or all the three subsequent reaction mechanisms—mass transfer in a melt boundary layer, chemical evaporation on the melt surface, and mass transfer in the gas phase. Vacuum refining experimental results of this study and literature data are used to study the model validation. The model provides reliable results and shows correlation with the experimental data for many volatile elements. Kinetics of phosphorus removal, which is an important impurity in the production of solar grade silicon, is properly predicted by the model, and it is observed that phosphorus elimination from silicon is significantly increased with increasing process temperature.

  9. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  10. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, Bahman; Heestand, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  11. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Provisions § 80.235 How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? (a) Applications for small refiner....225(d), which must be submitted by June 1, 2002. (b) Applications for small refiner status must...

  12. Structure calculation, refinement and validation using CcpNmr Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Simon P.; Goult, Benjamin T.; Fogh, Rasmus H.; Boucher, Wayne; Stevens, Tim J.; Laue, Ernest D.; Vuister, Geerten W.

    2015-01-01

    CcpNmr Analysis provides a streamlined pipeline for both NMR chemical shift assignment and structure determination of biological macromolecules. In addition, it encompasses tools to analyse the many additional experiments that make NMR such a pivotal technique for research into complex biological questions. This report describes how CcpNmr Analysis can seamlessly link together all of the tasks in the NMR structure-determination process. It details each of the stages from generating NMR restraints [distance, dihedral, hydrogen bonds and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs)], exporting these to and subsequently re-importing them from structure-calculation software (such as the programs CYANA or ARIA) and analysing and validating the results obtained from the structure calculation to, ultimately, the streamlined deposition of the completed assignments and the refined ensemble of structures into the PDBe repository. Until recently, such solution-structure determination by NMR has been quite a laborious task, requiring multiple stages and programs. However, with the new enhancements to CcpNmr Analysis described here, this process is now much more intuitive and efficient and less error-prone. PMID:25615869

  13. Progress Toward Standards for the Seamless Interoperability of Broadband Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Glover, Daniel R.; vonDeak, Thomas C.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1998-01-01

    The realization of the full potential of the National Information Infrastructure (NH) and Global Information Infrastructure (GII) requires seamless interoperability of emerging satellite networks with terrestrial networks. This requires a cooperative effort between industry, academia and government agencies to develop and advocate new, satellite-friendly communication protocols and modifications to existing communication protocol standards. These groups have recently come together to actively participating in a number of standards making bodies including: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Telecommunication Industry Association MA) to ensure that issues regarding efficient use of these protocols over satellite links are not overlooked. This paper will summarize the progress made toward standards development to achieve seamless integration and accelerate the deployment of multimedia applications.

  14. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac-Neice, Peter; Olson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library (PARAMESH) is a package of Fortran 90 subroutines designed to provide a computer programmer with an easy route to extension of (1) a previously written serial code that uses a logically Cartesian structured mesh into (2) a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, PARAMESH can operate as a domain-decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes but who do not wish to utilize adaptivity. The package builds a hierarchy of sub-grids to cover the computational domain of a given application program, with spatial resolution varying to satisfy the demands of the application. The sub-grid blocks form the nodes of a tree data structure (a quad-tree in two or an oct-tree in three dimensions). Each grid block has a logically Cartesian mesh. The package supports one-, two- and three-dimensional models.

  15. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP) cloning--seamless DNA insertion into any target plasmid without sequence constraints.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Alexander; Andersen, Kasper R; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast, reliable and inexpensive restriction-free cloning method for seamless DNA insertion into any plasmid without sequence limitation. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP) cloning requires two consecutive PCR steps and can be carried out in one day. We show that EMP cloning has a higher efficiency than restriction-free (RF) cloning, especially for long inserts above 2.5 kb. EMP further enables simultaneous cloning of multiple inserts.

  16. Entitlements exemptions for new refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-29

    The practice of exempting start-up inventories from entitlement requirements for new refiners has been called into question by the Office of Hearings and Appeals and other responsible Departmental officials. ERA with the assistance of the Office of General Counsel considering resolving the matter through rulemaking; however, by October 26, 1979 no rulemaking had been published. Because of the absence of published standards for use in granting these entitlements to new refineries, undue reliance was placed on individual judgements that could result in inequities to applicants and increase the potential for fraud and abuse. Recommendations are given as follows: (1) if the program for granting entitlements exemptions to new refiners is continued, the Administrator, ERA should promptly take action to adopt an appropriate regulation to formalize the program by establishing standards and controls that will assure consistent and equitable application; in addition, files containing adjustments given to new refiners should be made complete to support benefits already allowed; and (2) whether the program is continued or discontinued, the General Counsel and the Administrator, ERA, should coordiate on how to evaluate the propriety of inventory adjustments previously granted to new refineries.

  17. Seamless Meteorology-Composition Models: Challenges, Gaps, Needs and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Bernhard; Baklanov, Alexander; Bouchet, Véronique; Marécal, Virginie; Benedetti, Angela; Heinke Schlünzen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Seamless meteorology - composition - chemistry models (SMCM) have several advantages: They allow the consideration of two - way interactions (i.e. feedbacks), ensure synergies in research, development, maintenance and application. "Seamless" is introduced here in relation to two aspects. Firstly, at the process - scale where it refers to the coupling within a model of meteorology and composition processes to represent for example the two - way interactions between composition and radiative processes or microphysics, or the consistent treatment of water vapor. Secondly, in terms time and space where it refers to the absence of discontinuities in model behavior when used at multiple temporal or spatial resolutions to have for example consistent treatment of black carbon for air quality and climate applications. SMCMs describe the relevant processes to investigate long - standing scientific questions on the interactions between atmospheric constituents and atmospheric processes and support the creation of new environmental prediction services. This paper presents a review of the current research status of SMCMs and recommendations to address limitations in weather, climate and atmospheric composition fields whose interests, applications and challenges are now overlapping. The contribution highlights the challenges towards seamlessness and presents priority areas for research to further this path. It will present examples where SMCMs are already in or close to operational use.

  18. Global Data Spatially Interrelate System for Scientific Big Data Spatial-Seamless Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Wu, L.; Yang, Y.; Lei, X.; He, W.

    2014-04-01

    A good data sharing system with spatial-seamless services will prevent the scientists from tedious, boring, and time consuming work of spatial transformation, and hence encourage the usage of the scientific data, and increase the scientific innovation. Having been adopted as the framework of Earth datasets by Group on Earth Observation (GEO), Earth System Spatial Grid (ESSG) is potential to be the spatial reference of the Earth datasets. Based on the implementation of ESSG, SDOG-ESSG, a data sharing system named global data spatially interrelate system (GASE) was design to make the data sharing spatial-seamless. The architecture of GASE was introduced. The implementation of the two key components, V-Pools, and interrelating engine, and the prototype is presented. Any dataset is firstly resampled into SDOG-ESSG, and is divided into small blocks, and then are mapped into hierarchical system of the distributed file system in V-Pools, which together makes the data serving at a uniform spatial reference and at a high efficiency. Besides, the datasets from different data centres are interrelated by the interrelating engine at the uniform spatial reference of SDOGESSG, which enables the system to sharing the open datasets in the internet spatial-seamless.

  19. A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.

  20. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  2. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor (Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  3. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  4. Risk-based system refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Berg, R.S.; Dalton, L.J.

    1998-06-01

    When designing a high consequence system, considerable care should be taken to ensure that the system can not easily be placed into a high consequence failure state. A formal system design process should include a model that explicitly shows the complete state space of the system (including failure states) as well as those events (e.g., abnormal environmental conditions, component failures, etc.) that can cause a system to enter a failure state. In this paper the authors present such a model and formally develop a notion of risk-based refinement with respect to the model.

  5. Gaseous Refining of Anode Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Pradeep; Themelis, N. J.; Zanchuk, Walter A.

    1982-12-01

    The refining of blister copper prior to casting into anodes consists of oxidizing the copper melt to remove sulfur and then reducing its oxygen content. The age-old "wood poling" technique for deoxidation is gradually being replaced by the injection of reducing gases through one or two tuyeres. Thermodynamic and mass transfer analysis as well as laboratory tests have shown that the operating efficiency of gas injection can be improved considerably by enhancing mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer conditions within the copper bath. The injection of inert gas through porous plugs offers a viable industrial means for effecting such an improvement.

  6. Seamless Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a growing realization in alumni relations that successful alumni programs, benefits, and services are not ends in and of themselves. Rather, alumni engagement is ultimately all about the institution. Success in alumni relations ideally advances an institution's overall forward progress. Twenty years ago, alumni strategic…

  7. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Grain refinement in undercooled nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.K.; Chiu, C.P.; Kui, H.W.

    1995-05-15

    In this paper, the microstructures of undercooled Ni that solidified at various initial bulk undercoolings are examined in detail in order to understand the mechanism of grain refinement in metallic systems. Molten Ni contracts on solidification. In the experiment, since it was covered by molten glass flux, upon crystallization cavities had to form to accommodate the rapid volume change if the undercooled specimen remained in contact with the glass flux, which could not flow so readily. The adhesiveness between Ni and glass flux was confirmed by removing them from a furnace after the whole system had been cooled down to room temperature. Furthermore, it was clear from the micrographs that after a cavity had formed, it did not collapse. It can therefore be concluded that smaller grains are found to concentrate near the void along the minor axis. At still higher undercoolings, the effect was so violent that the voids took irregular shapes. Again, the grains near the cavity are somewhat smaller than those further away. Accordingly, the authors conclude that grain refinement in undercooled Ni was brought about by dynamic nucleation as the cavities formed.

  9. Growth and Transfer of Seamless 3D Graphene-Nanotube Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Dong; Li, Yilun; Wang, Gunuk; Fan, Xiujun; Jiang, Jinlong; Li, Lei; Ji, Yongsung; Ruan, Gedeng; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    Seamlessly connected graphene and carbon nanotube hybrids (GCNTs) have great potential as carbon platform structures in electronics due to their high conductivity and high surface area. Here, we introduce a facile method for making patterned GCNTs and their intact transfer onto other substrates. The mechanism for selective growth of vertically aligned CNTs (VA-CNTs) on the patterned graphene is discussed. The complete transfer of the GCNT pattern onto other substrates is possible because of the mechanical strength of the GCNT hybrids. Electrical conductivity measurements of the transferred GCNT structures show Ohmic contact through the VA-CNTs to graphene--evidence of its integrity after the transfer process.

  10. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  12. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  13. Silicon refinement by chemical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, J.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon refinement by chemical vapor transport is discussed. The operating characteristics of the purification process, including factors affecting the rate, purification efficiency and photovoltaic quality of the refined silicon were studied. The casting of large alloy plates was accomplished. A larger research scale reactor is characterized, and it is shown that a refined silicon product yields solar cells with near state of the art conversion efficiencies.

  14. The Seamless SAR Archive (SSARA) Project and Other SAR Activities at UNAVCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Crosby, C. J.; Meertens, C. M.; Fielding, E. J.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Nicoll, J.; Baru, C.

    2014-12-01

    The seamless synthetic aperture radar archive (SSARA) implements a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived data products (i.e. interferograms). SSARA provides a unified application programming interface (API) for SAR data search and results at the Alaska Satellite Facility and UNAVCO (WInSAR and EarthScope data archives) through the use of simple web services. A federated query service was developed using the unified APIs, providing users a single search interface for both archives. Interest from the international community has prompted an effort to incorporate ESA's Virtual Archive 4 Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) collections and other archives into the federated query service. SSARA also provides Digital Elevation Model access for topographic correction via a simple web service through OpenTopography and tropospheric correction products through JPL's OSCAR service. Additionally, UNAVCO provides data storage capabilities for WInSAR PIs with approved TerraSAR-X and ALOS-2 proposals which allows easier distribution to US collaborators on associated proposals and facilitates data access through the SSARA web services. Further work is underway to incorporate federated data discovery for GSNL across SAR, GPS, and seismic datasets provided by web services from SSARA, GSAC, and COOPEUS.

  15. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.; Hardt, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must have seamless micro- or nano-scale patterns and must be scalable to roll widths of one meter. The authors have developed a new centrifugal stamp casting process that can produce uniform cylindrical polymer stamps in a scalable manner. The pattern on the resulting polymer tool is replicated against a corresponding master pattern on the inner diameter of a centrifuge drum. This master pattern is created in photoresist using a UV laser direct write system. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a laser direct write system targeting the internal diameter of a rotating drum. The design uses flying optics to focus a laser beam along the axis of the centrifuge drum and to redirect the beam towards the drum surface. Experimental patterning results show uniform coatings of negative photoresist in the centrifuge drum that are effectively patterned with a 405 nm laser diode. Seamless patterns are shown to be replicated in a 50 mm diameter, 60 mm long cylindrical stamp made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Direct write results show gratings with line widths of 10 microns in negative photoresist. Using an FPGA, the laser can be accurately timed against the centrifuge encoder to create complex patterns.

  16. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    PubMed

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate. PMID:21766227

  17. A novel autostereoscopic display system to provide seamless stereoscopic view changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun; Um, Gi-Mun; Cheong, Won-Sik; Hur, Namho; Lee, Sung Jung; Kim, Changick

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the autostereoscopic display, named the Dual Layer Parallax Barrier (DLPB) method, is introduced to overcome the limitation of the fixed viewing zone. Compared with the conventional parallax barrier methods, the proposed DLPB method uses moving parallax barriers to make the stereoscopic view changed according to the movement of viewer. In addition it provides seamless stereoscopic views without abrupt change of 3D depth feeling at any eye position. We implement a prototype of the DLPB system which consists of a switchable dual-layered Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (TN-LCD) and a head-tracker. The head tracker employs a video camera for capturing images, and is used to calculate the angle between the eye gazing direction and the projected direction onto the display plane. According to the head-tracker's control signal, the dual-layered TN-LCD is able to alternate the direction of viewing zone adaptively by a solid-state analog switch. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed autostereoscopic display maintains seamless 3D views even when a viewer's head is moving. Moreover, its extended use towards mobile devices such as portable multimedia player (PMP), smartphone, and cellular phone is discussed as well.

  18. Seamless Insert-Plasmid Assembly at High Efficiency and Low Cost.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Roger M; Ostermeier, Christian; Geiser, Martin; Li, Julia Su Zhou; Widmer, Hans; Auer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Seamless cloning methods, such as co-transformation cloning, sequence- and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC) or the Gibson assembly, are essential tools for the precise construction of plasmids. The efficiency of co-transformation cloning is however low and the Gibson assembly reagents are expensive. With the aim to improve the robustness of seamless cloning experiments while keeping costs low, we examined the importance of complementary single-stranded DNA ends for co-transformation cloning and the influence of single-stranded gaps in circular plasmids on SLIC cloning efficiency. Most importantly, our data show that single-stranded gaps in double-stranded plasmids, which occur in typical SLIC protocols, can drastically decrease the efficiency at which the DNA transforms competent E. coli bacteria. Accordingly, filling-in of single-stranded gaps using DNA polymerase resulted in increased transformation efficiency. Ligation of the remaining nicks did not lead to a further increase in transformation efficiency. These findings demonstrate that highly efficient insert-plasmid assembly can be achieved by using only T5 exonuclease and Phusion DNA polymerase, without Taq DNA ligase from the original Gibson protocol, which significantly reduces the cost of the reactions. We successfully used this modified Gibson assembly protocol with two short insert-plasmid overlap regions, each counting only 15 nucleotides. PMID:27073895

  19. Seamless Insert-Plasmid Assembly at High Efficiency and Low Cost

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Roger M.; Ostermeier, Christian; Geiser, Martin; Li, Julia Su Zhou; Widmer, Hans; Auer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Seamless cloning methods, such as co-transformation cloning, sequence- and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC) or the Gibson assembly, are essential tools for the precise construction of plasmids. The efficiency of co-transformation cloning is however low and the Gibson assembly reagents are expensive. With the aim to improve the robustness of seamless cloning experiments while keeping costs low, we examined the importance of complementary single-stranded DNA ends for co-transformation cloning and the influence of single-stranded gaps in circular plasmids on SLIC cloning efficiency. Most importantly, our data show that single-stranded gaps in double-stranded plasmids, which occur in typical SLIC protocols, can drastically decrease the efficiency at which the DNA transforms competent E. coli bacteria. Accordingly, filling-in of single-stranded gaps using DNA polymerase resulted in increased transformation efficiency. Ligation of the remaining nicks did not lead to a further increase in transformation efficiency. These findings demonstrate that highly efficient insert-plasmid assembly can be achieved by using only T5 exonuclease and Phusion DNA polymerase, without Taq DNA ligase from the original Gibson protocol, which significantly reduces the cost of the reactions. We successfully used this modified Gibson assembly protocol with two short insert-plasmid overlap regions, each counting only 15 nucleotides. PMID:27073895

  20. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  1. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Microelectronic Device Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Lou, John; Norton, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Finite element and finite volume methods are used in a variety of design simulations when it is necessary to compute fields throughout regions that contain varying materials or geometry. Convergence of the simulation can be assessed by uniformly increasing the mesh density until an observable quantity stabilizes. Depending on the electrical size of the problem, uniform refinement of the mesh may be computationally infeasible due to memory limitations. Similarly, depending on the geometric complexity of the object being modeled, uniform refinement can be inefficient since regions that do not need refinement add to the computational expense. In either case, convergence to the correct (measured) solution is not guaranteed. Adaptive mesh refinement methods attempt to selectively refine the region of the mesh that is estimated to contain proportionally higher solution errors. The refinement may be obtained by decreasing the element size (h-refinement), by increasing the order of the element (p-refinement) or by a combination of the two (h-p refinement). A successful adaptive strategy refines the mesh to produce an accurate solution measured against the correct fields without undue computational expense. This is accomplished by the use of a) reliable a posteriori error estimates, b) hierarchal elements, and c) automatic adaptive mesh generation. Adaptive methods are also useful when problems with multi-scale field variations are encountered. These occur in active electronic devices that have thin doped layers and also when mixed physics is used in the calculation. The mesh needs to be fine at and near the thin layer to capture rapid field or charge variations, but can coarsen away from these layers where field variations smoothen and charge densities are uniform. This poster will present an adaptive mesh refinement package that runs on parallel computers and is applied to specific microelectronic device simulations. Passive sensors that operate in the infrared portion of

  2. Model Checking Linearizability via Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yanhong A.; Sun, Jun

    Linearizability is an important correctness criterion for implementations of concurrent objects. Automatic checking of linearizability is challenging because it requires checking that 1) all executions of concurrent operations be serializable, and 2) the serialized executions be correct with respect to the sequential semantics. This paper describes a new method to automatically check linearizability based on refinement relations from abstract specifications to concrete implementations. Our method avoids the often difficult task of determining linearization points in implementations, but can also take advantage of linearization points if they are given. The method exploits model checking of finite state systems specified as concurrent processes with shared variables. Partial order reduction is used to effectively reduce the search space. The approach is built into a toolset that supports a rich set of concurrent operators. The tool has been used to automatically check a variety of implementations of concurrent objects, including the first algorithms for the mailbox problem and scalable NonZero indicators. Our system was able to find all known and injected bugs in these implementations.

  3. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  4. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... knowledge. (4) Name, address, phone number, facsimile number and E-mail address (if available) of a... disapproved, the refiner must comply with the standards in § 80.195. (h) If EPA finds that a refiner...

  5. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    SciTech Connect

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  6. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  7. 27 CFR 21.127 - Shellac (refined).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shellac (refined). 21.127....127 Shellac (refined). (a) Arsenic content. Not more than 1.4 parts per million as determined by the... petroleum ether and mix thoroughly. Add approximately 2 liters of water and separate a portion of the...

  8. A spatially consistent seamless predictions of continental-scale hydrologic fluxes and states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohini; Mai, Juliane; Rakovec, Oldrich; Zink, Matthias; Cuntz, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Attinger, Sabine; Schroen, Martin; Schaefer, David; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the contemporary hydrology is to establish a continental-scale hydrologic model that can provide spatially consistent, seamless prediction of hydrologic fluxes and states to better characterise extreme events like floods and droughts. This requires, among other things, 1) a robust parameterization technique that allows the model to seamlessly operate across a range of spatial resolutions and 2) an efficient parameter estimation technique to derive a representative set of spatially consistent model parameters that avoid inconsistencies in simulated hydrologic fields (e.g., soil moisture). In this study, we demostrate the applicability of a mesoscale hydrologic model parameterized using a multiscale regionalization technique to derive daily gridded fields of hydrologic fluxes/states over the Pan-EU domain since 1950. A multi-basin parameter estimation (MBE) strategy that utilizes observed streamflows from a set of hydrologically diverse basins is introduced to infer a representative set of regional calibration parameters which is applicable over the entire domain. We tested three sampling schemes to select a set of calibration basins incremented sequentially from 2 to 20 basins, based on the 1) random selection procedure, 2) gradient along the hydro-climatic regimes, and 3) diversity in hydro-climatic and basin physiographical properties (e.g., terrain, soil, land cover properties). Results of the MBE approach are contrasted against the benchmark at-site calibration strategy across 400 EU basins varying from approximately 100 to 500,000 km2. At-site calibrated parameters performed best for site-specific streamflow predictions, but their transferability to other sites resulted in poor performance. Moreover, the at-site calibration strategy generated a patchy, spatially inconsistent distribution of parameter fields that further induced large discontinuities in simulated hydrologic fields of soil moisture among other sates/fluxes. These

  9. Enhancing Access to NASA Data via Seamless Integration Into Decision Support Systems: two Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Rishe, N.; Tetrault, R.

    2005-12-01

    The amount and variety of information that can be extracted from NASA satellite data form a rich resource that is largely untapped by the applications user community. In part, this is because of the complexity and cost of using such data. Many approaches, such as subsetting, have been taken to ameliorate this situation. Mostly, however, they have not sufficiently addressed the core needs of the applications community. The latter is generally not interested in the data per se (e.g., how they are processed), but rather in the specific measurements (e.g., surface rain) from the data, which can be infused in some decision support system. These measurements should ideally be seamlessly accessible. To rapidly bridge the gap between NASA information systems and services and the practical needs of the applications (and research) community, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has collaborated with the Florida International University High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to demonstrate the feasibility of making NASA data more easily and seamlessly accessible via the Web, from within the FIU's TerraFly and the FAS' Crop Explorer environments, respectively. TerraFly currently serves a broad segment of the research and applications community (some 10,000 unique users per day), by facilitating the access to various textual, remotely sensed, and vector data. Crop Explorer is the primary decision support tool used by the FAS analysts to monitor the production, supply, and demand of agricultural commodities worldwide. The key NASA information system providing the data integrated into TerraFly and Crop Explorer is the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni), which enables users to easily and quickly obtain science information from the data, without having to download and handle large amounts of data. The

  10. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  11. Decoding the Epigenetic Heterogeneity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Seamless Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar M; Perry, Dustin W; Steffey, Valeriya V Adjan; Miller, Kenneth; Allison, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells exhibit cell cycle-regulated heterogeneity for trimethylation of histone-3 on lysine-4 (H3K4me3) on developmental gene promoters containing bivalent epigenetic domains. The heterogeneity of H3K4me3 can be attributed to Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) phosphorylation and activation of the histone methyltransferase, MLL2 (KMT2B), during late-G1. The deposition of H3K4me3 on developmental promoters in late-G1 establishes a permissive chromatin architecture that enables signaling cues to promote differentiation from the G1 phase. These data suggest that the inhibition of MLL2 phosphorylation and activation will prevent the initiation of differentiation. Here, we describe a method to seamlessly modify a putative CDK2 phosphorylation site on MLL2 to restrict its phosphorylation and activation. Specifically, by utilizing dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided nucleases, RFNs (commercially known as the NextGEN™ CRISPR), in combination with an excision-only piggyBac™ transposase, we demonstrate how to generate a point mutation of threonine-542, a predicted site to prevent MLL2 activation. This gene editing method enables the use of both positive and negative selection, and allows for subsequent removal of the donor cassette without leaving behind any unwanted DNA sequences or modifications. This seamless "donor-excision" approach provides clear advantages over using single stranded oligo-deoxynucleotides (ssODN) as donors to create point mutations, as the use of ssODN necessitate additional mutations in the donor PAM sequence, along with extensive cloning efforts. The method described here therefore provides the highest targeting efficiency with the lowest "off-target" mutation rates possible, while removing the labor-intensive efforts associated with screening thousands of clones. In sum, this chapter describes how seamless gene editing may be utilized to examine stem cell heterogeneity of epigenetic marks, but is also widely applicable for performing

  12. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  13. Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Navigation for Unmanned Multi-Sensor Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranoa, , D.; Uijt de Haag, M.; Dill, E.; Vilardaga, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of navigation algorithms to enable seamless operation of a small-size multi-copter in an indoor-outdoor environment. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may be unavailable not only due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed navigation algorithm uses data from a GPS receiver, multiple 2D laser scanners, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This paper addresses the proposed multi-mode fusion algorithm and provides initial result using flight test data. This paper furthermore describes the 3DR hexacopter platform that has been used to collect data in an operational environment, starting in an open environment, transitioning to an indoor environment, traversing a building, and, finally, transitioning back to the outdoor environment. Implementation issues will be discussed.

  14. A seamless approach to understanding and predicting Arctic sea ice in Met Office modelling systems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Helene T; Ridley, Jeff K; Keen, Ann B; West, Alex E; Peterson, K Andrew; Rae, Jamie G L; Milton, Sean F; Bacon, Sheldon

    2015-07-13

    Recent CMIP5 models predict large losses of summer Arctic sea ice, with only mitigation scenarios showing sustainable summer ice. Sea ice is inherently part of the climate system, and heat fluxes affecting sea ice can be small residuals of much larger air-sea fluxes. We discuss analysis of energy budgets in the Met Office climate models which point to the importance of early summer processes (such as clouds and meltponds) in determining both the seasonal cycle and the trend in ice decline. We give examples from Met Office modelling systems to illustrate how the seamless use of models for forecasting on time scales from short range to decadal might help to unlock the drivers of high latitude biases in climate models.

  15. IEEE 802.21 Assisted Seamless and Energy Efficient Handovers in Mixed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiyu; Maciocco, Christian; Kesavan, Vijay; Low, Andy L. Y.

    Network selection is the decision process for a mobile terminal to handoff between homogeneous or heterogeneous networks. With multiple available networks, the selection process must evaluate factors like network services/conditions, monetary cost, system conditions, user preferences etc. In this paper, we investigate network selection using a cost function and information provided by IEEE 802.21. The cost function provides flexibility to balance different factors in decision making and our research is focused on improving both seamlessness and energy efficiency of handovers. Our solution is evaluated using real WiFi, WiMax, and 3G signal strength traces. The results show that appropriate networks were selected based on selection policies, handovers were triggered at optimal times to increase overall network connectivity as compared to traditional triggering schemes, while at the same time the energy consumption of multi-radio devices for both on-going operations as well as during handovers is optimized.

  16. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  17. Availability Improvement of Layer 2 Seamless Networks Using OpenFlow

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Elias; Jacob, Eduardo; Matias, Jon; Moreira, Naiara; Astarloa, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The network robustness and reliability are strongly influenced by the implementation of redundancy and its ability of reacting to changes. In situations where packet loss or maximum latency requirements are critical, replication of resources and information may become the optimal technique. To this end, the IEC 62439-3 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) provides seamless recovery in layer 2 networks by delegating the redundancy management to the end-nodes. In this paper, we present a combination of the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) approach and PRP topologies to establish a higher level of redundancy and thereby, through several active paths provisioned via the OpenFlow protocol, the global reliability is increased, as well as data flows are managed efficiently. Hence, the experiments with multiple failure scenarios, which have been run over the Mininet network emulator, show the improvement in the availability and responsiveness over other traditional technologies based on a single active path. PMID:25759861

  18. Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

  19. Seamless Learning in the Mobile Age: A Theoretical and Methodological Discussion on Using Cooperative Inquiry to Study Digital Kids On-the-Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Yancy; So, Hyo-Jeong; Seow, Peter; Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares the theoretical and methodological frameworks that are deployed in a 3-year study to examine how Singapore primary school students leverage on mobile technology for seamless learning. This notion of seamless learning refers to the integrated and synergistic effects of learning in both formal and informal settings, which is…

  20. A seamless acquisition digital storage oscilloscope with three-dimensional waveform display

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuojun Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    In traditional digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), sampled data need to be processed after each acquisition. During data processing, the acquisition is stopped and oscilloscope is blind to the input signal. Thus, this duration is called dead time. With the rapid development of modern electronic systems, the effect of infrequent events becomes significant. To capture these occasional events in shorter time, dead time in traditional DSO that causes the loss of measured signal needs to be reduced or even eliminated. In this paper, a seamless acquisition oscilloscope without dead time is proposed. In this oscilloscope, three-dimensional waveform mapping (TWM) technique, which converts sampled data to displayed waveform, is proposed. With this technique, not only the process speed is improved, but also the probability information of waveform is displayed with different brightness. Thus, a three-dimensional waveform is shown to the user. To reduce processing time further, parallel TWM which processes several sampled points simultaneously, and dual-port random access memory based pipelining technique which can process one sampling point in one clock period are proposed. Furthermore, two DDR3 (Double-Data-Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are used for storing sampled data alternately, thus the acquisition can continue during data processing. Therefore, the dead time of DSO is eliminated. In addition, a double-pulse test method is adopted to test the waveform capturing rate (WCR) of the oscilloscope and a combined pulse test method is employed to evaluate the oscilloscope's capture ability comprehensively. The experiment results show that the WCR of the designed oscilloscope is 6 250 000 wfms/s (waveforms per second), the highest value in all existing oscilloscopes. The testing results also prove that there is no dead time in our oscilloscope, thus realizing the seamless acquisition.

  1. Protein NMR structures refined without NOE data.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyojung; Kim, Tae-Rae; Ahn, SeonJoo; Ji, Sunyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.

  2. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 77017 (December 31, 2012) (``Initiation Notice''). The review covers 203 companies. See Initiation Notice, 77 FR at 77026-77029. On March 27, 2013, U.S... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the...

  3. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 45338 (July 31, 2012). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... standard, line and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from...

  4. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268 (December 30, 2011). The review covers 32... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review...

  5. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 61076... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  6. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74 FR 52744 (October 14, 2009... Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the...

  7. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 82268... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period...

  8. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August 10, 2000). These cash deposit... Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Proceedings: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6,...

  9. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Deferral of Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). The preliminary results for this... Japan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  10. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August 10... Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August 10, 2000). These cash deposit requirements shall remain in... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 50465 (August 21, 2012) (Preliminary Results). We...

  11. 77 FR 50465 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania, 65 FR 48963 (August 10, 2000). These cash..., 65 FR 48963 (August 10, 2000). On August 31, 2011, pursuant to section 751(a)(1) of the Tariff Act of... Revocation in Part, 76 FR 61076 (October 3, 2011). On January 30, 2012, the petitioner, United States...

  12. 75 FR 38781 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Administrative Review, 74 FR 26202 (June 1, 2009). On June 30, 2009, United States Steel Corporation (``U.S... Administrative Review, 74 FR 37690 (July 29, 2009). On August 13, 25, and 28, 2009, JFE Steel, NKK Tubes, and SMI... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and...

  13. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China, 74 FR 57521 (November 6, 2009) and Certain Seamless Carbon... Critical Circumstances Determination, 75 FR 9163 (March 1, 2010) (``Preliminary Determination''). On...: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination with Final Antidumping Duty Determination, 75 FR...

  14. Use of Multiple Parallel Interface Strategies To Create a Seamless Accessible Interface for Next-Generation Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.

    Information systems in public places such as community centers and libraries require some means to provide access to individuals with physical, visual, and, if sound is involved, hearing impairments. This paper proposes a seamless adaptable human interface protocol that would allow users to incrementally modify the command and presentation aspects…

  15. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ..., and Pressure Pipe From Germany, 77 FR 54926 (September 6, 2012), and USITC Publication 4348 (August... external heat. Seamless carbon steel pressure pipe meeting the American Society for Testing and Materials... American Society of Mechanical Engineers (``ASME'') code stress levels. Alloy pipes made to ASTM standard...

  16. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  17. Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietl, J.

    1986-01-01

    A basic requirement of large scale solar cell fabrication is to provide low cost base material. Unconventional refining of metallurical grade silicon represents one of the most promising ways of silicon meltstock processing. The refining concept is based on an optimized combination of metallurgical treatments. Commercially available crude silicon, in this sequence, requires a first pyrometallurgical step by slagging, or, alternatively, solvent extraction by aluminum. After grinding and leaching, high purity qualtiy is gained as an advanced stage of refinement. To reach solar grade quality a final pyrometallurgical step is needed: liquid-gas extraction.

  18. A comparison of U.S. geological survey seamless elevation models with shuttle radar topography mission data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.

    2001-01-01

    Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.

  19. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    . The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  20. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  1. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  2. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A.; Eder, D.; Masters, N.; Fisher, A.; Anderson, R.; Gunney, B.; Wang, P.; Benson, D.; Dixit, P.

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being applied to slurry flow (landslides).

  3. Joint probabilistic-logical refinement of multiple protein feature predictors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computational methods for the prediction of protein features from sequence are a long-standing focus of bioinformatics. A key observation is that several protein features are closely inter-related, that is, they are conditioned on each other. Researchers invested a lot of effort into designing predictors that exploit this fact. Most existing methods leverage inter-feature constraints by including known (or predicted) correlated features as inputs to the predictor, thus conditioning the result. Results By including correlated features as inputs, existing methods only rely on one side of the relation: the output feature is conditioned on the known input features. Here we show how to jointly improve the outputs of multiple correlated predictors by means of a probabilistic-logical consistency layer. The logical layer enforces a set of weighted first-order rules encoding biological constraints between the features, and improves the raw predictions so that they least violate the constraints. In particular, we show how to integrate three stand-alone predictors of correlated features: subcellular localization (Loctree [J Mol Biol 348:85–100, 2005]), disulfide bonding state (Disulfind [Nucleic Acids Res 34:W177–W181, 2006]), and metal bonding state (MetalDetector [Bioinformatics 24:2094–2095, 2008]), in a way that takes into account the respective strengths and weaknesses, and does not require any change to the predictors themselves. We also compare our methodology against two alternative refinement pipelines based on state-of-the-art sequential prediction methods. Conclusions The proposed framework is able to improve the performance of the underlying predictors by removing rule violations. We show that different predictors offer complementary advantages, and our method is able to integrate them using non-trivial constraints, generating more consistent predictions. In addition, our framework is fully general, and could in principle be applied to a vast

  4. Seamless prevention of adverse events from tattooing: integrated strategy emphasising the customer-tattooist interaction.

    PubMed

    Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The boom in tattooing has been paralleled by more frequent adverse events, which may be localised in the skin or systemic and manifested clinically or latent. Infections, allergic reactions from red-coloured tattoos and papulo-nodular reactions from black tattoos dominate. Mild complaints are very common, with 1/5 of all tattooed individuals having acquired sensitivity to sunlight in the tattooed skin. The potential risk of cancer due to potential carcinogens in some tattoo inks has hitherto not manifested in clinical reports, despite the millions of people who have been tattooed over many decades. A risk of death from tattooing remains associated with severe infection, i.e. sepsis. Preventive strategies may rely on focused preventions, and sterility and preservation of ink is essential, rational and knowledge-based. The chemical and particle contents of ink nanoparticles cannot be unrestricted; however, focused control of ink is facing many uncertainties, including analytical problems, lack of identification of allergens in ink and discrepancies between the content of potential carcinogens and manifestation of cancer in the clinic. The concept of seamless prevention is introduced as a pragmatic strategy that emphasises the customer-tattooist interaction, which is the 'engine' of tattoo safety. This strategy amalgamates the range of narrow-scope preventive instruments and shall ensure that any relevant instrument is used actively and without deficiency or drop out, thus resulting in a complete orchestration of a multi-targeted strategy. High-priority elements of this strategy shall facilitate a qualified 'go' or 'no go' decision by the customer before the tattoo is made and should involve informed consent, qualification of the tattooist and the parlour, including supplies of inks etc., and attention to hygienic security. Records and documentation of tattoo cases with complications and the culprit inks as well as the establishment of national or European

  5. The Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers Service Layer: A System Architecture for Federating Geodesy Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Noll, C. E.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Three geodesy Archive Centers, Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), NASA's Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) and UNAVCO are engaged in a joint effort to define and develop a common Web Service Application Programming Interface (API) for accessing geodetic data holdings. This effort is funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS Program to modernize the original GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC) technology which was developed in the 1990s. A new web service interface, the GSAC-WS, is being developed to provide uniform and expanded mechanisms through which users can access our data repositories. In total, our respective archives hold tens of millions of files and contain a rich collection of site/station metadata. Though we serve similar user communities, we currently provide a range of different access methods, query services and metadata formats. This leads to a lack of consistency in the userís experience and a duplication of engineering efforts. The GSAC-WS API and its reference implementation in an underlying Java-based GSAC Service Layer (GSL) supports metadata and data queries into site/station oriented data archives. The general nature of this API makes it applicable to a broad range of data systems. The overall goals of this project include providing consistent and rich query interfaces for end users and client programs, the development of enabling technology to facilitate third party repositories in developing these web service capabilities and to enable the ability to perform data queries across a collection of federated GSAC-WS enabled repositories. A fundamental challenge faced in this project is to provide a common suite of query services across a heterogeneous collection of data yet enabling each repository to expose their specific metadata holdings. To address this challenge we are developing a "capabilities" based service where a repository can describe its specific query and metadata capabilities. Furthermore, the architecture of

  6. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  7. Microstructure evolution in TRIP-aided seamless steel tube during T-shape hydroforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Zicheng; Manabe, Ken-ichi; Li, Yanmei; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-08-15

    Transformation-induced plasticity aided seamless steel tube comprising of ferrite, bainite, and metastable austenite was processed through forging, piercing, cold-drawing, and two-stage heat treatment. T-shape hydroforming is a classic forming method for experimental research and practical production. The current work studied austenite-to-martensite transformation and microcrack initiation and propagation of the tube during T-shape hydroforming using electron backscattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The strain distribution in the bcc-phase and fcc-phase was studied by evaluating changes in the average local misorientation. Compared to the compressive stress, metastable austenite with similar strain surrounding or inside the grains transformed easier under tensile loading conditions. The inclusions were responsible for microcrack initiation. The propagation of the cracks is hindered by martensite/austenite constituent due to transformation induced plasticity effect. The volume fraction of untransformed retained austenite decreased with increase in strain implying transformation-induced plasticity effect. - Highlights: • Hydroformed tubes processed via TRIP concept • EBSD provided estimate of micro local strain. • Retained austenite hinders propagation of microcracks.

  8. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  9. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  10. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  11. Seamless tracing of human behavior using complementary wearable and house-embedded sensors.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Smoleń, Magdalena; Mikrut, Zbigniew; Kańtoch, Eliasz

    2014-04-29

    This paper presents a multimodal system for seamless surveillance of elderly people in their living environment. The system uses simultaneously a wearable sensor network for each individual and premise-embedded sensors specific for each environment. The paper demonstrates the benefits of using complementary information from two types of mobility sensors: visual flow-based image analysis and an accelerometer-based wearable network. The paper provides results for indoor recognition of several elementary poses and outdoor recognition of complex movements. Instead of complete system description, particular attention was drawn to a polar histogram-based method of visual pose recognition, complementary use and synchronization of the data from wearable and premise-embedded networks and an automatic danger detection algorithm driven by two premise- and subject-related databases. The novelty of our approach also consists in feeding the databases with real-life recordings from the subject, and in using the dynamic time-warping algorithm for measurements of distance between actions represented as elementary poses in behavioral records. The main results of testing our method include: 95.5% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the video system, 96.7% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the accelerometer-based system, 98.9% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the combined accelerometer and video-based system, and 80% accuracy of complex outdoor activity recognition by the accelerometer-based wearable system.

  12. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-01

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations.

  13. Reversible Immortalization Enables Seamless Transdifferentiation of Primary Fibroblasts into Other Lineage Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Gong, Kerui; Li, Ke; Zhang, Mingliang; Chang, Judy C; Jiang, Shizhong; Ye, Lin; Wang, Jiaming; Tan, Yuting; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2016-08-15

    Fibroblasts can be transdifferentiated directly into other somatic cells such as cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic cells, and neurons. An advantage of somatic cell differentiation without first generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is that it avoids contamination of the differentiated cells with residual iPSCs, which may cause teratoma. However, since primary fibroblasts from biopsy undergo senescence during repeated culture, it may be difficult to grow transdifferentiated cells in sufficient numbers for future therapeutic purposes. To circumvent this problem, we reversibly immortalized primary fibroblasts by using the piggyBac transposon to deliver the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene hTERT plus SV40 Large T. Both approaches enabled fibroblasts to grow continuously without senescence, and neither caused teratoma formation in immunodeficient mice. However, fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT plus SV40 large T antigen accumulated chromosomal rearrangements, whereas fibroblasts immortalized with hTERT retained the normal karyotype. To transdifferentiate hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts into other somatic lineage cells, we transiently transfected them with episomal OCT4 and cultured them under neural cell growth condition with transposase to remove the transposon. Tripotent neural progenitor cells were seamlessly and efficiently generated. Thus, reversible immortalization of primary fibroblasts with hTERT will allow potential autologous cell-based therapeutics that bypass and simulate iPSC generation. PMID:27328768

  14. Seamless positioning and navigation by using geo-referenced images and multi-sensor data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-07-12

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments.

  15. Recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction allows rapid and seamless cloning of oligomeric genes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jonathan R; Mackay, J Andrew; Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-04-12

    This paper reports a new strategy, recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction (PRe-RDL), to rapidly clone highly repetitive polypeptides of any sequence and specified length over a large range of molecular weights. In a single cycle of PRe-RDL, two halves of a parent plasmid, each containing a copy of an oligomer, are ligated together, thereby dimerizing the oligomer and reconstituting a functional plasmid. This process is carried out recursively to assemble an oligomeric gene with the desired number of repeats. PRe-RDL has several unique features that stem from the use of type IIs restriction endonucleases: first, PRe-RDL is a seamless cloning method that leaves no extraneous nucleotides at the ligation junction. Because it uses type IIs endonucleases to ligate the two halves of the plasmid, PRe-RDL also addresses the major limitation of RDL in that it abolishes any restriction on the gene sequence that can be oligomerized. The reconstitution of a functional plasmid only upon successful ligation in PRe-RDL also addresses two other limitations of RDL: the significant background from self-ligation of the vector observed in RDL, and the decreased efficiency of ligation due to nonproductive circularization of the insert. PRe-RDL can also be used to assemble genes that encode different sequences in a predetermined order to encode block copolymers or append leader and trailer peptide sequences to the oligomerized gene. PMID:20184309

  16. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  17. Seamless Positioning and Navigation by Using Geo-Referenced Images and Multi-Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments. PMID:23857267

  18. An adaptive handover prediction scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Ali Safa; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  19. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  20. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  1. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus. PMID:24132031

  2. Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

    2003-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called structured (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

  3. Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

    2002-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called 'structured' (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

  4. Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

    2002-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called "structured" (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

  5. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  6. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27103068

  7. Unbiased estimation in seamless phase II/III trials with unequal treatment effect variances and hypothesis-driven selection rules.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David S; Prevost, A Toby; Bowden, Jack

    2016-09-30

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials offer an efficient way to select an experimental treatment and perform confirmatory analysis within a single trial. However, combining the data from both stages in the final analysis can induce bias into the estimates of treatment effects. Methods for bias adjustment developed thus far have made restrictive assumptions about the design and selection rules followed. In order to address these shortcomings, we apply recent methodological advances to derive the uniformly minimum variance conditionally unbiased estimator for two-stage seamless phase II/III trials. Our framework allows for the precision of the treatment arm estimates to take arbitrary values, can be utilised for all treatments that are taken forward to phase III and is applicable when the decision to select or drop treatment arms is driven by a multiplicity-adjusted hypothesis testing procedure. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prediction of Mechanical Properties of 25CrMo48V Seamless Tube Using Neural Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Laibo; Zhang, Chuanyou; Wang, Qingfeng; Wang, Mingzhi; Yan, Zesheng

    In this investigation, a neural network model was established to predict mechanical properties of 25CrMo48V seamless tubes. The sensitivity analysis was also performed to estimate the relative significance of each chemical composition in mechanical behavior of steel tubes. The results of this investigation show that there is a good agreement between experimental and predicted values indicating desirable validity of the model. Among those alloying elements, the elements of carbon, silicon and chromium tended to play a more important role in controlling both the yielding strength and the Charpy-V-Notch transverse impact toughness. In comparison, the impurities such as O, N, S and P have a relatively weak impact. More detailed dependences of mechanical properties on each chemical composition in isolation can be revealed using the established model. The well-trained neural network has a great potential in designing tough and ultrahigh-strength seamless tubes and modeling the on-line production parameters.

  9. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner... for small refiner status must be sent to: Attn: MSAT2 Benzene, Mail Stop 6406J, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. For commercial delivery: MSAT2...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner... for small refiner status must be sent to: Attn: MSAT2 Benzene, Mail Stop 6406J, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. For commercial delivery: MSAT2...

  11. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  12. Electrochemically Functionalized Seamless Three-Dimensional Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Direct Electron Transfer of Glucose Oxidase and Bioelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Komori, Kikuo; Ramnani, Pankaj; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional seamless chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene-carbon nanotubes (G-CNT) hybrid film has been studied for its potential in achieving direct electron transfer (DET) of glucose oxidase (GOx) and its bioelectrocatalytic activity in glucose detection. A two-step CVD method was employed for the synthesis of seamless G-CNT hybrid film where CNTs are grown on already grown graphene film on copper foil using iron as a catalyst. Physical characterization using SEM and TEM show uniform dense coverage of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) grown directly on graphene with seamless contacts. The G-CNT hybrid film was electrochemically modified to introduce oxygenated functional groups for DET favorable immobilization of GOx. Pristine and electrochemically functionalized G-CNT film was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron-spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The DET between GOx and electrochemically oxidized G-CNT electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry which showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of -459 mV at pH 7 corresponding to the redox site of GOx. The constructed electrode detected glucose concentration over the clinically relevant range of 2-8 mM with the highest sensitivity of 19.31 μA/mM/cm(2) compared to reported composite hybrid electrodes of graphene oxide and CNTs. Electrochemically functionalized CVD grown seamless G-CNT structure used in this work has potential to be used for development of artificial mediatorless redox enzyme based biosensors and biofuel cells. PMID:26551320

  13. The Method to Obtain Position Using Gnss and Rfid for Realization of Indoor and Outdoor Seamless Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikada, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Takeuchi, S.

    2012-07-01

    To obtain indoor positioning by using GPS (GNSS) satellite is difficult now. Additionally it is difficult to obtain high accuracy outdoor position when GPS receiver cannot find four or more GPS satellites in the viewing field of sky. The Japanese Government executed a new law NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) for a spatial information society on May 30, 2007. In this law, everybody can know positional information in real time, anytime and anywhere. In addition, it is necessary to use satellite positioning for realization of seamless positioning, and to promote ubiquitous network technology. Realization of advanced geospatial information society will achieve by creating condition which can obtain positional information anytime and anywhere. However, those technologies have not been established yet. Our laboratory conducted seamless positioning experiment to verify whether it can obtain position seamlessly by using VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference System-GPS) ,QZSS(LEX signal) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for realizing an advanced spatial information society. Especially, QZSS was launched in 2010 by JAXA and is satellite system taken by a combination of multi orbit plane and each satellite deployed to appear constantly 1 satellite near the zenith in Japan. We are joining the demonstration experiment of a part of Hokuriku area in Japan at 5th to 9th in March and 23th to 27th in April 2012. In this paper we described advanced spatial information society will realize by a combination of GPS(GNSS),RFID and QZSS.

  14. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandli, Kyle T.; Dawson, Clint N.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GEOCLAW framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run.

  15. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  16. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  17. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  18. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A.; Kaplan, David L.; Peattie, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm2), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques. PMID:22890517

  19. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.

  20. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  1. Development of a seamless multisource topographic/bathymetric elevation model of Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Wilson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require knowledge of the nearshore topography and bathymetry. However, because existing topographic and bathymetric data have been collected independently for different purposes, it has been difficult to use them together at the land/water interface owing to differences in format, projection, resolution, accuracy, and datums. As a first step toward solving the problems of integrating diverse coastal datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating on a joint demonstration project to merge their data for the Tampa Bay region of Florida. The best available topographic and bathymetric data were extracted from the USGS National Elevation Dataset and the NOAA hydrographic survey database, respectively. Before being merged, the topographic and bathymetric datasets were processed with standard geographic information system tools to place them in a common horizontal reference frame. Also, a key part of the preprocessing was transformation to a common vertical reference through the use of VDatum, a new tool created by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey for vertical datum conversions. The final merged product is a seamless topographic/bathymetric model covering the Tampa Bay region at a grid spacing of 1 arc-second. Topographic LIDAR data were processed and merged with the bathymetry to demonstrate the incorporation of recent third party data sources for several test areas. A primary application of a merged topographic/bathymetric elevation model is for user-defined shoreline delineation, in which the user decides on the tidal condition (for example, low or high water) to be superimposed on the elevation data to determine the spatial position of the water line. Such a use of merged topographic/bathymetric data could lead to the development of a shoreline zone, which could reduce redundant mapping efforts by federal, state, and local agencies

  2. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  3. Refiners boost crude capacity; Petrochemical production up

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-03-21

    Continuing demand strength in refined products and petrochemical markets caused refiners to boost crude-charging capacity slightly again last year, and petrochemical producers to increase production worldwide. Product demand strength is, in large part, due to stable product prices resulting from a stabilization of crude oil prices. Crude prices strengthened somewhat in 1987. That, coupled with fierce product competition, unfortunately drove refining margins negative in many regions of the U.S. during the last half of 1987. But with continued strong demand for gasoline, and an increased demand for higher octane gasoline, margins could turn positive by 1989 and remain so for a few years. U.S. refiners also had to have facilities in place to meet the final requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead phase-down rules on Jan. 1, 1988. In petrochemicals, plastics demand dept basic petrochemical plants at good utilization levels worldwide. U.S. production of basics such as ethylene and propylene showed solid increases. Many of the derivatives of the basic petrochemical products also showed good production gains. Increased petrochemical production and high plant utilization rates didn't spur plant construction projects, however. Worldwide petrochemical plant projects declined slightly from 1986 figures.

  4. Refiners respond to strategic driving forces

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.

    1996-05-01

    Better days should lie ahead for the international refining industry. While political unrest, lingering uncertainty regarding environmental policies, slowing world economic growth, over capacity and poor image will continue to plague the industry, margins in most areas appear to have bottomed out. Current margins, and even modestly improved margins, do not cover the cost of capital on certain equipment nor provide the returns necessary to achieve reinvestment economics. Refiners must determine how to improve the financial performance of their assets given this reality. Low margins and returns are generally characteristic of mature industries. Many of the business strategies employed by emerging businesses are no longer viable for refiners. The cost-cutting programs of the `90s have mainly been realized, leaving little to be gained from further reduction. Consequently, refiners will have to concentrate on increasing efficiency and delivering higher value products to survive. Rather than focusing solely on their competition, companies will emphasize substantial improvements in their own operations to achieve financial targets. This trend is clearly shown by the growing reliance on benchmarking services.

  5. Laser furnace technology for zone refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser experiment facility is constructed to investigate the problems in using a laser beam to zone refine semiconductor and metal crystals. The hardware includes a computer to control scan mirrors and stepper motors to provide a variety of melt zone patterns. The equipment and its operating procedures are described.

  6. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  7. Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens.

    PubMed

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; Robison, Steven H

    2009-12-01

    The need to understand and estimate quantitatively the aggregate exposure to ingredients used broadly in a variety of product types continues to grow. Currently aggregate exposure is most commonly estimated by using a very simplistic approach of adding or summing the exposures from all the individual product types in which the chemical is used. However, the more broadly the ingredient is used in related consumer products, the more likely this summation will result in an unrealistic estimate of exposure because individuals in the population vary in their patterns of product use including co-use and non-use. Furthermore the ingredient may not be used in all products of a given type. An approach is described for refining this aggregate exposure using data on (1) co-use and non-use patterns of product use, (2) extent of products in which the ingredient is used and (3) dermal penetration and metabolism. This approach and the relative refinement in the aggregate exposure from incorporating these data is illustrated using methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, the most widely used preservative system in personal care and cosmetic products. When these refining factors were used, the aggregate exposure compared to the simple addition approach was reduced by 51%, 58%, 90% and 92% for methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, respectively. Since biomonitoring integrates all sources and routes of exposure, the estimates using this approach were compared to available paraben biomonitoring data. Comparison to the 95th percentile of these data showed that these refined estimates were still conservative by factors of 2-92. All of our refined estimates of aggregate exposure are less than the ADI of 10mg/kg/day for parabens.

  8. Refining industry trends: Europe and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Guariguata, U.G.

    1997-05-01

    The European refining industry, along with its counterparts, is struggling with low profitability due to excess primary and conversion capacity, high operating costs and impending decisions of stringent environmental regulations that will require significant investments with hard to justify returns. This region was also faced in the early 1980s with excess capacity on the order of 4 MMb/d and satisfying the {open_quotes}at that point{close_quotes} demand by operating at very low utilization rates (60%). As was the case in the US, the rebalancing of the capacity led to the closure of some 51 refineries. Since the early 1990s, the increase in demand growth has essentially balanced the capacity threshold and utilization rates are settled around the 90% range. During the last two decades, the major oil companies have reduced their presence in the European refining sector, giving some state oil companies and producing countries the opportunity to gain access to the consumer market through the purchase of refining capacity in various countries-specifically, Kuwait in Italy; Libya and Venezuela in Germany; and Norway in other areas of Scandinavia. Although the market share for this new cast of characters remains small (4%) relative to participation by the majors (35%), their involvement in the European refining business set the foundation whereby US independent refiners relinquished control over assets that could not be operated profitably as part of a previous vertically integrated structure, unless access to the crude was ensured. The passage of time still seems to render this model valid.

  9. Grain refinement of electron-beam-melted crystal bar zirconium by equal channel angular extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D. J.; Necker, C. T.; Korzekwa, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    Electrowbeam (EB) melted crystal bar zirconium has a very low oxygen content (approximately 100 ppm by weight), but a coarse grain structure that needs to be refined to allow successfbl part fabrication by conventional methods. Cylindrical rods were sectioned fiom an EB-melted billet by electrodischarge machining, and enclosed in seamless nickel tubing by electron beam welding plugs ia each end to make a final billet 9.5 mm in diameter by 50 mm in length. The billet was deformcd by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) at room temperature in 120{sup o} tooling. Mer extrusion for 4 passes via route B{sub e} the material was annealed in vacuum for 1 h at 550 C. Because of the low oxygen content, the Zr could be successfully deformed by ECAE to high strains at room temperature. The as-cast grains were extensively subdivided by the processing. A fine uniform grain size of approximately 10 microns was achieved after the anneal, with a weak texture of only 2-3 times random.

  10. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., phone number, facsimile number, and e-mail address of a corporate contact person. (d) Approval of a...) beginning with the averaging period beginning July 1, 2012. (f) If EPA finds that a refiner provided...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phone number, facsimile number, and e-mail address of a corporate contact person. (d) Approval of a...) beginning with the averaging period beginning July 1, 2012. (f) If EPA finds that a refiner provided...

  12. GalaxyRefineComplex: Refinement of protein-protein complex model structures driven by interface repacking.

    PubMed

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein docking methods have been widely used to gain an atomic-level understanding of protein interactions. However, docking methods that employ low-resolution energy functions are popular because of computational efficiency. Low-resolution docking tends to generate protein complex structures that are not fully optimized. GalaxyRefineComplex takes such low-resolution docking structures and refines them to improve model accuracy in terms of both interface contact and inter-protein orientation. This refinement method allows flexibility at the protein interface and in the overall docking structure to capture conformational changes that occur upon binding. Symmetric refinement is also provided for symmetric homo-complexes. This method was validated by refining models produced by available docking programs, including ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, and was successfully applied to CAPRI targets in a blind fashion. An example of using the refinement method with an existing docking method for ligand binding mode prediction of a drug target is also presented. A web server that implements the method is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/refinecomplex. PMID:27535582

  13. GalaxyRefineComplex: Refinement of protein-protein complex model structures driven by interface repacking

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Lim; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein docking methods have been widely used to gain an atomic-level understanding of protein interactions. However, docking methods that employ low-resolution energy functions are popular because of computational efficiency. Low-resolution docking tends to generate protein complex structures that are not fully optimized. GalaxyRefineComplex takes such low-resolution docking structures and refines them to improve model accuracy in terms of both interface contact and inter-protein orientation. This refinement method allows flexibility at the protein interface and in the overall docking structure to capture conformational changes that occur upon binding. Symmetric refinement is also provided for symmetric homo-complexes. This method was validated by refining models produced by available docking programs, including ZDOCK and M-ZDOCK, and was successfully applied to CAPRI targets in a blind fashion. An example of using the refinement method with an existing docking method for ligand binding mode prediction of a drug target is also presented. A web server that implements the method is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/refinecomplex. PMID:27535582

  14. Seamless online science workflow development and collaboration using IDL and the ENVI Services Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. T.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Exelis-developed IDL and ENVI software are ubiquitous tools in Earth science research environments. The IDL Workbench is used by the Earth science community for programming custom data analysis and visualization modules. ENVI is a software solution for processing and analyzing geospatial imagery that combines support for multiple Earth observation scientific data types (optical, thermal, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, SAR, LiDAR) with advanced image processing and analysis algorithms. The ENVI & IDL Services Engine (ESE) is an Earth science data processing engine that allows researchers to use open standards to rapidly create, publish and deploy advanced Earth science data analytics within any existing enterprise infrastructure. Although powerful in many ways, the tools lack collaborative features out-of-box. Thus, as part of the NASA funded project, Collaborative Workbench to Accelerate Science Algorithm Development, researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Exelis have developed plugins that allow seamless research collaboration from within IDL workbench. Such additional features within IDL workbench are possible because IDL workbench is built using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP). RCP applications allow custom plugins to be dropped in for extended functionalities. Specific functionalities of the plugins include creating complex workflows based on IDL application source code, submitting workflows to be executed by ESE in the cloud, and sharing and cloning of workflows among collaborators. All these functionalities are available to scientists without leaving their IDL workbench. Because ESE can interoperate with any middleware, scientific programmers can readily string together IDL processing tasks (or tasks written in other languages like C++, Java or Python) to create complex workflows for deployment within their current enterprise architecture (e.g. ArcGIS Server, GeoServer, Apache ODE or SciFlo from JPL). Using the collaborative IDL

  15. Creation of a seamless GOES/XRS flux data archive based on Yohkoh GOES database.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Aki

    2016-05-01

    The GOES X-ray flux data, i.e., solar soft X-ray flux data from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, are one of the most frequently used data sources, not only for monitoring the current solar activity, but also for studyinglong-term variation of the solar irradiance. While their official archive is located at the NOAA/NCEI (National Centers for Environmental Information, formerly the National Geophysical Data Center), two GOES/XRS data archives developed under the SolarSoft database, ($SSWDB/ydb and $SSWDB/goes) are most commonly used among the solar physics research community. The former was initially developed as a part of the Yohkoh database, prepared in the Yohkoh specific data format since 1991 to the present. The latter archive started since 2002 is prepared in ASCII text format by the Solar Data Analysis Center (SDAC). Except for the most recent files at SDAC (after GOES14), the data files in these archives (Yohkoh, SDAC, and NCEI) are created separately for each available GOES satellite, which sometimes causes difficulty in reading data for long time ranges surrounding switch-over of the primary satellite. The creation of a single series of files will reduce the effort of users or of software to find available data while minimizing or eliminating data gaps.In 2011, the Yohkoh Legacy data Archive (YLA) project carefully examined the $SSWDB/ydb files to replenish their missing records with the original dataset obtained at NGDC, and thus have better time coverage (until 2010) than the SDAC archive. As a subsequenct project, we are preparing a single seamless series of solar X-ray flux based on the Yohkoh GOES database, in which the primary satellite is selected when multiple satellites are available, to create an archive from a series of primary satellites. Our current goal is to create a series of daily text files with short (0.5-4A) and long (1-8A) channel flux values at the time resolution of 1 minute, from

  16. Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, J.E.

    1995-09-01

    High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

  17. Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-03-01

    In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry.

  18. The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

  19. Improve corrosion control in refining processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    New guidelines show how to control corrosion and environmental cracking of process equipment when processing feedstocks containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acids. To be cost competitive refiners must be able to process crudes of opportunity. These feedstocks when processed under high temperatures and pressures and alkaline conditions can cause brittle cracks and blisters in susceptible steel-fabricated equipment. Even with advances in steel metallurgy, wet H{sub 2}S cracking continues to be a problem. New research data shows that process conditions such as temperature, pH and flowrate are key factors in the corrosion process. Before selecting equipment material, operators must understand the corrosion mechanisms present within process conditions. Several case histories investigate the corrosion reactions found when refining naphthenic crudes and operating amine gas-sweetening systems. These examples show how to use process controls, inhibitors and/or metallurgy to control corrosion and environmental cracking, to improve material selection and to extend equipment service life.

  20. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  1. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  2. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  3. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  4. Humanoid Mobile Manipulation Using Controller Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Burridge, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Graf, Jodi; Goza, Mike; Huber, Eric

    2006-01-01

    An important class of mobile manipulation problems are move-to-grasp problems where a mobile robot must navigate to and pick up an object. One of the distinguishing features of this class of tasks is its coarse-to-fine structure. Near the beginning of the task, the robot can only sense the target object coarsely or indirectly and make gross motion toward the object. However, after the robot has located and approached the object, the robot must finely control its grasping contacts using precise visual and haptic feedback. In this paper, it is proposed that move-to-grasp problems are naturally solved by a sequence of controllers that iteratively refines what ultimately becomes the final solution. This paper introduces the notion of a refining sequence of controllers and characterizes this type of solution. The approach is demonstrated in a move-to-grasp task where Robonaut, the NASA/JSC dexterous humanoid, is mounted on a mobile base and navigates to and picks up a geological sample box. In a series of tests, it is shown that a refining sequence of controllers decreases variance in robot configuration relative to the sample box until a successful grasp has been achieved.

  5. Humanoid Mobile Manipulation Using Controller Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Burridge, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Graf, Jodi; Goza, Mike; Huber, Eric; Brock, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    An important class of mobile manipulation problems are move-to-grasp problems where a mobile robot must navigate to and pick up an object. One of the distinguishing features of this class of tasks is its coarse-to-fine structure. Near the beginning of the task, the robot can only sense the target object coarsely or indirectly and make gross motion toward the object. However, after the robot has located and approached the object, the robot must finely control its grasping contacts using precise visual and haptic feedback. This paper proposes that move-to-grasp problems are naturally solved by a sequence of controllers that iteratively refines what ultimately becomes the final solution. This paper introduces the notion of a refining sequence of controllers and characterizes this type of solution. The approach is demonstrated in a move-to-grasp task where Robonaut, the NASA/JSC dexterous humanoid, is mounted on a mobile base and navigates to and picks up a geological sample box. In a series of tests, it is shown that a refining sequence of controllers decreases variance in robot configuration relative to the sample box until a successful grasp has been achieved.

  6. Protectionism and the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brossard, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    Almost unnoticed in the US press is the entrance of the US in the international market as a major exporter of oil products. The author describes his views on protective tariffs particularly with regard to the US refinery industry. He concludes that the new demands for protectionism by some refiners, if enacted into legislation by Congress, would not only raise the cost to all energy consumers but would also adversely affect US American industry, commencing with US exporting refiners that have recently entered the international products market. There would be retaliation by other countries and massive defaults by countries like Mexico. It is not in the national interest for the US to engage in oil tariffs or quotas that may harm the economies of our friendly trading partners - partners upon whom the US is dependent for one-third of its oil consumption and whom the US will need in time of crisis. Discussed are the US oil industry, OPEC, Venezuela, shutdowns, modernization, exports, imports, spot market, Western European refiners, and internationalization vs protectionism. 19 tabs. (DMC)

  7. Problems persist for French refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively.

  8. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  9. Improved Crystallographic Structures using Extensive Combinatorial Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Jerome C.; Southern, Mark R.; Kiefer, James R.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Nettles, Kendall W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Identifying errors and alternate conformers, and modeling multiple main-chain conformers in poorly ordered regions are overarching problems in crystallographic structure determination that have limited automation efforts and structure quality. Here, we show that implementation of a full factorial designed set of standard refinement approaches, which we call ExCoR (Extensive Combinatorial Refinement), significantly improves structural models compared to the traditional linear tree approach, in which individual algorithms are tested linearly, and only incorporated if the model improves. ExCoR markedly improved maps and models, and reveals building errors and alternate conformations that were masked by traditional refinement approaches. Surprisingly, an individual algorithm that renders a model worse in isolation could still be necessary to produce the best overall model, suggesting that model distortion allows escape from local minima of optimization target function, here shown to be a hallmark limitation of the traditional approach. ExCoR thus provides a simple approach to improving structure determination. PMID:24076406

  10. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm2 and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, — one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  11. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  12. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources.

  13. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 2; Unified File Format and Web Services as Applied to Seamless Data Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The desire to revolutionize the aircraft design cycle from its currently lethargic pace to a fast turn-around operation enabling the optimization of non-traditional configurations is a critical challenge facing the aeronautics industry. In response, a large scale effort is underway to not only advance the state of the art in wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and information technology, but to unify these often disparate elements into a cohesive design resource. This paper will address Seamless Data Transfer, the critical central nervous system that will enable a wide variety of varied components to work together.

  14. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING CONVEYOR BELT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF REFINING MILL, SHOWING CONVEYOR BELT IN PULVERIZING AND PACKING PLANT, LOOKING NORTH - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  15. 8. VIEW OF CRUDE CRUSHING AND DRYING PLANT AT REFINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CRUDE CRUSHING AND DRYING PLANT AT REFINING MILL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

  16. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  17. California refining in balance as Phase 2 deadline draws near

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of California`s 1996 RFG program on US markets and its implications for refiners worldwide is analyzed. The preparations in the last few months before refiners must produce California Phase 2 RFG are addressed. Subsequent articles will consider the process improvements made by refiners, the early implementation of the program, and what has been learned about refining, gasoline distribution, environmental benefits and consumer acceptance that can be replicated around the world.

  18. Adaptive mesh refinement techniques for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Molinari, M; Cox, S J; Blott, B H; Daniell, G J

    2001-02-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement techniques can be applied to increase the efficiency of electrical impedance tomography reconstruction algorithms by reducing computational and storage cost as well as providing problem-dependent solution structures. A self-adaptive refinement algorithm based on an a posteriori error estimate has been developed and its results are shown in comparison with uniform mesh refinement for a simple head model.

  19. Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.

  20. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  1. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  2. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  3. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  4. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  5. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  6. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  7. Novel design of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores toward phononic band gap engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel design for the geometric configuration of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores-elements with negative and positive Possion ratios respectively, has been presented. The proposed design has been shown to generate a superior band gap property while retaining all major advantages of a purely conventional or purely auxetic honeycomb structure. Seamless combination ensures that joint cardinality is also retained. Several configurations involving different degree of auxeticity and different proportions auxetic and conventional elements have been analyzed. It has been shown that the preferred configurations open up wide and clean band gap at a significantly lower frequency ranges compared to their pure counterparts. In view of existence of band gaps being desired feature for the phononic applications, reported results might be appealing. Use of such design may enable superior vibration control as well. Proposed configurations can be made isovolumic and iso-weight giving designers a fairer ground of applying such configurations without significantly changing size and weight criteria.

  8. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

  9. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing. PMID:24404581

  10. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  11. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  12. Empirical Analysis and Refinement of Expert System Knowledge Bases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Sholom M.; Politakis, Peter; Ginsberg, Allen

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in knowledge base refinement for expert systems is reviewed. Knowledge base refinement is characterized by the constrained modification of rule-components in an existing knowledge base. The goals are to localize specific weaknesses in a knowledge base and to improve an expert system's performance. Systems that automate some aspects of knowledge base refinement can have a significant impact on the related problems of knowledge base acquisition, maintenance, verification, and learning from experience. The SEEK empiricial analysis and refinement system is reviewed and its successor system, SEEK2, is introduced. Important areas for future research in knowledge base refinement are described.

  13. Refinement Of Hexahedral Cells In Euler Flow Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Thomas, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    Topologically Independent Grid, Euler Refinement (TIGER) computer program solves Euler equations of three-dimensional, unsteady flow of inviscid, compressible fluid by numerical integration on unstructured hexahedral coordinate grid refined where necessary to resolve shocks and other details. Hexahedral cells subdivided, each into eight smaller cells, as needed to refine computational grid in regions of high flow gradients. Grid Interactive Refinement and Flow-Field Examination (GIRAFFE) computer program written in conjunction with TIGER program to display computed flow-field data and to assist researcher in verifying specified boundary conditions and refining grid.

  14. Increased delignification by white rot fungi after pressure refining Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul W; Charlton, Adam; Hale, Mike D C

    2015-01-01

    Pressure refining, a pulp making process to separate fibres of lignocellulosic materials, deposits lignin granules on the surface of the fibres that could enable increased access to lignin degrading enzymes. Three different white rot fungi were grown on pressure refined (at 6 bar and 8 bar) and milled Miscanthus. Growth after 28 days showed highest biomass losses on milled Miscanthus compared to pressure refined Miscanthus. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora caused a significantly higher proportion of lignin removal when grown on 6 bar pressure refined Miscanthus compared to growth on 8 bar pressure refined Miscanthus and milled Miscanthus. RM22b followed a similar trend but Phlebiopsis gigantea SPLog6 did not. Conversely, C. subvermispora growing on pressure refined Miscanthus revealed that the proportion of cellulose increased. These results show that two of the three white rot fungi used in this study showed higher delignification on pressure refined Miscanthus than milled Miscanthus.

  15. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  16. Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement MHD algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Bobby

    2005-10-01

    In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. The former results in stiffness due to the presence of very fast waves. The latter requires one to resolve the localized features that the system develops. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. To our knowledge, a scalable, fully implicit AMR algorithm has not been accomplished before for MHD. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technologyootnotetextL. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We will demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations will be presented on a variety of problems.

  17. Adaptive Hybrid Mesh Refinement for Multiphysics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khamayseh, Ahmed K; de Almeida, Valmor F

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy and convergence of computational solutions of mesh-based methods is strongly dependent on the quality of the mesh used. We have developed methods for optimizing meshes that are comprised of elements of arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral type. We present in this research the development of r-h hybrid adaptive meshing technology tailored to application areas relevant to multi-physics modeling and simulation. Solution-based adaptation methods are used to reposition mesh nodes (r-adaptation) or to refine the mesh cells (h-adaptation) to minimize solution error. The numerical methods perform either the r-adaptive mesh optimization or the h-adaptive mesh refinement method on the initial isotropic or anisotropic meshes to maximize the equidistribution of a weighted geometric and/or solution function. We have successfully introduced r-h adaptivity to a least-squares method with spherical harmonics basis functions for the solution of the spherical shallow atmosphere model used in climate forecasting. In addition, application of this technology also covers a wide range of disciplines in computational sciences, most notably, time-dependent multi-physics, multi-scale modeling and simulation.

  18. Evolutionary Optimization of a Geometrically Refined Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.; Dozier, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Structural optimization is a field of research that has experienced noteworthy growth for many years. Researchers in this area have developed optimization tools to successfully design and model structures, typically minimizing mass while maintaining certain deflection and stress constraints. Numerous optimization studies have been performed to minimize mass, deflection, and stress on a benchmark cantilever truss problem. Predominantly traditional optimization theory is applied to this problem. The cross-sectional area of each member is optimized to minimize the aforementioned objectives. This Technical Publication (TP) presents a structural optimization technique that has been previously applied to compliant mechanism design. This technique demonstrates a method that combines topology optimization, geometric refinement, finite element analysis, and two forms of evolutionary computation: genetic algorithms and differential evolution to successfully optimize a benchmark structural optimization problem. A nontraditional solution to the benchmark problem is presented in this TP, specifically a geometrically refined topological solution. The design process begins with an alternate control mesh formulation, multilevel geometric smoothing operation, and an elastostatic structural analysis. The design process is wrapped in an evolutionary computing optimization toolset.

  19. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  20. QuanPol: a full spectrum and seamless QM/MM program.

    PubMed

    Thellamurege, Nandun M; Si, Dejun; Cui, Fengchao; Zhu, Hongbo; Lai, Rui; Li, Hui

    2013-12-15

    The quantum chemistry polarizable force field program (QuanPol) is implemented to perform combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations with induced dipole polarizable force fields and induced surface charge continuum solvation models. The QM methods include Hartree-Fock method, density functional theory method (DFT), generalized valence bond theory method, multiconfiguration self-consistent field method, Møller-Plesset perturbation theory method, and time-dependent DFT method. The induced dipoles of the MM atoms and the induced surface charges of the continuum solvation model are self-consistently and variationally determined together with the QM wavefunction. The MM force field methods can be user specified, or a standard force field such as MMFF94, Chemistry at Harvard Molecular Mechanics (CHARMM), Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER), and Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). Analytic gradients for all of these methods are implemented so geometry optimization and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can be performed. MD free energy perturbation and umbrella sampling methods are also implemented.

  1. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The total corporate crude oil capacity of each refinery as reported to the Energy Information... and had an average crude oil capacity less than or equal to 155,000 bpcd. Where appropriate, the employee and crude oil capacity criteria for such refiners will be based on the most recent 12 months...

  2. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The total corporate crude oil capacity of each refinery as reported to the Energy Information... and had an average crude oil capacity less than or equal to 155,000 bpcd. Where appropriate, the employee and crude oil capacity criteria for such refiners will be based on the most recent 12 months...

  3. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  4. Proving refinement transformations for deriving high-assurance software

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The construction of a high-assurance system requires some evidence, ideally a proof, that the system as implemented will behave as required. Direct proofs of implementations do not scale up well as systems become more complex and therefore are of limited value. In recent years, refinement-based approaches have been investigated as a means to manage the complexity inherent in the verification process. In a refinement-based approach, a high-level specification is converted into an implementation through a number of refinement steps. The hope is that the proofs of the individual refinement steps will be easier than a direct proof of the implementation. However, if stepwise refinement is performed manually, the number of steps is severely limited, implying that the size of each step is large. If refinement steps are large, then proofs of their correctness will not be much easier than a direct proof of the implementation. The authors describe an approach to refinement-based software development that is based on automatic application of refinements, expressed as program transformations. This automation has the desirable effect that the refinement steps can be extremely small and, thus, easy to prove correct. They give an overview of the TAMPR transformation system that the use for automated refinement. They then focus on some aspects of the semantic framework that they have been developing to enable proofs that TAMPR transformations are correctness preserving. With this framework, proofs of correctness for transformations can be obtained with the assistance of an automated reasoning system.

  5. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  6. Algorithm refinement for stochastic partial differential equations.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, F. J.; Garcia, Alejandro L.,; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. A variety of numerical experiments were performed for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a non-stochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except within the particle region, far from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.

  7. Efficiency considerations in triangular adaptive mesh refinement.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Jörn; Bader, Michael

    2009-11-28

    Locally or adaptively refined meshes have been successfully applied to simulation applications involving multi-scale phenomena in the geosciences. In particular, for situations with complex geometries or domain boundaries, meshes with triangular or tetrahedral cells demonstrate their superior ability to accurately represent relevant realistic features. On the other hand, these methods require more complex data structures and are therefore less easily implemented, maintained and optimized. Acceptance in the Earth-system modelling community is still low. One of the major drawbacks is posed by indirect addressing due to unstructured or dynamically changing data structures and correspondingly lower efficiency of the related computations. In this paper, we will derive several strategies to circumvent the mentioned efficiency constraint. In particular, we will apply recent computational sciences methods in combination with results of classical mathematics (space-filling curves) in order to linearize the complex data and access structure.

  8. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  9. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  10. Visualization of adaptive mesh refinement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth I.; Ligocki, Terry J.; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Shalf, John M.

    2001-05-01

    The complexity of physical phenomena often varies substantially over space and time. There can be regions where a physical phenomenon/quantity varies very little over a large extent. At the same time, there can be small regions where the same quantity exhibits highly complex variations. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique used in computational fluid dynamics to simulate phenomena with drastically varying scales concerning the complexity of the simulated variables. Using multiple nested grids of different resolutions, AMR combines the topological simplicity of structured-rectilinear grids, permitting efficient computational and storage, with the possibility to adapt grid resolutions in regions of complex behavior. We present methods for direct volume rendering of AMR data. Our methods utilize AMR grids directly for efficiency of the visualization process. We apply a hardware-accelerated rendering method to AMR data supporting interactive manipulation of color-transfer functions and viewing parameters. We also present a cell-projection-based rendering technique for AMR data.

  11. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  12. GRChombo: Numerical relativity with adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Katy; Figueras, Pau; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A.; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we introduce {\\mathtt{GRChombo}}: a new numerical relativity code which incorporates full adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) using block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation. The code supports non-trivial ‘many-boxes-in-many-boxes’ mesh hierarchies and massive parallelism through the message passing interface. {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} evolves the Einstein equation using the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. The AMR capability permits the study of a range of new physics which has previously been computationally infeasible in a full 3 + 1 setting, while also significantly simplifying the process of setting up the mesh for these problems. We show that {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} can stably and accurately evolve standard spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers and scalar collapses into black holes, demonstrate the performance characteristics of our code, and discuss various physics problems which stand to benefit from the AMR technique.

  13. Crystal structure refinement from electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P. Avilov, A. S.; Lepeshov, G. G.

    2008-05-15

    A procedure of crystal structure refinement from electron diffraction data is described. The electron diffraction data on polycrystalline films are processed taking into account possible overlap of reflections and two-beam interaction. The diffraction from individual single crystals in an electron microscope equipped with a precession attachment is described using the Bloch-wave method, which takes into account multibeam scattering, and a special approach taking into consideration the specific features of the diffraction geometry in the precession technique. Investigations were performed on LiF, NaF, CaF{sub 2}, and Si crystals. A method for reducing experimental data, which allows joint electron and X-ray diffraction study, is proposed.

  14. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  15. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marmar, Joel L

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world's literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures. PMID:26732111

  16. Performance of a streaming mesh refinement algorithm.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2004-08-01

    In SAND report 2004-1617, we outline a method for edge-based tetrahedral subdivision that does not rely on saving state or communication to produce compatible tetrahedralizations. This report analyzes the performance of the technique by characterizing (a) mesh quality, (b) execution time, and (c) traits of the algorithm that could affect quality or execution time differently for different meshes. It also details the method used to debug the several hundred subdivision templates that the algorithm relies upon. Mesh quality is on par with other similar refinement schemes and throughput on modern hardware can exceed 600,000 output tetrahedra per second. But if you want to understand the traits of the algorithm, you have to read the report!

  17. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  18. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Relativistic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, M.; Lehner, L.; Olabarrieta, I.; Tohline, J. E.; Liebling, S. L.; Rahman, T.; Hirschman, E.; Neilsen, D.

    2006-09-01

    We present recent results from our efforts to evolve relativistic binaries composed of compact objects. We simultaneously solve the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations to evolve the material components of the binary and Einstein's equations to evolve the space-time. These two codes are coupled through an adaptive mesh refinement driver (had). One of the ultimate goals of this project is to address the merger of a neutron star and black hole and assess the possible observational signature of such systems as gamma ray bursts. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants AST 04-07070 and PHY 03-26311 and in part through NASA's ATP program grant NAG5-13430. The computations were performed primarily at NCSA through grant MCA98N043 and at LSU's Center for Computation & Technology.

  19. GC-directed control improves refining

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, G.F. )

    1991-02-01

    The increasing role of refinery product quality control is significant. Driven not only for meeting product specification and economic goals, refiners must also satisfy new purchaser demands. That is, the emphasis to monitor product quality on-line in an accurate, timely manner is greater now than ever, due largely to the expanding use of statistical methods (SQC/SPC) in analyzing and manipulating process operation. Consequently, the need for reliable composition control is essential in maintaining refinery prosperity. Process gas chromatographs are frequently used to monitor the performance of distillation, absorption and stripping towers by providing near-real-time stream composition, particular component concentration, or calculated parameter (Rvp, Btu content, etc.) information. This paper reports that appreciably greater benefit can be achieved when process gas chromatographs (or GCs) provide on-line feedback data to process control schemes.

  20. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  1. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  2. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution withinteratomic scatterers

    SciTech Connect

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2007-11-09

    A study of the accurate electron density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution, better than {approx} 1.0 {angstrom}, requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8-1.0 {angstrom}, the number of experimental data is insufficient for the full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark datasets gave results comparable in quality with results of multipolar refinement and superior of those for conventional models. Applications to several datasets of both small- and macro-molecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  3. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2014-09-01

    Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  4. Refinement of herpesvirus B-capsid structure on parallel supercomputers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z H; Chiu, W; Haskell, K; Spears, H; Jakana, J; Rixon, F J; Scott, L R

    1998-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral reconstruction are used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the 1250-A-diameter herpesvirus B-capsid. The centers and orientations of particles in focal pairs of 400-kV, spot-scan micrographs are determined and iteratively refined by common-lines-based local and global refinement procedures. We describe the rationale behind choosing shared-memory multiprocessor computers for executing the global refinement, which is the most computationally intensive step in the reconstruction procedure. This refinement has been implemented on three different shared-memory supercomputers. The speedup and efficiency are evaluated by using test data sets with different numbers of particles and processors. Using this parallel refinement program, we refine the herpesvirus B-capsid from 355-particle images to 13-A resolution. The map shows new structural features and interactions of the protein subunits in the three distinct morphological units: penton, hexon, and triplex of this T = 16 icosahedral particle.

  5. Analysis of Learning Behavior in Problem-Solving-Based and Project-Based Discussion Activities within the Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both asynchronous and synchronous discussions have advantages and limitations for online learning. This study conducts an empirical analysis of these discussion activities while applying the proposed Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) system, which can instantly integrate Facebook's asynchronous discussion function with the MSN…

  6. The Impact of a Principle-Based Pedagogical Design on Inquiry-Based Learning in a Seamless Learning Environment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    An inquiry-based learning pedagogy coupled with a seamless learning environment is a potential way to realise the educational goal of learner-centred learning in digital classrooms in the 21st century. An overarching research framework is proposed for preparing teachers to effectively develop pedagogical designs that are premised on theoretical…

  7. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Weare, J.; Ong, E.; Baden, S.

    1996-12-01

    We have applied structured adaptive mesh refinement techniques to the solution of the LDA equations for electronic structure calculations. Local spatial refinement concentrates memory resources and numerical effort where it is most needed, near the atomic centers and in regions of rapidly varying charge density. The structured grid representation enables us to employ efficient iterative solver techniques such as conjugate gradients with multigrid preconditioning. We have parallelized our solver using an object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement framework.

  8. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  9. Improved ligand geometries in crystallographic refinement using AFITT in PHENIX.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Pawel A; Moriarty, Nigel W; Kelley, Brian P; Case, David A; York, Darrin M; Adams, Paul D; Warren, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Modern crystal structure refinement programs rely on geometry restraints to overcome the challenge of a low data-to-parameter ratio. While the classical Engh and Huber restraints work well for standard amino-acid residues, the chemical complexity of small-molecule ligands presents a particular challenge. Most current approaches either limit ligand restraints to those that can be readily described in the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) format, thus sacrificing chemical flexibility and energetic accuracy, or they employ protocols that substantially lengthen the refinement time, potentially hindering rapid automated refinement workflows. PHENIX-AFITT refinement uses a full molecular-mechanics force field for user-selected small-molecule ligands during refinement, eliminating the potentially difficult problem of finding or generating high-quality geometry restraints. It is fully integrated with a standard refinement protocol and requires practically no additional steps from the user, making it ideal for high-throughput workflows. PHENIX-AFITT refinements also handle multiple ligands in a single model, alternate conformations and covalently bound ligands. Here, the results of combining AFITT and the PHENIX software suite on a data set of 189 protein-ligand PDB structures are presented. Refinements using PHENIX-AFITT significantly reduce ligand conformational energy and lead to improved geometries without detriment to the fit to the experimental data. For the data presented, PHENIX-AFITT refinements result in more chemically accurate models for small-molecule ligands. PMID:27599738

  10. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  11. Improved ligand geometries in crystallographic refinement using AFITT in PHENIX

    PubMed Central

    Janowski, Pawel A.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Kelley, Brian P.; Case, David A.; York, Darrin M.; Adams, Paul D.; Warren, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Modern crystal structure refinement programs rely on geometry restraints to overcome the challenge of a low data-to-parameter ratio. While the classical Engh and Huber restraints work well for standard amino-acid residues, the chemical complexity of small-molecule ligands presents a particular challenge. Most current approaches either limit ligand restraints to those that can be readily described in the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) format, thus sacrificing chemical flexibility and energetic accuracy, or they employ protocols that substantially lengthen the refinement time, potentially hindering rapid automated refinement workflows. PHENIX–AFITT refinement uses a full molecular-mechanics force field for user-selected small-molecule ligands during refinement, eliminating the potentially difficult problem of finding or generating high-quality geometry restraints. It is fully integrated with a standard refinement protocol and requires practically no additional steps from the user, making it ideal for high-throughput workflows. PHENIX–AFITT refinements also handle multiple ligands in a single model, alternate conformations and covalently bound ligands. Here, the results of combining AFITT and the PHENIX software suite on a data set of 189 protein–ligand PDB structures are presented. Refinements using PHENIX–AFITT significantly reduce ligand conformational energy and lead to improved geometries without detriment to the fit to the experimental data. For the data presented, PHENIX–AFITT refinements result in more chemically accurate models for small-molecule ligands. PMID:27599738

  12. US refiners choosing variety of routes to produce clean fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, R. )

    1994-03-21

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has prompted US refiners to install new facilities to comply with stricter specifications for gasoline and diesel fuel. Refiners are choosing a number of routes to produce these clean fuels. A roundup of the types of new facilities being built will provide a reference for those refiners who have not yet begun such projects, and an overview of the difficulties U.S. refiners are facing. Only those processing options known to be in design, construction, or operation will be presented.

  13. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  14. Bayesian refinement of protein functional site matching

    PubMed Central

    Mardia, Kanti V; Nyirongo, Vysaul B; Green, Peter J; Gold, Nicola D; Westhead, David R

    2007-01-01

    Background Matching functional sites is a key problem for the understanding of protein function and evolution. The commonly used graph theoretic approach, and other related approaches, require adjustment of a matching distance threshold a priori according to the noise in atomic positions. This is difficult to pre-determine when matching sites related by varying evolutionary distances and crystallographic precision. Furthermore, sometimes the graph method is unable to identify alternative but important solutions in the neighbourhood of the distance based solution because of strict distance constraints. We consider the Bayesian approach to improve graph based solutions. In principle this approach applies to other methods with strict distance matching constraints. The Bayesian method can flexibly incorporate all types of prior information on specific binding sites (e.g. amino acid types) in contrast to combinatorial formulations. Results We present a new meta-algorithm for matching protein functional sites (active sites and ligand binding sites) based on an initial graph matching followed by refinement using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure. This procedure is an innovative extension to our recent work. The method accounts for the 3-dimensional structure of the site as well as the physico-chemical properties of the constituent amino acids. The MCMC procedure can lead to a significant increase in the number of significant matches compared to the graph method as measured independently by rigorously derived p-values. Conclusion MCMC refinement step is able to significantly improve graph based matches. We apply the method to matching NAD(P)(H) binding sites within single Rossmann fold families, between different families in the same superfamily, and in different folds. Within families sites are often well conserved, but there are examples where significant shape based matches do not retain similar amino acid chemistry, indicating that even within families the

  15. Virtual Oregon: A Proof-of-Concept for Seamless Access to Distributed Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keon, D.; Pancake, C.; Wright, D. J.; Walsh, K.

    2002-12-01

    of individuals and research centers and maintained in the distributed nodes using enterprise RDBMS products (Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft SQL Server) residing on UNIX and Windows platforms. Query Markup Language (QML, a middleware product developed at NACSE) supports database-to-Web interactions by transparently performing queries across multiple RDBMSs and displaying the results as though from a single source. Web-based mapping interfaces (powered by ESRI's Internet Map Server and Spatial Database Engine products) can also be used to explore data visually. In a proof-of-concept under development, users currently have the option of beginning with either the "thematic" or "place-based" interfaces. Ultimately, users will be able to move freely back and forth between the two paradigms, for example initially narrowing the scope of inquiry based on discipline or attributes, moving to the visual interface to refine the search based on location or some set of geospatial characteristics, then moving back to query-based exploration to delve to fine levels of detail. Usability engineering methodologies are being applied so that all navigation and query mechanisms are both maximally productive and easily learned by novices.

  16. Refined solution structure of human profilin I.

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, W. J.; Farmer, B. T.; Constantine, K. L.; Friedrichs, M. S.; Lavoie, T.; Mueller, L.

    1995-01-01

    Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that binds to both cytosolic actin and the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. These dual competitive binding capabilities of profilin suggest that profilin serves as a link between the phosphatidyl inositol cycle and actin polymerization, and thus profilin may be an essential component in the signaling pathway leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement. The refined three-dimensional solution structure of human profilin I has been determined using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Twenty structures were selected to represent the solution conformational ensemble. This ensemble of structures has root-mean-square distance deviations from the mean structure of 0.58 A for the backbone atoms and 0.98 A for all non-hydrogen atoms. Comparison of the solution structure of human profilin to the crystal structure of bovine profilin reveals that, although profilin adopts essentially identical conformations in both states, the solution structure is more compact than the crystal structure. Interestingly, the regions that show the most structural diversity are located at or near the actin-binding site of profilin. We suggest that structural differences are reflective of dynamical properties of profilin that facilitate favorable interactions with actin. The global folding pattern of human profilin also closely resembles that of Acanthamoeba profilin I, reflective of the 22% sequence identity and approximately 45% sequence similarity between these two proteins. PMID:7795529

  17. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  18. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  19. Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.H.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

  20. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Mishra, R.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2013-02-01

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb0.93La0.07(Zr0.60Ti0.40)O3, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)Å and c=4.0938(7)Å and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)Å and c=4.1010(5)Å . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)Å3 respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) Å3. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  1. Astrocytes refine cortical connectivity at dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Risher, W Christopher; Patel, Sagar; Kim, Il Hwan; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Bhagat, Srishti; Wilton, Daniel K; Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Calhan, Osman Y; Silver, Debra L; Stevens, Beth; Calakos, Nicole; Soderling, Scott H; Eroglu, Cagla

    2014-01-01

    During cortical synaptic development, thalamic axons must establish synaptic connections despite the presence of the more abundant intracortical projections. How thalamocortical synapses are formed and maintained in this competitive environment is unknown. Here, we show that astrocyte-secreted protein hevin is required for normal thalamocortical synaptic connectivity in the mouse cortex. Absence of hevin results in a profound, long-lasting reduction in thalamocortical synapses accompanied by a transient increase in intracortical excitatory connections. Three-dimensional reconstructions of cortical neurons from serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) revealed that, during early postnatal development, dendritic spines often receive multiple excitatory inputs. Immuno-EM and confocal analyses revealed that majority of the spines with multiple excitatory contacts (SMECs) receive simultaneous thalamic and cortical inputs. Proportion of SMECs diminishes as the brain develops, but SMECs remain abundant in Hevin-null mice. These findings reveal that, through secretion of hevin, astrocytes control an important developmental synaptic refinement process at dendritic spines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04047.001 PMID:25517933

  2. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.; Holzapfel, W.B.

    1999-04-15

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN {l_reversible} cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 {+-} 10 K and 5.9 {+-} 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 {+-} 20 K and p = 400 {+-} 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures.

  3. A parallel adaptive mesh refinement algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, James J.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) algorithms which dynamically match the local resolution of the computational grid to the numerical solution being sought have emerged as powerful tools for solving problems that contain disparate length and time scales. In particular, several workers have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing an adaptive, block-structured hierarchical grid system for simulations of complex shock wave phenomena. Unfortunately, from the parallel algorithm developer's viewpoint, this class of scheme is quite involved; these schemes cannot be distilled down to a small kernel upon which various parallelizing strategies may be tested. However, because of their block-structured nature such schemes are inherently parallel, so all is not lost. In this paper we describe the method by which Quirk's AMR algorithm has been parallelized. This method is built upon just a few simple message passing routines and so it may be implemented across a broad class of MIMD machines. Moreover, the method of parallelization is such that the original serial code is left virtually intact, and so we are left with just a single product to support. The importance of this fact should not be underestimated given the size and complexity of the original algorithm.

  4. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  5. Catalysts for upgrading solvent refined lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    The solvent refined lignite (SRL), made at the University of North Dakota Process Development Unit, was a solid having a nominal melting point of 160/sup 0/C. The SRL was pulverized and mixed with a donor solvent, tetralin. The SRL to tetralin ratio of 1:1 was selected to pretreat in a high pressure and temperature reactor. The optimized reactor conditions were a reaction temperature of 475/sup 0/C, an initial hydrogen pressure of 2000 psig and a retention time of 40 minutes. Under these conditions approximately 97% of the SRL was dissolved in tetralin. The resulting solution was used to test the 27 developmental catalysts. The catalysts were developed by impregnating on the ..gamma..-alumina the 3 active metals; MoO/sub 3/, CoO, and WO/sub 3/, each at 3 levels. The effect of these factors on upgrading of the SRL was evaluated in terms of denitrogenation, desulfurization, and hydrocracking. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the metal compositions for the best overall catalytic performance were 9.5% MoO/sub 3/, 4.3% CoO, and 4% WO/sub 3/ (% of carrier weight). A model was developed based on the results of scanning electron micrographs to explain some of the physical characteristics of the catalysts. The disadvantage of the incipient wetness method used in metal impregnation was explained, and the preferable pore structure and distribution were suggested.

  6. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  7. Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, Daven K.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Akhtar, Farhan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Pinder, Robert W.; Loughlin, Dan; Kopacz, Monika; Singh, Kumaresh; Shim, Changsub

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is an important metric for assessing potential climate impacts of future emissions changes. However, the radiative consequences of emissions perturbations are not readily quantified nor well understood at the level of detail necessary to assess realistic policy options. To address this challenge, here we show how adjoint model sensitivities can be used to provide highly spatially resolved estimates of the DRF from emissions of black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OC), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3), using the example of emissions from each sector and country following multiple Representative Concentration Pathway (RCPs). The radiative forcing efficiencies of many individual emissions are found to differ considerably from regional or sectoral averages for NH3, SO2 from the power sector, and BC from domestic, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sources. Consequently, the amount of emissions controls required to attain a specific DRF varies at intracontinental scales by up to a factor of 4. These results thus demonstrate both a need and means for incorporating spatially refined aerosol DRF into analysis of future emissions scenario and design of air quality and climate change mitigation policies.

  8. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

    1999-06-03

    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  9. Recent developments in phasing and structure refinement for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Paul D.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Read, Randy J.; Richardson, Jane S.; Richardson, David C.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Central to crystallographic structure solution is obtaining accurate phases in order to build a molecular model, ultimately followed by refinement of that model to optimize its fit to the experimental diffraction data and prior chemical knowledge. Recent advances in phasing and model refinement and validation algorithms make it possible to arrive at better electron density maps and more accurate models. PMID:19700309

  10. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  11. 40 CFR 80.103 - Registration of refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Registration of refiners and importers. 80.103 Section 80.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... and importers. Any refiner or importer of conventional gasoline must register with the...

  12. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  13. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  14. Refining primary lead by granulation-leaching-electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojebuoboh, F.; Wang, S.; Maccagni, M.

    2003-04-01

    This article describes the development of a new process in which lead bullion obtained from smelting concentrates is refined by leaching-electrowinning. In the last half century, the challenge to treat and refine lead in order to minimize emissions of lead and lead compounds has intensified. Within the primary lead industry, the treatment aspect has transformed from the sinter-blast furnace model to direct smelting, creating gains in hygiene, environmental control, and efficiency. The refining aspect has remained based on kettle refining, or to a lesser extent, the Betts electrolytic refining. In the mid-1990s, Asarco investigated a concept based on granulating the lead bullion from the blast furnace. The granular material was fed into the Engitec Fluobor process. This work resulted in the operation of a 45 kg/d pilot plant that could produce lead sheets of 99.9% purity.

  15. A multiblock/multilevel mesh refinement procedure for CFD computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teigland, Rune; Eliassen, Inge K.

    2001-07-01

    A multiblock/multilevel algorithm with local refinement for general two- and three-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The patched-based local refinement procedure is presented in detail and algorithmic implementations are also presented. The multiblock implementation is essentially block-unstructured, i.e. each block having its own local curvilinear co-ordinate system. Refined grid patches can be put anywhere in the computational domain and can extend across block boundaries. To simplify the implementation, while still maintaining sufficient generality, the refinement is restricted to a refinement of the grid successively halving the grid size within a selected patch. The multiblock approach is implemented within the framework of the well-known SIMPLE solution strategy. Computational experiments showing the effect of using the multilevel solution procedure are presented for a sample elliptic problem and a few benchmark problems of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Copyright

  16. Protein structure refinement with adaptively restrained homologous replicas.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Dennis; Wildberg, André; Schröder, Gunnar F

    2016-09-01

    A novel protein refinement protocol is presented which utilizes molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an ensemble of adaptively restrained homologous replicas. This approach adds evolutionary information to the force field and reduces random conformational fluctuations by coupling of several replicas. It is shown that this protocol refines the majority of models from the CASP11 refinement category and that larger conformational changes of the starting structure are possible than with current state of the art methods. The performance of this protocol in the CASP11 experiment is discussed. We found that the quality of the refined model is correlated with the structural variance of the coupled replicas, which therefore provides a good estimator of model quality. Furthermore, some remarkable refinement results are discussed in detail. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):302-313. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26441154

  17. Image denoising filter based on patch-based difference refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Moon Gi

    2012-06-01

    In the denoising literature, research based on the nonlocal means (NLM) filter has been done and there have been many variations and improvements regarding weight function and parameter optimization. Here, a NLM filter with patch-based difference (PBD) refinement is presented. PBD refinement, which is the weighted average of the PBD values, is performed with respect to the difference images of all the locations in a refinement kernel. With refined and denoised PBD values, pattern adaptive smoothing threshold and noise suppressed NLM filter weights are calculated. Owing to the refinement of the PBD values, the patterns are divided into flat regions and texture regions by comparing the sorted values in the PBD domain to the threshold value including the noise standard deviation. Then, two different smoothing thresholds are utilized for each region denoising, respectively, and the NLM filter is applied finally. Experimental results of the proposed scheme are shown in comparison with several state-of-the-arts NLM based denoising methods.

  18. Improving freeze-tolerance of baker's yeast through seamless gene deletion of NTH1 and PUT1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Chen, Didi; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Cuiying; Du, Liping; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-06-01

    Baker's yeast strains with freeze-tolerance are highly desirable to maintain high leavening ability after freezing. Enhanced intracellular concentration of trehalose and proline in yeast is linked with freeze-tolerance. In this study, we constructed baker's yeast with enhanced freeze-tolerance by simultaneous deletion of the neutral trehalase-encoded gene NTH1 and the proline oxidase-encoded gene PUT1. We first used the two-step integration-based seamless gene deletion method to separately delete NTH1 and PUT1 in haploid yeast. Subsequently, through two rounds of hybridization and sporulation-based allelic exchange and colony PCR-mediated tetrad analysis, we obtained strains with restored URA3 and deletion of NTH1 and/or PUT1. The resulting strain showed higher cell survival and dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to the wild-type strain due to enhanced accumulation of trehalose and/or proline. Moreover, mutant with simultaneous deletion of NTH1 and PUT1 exhibits the highest relative dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to mutants with single-gene deletion perhaps due to elevated levels of both trehalose and proline. These results verified that it is applicable to construct frozen dough baker's yeast using the method proposed in this paper.

  19. Hybrid polylingual object model: an efficient and seamless integration of Java and native components on the Dalvik virtual machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yukun; Chen, Rong; Wei, Jingbo; Pei, Xilong; Cao, Jing; Prakash Jayaraman, Prem; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    JNI in the Android platform is often observed with low efficiency and high coding complexity. Although many researchers have investigated the JNI mechanism, few of them solve the efficiency and the complexity problems of JNI in the Android platform simultaneously. In this paper, a hybrid polylingual object (HPO) model is proposed to allow a CAR object being accessed as a Java object and as vice in the Dalvik virtual machine. It is an acceptable substitute for JNI to reuse the CAR-compliant components in Android applications in a seamless and efficient way. The metadata injection mechanism is designed to support the automatic mapping and reflection between CAR objects and Java objects. A prototype virtual machine, called HPO-Dalvik, is implemented by extending the Dalvik virtual machine to support the HPO model. Lifespan management, garbage collection, and data type transformation of HPO objects are also handled in the HPO-Dalvik virtual machine automatically. The experimental result shows that the HPO model outweighs the standard JNI in lower overhead on native side, better executing performance with no JNI bridging code being demanded. PMID:25110745

  20. Improving freeze-tolerance of baker's yeast through seamless gene deletion of NTH1 and PUT1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Chen, Didi; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Cuiying; Du, Liping; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Yu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-06-01

    Baker's yeast strains with freeze-tolerance are highly desirable to maintain high leavening ability after freezing. Enhanced intracellular concentration of trehalose and proline in yeast is linked with freeze-tolerance. In this study, we constructed baker's yeast with enhanced freeze-tolerance by simultaneous deletion of the neutral trehalase-encoded gene NTH1 and the proline oxidase-encoded gene PUT1. We first used the two-step integration-based seamless gene deletion method to separately delete NTH1 and PUT1 in haploid yeast. Subsequently, through two rounds of hybridization and sporulation-based allelic exchange and colony PCR-mediated tetrad analysis, we obtained strains with restored URA3 and deletion of NTH1 and/or PUT1. The resulting strain showed higher cell survival and dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to the wild-type strain due to enhanced accumulation of trehalose and/or proline. Moreover, mutant with simultaneous deletion of NTH1 and PUT1 exhibits the highest relative dough-leavening ability after freezing compared to mutants with single-gene deletion perhaps due to elevated levels of both trehalose and proline. These results verified that it is applicable to construct frozen dough baker's yeast using the method proposed in this paper. PMID:26965428

  1. Hybrid polylingual object model: an efficient and seamless integration of Java and native components on the Dalvik virtual machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yukun; Chen, Rong; Wei, Jingbo; Pei, Xilong; Cao, Jing; Prakash Jayaraman, Prem; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    JNI in the Android platform is often observed with low efficiency and high coding complexity. Although many researchers have investigated the JNI mechanism, few of them solve the efficiency and the complexity problems of JNI in the Android platform simultaneously. In this paper, a hybrid polylingual object (HPO) model is proposed to allow a CAR object being accessed as a Java object and as vice in the Dalvik virtual machine. It is an acceptable substitute for JNI to reuse the CAR-compliant components in Android applications in a seamless and efficient way. The metadata injection mechanism is designed to support the automatic mapping and reflection between CAR objects and Java objects. A prototype virtual machine, called HPO-Dalvik, is implemented by extending the Dalvik virtual machine to support the HPO model. Lifespan management, garbage collection, and data type transformation of HPO objects are also handled in the HPO-Dalvik virtual machine automatically. The experimental result shows that the HPO model outweighs the standard JNI in lower overhead on native side, better executing performance with no JNI bridging code being demanded.

  2. REFMAC5 for the refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    PubMed Central

    Murshudov, Garib N.; Skubák, Pavol; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Pannu, Navraj S.; Steiner, Roberto A.; Nicholls, Robert A.; Winn, Martyn D.; Long, Fei; Vagin, Alexei A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes various components of the macromolecular crystallographic refinement program REFMAC5, which is distributed as part of the CCP4 suite. REFMAC5 utilizes different likelihood functions depending on the diffraction data employed (amplitudes or intensities), the presence of twinning and the availability of SAD/SIRAS experimental diffraction data. To ensure chemical and structural integrity of the refined model, REFMAC5 offers several classes of restraints and choices of model parameterization. Reliable models at resolutions at least as low as 4 Å can be achieved thanks to low-resolution refinement tools such as secondary-structure restraints, restraints to known homologous structures, automatic global and local NCS restraints, ‘jelly-body’ restraints and the use of novel long-range restraints on atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence. REFMAC5 additionally offers TLS parameterization and, when high-resolution data are available, fast refinement of anisotropic ADPs. Refinement in the presence of twinning is performed in a fully automated fashion. REFMAC5 is a flexible and highly optimized refinement package that is ideally suited for refinement across the entire resolution spectrum encountered in macromolecular crystallography. PMID:21460454

  3. Querying genomic databases: refining the connectivity map.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark R; Xiong, Hao; Bengtsson, Henrik; Bourgon, Richard; Gentleman, Robert

    2012-01-01

    constitutes an ordered list. These involve using metrics proposed for analyzing partially ranked data, these being of interest in their own right and not widely used. Secondly, we advance an alternate inferential approach based on generating empirical null distributions that exploit the scope, and capture dependencies, embodied by the database. Using these refinements we undertake a comprehensive re-evaluation of Connectivity Map findings that, in general terms, reveal that accommodating ordered queries is less critical than the mode of inference. PMID:22499690

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayati, Basil; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for adaptive mesh refinement applied to mesoscopic stochastic simulations of spatially evolving reaction-diffusion processes. The transition rates for the diffusion process are derived on adaptive, locally refined structured meshes. Convergence of the diffusion process is presented and the fluctuations of the stochastic process are verified. Furthermore, a refinement criterion is proposed for the evolution of the adaptive mesh. The method is validated in simulations of reaction-diffusion processes as described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov and Gray-Scott equations.

  5. Adaptive mesh refinement techniques for 3-D skin electrode modeling.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Bartosz; Okoniewski, Michal

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a 3-D adaptive mesh refinement technique. The algorithm is constructed with an electric impedance tomography forward problem and the finite-element method in mind, but is applicable to a much wider class of problems. We use the method to evaluate the distribution of currents injected into a model of a human body through skin contact electrodes. We demonstrate that the technique leads to a significantly improved solution, particularly near the electrodes. We discuss error estimation, efficiency, and quality of the refinement algorithm and methods that allow for preserving mesh attributes in the refinement process.

  6. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan

    2012-01-01

    such as moonquake location, timing errors, and potential seismic heterogeneities. In addition, the modeled velocities may vary with a 1-to-1 trade ]off with the modeled reflector depth. The GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission, launched in Sept. 2011, placed two nearly identical spacecraft in lunar orbit. The two satellites make extremely high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field, which can be used to constrain the interior structure of the Moon using a "crust to core" approach. GRAIL fs constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten) will complement seismic investigations in several ways. Here we present a progress report on our efforts to advance our knowledge of the Moon fs internal structure using joint gravity and seismic analyses. We will focus on methodology, including 1) refinements to the seismic core constraint accomplished through array processing of Apollo seismic data, made by applying a set of travel time corrections based on GRAIL structure estimates local to each Apollo seismic station; 2) modeling deep lunar structure through synthetic seismograms, to test whether the seismic core model can reproduce the core reflections observed in the Apollo seismograms; and 3) a joint seismic and gravity inversion in which we attempt to fit a family of seismic structure models with the gravity constraints from GRAIL, resulting in maps of seismic velocities and densities that vary from a nominal model both laterally and with depth.

  7. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    PubMed

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods.

  8. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    PubMed

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods. PMID:26931650

  9. Controlling Reflections from Mesh Refinement Interfaces in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Van Meter, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A leading approach to improving the accuracy on numerical relativity simulations of black hole systems is through fixed or adaptive mesh refinement techniques. We describe a generic numerical error which manifests as slowly converging, artificial reflections from refinement boundaries in a broad class of mesh-refinement implementations, potentially limiting the effectiveness of mesh- refinement techniques for some numerical relativity applications. We elucidate this numerical effect by presenting a model problem which exhibits the phenomenon, but which is simple enough that its numerical error can be understood analytically. Our analysis shows that the effect is caused by variations in finite differencing error generated across low and high resolution regions, and that its slow convergence is caused by the presence of dramatic speed differences among propagation modes typical of 3+1 relativity. Lastly, we resolve the problem, presenting a class of finite-differencing stencil modifications which eliminate this pathology in both our model problem and in numerical relativity examples.

  10. Rack gasoline and refining margins - wanted: a summer romance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-13

    For the first time since late 1987, apparent refining margins on the US benchmark crude oil (based on spot purchase prices) are virtually zero. This felicitous bit of news comes loaded with possibilities of positive (maybe even good.) margins in coming months, if the differential between crude buying prices and the value of the refined barrel continues to improve. What refiners in the US market are watching most closely right now are motorists. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and Western Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, prices for early April 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, April 1988 edition. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  11. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  12. Gulf Coast refiners gain access to more California crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Vautrain, J.H.; Sanderson, W.J.

    1988-07-11

    Refiners east of the Rockies, particularly Gulf Coast refiners, have gained access to easter and central California crudes with the opening of Celeron Corp.'s All American Pipeline (AAPL). Currently, AAPL is carrying a blend of California crudes with properties similar to Alaskan North Slope (ANS). Although the blend is moderate gravity and sulfur content, it is comprised of crudes from several fields in California that display wide variations in quality. Future deliveries east from California will be from regions with even more extremes of quality. To familiarize refiners with the crudes that will become available, some of the properties of these California crudes are discussed, along with some of the problems refiners may encounter in processing these materials.

  13. A Novel Method to Achieve Grain Refinement in Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kui; Jiang, Haiyan; Wang, QuDong; Ye, Bing; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-10-01

    A significant grain refinement of pure aluminum is achieved upon addition of TiCN nanoparticles (NPs). Unlike the conventional inoculation, NPs can induce the physical growth restriction through the formation of NP layer on the growing grain surface. An analytical model is developed to quantitatively account for the NP effects on grain growth. The NP-induced growth control can overcome the inherent limitations of inoculation and shed light on a potential method to achieve grain refinement.

  14. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Interface Conditions for Wave Propagation Through Mesh Refinement Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Dae-II; Brown, J. David; Imbiriba, Breno; Centrella, Joan; MacNeice, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We study the propagation of waves across fixed mesh refinement boundaries in linear and nonlinear model equations in 1-D and 2-D, and in the 3-D Einstein equations of general relativity. We demonstrate that using linear interpolation to set the data in guard cells leads to the production of reflected waves at the refinement boundaries. Implementing quadratic interpolation to fill the guard cells eliminates these spurious signals.

  16. Interface conditions for wave propagation through mesh refinement boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; David Brown, J.; Imbiriba, Breno; Centrella, Joan; MacNeice, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We study the propagation of waves across fixed mesh refinement boundaries in linear and nonlinear model equations in 1-D and 2-D, and in the 3-D Einstein equations of general relativity. We demonstrate that using linear interpolation to set the data in guard cells leads to the production of reflected waves at the refinement boundaries. Implementing quadratic interpolation to fill the guard cells suppresses these spurious signals.

  17. Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Jiaming; Ye, Huapeng; Yeo, Swee Ping; Qiu, Min; Zouhdi, Said; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-03-01

    We propose a counter-intuitive mechanism of constructing an ultrathin broadband transparent device with two perfect blackbodies. By introducing hybridization of plasmon modes, resonant modes with different symmetries coexist in this system. A broadband transmission spectrum in the near infrared regime is achieved through controlling their coupling strengths, which is governed by the thickness of high refractive index layer. Meanwhile, the transparency bandwidth is found to be tunable in a large range by varying the geometric dimension. More significantly, from the point view of applications, the proposed method of achieving broadband transparency can perfectly tolerate the misalignment and asymmetry of periodic nanoparticles on the top and bottom, which is empowered by the unique dual of coupling-in and coupling-out processes within the pair of blackbodies. Moreover, roughness has little influence on its transmission performance. According to the coupled mode theory, the distinguished transmittance performance is physically interpreted by the radiative decay rate of the entire system. In addition to the feature of uniquely robust broadband transparency, such a ultrathin seamless nanostructure (in the presence of a uniform silver layer) also provides polarization-independent and angle-independent operations. Therefore, it may power up a wide spectrum of exciting applications in thin film protection, touch screen techniques, absorber-emitter transformation, etc.We propose a counter-intuitive mechanism of constructing an ultrathin broadband transparent device with two perfect blackbodies. By introducing hybridization of plasmon modes, resonant modes with different symmetries coexist in this system. A broadband transmission spectrum in the near infrared regime is achieved through controlling their coupling strengths, which is governed by the thickness of high refractive index layer. Meanwhile, the transparency bandwidth is found to be tunable in a large range by

  18. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  19. Refinement of herpesvirus B-capsid structure on parallel supercomputers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z H; Chiu, W; Haskell, K; Spears, H; Jakana, J; Rixon, F J; Scott, L R

    1998-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral reconstruction are used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the 1250-A-diameter herpesvirus B-capsid. The centers and orientations of particles in focal pairs of 400-kV, spot-scan micrographs are determined and iteratively refined by common-lines-based local and global refinement procedures. We describe the rationale behind choosing shared-memory multiprocessor computers for executing the global refinement, which is the most computationally intensive step in the reconstruction procedure. This refinement has been implemented on three different shared-memory supercomputers. The speedup and efficiency are evaluated by using test data sets with different numbers of particles and processors. Using this parallel refinement program, we refine the herpesvirus B-capsid from 355-particle images to 13-A resolution. The map shows new structural features and interactions of the protein subunits in the three distinct morphological units: penton, hexon, and triplex of this T = 16 icosahedral particle. PMID:9449358

  20. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability. PMID:26139933

  1. Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

  2. Evaluation of the Hinge Moment and Normal Force Aerodynamic Loads from a Seamless Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete

    2016-01-01

    A seamless adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap was demonstrated in flight on a Gulfstream III aircraft at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The trailing edge flap was deflected between minus 2 deg up and plus 30 deg down in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The interface hardware instrumentation layout and load calibration are discussed. Twenty-one applied calibration test load cases were developed for each individual fitting. The 2-sigma residual errors for the hinge moment was calculated to be 2.4 percent, and for normal force was calculated to be 7.3 percent. The hinge moment and normal force generated by the ACTE flap with a hinge point located at 26-percent wing chord were measured during steady state and symmetric pitch maneuvers. The loads predicted from analysis were compared to the loads observed in flight. The hinge moment loads showed good agreement with the flight loads while the normal force loads calculated from analysis were over-predicted by approximately 20 percent. Normal force and hinge moment loads calculated from the pressure sensors located on the ACTE showed good agreement with the loads calculated from the installed strain gages.

  3. Seamless Transition for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…

  4. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  5. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-28

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations. PMID:26723635

  6. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  7. An adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for the discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect

    Jessee, J.P.; Fiveland, W.A.; Howell, L.H.; Colella, P.; Pember, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    The discrete ordinates form of the radiative transport equation (RTE) is spatially discretized and solved using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm. This technique permits the local grid refinement to minimize spatial discretization error of the RTE. An error estimator is applied to define regions for local grid refinement; overlapping refined grids are recursively placed in these regions; and the RTE is then solved over the entire domain. The procedure continues until the spatial discretization error has been reduced to a sufficient level. The following aspects of the algorithm are discussed: error estimation, grid generation, communication between refined levels, and solution sequencing. This initial formulation employs the step scheme, and is valid for absorbing and isotopically scattering media in two-dimensional enclosures. The utility of the algorithm is tested by comparing the convergence characteristics and accuracy to those of the standard single-grid algorithm for several benchmark cases. The AMR algorithm provides a reduction in memory requirements and maintains the convergence characteristics of the standard single-grid algorithm; however, the cases illustrate that efficiency gains of the AMR algorithm will not be fully realized until three-dimensional geometries are considered.

  8. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-28

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  9. Projection of Discontinuous Galerkin Variable Distributions During Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Carlos; Herrmann, Marcus

    2012-11-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods decrease the computational expense of CFD simulations by increasing the density of solution cells only in areas of the computational domain that are of interest in that particular simulation. In particular, unstructured Cartesian AMR has several advantages over other AMR approaches, as it does not require the creation of numerous guard-cell blocks, neighboring cell lookups become straightforward, and the hexahedral nature of the mesh cells greatly simplifies the refinement and coarsening operations. The h-refinement from this AMR approach can be leveraged by making use of highly-accurate, but computationally costly methods, such as the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) numerical method. DG methods are capable of high orders of accuracy while retaining stencil locality--a property critical to AMR using unstructured meshes. However, the use of DG methods with AMR requires the use of special flux and projection operators during refinement and coarsening operations in order to retain the high order of accuracy. The flux and projection operators needed for refinement and coarsening of unstructured Cartesian adaptive meshes using Legendre polynomial test functions will be discussed, and their performance will be shown using standard test cases.

  10. Production and Refining of Magnesium Metal from Turkey Originating Dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Yeliz; Yücel, Onuralp

    2012-06-01

    In this study crown magnesium produced from Turkish calcined dolomite by the Pigeon Process was refined and corrosion tests were applied. By using factsage thermodynamic program metalothermic reduction behavior of magnesium oxide and silicate formation structure during this reaction were investigated. After thermodynamic studies were completed, calcination of dolomite and it's metalothermic reduction at temperatures of 1473 K, 1523 K and within a vacuum (varied from 20 to 200 Pa) and refining of crown magnesium was studied. Different flux compositions consisting of MgCl2, KCl, CaCl2, MgO, CaF2, NaCl, and SiO2 with and without B2O3 additions were selected for the refining process. These tests were carried out at 963 K for 15, 30 and 45 minutes setting time. Considerable amount of iron was transferred into the sludge phase and its amount decreased from 0.08% to 0.027%. This refined magnesium was suitable for the production of various magnesium alloys. As a result of decreasing iron content, minimum corrosion rate of refined magnesium was obtained 2.35 g/m2/day. The results are compared with previous studies.

  11. Refinement performance and mechanism of an Al-50Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, H.S.; Liu, X.F.

    2008-11-15

    The microstructure and melt structure of primary silicon particles in an Al-50%Si (wt.%) alloy have been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and a high temperature X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the Al-50Si alloy can be effectively refined by a newly developed Si-20P master alloy, and the melting temperature is crucial to the refinement process. The minimal overheating degree {delta}T{sub min} ({delta}T{sub min} is the difference between the minimal overheating temperature T{sub min} and the liquidus temperature T{sub L}) for good refinement is about 260 deg. C. Primary silicon particles can be refined after adding 0.2 wt.% phosphorus amount at sufficient temperature, and their average size transforms from 2-4 mm to about 30 {mu}m. The X-ray diffraction data of the Al-50Si melt demonstrate that structural change occurs when the melting temperature varies from 1100 deg. C to 1300 deg. C. Additionally, the relationship between the refinement mechanism and the melt structure is discussed.

  12. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William Wenlong

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  13. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Ifland, J R; Preuss, H G; Marcus, M T; Rourke, K M; Taylor, W C; Burau, K; Jacobs, W S; Kadish, W; Manso, G

    2009-05-01

    Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors. PMID:19223127

  14. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  15. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  17. Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip, B.

    2000-07-24

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.

  18. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Large scale development was quite common in the later period of hospital industrialization in China. Today, Chinese hospital management faces such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of Wuxi No.2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely, "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics." The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics." The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important. Keywords: Hospital, Refined, Management chain

  19. RNA Structure Refinement using the ERRASER-Phenix pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Chieh; Echols, Nathaniel; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Das, Rhiju

    2015-01-01

    Summary The final step of RNA crystallography involves the fitting of coordinates into electron density maps. The large number of backbone atoms in RNA presents a difficult and tedious challenge, particularly when experimental density is poor. The ERRASER-Phenix pipeline can improve an initial set of RNA coordinates automatically based on a physically realistic model of atomic-level RNA interactions. The pipeline couples diffraction-based refinement in Phenix with the Rosetta-based real-space refinement protocol ERRASER (Enumerative Real-Space Refinement ASsisted by Electron density under Rosetta). The combination of ERRASER and Phenix can improve the geometrical quality of RNA crystallographic models while maintaining or improving the fit to the diffraction data (as measured by Rfree). Here we present a complete tutorial for running ERRASER-Phenix through the Phenix GUI, from the command-line, and via an application in the Rosetta On-line Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE). PMID:26227049

  20. Steam refining as an alternative to steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Fokko; Westereng, Bjørge; Horn, Svein J; Puls, Jürgen; Saake, Bodo

    2012-05-01

    In steam pretreatment the defibration is usually achieved by an explosion at the end of the treatment, but can also be carried out in a subsequent refiner step. A steam explosion and a steam refining unit were compared by using the same raw material and pretreatment conditions, i.e. temperature and time. Smaller particle size was needed for the steam explosion unit to obtain homogenous slurries without considerable amounts of solid chips. A higher amount of volatiles could be condensed from the vapour phase after steam refining. The results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences. It could be shown that, beside the chemical changes in the cell wall, the decrease of the particle size is the decisive factor to enhance the enzymatic accessibility while the explosion effect is not required.

  1. Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Large scale development was quite common in the later period of hospital industrialization in China. Today, Chinese hospital management faces such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of Wuxi No.2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely, "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics." The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics." The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important. Keywords: Hospital, Refined, Management chain PMID:27180468

  2. Progressive refinement: more than a means to overcome limited bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, René; Schumann, Heidrun

    2009-01-01

    Progressive refinement is commonly understood as a means to solve problems imposed by limited system resources. In this publication, we apply this technology as a novel approach for information presentation and device adaptation. The progressive refinement is able to handle different kinds of data and consists of innovative ideas to overcome the multiple issues imposed by large data volumes. The key feature is the mature use of multiple incremental previews to the data. This leads to a temporal deskew of the information to be presented and provides a causal flow in terms of a tour-through-the-data. Such a presentation is scalable leading to a significantly simplified adaptation to the available resources, short response times, and reduced visual clutter. Due to its rather beneficial properties and feedback we received from first implementations, we state that there is high potential of progressive refinement far beyond its currently addressed application context.

  3. Segregation Coefficients of Impurities in Selenium by Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1998-01-01

    The purification of Se by zone refining process was studied. The impurity solute levels along the length of a zone-refined Se sample were measured by spark source mass spectrographic analysis. By comparing the experimental concentration levels with theoretical curves the segregation coefficient, defined as the ratio of equilibrium concentration of a given solute in the solid to that in the liquid, k = x(sub s)/x(sub l) for most of the impurities in Se are found to be close to unity, i.e., between 0.85 and 1.15, with the k value for Si, Zn, Fe, Na and Al greater than 1 and that for S, Cl, Ca, P, As, Mn and Cr less than 1. This implies that a large number of passes is needed for the successful implementation of zone refining in the purification of Se.

  4. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  5. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for {approx}4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of {approx}30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper.

  6. Automated protein model building combined with iterative structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Perrakis, A; Morris, R; Lamzin, V S

    1999-05-01

    In protein crystallography, much time and effort are often required to trace an initial model from an interpretable electron density map and to refine it until it best agrees with the crystallographic data. Here, we present a method to build and refine a protein model automatically and without user intervention, starting from diffraction data extending to resolution higher than 2.3 A and reasonable estimates of crystallographic phases. The method is based on an iterative procedure that describes the electron density map as a set of unconnected atoms and then searches for protein-like patterns. Automatic pattern recognition (model building) combined with refinement, allows a structural model to be obtained reliably within a few CPU hours. We demonstrate the power of the method with examples of a few recently solved structures.

  7. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  8. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  9. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  10. Towards a Seamless Framework for Drought Analysis and Prediction from Seasonal to Climate Change Time Scales (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin

    2013-04-01

    predicting drought are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited. Evaluation of past droughts and their mechanisms is limited by data availability and especially before the instrumental period of the last 50-100 years, for which there is reliance on incomplete spatial proxy data, such as tree rings. Seasonal predictability is currently mainly limited to tropical and sub-tropical regions through connections with sea surface temperature variations such as ENSO. Predictability in mid-latitudes is low and especially for precipitation, although dynamical model predictions appear to be edging statistical models in many aspects of seasonal prediction. This presentation describes ongoing research on evaluation of drought risk and drought mechanisms at regional to global scales with the eventual goal of developing a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales. Such a framework would allow consistent assessment of drought from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental global drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of drought variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed and drought mechanisms can be diagnosed. Future drought risk is quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land

  11. Diffraction-geometry refinement in the DIALS framework.

    PubMed

    Waterman, David G; Winter, Graeme; Gildea, Richard J; Parkhurst, James M; Brewster, Aaron S; Sauter, Nicholas K; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2016-04-01

    Rapid data collection and modern computing resources provide the opportunity to revisit the task of optimizing the model of diffraction geometry prior to integration. A comprehensive description is given of new software that builds upon established methods by performing a single global refinement procedure, utilizing a smoothly varying model of the crystal lattice where appropriate. This global refinement technique extends to multiple data sets, providing useful constraints to handle the problem of correlated parameters, particularly for small wedges of data. Examples of advanced uses of the software are given and the design is explained in detail, with particular emphasis on the flexibility and extensibility it entails. PMID:27050135

  12. Diffraction-geometry refinement in the DIALS framework

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, David G.; Winter, Graeme; Gildea, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James M.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2016-01-01

    Rapid data collection and modern computing resources provide the opportunity to revisit the task of optimizing the model of diffraction geometry prior to integration. A comprehensive description is given of new software that builds upon established methods by performing a single global refinement procedure, utilizing a smoothly varying model of the crystal lattice where appropriate. This global refinement technique extends to multiple data sets, providing useful constraints to handle the problem of correlated parameters, particularly for small wedges of data. Examples of advanced uses of the software are given and the design is explained in detail, with particular emphasis on the flexibility and extensibility it entails. PMID:27050135

  13. Spherical Harmonic Decomposition of Gravitational Waves Across Mesh Refinement Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, David R.; Baker, John; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan M.

    2005-01-01

    We evolve a linearized (Teukolsky) solution of the Einstein equations with a non-linear Einstein solver. Using this testbed, we are able to show that such gravitational waves, defined by the Weyl scalars in the Newman-Penrose formalism, propagate faithfully across mesh refinement boundaries, and use, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel algorithm due to Misner to compute spherical harmonic components of our waveforms. We show that the algorithm performs extremely well, even when the extraction sphere intersects refinement boundaries.

  14. Laser furnace and method for zone refining of semiconductor wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, Donald B. (Inventor); zur Burg, Frederick W. (Inventor); Penn, Wayne M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method of zone refining a crystal wafer (116 FIG. 1) comprising the steps of focusing a laser beam to a small spot (120) of selectable size on the surface of the crystal wafer (116) to melt a spot on the crystal wafer, scanning the small laser beam spot back and forth across the surface of the crystal wafer (116) at a constant velocity, and moving the scanning laser beam across a predetermined zone of the surface of the crystal wafer (116) in a direction normal to the laser beam scanning direction and at a selectible velocity to melt and refine the entire crystal wafer (116).

  15. Flow-through polymerase chain reaction inside a seamless 3D helical microreactor fabricated utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenming; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a new strategy for fabricating a seamless three-dimensional (3D) helical microreactor utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold. With this method, various shapes and sizes of 3D helical microreactors were fabricated, and a complicated and laborious photolithographic process, or 3D printing, was eliminated. With dramatically enhanced portability at a significantly reduced fabrication cost, such a device can be considered to be the simplest microreactor, developed to date, for performing the flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  16. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  17. 40 CFR 80.1442 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... “refiner” shall include foreign refiners. (3) Refiners who qualified as small under 40 CFR 80.1142 do not... 31, 2006. (viii) Name, address, phone number, facsimile number, and e-mail address of a corporate... approved small refiners. (f) If EPA finds that a refiner provided false or inaccurate information in...

  18. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  19. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  20. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  1. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage... OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.18 Smelting and refining; allowance for... dutiable metals entirely lost in smelting or refining, or both), shall constitute the quantity of...

  2. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage... OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.18 Smelting and refining; allowance for... dutiable metals entirely lost in smelting or refining, or both), shall constitute the quantity of...

  3. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  4. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage... OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.18 Smelting and refining; allowance for... dutiable metals entirely lost in smelting or refining, or both), shall constitute the quantity of...

  5. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  6. 1H NMR-based protocol for the detection of adulterations of refined olive oil with refined hazelnut oil.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; D'Imperio, Marco; Capitani, Donatella; Rezzi, Serge; Guillou, Claude; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Vilchez, María Dolores Molero; Fernández, Antonio Herrera; Thomas, Freddy; Aparicio, Ramon

    2009-12-23

    A (1)H NMR analytical protocol for the detection of refined hazelnut oils in admixtures with refined olive oils is reported according to ISO format. The main purpose of this research activity is to suggest a novel analytical methodology easily usable by operators with a basic knowledge of NMR spectroscopy. The protocol, developed on 92 oil samples of different origins within the European MEDEO project, is based on (1)H NMR measurements combined with a suitable statistical analysis. It was developed using a 600 MHz instrument and was tested by two independent laboratories on 600 MHz spectrometers, allowing detection down to 10% adulteration of olive oils with refined hazelnut oils. Finally, the potential and limitations of the protocol applied on spectrometers operating at different magnetic fields, that is, at the proton frequencies of 500 and 400 MHz, were investigated.

  7. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  8. Refinement of a Chemistry Attitude Measure for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the evaluation and refinement of a chemistry attitude measure, Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI), for college students. The original 20-item and revised 8-item versions of ASCI (V1 and V2) were administered to different samples. The evaluation for ASCI had two main foci: reliability and validity. This…

  9. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into ...

  10. AMR++: Object-Oriented Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.; Philip, B.

    2000-02-02

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) computations are complicated by their dynamic nature. The development of solvers for realistic applications is complicated by both the complexity of the AMR and the geometry of realistic problem domains. The additional complexity of distributed memory parallelism within such AMR applications most commonly exceeds the level of complexity that can be reasonable maintained with traditional approaches toward software development. This paper will present the details of our object-oriented work on the simplification of the use of adaptive mesh refinement on applications with complex geometries for both serial and distributed memory parallel computation. We will present an independent set of object-oriented abstractions (C++ libraries) well suited to the development of such seemingly intractable scientific computations. As an example of the use of this object-oriented approach we will present recent results of an application modeling fluid flow in the eye. Within this example, the geometry is too complicated for a single curvilinear coordinate grid and so a set of overlapping curvilinear coordinate grids' are used. Adaptive mesh refinement and the required grid generation work to support the refinement process is coupled together in the solution of essentially elliptic equations within this domain. This paper will focus on the management of complexity within development of the AMR++ library which forms a part of the Overture object-oriented framework for the solution of partial differential equations within scientific computing.

  11. 40 CFR 80.1620 - Small refiner definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... companies, and all joint venture partners. (3) Had a corporate-average crude oil capacity less than or equal... “refiner” shall include foreign refiners. (c) The number of employees and crude oil capacity under... and crude oil capacity of any subsidiary companies, any parent company and subsidiaries of the...

  12. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  13. Refining the Career Education Concept. Monographs on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    Six papers prepared within the Office of Career Education during the period 1975-76 are contained in this monograph. The papers are presented in their order of preparation, each intended to make some contribution to refinement of the career education concept. "Career Education: A Crusade for Change" discusses the need for, nature of, and…

  14. A Refined Item Digraph Analysis of a Proportional Reasoning Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, William M.; Williams-Morris, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Refined item digraph analysis (RIDA) is a way of studying diagnostic and prescriptive testing. It permits assessment of a test item's diagnostic value by examining the extent to which the item has properties of ideal items. RIDA is illustrated with the Orange Juice Test, which assesses the proportionality concept. (TJH)

  15. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  16. Refinement and Selection of Near-native Protein Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiong; Zhang, Jingfen; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2013-03-01

    In recent years in silico protein structure prediction reached a level where a variety of servers can generate large pools of near-native structures. However, the identification and further refinement of the best structures from the pool of decoys continue to be problematic. To address these issues, we have developed a selective refinement protocol (based on the Rosetta software package), and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based ranking method (MDR). The refinement of the selected structures is done by employing Rosetta's relax mode, subject to certain constraints. The selection of the final best models is done with MDR by testing their relative stability against gradual heating during all atom MD simulations. We have implemented the selective refinement protocol and the MDR method in our fully automated server Mufold-MD. Assessments of the performance of the Mufold-MD server in the CASP10 competition and other tests will be presented. This work was supported by grants from NIH. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  17. Singapore refiners in midst of huge construction campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Singapore's downstream capacity continues to mushroom. Singapore refiners, upbeat about long term prospects for petroleum products demand in the Asia-Pacific region, and are pressing plans to boost processing capacity. Their plans go beyond capacity expansions. They are proceeding with projects to upgrade refineries to emphasize production of higher value products and to further integrate refining capabilities wit the region's petrochemical industry. Planned expansion and upgrading projects at Singapore refineries call for outlays of more than $1 billion to boost total capacity to about 1.1 million b/d in 1993 and 1.27 million b/d by 1995. That would be the highest level since the mid-1980s, when refiners such as Shell Singapore cut capacity amid an oil glut. Singapore refineries currently are running at effective full capacity of 1.04 million b/d. Meanwhile, Singapore refiners are aggressively courting customers in the Indochina subcontinent, where long isolated centrally planned economies are turning gradually to free markets.

  18. Computations of Aerodynamic Performance Databases Using Output-Based Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Handle complex geometry problems; Control discretization errors via solution-adaptive mesh refinement; Focus on aerodynamic databases of parametric and optimization studies: 1. Accuracy: satisfy prescribed error bounds 2. Robustness and speed: may require over 105 mesh generations 3. Automation: avoid user supervision Obtain "expert meshes" independent of user skill; and Run every case adaptively in production settings.

  19. Refining the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero, Frederico R; Wagner, Andrew; Brito, Fabio A; Muntener, Michael; Lima, Guilherme C; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2006-01-01

    Since its initial description, the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has evolved considerably, from a purely diagnostic tool performed to stage germ cell testicular cancer to a therapeutic operation that fully duplicates the open technique. Herein, we describe the current technique employed at our institution, along with illustrations of all surgical steps, and delineate the refinements of the technique over time.

  20. Use of intensity quotients and differences in absolute structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Simon; Flack, Howard D; Wagner, Trixie

    2013-06-01

    Several methods for absolute structure refinement were tested using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using Cu Kα radiation for 23 crystals with no element heavier than oxygen: conventional refinement using an inversion twin model, estimation using intensity quotients in SHELXL2012, estimation using Bayesian methods in PLATON, estimation using restraints consisting of numerical intensity differences in CRYSTALS and estimation using differences and quotients in TOPAS-Academic where both quantities were coded in terms of other structural parameters and implemented as restraints. The conventional refinement approach yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with standard uncertainties ranging from 0.15 to 0.77. The other methods also yielded accurate values of the Flack parameter, but with much higher precision. Absolute structure was established in all cases, even for a hydrocarbon. The procedures in which restraints are coded explicitly in terms of other structural parameters enable the Flack parameter to correlate with these other parameters, so that it is determined along with those parameters during refinement. PMID:23719469

  1. Research of the thorium purification at monazite refinement processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagalov, V. V.; Sobolev, V. I.; Turinskaya, M. V.; Malin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to the research of the thorium purification processes at monazite refinement processes. We have investigated different solution containing thorium with different mix of rare-earth elements. It was found that the application of cation resin is well- recommended if we want to reach the highest yields of thorium purification process.

  2. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  3. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  5. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  6. Procedures and computer programs for telescopic mesh refinement using MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Claar, David V.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water models are commonly used to evaluate flow systems in areas that are small relative to entire aquifer systems. In many of these analyses, simulation of the entire flow system is not desirable or will not allow sufficient detail in the area of interest. The procedure of telescopic mesh refinement allows use of a small, detailed model in the area of interest by taking boundary conditions from a larger model that encompasses the model in the area of interest. Some previous studies have used telescopic mesh refinement; however, better procedures are needed in carrying out telescopic mesh refinement using the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model, referred to as MODFLOW. This report presents general procedures and three computer programs for use in telescopic mesh refinement with MODFLOW. The first computer program, MODTMR, constructs MODFLOW data sets for a local or embedded model using MODFLOW data sets and simulation results from a regional or encompassing model. The second computer program, TMRDIFF, provides a means of comparing head or drawdown in the local model with head or drawdown in the corresponding area of the regional model. The third program, RIVGRID, provides a means of constructing data sets for the River Package, Drain Package, General-Head Boundary Package, and Stream Package for regional and local models using grid-independent data specifying locations of these features. RIVGRID may be needed in some applications of telescopic mesh refinement because regional-model data sets do not contain enough information on locations of head-dependent flow features to properly locate the features in local models. The program is a general utility program that can be used in constructing data sets for head-dependent flow packages for any MODFLOW model under construction.

  7. The use of Fourier reverse transforms in crystallographic phase refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Ringrose, S.

    1997-10-08

    Often a crystallographer obtains an electron density map which shows only part of the structure. In such cases, the phasing of the trial model is poor enough that the electron density map may show peaks in some of the atomic positions, but other atomic positions are not visible. There may also be extraneous peaks present which are not due to atomic positions. A method for determination of crystal structures that have resisted solution through normal crystallographic methods has been developed. PHASER is a series of FORTRAN programs which aids in the structure solution of poorly phased electron density maps by refining the crystallographic phases. It facilitates the refinement of such poorly phased electron density maps for difficult structures which might otherwise not be solvable. The trial model, which serves as the starting point for the phase refinement, may be acquired by several routes such as direct methods or Patterson methods. Modifications are made to the reverse transform process based on several assumptions. First, the starting electron density map is modified based on the fact that physically the electron density map must be non-negative at all points. In practice a small positive cutoff is used. A reverse Fourier transform is computed based on the modified electron density map. Secondly, the authors assume that a better electron density map will result by using the observed magnitudes of the structure factors combined with the phases calculated in the reverse transform. After convergence has been reached, more atomic positions and less extraneous peaks are observed in the refined electron density map. The starting model need not be very large to achieve success with PHASER; successful phase refinement has been achieved with a starting model that consists of only 5% of the total scattering power of the full molecule. The second part of the thesis discusses three crystal structure determinations.

  8. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  9. Use of knowledge-based restraints in phenix.refine to improve macromolecular refinement at low resolution

    PubMed Central

    Headd, Jeffrey J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Chen, Vincent B.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Richardson, David C.; Richardson, Jane S.; Adams, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional methods for macromolecular refinement often have limited success at low resolution (3.0–3.5 Å or worse), producing models that score poorly on crystallographic and geometric validation criteria. To improve low-resolution refinement, knowledge from macromolecular chemistry and homology was used to add three new coordinate-restraint functions to the refinement program phenix.refine. Firstly, a ‘reference-model’ method uses an identical or homologous higher resolution model to add restraints on torsion angles to the geometric target function. Secondly, automatic restraints for common secondary-structure elements in proteins and nucleic acids were implemented that can help to preserve the secondary-structure geometry, which is often distorted at low resolution. Lastly, we have implemented Ramachandran-based restraints on the backbone torsion angles. In this method, a ϕ,ψ term is added to the geometric target function to minimize a modified Ramachandran landscape that smoothly combines favorable peaks identified from non­redundant high-quality data with unfavorable peaks calculated using a clash-based pseudo-energy function. All three methods show improved MolProbity validation statistics, typically complemented by a lowered R free and a decreased gap between R work and R free. PMID:22505258

  10. Refinement of the Retinogeniculate Synapse by Bouton Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. Kate; Park, SuHong; Litvina, Elizabeth Y.; Morales, Jose; Sanes, Joshua R.; Chen, Chinfei

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sensory circuits become refined over development in an activity-dependent manner. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from each eye first map to their target in the geniculate and then segregate into eye-specific layers by the removal and addition of axon branches. Once segregation is complete, robust functional remodeling continues as the number of afferent inputs to each geniculate neuron decreases from many to a few. It is widely assumed that large-scale axon retraction underlies this later phase of circuit refinement. On the contrary, RGC axons remain stable during functional pruning. Instead, presynaptic boutons grow in size and cluster during this process. Moreover, they exhibit dynamic spatial reorganization in response to sensory experience. Surprisingly, axon complexity decreases only after the completion of the thalamic critical period. Therefore, dynamic bouton redistribution along a broad axon backbone represents an unappreciated form of plasticity underlying developmental wiring and rewiring in the central nervous system. PMID:25284005

  11. Grain refinement of high strength steels to improve cryogenic toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Grain-refining techniques using multistep heat treatments to reduce the grain size of five commercial high-strength steels were investigated. The goal of this investigation was to improve the low-temperature toughness as measured by Charpy V-notch impact test without a significant loss in tensile strength. The grain size of four of five alloys investigated was successfully reduced up to 1/10 of original size or smaller with increases in Charpy impact energy of 50 to 180 percent at -320 F. Tensile properties were reduced from 0 to 25 percent for the various alloys tested. An unexpected but highly beneficial side effect from grain refining was improved machinability.

  12. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark

    2014-10-27

    We investigate a technique - segmental refinement (SR) - proposed by Brandt in the 1970s as a low memory multigrid method. The technique is attractive for modern computer architectures because it provides high data locality, minimizes network communication, is amenable to loop fusion, and is naturally highly parallel and asynchronous. The network communication minimization property was recognized by Brandt and Diskin in 1994; we continue this work by developing a segmental refinement method for a finite volume discretization of the 3D Laplacian on massively parallel computers. An understanding of the asymptotic complexities, required to maintain textbook multigrid efficiency, are explored experimentally with a simple SR method. A two-level memory model is developed to compare the asymptotic communication complexity of a proposed SR method with traditional parallel multigrid. Performance and scalability are evaluated with a Cray XC30 with up to 64K cores. We achieve modest improvement in scalability from traditional parallel multigrid with a simple SR implementation.

  13. PARAMESH: A Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Community Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Olson, Kevin M.; Mobarry, Clark; deFainchtein, Rosalinda; Packer, Charles

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a community toolkit which is designed to provide parallel support with adaptive mesh capability for a large and important class of computational models, those using structured, logically cartesian meshes. The package of Fortran 90 subroutines, called PARAMESH, is designed to provide an application developer with an easy route to extend an existing serial code which uses a logically cartesian structured mesh into a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement. Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, it can operate as a domain decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes, but who do not wish to use adaptivity. The package can provide them with an incremental evolutionary path for their code, converting it first to uniformly refined parallel code, and then later if they so desire, adding adaptivity.

  14. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Algorithms for Parallel Unstructured Finite Element Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, I D; Solberg, J M

    2006-02-03

    This project produced algorithms for and software implementations of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods for solving practical solid and thermal mechanics problems on multiprocessor parallel computers using unstructured finite element meshes. The overall goal is to provide computational solutions that are accurate to some prescribed tolerance, and adaptivity is the correct path toward this goal. These new tools will enable analysts to conduct more reliable simulations at reduced cost, both in terms of analyst and computer time. Previous academic research in the field of adaptive mesh refinement has produced a voluminous literature focused on error estimators and demonstration problems; relatively little progress has been made on producing efficient implementations suitable for large-scale problem solving on state-of-the-art computer systems. Research issues that were considered include: effective error estimators for nonlinear structural mechanics; local meshing at irregular geometric boundaries; and constructing efficient software for parallel computing environments.

  15. Measuring coalition functioning: refining constructs through factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    Internal and external coalition functioning is an important predictor of coalition success that has been linked to perceived coalition effectiveness, coalition goal achievement, coalition ability to support evidence-based programs, and coalition sustainability. Understanding which aspects of coalition functioning best predict coalition success requires the development of valid measures of empirically unique coalition functioning constructs. The goal of the present study is to examine and refine the psychometric properties of coalition functioning constructs in the following six domains: leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participation benefits/costs, sustainability planning, and community support. The authors used factor analysis to identify problematic items in our original measure and then piloted new items and scales to create a more robust, psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of coalition functioning. Scales displayed good construct validity through correlations with other measures. Discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of the refined instrument. PMID:22193112

  16. Structured adaptive mesh refinement on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.J. . Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences); Saltzman, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement has proven itself to be a useful tool in a large collection of applications. By refining only a small portion of the computational domain, computational savings of up to a factor of 80 in 3 dimensional calculations have been obtained on serial machines. A natural question is, can this algorithm be used on massively parallel machines and still achieve the same efficiencies We have designed a data layout scheme for mapping grid points to processors that preserves locality and minimizes global communication for the CM-200. The effect of the data layout scheme is that at the finest level nearby grid points from adjacent grids in physical space are in adjacent memory locations. Furthermore, coarse grid points are arranged in memory to be near their associated fine grid points. We show applications of the algorithm to inviscid compressible fluid flow in two space dimensions.

  17. A novel application of theory refinement to student modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baffes, P.T.; Mooney, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Theory refinement systems developed in machine learning automatically modify a knowledge base to render it consistent with a set of classified training examples. We illustrate a novel application of these techniques to the problem of constructing a student model for an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). Our approach is implemented in an ITS authoring system called ASSERT which uses theory refinement to introduce errors into an initially correct knowledge base so that it models incorrect student behavior. The efficacy of the approach has been demonstrated by evaluating a tutor developed with ASSERT with 75 students tested on a classification task covering concepts from an introductory course on the C{sup ++} programming language. The system produced reasonably accurate models and students who received feedback based on these models performed significantly better on a post test than students who received simple reteaching.

  18. Worldwide refining capacity at 75 million b/d level

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1991-12-23

    While worldwide crude distillation capacity held essentially flat in 1991, there was solid growth in the Asia/Pacific region both in distillation and octane and conversion capacity. Refinery-by-refinery surveys of both U.S. and worldwide capacity appear together. The U.S. refining industry is apparently in a holding pattern, according to the survey, but it is still the largest and most complex refining industry in the world. It is clear, however, that Western European refineries are beginning to pay more attention to the quality of gasoline and its production. This paper indirectly reflects the obsolescence of much of the communist block technology with its weak conversion and upgrading capability.

  19. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  20. Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-23

    Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

  2. JT9D ceramic outer air seal system refinement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The abradability and durability characteristics of the plasma sprayed system were improved by refinement and optimization of the plasma spray process and the metal substrate design. The acceptability of the final seal system for engine testing was demonstrated by an extensive rig test program which included thermal shock tolerance, thermal gradient, thermal cycle, erosion, and abradability tests. An interim seal system design was also subjected to 2500 endurance test cycles in a JT9D-7 engine.

  3. Application of local mesh refinement in the DSMC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.-S.; Tseng, K.-C.; Kuo, C.-H.

    2001-08-01

    The implementation of an adaptive mesh embedding (h-refinement) schemes using unstructured grid in two-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is reported. In this technique, local isotropic refinement is used to introduce new meshes where local cell Knudsen number is less than some preset value. This simple scheme, however, has several severe consequences affecting the performance of the DSMC method. Thus, we have applied a technique to remove the hanging mode, by introducing anisotropic refinement in the interfacial cells. This is completed by simply connect the hanging node(s) with the other non-hanging node(s) in the non-refined, interfacial cells. In contrast, this remedy increases negligible amount of work; however, it removes all the difficulties presented in the first scheme with hanging nodes. We have tested the proposed scheme for Argon gas using different types of mesh, such as triangular and quadrilateral or mixed, to high-speed driven cavity flow. The results show an improved flow resolution as compared with that of unadaptive mesh. Finally, we have triangular adaptive mesh to compute two near-continuum gas flows, including a supersonic flow over a cylinder and a supersonic flow over a 35° compression ramp. The results show fairly good agreement with previous studies. In summary, the computational penalties by the proposed adaptive schemes are found to be small as compared with the DSMC computation itself. Nevertheless, we have concluded that the proposed scheme is superior to the original unadaptive scheme considering the accuracy of the solution.

  4. China`s refining/petrochemical industry continues expansion

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    China`s downstream petroleum industry decreased refinery throughput and increased petrochemical production in 1994, compared to 1993 data. A report titled ``China Petroleum Industry `94,`` issued by China Petroleum Newsletter, a publication of China Petroleum Information Institute, summarized China`s refined products and petrochemical production figures for 1994. The report also listed important construction projects at China`s downstream plants. This paper presents data from this report.

  5. Thermal-chemical Mantle Convection Models With Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2008-12-01

    In numerical modeling of mantle convection, resolution is often crucial for resolving small-scale features. New techniques, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allow local mesh refinement wherever high resolution is needed, while leaving other regions with relatively low resolution. Both computational efficiency for large- scale simulation and accuracy for small-scale features can thus be achieved with AMR. Based on the octree data structure [Tu et al. 2005], we implement the AMR techniques into the 2-D mantle convection models. For pure thermal convection models, benchmark tests show that our code can achieve high accuracy with relatively small number of elements both for isoviscous cases (i.e. 7492 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements) and for temperature-dependent viscosity cases (i.e. 14620 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements). We further implement tracer-method into the models for simulating thermal-chemical convection. By appropriately adding and removing tracers according to the refinement of the meshes, our code successfully reproduces the benchmark results in van Keken et al. [1997] with much fewer elements and tracers compared with uniform-mesh models (i.e. 7552 AMR elements v.s. 16384 uniform elements, and ~83000 tracers v.s. ~410000 tracers). The boundaries of the chemical piles in our AMR code can be easily refined to the scales of a few kilometers for the Earth's mantle and the tracers are concentrated near the chemical boundaries to precisely trace the evolvement of the boundaries. It is thus very suitable for our AMR code to study the thermal-chemical convection problems which need high resolution to resolve the evolvement of chemical boundaries, such as the entrainment problems [Sleep, 1988].

  6. Evolving a Puncture Black Hole with Fixed Mesh Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbiriba, Breno; Baker, John; Choi, Dae-II; Centrella, Joan; Fiske. David R.; Brown, J. David; vanMeter, James R.; Olson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of mesh refinement boundaries on the convergence and stability of simulations of black hole spacetimes. We find no technical problems. In our applications of this technique to the evolution of puncture initial data, we demonstrate that it is possible to simulaneously maintain second order convergence near the puncture and extend the outer boundary beyond 100M, thereby approaching the asymptotically flat region in which boundary condition problems are less difficult.

  7. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2016-06-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  8. Dynamic grid refinement for partial differential equations on parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, S.; Quinlan, D.

    1989-01-01

    The fast adaptive composite grid method (FAC) is an algorithm that uses various levels of uniform grids to provide adaptive resolution and fast solution of PDEs. An asynchronous version of FAC, called AFAC, that completely eliminates the bottleneck to parallelism is presented. This paper describes the advantage that this algorithm has in adaptive refinement for moving singularities on multiprocessor computers. This work is applicable to the parallel solution of two- and three-dimensional shock tracking problems.

  9. A fourth order accurate adaptive mesh refinement method forpoisson's equation

    SciTech Connect

    Barad, Michael; Colella, Phillip

    2004-08-20

    We present a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method for computing solutions to Poisson's equation in two and three dimensions. It is based on a conservative, finite-volume formulation of the classical Mehrstellen methods. This is combined with finite volume AMR discretizations to obtain a method that is fourth-order accurate in solution error, and with easily verifiable solvability conditions for Neumann and periodic boundary conditions.

  10. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  11. A Precision Recursive Estimate for Ephemeris Refinement (PREFER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B.

    1980-01-01

    A recursive filter/smoother orbit determination program was developed to refine the ephemerides produced by a batch orbit determination program (e.g., CELEST, GEODYN). The program PREFER can handle a variety of ground and satellite to satellite tracking types as well as satellite altimetry. It was tested on simulated data which contained significant modeling errors and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the program compared to batch estimation.

  12. CONSTRAINED-TRANSPORT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT IN CHARM

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, Francesco; Martin, Daniel F. E-mail: DFMartin@lbl.gov

    2011-07-01

    We present the implementation of a three-dimensional, second-order accurate Godunov-type algorithm for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) cosmological code CHARM. The algorithm is based on the full 12-solve spatially unsplit corner-transport-upwind (CTU) scheme. The fluid quantities are cell-centered and are updated using the piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), while the magnetic field variables are face-centered and are evolved through application of the Stokes theorem on cell edges via a constrained-transport (CT) method. The so-called multidimensional MHD source terms required in the predictor step for high-order accuracy are applied in a simplified form which reduces their complexity in three dimensions without loss of accuracy or robustness. The algorithm is implemented on an AMR framework which requires specific synchronization steps across refinement levels. These include face-centered restriction and prolongation operations and a reflux-curl operation, which maintains a solenoidal magnetic field across refinement boundaries. The code is tested against a large suite of test problems, including convergence tests in smooth flows, shock-tube tests, classical two- and three-dimensional MHD tests, a three-dimensional shock-cloud interaction problem, and the formation of a cluster of galaxies in a fully cosmological context. The magnetic field divergence is shown to remain negligible throughout.

  13. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  14. The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: Refining the estimate of birth prevalence.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a well-described pattern of congenital malformations primarily characterized by hemifacial microsomia and/or auricular dysplasia. However, the birth prevalence of OAVS is poorly characterized. Figures ranging from 1 in 150,000 through to 1 in 5,600 can be found in the literature - the latter figure being the most frequently quoted. This study aims to evaluate the reasons behind such discrepant figures and to refine the estimated birth prevalence of OAVS. Published reports on the incidence and prevalence of OAVS were systematically sought after. This evidence was critically reviewed. Data from appropriate studies was amalgamated to refine the estimate of the birth prevalence for OAVS. Two main reasons were identified why birth prevalence figures for OAVS are so highly discrepant: differing methods of case ascertainment and the lack of a formal definition for OAVS. This study refines the estimate of birth prevalence for OAVS to between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 30,000. This number needs to be confirmed in a large well-designed prospective study using a formally agreed-upon definition for OAVS. PMID:27625806

  15. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  16. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  17. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  18. The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: Refining the estimate of birth prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a well-described pattern of congenital malformations primarily characterized by hemifacial microsomia and/or auricular dysplasia. However, the birth prevalence of OAVS is poorly characterized. Figures ranging from 1 in 150,000 through to 1 in 5,600 can be found in the literature – the latter figure being the most frequently quoted. This study aims to evaluate the reasons behind such discrepant figures and to refine the estimated birth prevalence of OAVS. Published reports on the incidence and prevalence of OAVS were systematically sought after. This evidence was critically reviewed. Data from appropriate studies was amalgamated to refine the estimate of the birth prevalence for OAVS. Two main reasons were identified why birth prevalence figures for OAVS are so highly discrepant: differing methods of case ascertainment and the lack of a formal definition for OAVS. This study refines the estimate of birth prevalence for OAVS to between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 30,000. This number needs to be confirmed in a large well-designed prospective study using a formally agreed-upon definition for OAVS.

  19. Tracking-refinement modeling for solar-collector control

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, F.

    1980-01-01

    A closed-loop sun-tracking control used in conjunction with an open-loop system can utilize the unique features of both methods to obtain an improved sun-tracking capability. The open-loop part of the system uses a computer with clock and ephemeris input to acquire the sun at startup, to provide alignment during cloud passage, and to give an approximate sun-tracking capability throughout the day. The closed-loop portion of the system refines this alignment in order to maximize the collected solar power. For a parabolic trough that utilizes a tube along its focal line to collect energy in a fluid, a resistance wire attached to the tube can provide the sensor for the closed-loop part of the control. This kind of tracking refinement helps to compensate for such time-dependent effects as sag of the absorber tube and deformation of the concentrator surface from gravity or wind loading, temperature gradients, and manufacturing tolerances. A model is developed to explain the behavior of a resistance wire which is wrapped around the absorber tube of a parabolic-trough concentrator and used as a sensor in a tracking-refinement control.

  20. Shading-based DEM refinement under a comprehensive imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianwei; Zhang, Yi; Shan, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces an approach to refine coarse digital elevation models (DEMs) based on the shape-from-shading (SfS) technique using a single image. Different from previous studies, this approach is designed for heterogeneous terrain and derived from a comprehensive (extended) imaging model accounting for the combined effect of atmosphere, reflectance, and shading. To solve this intrinsic ill-posed problem, the least squares method and a subsequent optimization procedure are applied in this approach to estimate the shading component, from which the terrain gradient is recovered with a modified optimization method. Integrating the resultant gradients then yields a refined DEM at the same resolution as the input image. The proposed SfS method is evaluated using 30 m Landsat-8 OLI multispectral images and 30 m SRTM DEMs. As demonstrated in this paper, the proposed approach is able to reproduce terrain structures with a higher fidelity; and at medium to large up-scale ratios, can achieve elevation accuracy 20-30% better than the conventional interpolation methods. Further, this property is shown to be stable and independent of topographic complexity. With the ever-increasing public availability of satellite images and DEMs, the developed technique is meaningful for global or local DEM product refinement.