Science.gov

Sample records for a-201-838 seamless refined

  1. 75 FR 29990 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Correction to Notice of... Department'') published in the Federal Register the following notice: Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube... included in the Initiation Notice. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic...

  2. 78 FR 35244 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from Mexico: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper tube and pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers two... normal value. \\1\\ See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  3. 75 FR 33330 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico AGENCY: International Trade Commission... imports from China and Mexico of seamless refined copper pipe and tube, provided for in subheadings 7411... circular refined copper pipe and tubes, including redraw hollows, greater than or equal to 6 inches...

  4. 78 FR 77651 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico.\\1\\ The review covers two producers/ exporters of the subject... are invited to comment on these preliminary results. \\1\\ See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and...

  5. 77 FR 73422 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico. The... refined copper pipe and tube. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  6. 75 FR 71146 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the... seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``SRC pipe and tube'') from China and Mexico provided for in... the domestic SRC pipe and tube industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the...

  7. 75 FR 8677 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China and... investigations of Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation...

  8. 78 FR 35251 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``copper pipe and tube'') from the People's... August 7, 2012, the Department published Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's...

  9. 75 FR 60723 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Determination of... imports of seamless refined copper pipe and tube (``copper pipe and tube'') from Mexico are being, or are... preliminary determination on copper pipe and tube from Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube...

  10. 76 FR 39850 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Initiation of... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube (copper pipe and tube) from Mexico. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico and the People's Republic...

  11. 76 FR 80333 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of... review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico, covering the period November 22, 2010, to April 30, 2011. See Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From...

  12. 77 FR 59178 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Final Results of... on seamless refined copper tube and pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This review covers one producer and exporter... Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 77 FR...

  13. 77 FR 10476 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Partial... request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube... Products, LLC, Wieland Copper Products, LLC, Muller Copper Tube Products, Inc., and Mueller Copper...

  14. 78 FR 22515 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Rescission, in Part, of... antidumping duty order on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from Mexico covering the period November 1... Copper Tube Products, Inc.; and Mueller Copper Tube Company, Inc.) for the following companies: 1)...

  15. 78 FR 69820 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China... copper pipe and tube from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period November 1, 2011... refined copper pipe and tube. The product is currently classified under Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  16. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  17. Ensuring seamlessness in mobility services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotti, Timo; Tavi, Jari

    2001-10-01

    The infrastructure required for wireless and mobility services is becoming increasingly complex involving a multitude of different nodes such as smart terminals, base stations, access gateways and application servers and up to tens of millions of concurrent users. For true mobility services, the need to provide seamless access to data - independent of location or device - becomes apparent. But how do you ensure that this data and the corresponding mobile applications are distributed to those network nodes where the data is needed? Whether it's managing subscriber provisioning data of a large farm of access gateways, replicating application servers to allow for system scalability or distributing application software to smart terminals, seamlessness in mobility services requires a distributed data management functionality coupled with advanced multi-user, multi-device synchronization.

  18. Seamless Resource-Adaptive Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Tim; Stahl, Christoph; Baus, Jörg; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    Research in the project RENA (REsource-Adapative NAvigation) together with DFKI GmbH, BMW Research and Technology AG, and Eyeled GmbH has been concerned with the conceptual and methodological foundations and the design of a resource-adaptive platform for seamless outdoor and indoor navigation that can serve as a basis for product development by the companies in the RENA consortium. Future in-car assistance systems will have a user interface, which adapts to the driveŕs current exposure caused by the actual traffic situation.

  19. Seamless multiresolution isosurfaces using wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Udeshi, T.; Hudson, R.; Papka, M. E.

    2000-04-11

    Data sets that are being produced by today's simulations, such as the ones generated by DOE's ASCI program, are too large for real-time exploration and visualization. Therefore, new methods of visualizing these data sets need to be investigated. The authors present a method that combines isosurface representations of different resolutions into a seamless solution, virtually free of cracks and overlaps. The solution combines existing isosurface generation algorithms and wavelet theory to produce a real-time solution to multiple-resolution isosurfaces.

  20. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  1. A seamless ubiquitous telehealthcare tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-08-02

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.

  2. Mobile Seamless Technology Enhanced CSL Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating how mobile seamless technology can be used to enhance the pragmatic competence of learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL). 34 overseas CSL learners participated in this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the classroom group, executing language tasks in fake contexts in a traditional…

  3. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification... Qualification, Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT...

  4. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  5. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  6. 49 CFR 180.212 - Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification..., Maintenance and Use of Cylinders § 180.212 Repair of seamless DOT 3-series specification cylinders and seamless UN pressure receptacles. (a) General requirements for repair of DOT 3-series cylinders and...

  7. Developing seamless shaped woven medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K; Seyam, A M

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the cutting and sewing process is utilized to produce medical products with tailored shape, which leads to a number of adverse consequences due to seams. These drawbacks have prompted us to undertake research to develop new methods by which seamless tubular woven products with inherent shape could be produced. The methods could potentially lead to the design and production of seamless shaped textiles that might be used in a wide variety of medical applications. Three variables were tested, specifically yarn shrinkage, weave designs, and thread density. A variety of samples were woven using different combinations of these variables to create structures with different shrinkage properties. Upon finishing in a solution containing a surfactant and soda ash, the structures experience different degrees of shrinkage resulting in desired shapes. Length and width dimensions of each sample were taken before and after finishing. The change in sample shape due to differential shrinkage in terms of yarn shrinkage, weave, and thread density is reported.

  8. Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Tomohiko; Shinozawa, Seiichi; Abe, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Junki; Murakami, Hirohiko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-07-31

    We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

  9. QUENCH STUDIES AND PREHEATING ANALYSIS OF SEAMLESS

    SciTech Connect

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Eremeev, Grigory

    2013-09-01

    One of the alternative manufacturing technologies for SRF cavities is hydroforming from seamless tubes. Although this technology has produced cavities with gradient and Q-values comparable to standard EBW/EP cavities, a few questions remain. One of these questions is whether the quench mechanism in hydroformed cavities is the same as in standard electron beam welded cavities. Towards this effort Jefferson Lab performed quench studies on 2 9 cell seamless hydroformed cavities. These cavities include DESY's - Z163 and Z164 nine-cell cavities hydroformed at DESY. Initial Rf test results Z163 were published in SRF2011. In this report we will present post JLAB surface re-treatment quench studies for each cavity. The data will include OST and T-mapping quench localization as well as quench location preheating analysis comparing them to the observations in standard electron beam welded cavities.

  10. Network transcoder with seamless switching function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Naoki; Hata, Toshihiko; Nozawa, Toshiharu; Vetro, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    In a surveillance system with a huge number of cameras, the number of videos to be transmitted and displayed is usually restricted by network bandwidth and the resource of display terminal. Given that the source video is captured at high quality, a network transcoder is used to send video with lower data rate as the default for ordinary scenes, while only extraordinary or unusual scenes are sent with higher quality. With such a scenario, it is necessary to switch from a low quality version of the video to a higher quality video with low latency and in a seamless manner. This paper presents a network transcoder that is able to change the content and the quality of videos seamlessly and with low latency. The novelty of the proposed scheme is possible to change the quality and camera in the same session. Moreover, this paper describes an RTSP enhancement that enables this dynamic transcoding function. Finally, an evaluation of the results is provided.

  11. Seamless wireless networking for video surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, D.; Chiew, T.-K.; Ferre, P.; Bull, David R.; Nix, A. R.; Doufexi, A.; Chung-How, J.; Nicholson, Didier

    2005-03-01

    The EU FP6 WCAM (Wireless Cameras and Audio-Visual Seamless Networking) project aims to study, develop and validate a wireless, seamless and secured end-to-end networked audio-visual system for video surveillance and multimedia distribution applications. This paper describes the video transmission aspects of the project, with contributions in the areas of H.264 video delivery over wireless LANs. The planned demonstrations under WCAM include the transmission of H.264 coded material over 802.11b/g networks with TCP/IP and UDP/IP being employed as the transport and network layers over unicast and multicast links. UDP based unicast and multicast transmissions pose the problem of packet erasures while TCP based transmission is associated with long delays and the need for a large jitter buffer. This paper presents measurement data that have been collected at the WCAM trial site along with analysis of the data, including characterisation of the channel conditions as well as recommendations on the optimal operating parameters for each of the above transmission scenarios (e.g. jitter buffer sizes, packet error rates, etc.). Recommendations for error resilient coding algorithms and packetisation strategies are made in order to moderate the effect of the observed packet erasures on the quality of the transmitted video. Advanced error concealment methods for masking the effects of packet erasures at the receiver/decoder are also described.

  12. Performance of 3-cell Seamless Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter K.; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Jelezov, I.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.

    2009-11-01

    In the last several months we have surface treated and cryogenically tested three TESLA-type 3-cell cavities, which had been manufactured at DESY as seamless assemblies by hydroforming. The cavities were completed at JLab with beam tube/flange assemblies. All three cavities performed very well after they had been post-purified with titanium at 1250C for 3 hrs. The cavities, two of which consisted of an end cell and 2 center cells and one was a center cell assembly, achieved gradients of Eacc = 32 MV/m, 34 MV/m and 35 MV/m without quenches. The performance was limited by the appearance of the “Q-drop” in the absence of field emission. This contribution reports about the various measurements undertaken with these cavities.

  13. Seamless presentation capture, indexing, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, David M.; Cooper, Matthew; Denoue, Laurent; Adcock, John; Billsus, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Technology abounds for capturing presentations. However, no simple solution exists that is completely automatic. ProjectorBox is a "zero user interaction" appliance that automatically captures, indexes, and manages presentation multimedia. It operates continuously to record the RGB information sent from presentation devices, such as a presenter's laptop, to display devices, such as a projector. It seamlessly captures high-resolution slide images, text and audio. It requires no operator, specialized software, or changes to current presentation practice. Automatic media analysis is used to detect presentation content and segment presentations. The analysis substantially enhances the web-based user interface for browsing, searching, and exporting captured presentations. ProjectorBox has been in use for over a year in our corporate conference room, and has been deployed in two universities. Our goal is to develop automatic capture services that address both corporate and educational needs.

  14. Seamless view synthesis through texture optimization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenxiu; Au, Oscar C; Xu, Lingfeng; Li, Yujun; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel view synthesis method named Visto, which uses a reference input view to generate synthesized views in nearby viewpoints. We formulate the problem as a joint optimization of inter-view texture and depth map similarity, a framework that is significantly different from other traditional approaches. As such, Visto tends to implicitly inherit the image characteristics from the reference view without the explicit use of image priors or texture modeling. Visto assumes that each patch is available in both the synthesized and reference views and thus can be applied to the common area between the two views but not the out-of-region area at the border of the synthesized view. Visto uses a Gauss–Seidel-like iterative approach to minimize the energy function. Simulation results suggest that Visto can generate seamless virtual views and outperform other state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Seamless elastic boundaries for atomistic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastewka, Lars; Sharp, Tristan A.; Robbins, Mark O.

    2012-08-01

    Modeling interfacial phenomena often requires both a detailed atomistic description of surface interactions and accurate calculations of long-range deformations in the substrate. The latter can be efficiently obtained using an elastic Green's function if substrate deformations are small. We present a general formulation for rapidly computing the Green's function for a planar surface given the interatomic interactions, and then coupling the Green's function to explicit atoms. The approach is fast, avoids ghost forces, and is not limited to nearest-neighbor interactions. The full system comprising explicit interfacial atoms and an elastic substrate is described by a single Hamiltonian and interactions in the substrate are treated exactly up to harmonic order. This concurrent multiscale coupling provides simple, seamless elastic boundary conditions for atomistic simulations where near-surface deformations occur, such as nanoindentation, contact, friction, or fracture. Applications to surface relaxation and contact are used to test and illustrate the approach.

  16. Time to make the doughnuts: Building and shaping seamless tubes.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Meera V; Cohen, Jennifer D

    2016-05-10

    A seamless tube is a very narrow-bore tube that is composed of a single cell with an intracellular lumen and no adherens or tight junctions along its length. Many capillaries in the vertebrate vascular system are seamless tubes. Seamless tubes also are found in invertebrate organs, including the Drosophila trachea and the Caenorhabditis elegans excretory system. Seamless tube cells can be less than a micron in diameter, and they can adopt very simple "doughnut-like" shapes or very complex, branched shapes comparable to those of neurons. The unusual topology and varied shapes of seamless tubes raise many basic cell biological questions about how cells form and maintain such structures. The prevalence of seamless tubes in the vascular system means that answering such questions has significant relevance to human health. In this review, we describe selected examples of seamless tubes in animals and discuss current models for how seamless tubes develop and are shaped, focusing particularly on insights that have come from recent studies in Drosophila and C. elegans.

  17. Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ye, Fei; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a recently proposed, highly flexible vertical grid system (Zhang et al., A new vertical coordinate system for a 3D unstructured-grid model. Ocean Model. 85, 2015), leads to model polymorphism that unifies 1D/2DH/2DV/3D cells in a single model grid. Results from several test cases demonstrate the model's good performance in the eddying regime, which presents greater challenges for unstructured-grid models and represents the last missing link for our cross-scale model. The model can thus be used to simulate cross-scale processes in a seamless fashion (i.e. from deep ocean into shallow depths).

  18. 75 FR 26716 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... or ridges), manufacturing process (e.g., hot finished, cold-drawn, annealed), outer surface (e.g... Administrative Review, 62 FR 53808, 53810 (October 16, 1997). \\18\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the...), unchanged in Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

  19. Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking north. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  1. Seamless Handovers in Cobra Teardrop Satellite Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draim, John E.; Cefola, Paul J.; Ernandes, Kenneth J.

    2007-06-01

    Satellite systems provide the most efficient and possibly the only means of achieving two-way global communications with mobile systems (ships, aircraft, and vehicular traffic). To date, such systems have used only circular orbits, either GEO or LEO. Medium altitude elliptical constellations, on the other hand, can provide an efficient and affordable alternative to these architectures. Users also benefit from their very high average and minimum elevation angles, resulting in minimum signal attenuation. Cobra Teardrop is unique in that it employs time synchronized 8-h left- and right-leaning elliptical orbits giving mid-latitude observers the illusion of viewing a single satellite continuously orbiting almost directly overhead! In reality, observers see six different satellites per day, for 4 h each (while in their active duty cycles). By design, Teardrop satellites are physically in very close proximity at the handover points. This favorable geometry can be utilized to achieve a seamless handover from one satellite to the other (not requiring any electronic buffering). Handover is accomplished at the precise instant that the total path lengths from the transmitting station through both satellites to the receiving station are exactly equal. In these improved Cobra Teardrop arrays, an order of magnitude increase in global communications capacity (equivalent GEO slots) can be realized over earlier Basic Cobra systems. For decades into the future, these new orbital systems could satisfy a widely expanding range of commercial, government, and military high data rate communication requirements. These would include, but not be limited to, satellite cellular, air traffic control, meteorological, and combat net radio systems. With these arrays, a much larger number of system operators could be supported, without mutual electronic interference, than would ever be possible with circular orbits.

  2. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  3. Method for seamless unlock function for mobile applications.

    PubMed

    Vasyltsov, Ihor; Bak, Changgyu; Vasyltsov, Ihor; Changgyu Bak; Bak, Changgyu; Vasyltsov, Ihor

    2016-08-01

    In this paper there is proposed an approach for seamless unlock security function for mobile application. The method combines the biomedical signals measured from human body and motion signals acquired from the devices. For this purpose a wearable device and a mobile device can be securely synchronized. It is shown that entropy extracted from biomedical ECG signal is comparable to the strength of the PIN-code security, the same time giving the easiness, flexibility, and seamlessness of the usage to the user. Also, it is shown that motion sensors can provide enough precision for the correct detection of the appropriate timing to unlock device.

  4. 75 FR 69050 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... duty order on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless... seamless pipe from the PRC. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  5. Seamless measurement technology of transient signals based on approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Lianping; Huang, Wuhuang

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of waveforms and the analysis of transient characteristics of signals are the fundamental tasks for time-domain measurement, while the reduction of the measuring gap till seamless measurement is extremely important to the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of transient signals. This paper, aimed at the seamless time-domain measurement of non-stationary transient signals, proposes an approximate entropy-based characteristic signal extraction algorithm on the basis of information entropy theories. The algorithm quantitatively describes the complexity (amount of information) of sampled signals using the approximate entropy value, self-adaptively captures characteristic signals under the control of the approximate entropy in real time, extracts the critical or useful information, and removes redundant or useless information so as to reduce the time consumption of processing data and displaying waveforms and realize the seamless time-domain measurement of transient signals finally. Experimental results show that the study could provide a new method for the design of electronic measuring instrument with seamless measurement capability.

  6. Taylorwilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taylor-wilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 12 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rotary roller mandrel of no. 2 seamless line in bays 19 and 20 of the main pipe mill building looking south. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies: An Opportunity for Seamless Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Bovio, Becka

    2014-01-01

    In working to develop undergraduate student leadership capacity, Florida State University created the Undergraduate Certificate in Leadership Studies. This program, grounded in leadership theory and framed by a seamless learning model, has been influential in development of student leadership perceptions and capacity. This article addresses the…

  9. "Seamlessly" Learning Chinese: Contextual Meaning Making and Vocabulary Growth in a Seamless Chinese as a Second Language Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.; Chai, Ching Sing; Liu, May

    2016-01-01

    Second language learners are typically hampered by the lack of a natural environment to use the target language for authentic communication purpose (as a means for "learning by applying"). Thus, we propose MyCLOUD, a mobile-assisted seamless language learning approach that aims to nurture a second language social network that bridges…

  10. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  11. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  12. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  13. 76 FR 18251 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan Andromania AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania... antidumping duty orders on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and...

  14. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  15. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  17. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  18. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  19. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  20. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  1. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  2. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  3. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  4. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  5. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  6. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. 178.38... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal)...

  7. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  8. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  9. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  10. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  11. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  12. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  13. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  14. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  15. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  16. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  17. 49 CFR 178.44 - Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel...

  18. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. 178.45... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity...

  19. 49 CFR 178.42 - Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. 178.42... PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter...

  20. 49 CFR 178.37 - Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  1. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  2. Conformally encapsulated multi-electrode arrays with seamless insulation

    DOEpatents

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Shah, Kedar G.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Pannu, Satinderall S.; Tooker, Angela; Delima, Terri; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah

    2016-11-22

    Thin-film multi-electrode arrays (MEA) having one or more electrically conductive beams conformally encapsulated in a seamless block of electrically insulating material, and methods of fabricating such MEAs using reproducible, microfabrication processes. One or more electrically conductive traces are formed on scaffold material that is subsequently removed to suspend the traces over a substrate by support portions of the trace beam in contact with the substrate. By encapsulating the suspended traces, either individually or together, with a single continuous layer of an electrically insulating material, a seamless block of electrically insulating material is formed that conforms to the shape of the trace beam structure, including any trace backings which provide suspension support. Electrical contacts, electrodes, or leads of the traces are exposed from the encapsulated trace beam structure by removing the substrate.

  3. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  4. A seamless ubiquitous emergency medical service for crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bor-Shing

    2016-04-01

    In crisis situations, a seamless ubiquitous communication is necessary to provide emergency medical service to save people's lives. An excellent prehospital emergency medicine provides immediate medical care to increase the survival rate of patients. On their way to the hospital, ambulance personnel must transmit real-time and uninterrupted patient information to the hospital to apprise the physician of the situation and provide options to the ambulance personnel. In emergency and crisis situations, many communication channels can be unserviceable because of damage to equipment or loss of power. Thus, data transmission over wireless communication to achieve uninterrupted network services is a major obstacle. This study proposes a mobile middleware for cognitive radio (CR) for improving the wireless communication link. CRs can sense their operating environment and optimize the spectrum usage so that the mobile middleware can integrate the existing wireless communication systems with a seamless communication service in heterogeneous network environments. Eventually, the proposed seamless mobile communication middleware was ported into an embedded system, which is compatible with the actual network environment without the need for changing the original system architecture.

  5. Private Graphs - Access Rights on Graphs for Seamless Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Hau, F.; Pagany, R.

    2016-06-01

    After the success of GNSS (Global Navigational Satellite Systems) and navigation services for public streets, indoor seems to be the next big development in navigational services, relying on RTLS - Real Time Locating Services (e.g. WIFI) and allowing seamless navigation. In contrast to navigation and routing services on public streets, seamless navigation will cause an additional challenge: how to make routing data accessible to defined users or restrict access rights for defined areas or only to parts of the graph to a defined user group? The paper will present case studies and data from literature, where seamless and especially indoor navigation solutions are presented (hospitals, industrial complexes, building sites), but the problem of restricted access rights was only touched from a real world, but not a technical perspective. The analysis of case studies will show, that the objective of navigation and the different target groups for navigation solutions will demand well defined access rights and require solutions, how to make only parts of a graph to a user or application available to solve a navigational task. The paper will therefore introduce the concept of private graphs, which is defined as a graph for navigational purposes covering the street, road or floor network of an area behind a public street and suggest different approaches how to make graph data for navigational purposes available considering access rights and data protection, privacy and security issues as well.

  6. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  7. Refiners get petchems help

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

    1997-06-11

    The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. US refiners bounce back

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-28

    The U.S. refining sector has been whipped into high-speed decisions since the invasion of Kuwait last Summer, and its flexibility has been severely tested -- especially in the area of pricing. This issue shows facets of the roller-coaster ride such as crude oil costs, product values, and resulting margins. This issue also contains the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the U.S. Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Feb. 22, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Feb. 1991 edition. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Convection in grain refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fluid flow phenomena, nucleation, and grain refinement in solidifying metals both in the presence and in the absence of a gravitational field was investigated. The reduction of grain size in hard-to-process melts; the effects of undercooling on structure in solidification processes, including rapid solidification processing; and control of this undercooling to improve structures of solidified melts are considered. Grain refining and supercooling thermal modeling of the solidification process, and heat and fluid flow phenomena in the levitated metal droplets are described.

  10. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  11. A New Seamless Transfer Control Strategy of the Microgrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described. PMID:24967431

  12. A new seamless transfer control strategy of the microgrid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A microgrid may operate under two typical modes; the seamless transfer control of the microgrid is very important. The mode conversion controller is installed in microgrid and the control logic of master power is optimized for microgrid mode conversion. In the proposed scheme, master power is very important. The master-power is under the PQ control when microgrid is under grid-connected. And it is under V/F control when the microgrid is under islanding. The microgrid mode controller is used to solve the planned conversion. Three types of conversion are simulated in this paper. The simulation results show the correctness and validity of the mode control scheme. Finally, the implementation and application of the operation and control device are described.

  13. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  14. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme. PMID:24977171

  15. Developing a Seamless Science Education Program (K-Graduate School)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Truell; Smith, Bernard; Matthews, Lorin; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge

    The production of STEM personnel has declined precipitously over the past several decades. This is threatening not only the international economy but also the world's access to space. It is imperative that scientists within the current space physics community develop programs at the K-12 level able to spark an interest in science while providing an understanding that a career in science can be rewarding both professionally and financially. Ideally such programs should mesh seamlessly with current university undergraduate and graduate programs, easing the student's transition from one to the other. This goal is the primary driver behind CASPER's current outreach program. CASPER programs supporting this paradigm will be discussed along with related funding opportunities such as the Department of Education GearUp Program and the NSF REU and RET programs.

  16. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government architecture typically employs classic forms of vaults, domes and other focusing or reflective shapes, usually created with hard materials like concrete and plaster. The use of conventional porous absorption is typically rejected as an acoustical surface material for aesthetic reasons. Hence, many of these new and existing facilities have compromised speech intelligibility and music quality. Acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. Because of these unique characteristics the new seamless, absorptive, finishing system is being specified for many new and renovated spaces. Application examples will be presented.

  17. Method and apparatus for providing a seamless tiled display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael J. (Inventor); Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A display for producing a seamless composite image from at least two discrete images. The display includes one or more projectors for projecting each of the discrete images separately onto a screen such that at least one of the discrete images overlaps at least one other of the discrete images by more than 25 percent. The amount of overlap that is required to reduce the seams of the composite image to an acceptable level over a predetermined viewing angle depends on a number of factors including the field-of-view and aperture size of the projectors, the screen gain profile, etc. For rear-projection screens and some front projection screens, an overlap of more than 25 percent is acceptable.

  18. Toward seamless weather-climate and environmental prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Gilbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade or so, predicting the weather, climate and atmospheric composition has emerged as one of the most important areas of scientific endeavor. This is partly because the remarkable increase in skill of current weather forecasts has made society more and more dependent on them day to day for a whole range of decision making. And it is partly because climate change is now widely accepted and the realization is growing rapidly that it will affect every person in the world profoundly, either directly or indirectly. One of the important endeavors of our societies is to remain at the cutting-edge of modelling and predicting the evolution of the fully coupled environmental system: atmosphere (weather and composition), oceans, land surface (physical and biological), and cryosphere. This effort will provide an increasingly accurate and reliable service across all the socio-economic sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of adverse weather and climatic conditions, whether now or in the future. This emerging challenge was at the center of the World Weather Open Science Conference (Montreal, 2014).The outcomes of the conference are described in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, (G. Brunet, S. Jones, P. Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, 2015). It is freely available on line at the WMO website. We will discuss some of the outcomes of the conference for the WMO World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) and Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) long term goals and provide examples of seamless modelling and prediction across a range of timescales at convective and sub-kilometer scales for regional coupled forecasting applications at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).

  19. A seamless-pitched graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Nasiri, Saeed; Kazem Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad; Faez, Rahim

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (GNRFET) consisting of pitched semiconducting GNRs as the channels that are connected to the metallic graphene source/drain in a seamless fashion. We obtained the diagrams for frequency bandwidths, step time responses, and Nyquist stability for the seamless pitched GNRFET (SP-GNRFET) with a channel having 100 pitched GNRs at 10 nm pitch in the common source configuration with various dimensions of the GNRs. The aforementioned diagrams were also obtained for the pitched carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) with a channel having 100 pitched CNTs at 10 nm pitch in the common source configuration with various dimensions of the CNTs. In order to compare the SP-GNRFET and the pitched CNTFET, physical parameters of the GNRs/CNTs were assumed to be the same in both devices. The results show that when the dimensions of GNRs in the SP-GNRFET increase, the frequency bandwidth decreases, but relaxation time and Nyquist stability increase. Moreover, with an increase in the dimensions of CNTs, similar behavior is observed for the pitched CNTFET. The results also show that the frequency bandwidth of SP-GNRFET is in the range of 10 THz and is more than that of the pitched CNTFET by two orders of magnitude. This is achieved by eliminating the Schottky barrier between the channels and source/drain contacts in the SP-GNRFET. Nevertheless, step time responses for the SP-GNRFET show multi-harmonic oscillations like those for the pitched CNTFET. This shows the importance of stability analysis as a challenge to the SP-GNRFET. Nyquist diagrams predict lower stability for SP-GNRFETs than for pitched CNTFETs. This is because elimination of the Schottky barrier results in a reduction in the overall impedance of the SP-GNRFET, which in turn leads to the frequency of the fluctuations in the SP-GNRFET being more than that in the pitched CNTFET.

  20. REFINING FLUORINATED COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Linch, A.L.

    1963-01-01

    This invention relates to the method of refining a liquid perfluorinated hydrocarbon oil containing fluorocarbons from 12 to 28 carbon atoms per molecule by distilling between 150 deg C and 300 deg C at 10 mm Hg absolute pressure. The perfluorinated oil is washed with a chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon, which mairtains a separate liquid phase when mixed with the oil. Impurities detrimental to the stability of the oil are extracted by the chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon. (AEC)

  1. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  2. Refinement of the ICRF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2004-01-01

    Since the ICRF was generated in 1995, VLBI modeling and estimation, data quality: source position stability analysis, and supporting observational programs have improved markedly. There are developing and potential applications in the areas of space navigation Earth orientation monitoring and optical astrometry from space that would benefit from a refined ICRF with enhanced accuracy, stability and spatial distribution. The convergence of analysis, focused observations, and astrometric needs should drive the production of a new realization in the next few years.

  3. Refining retinoids with heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Benbrook, D M

    2002-06-01

    Retinoids are a group of synthetic compounds designed to refine the numerous biological activities of retinoic acid into pharmaceuticals for several diseases, including cancer. Designs that conformationally-restricted the rotation of the structures resulted in arotinoids that were biologically active, but with increased toxicity. Incorporation of a heteroatom in one cyclic ring of the arotinoid structures drastically reduced the toxicity, while retaining biological activity. Clinical trials of a heteroarotinoid, Tazarotene, confirmed the improved chemotherapeutic ratio (efficacy/toxicity).

  4. Seamless Learning Environments in Higher Education with Mobile Devices and Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Jääskelä, Päivikki; Häkkinen, Päivi; Juntunen, Merja; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    The use of seamless learning environments that have the potential to support lifelong learning anytime and anywhere has become a reality. In this sense, many educational institutions have started to consider introducing seamless learning environments into their programs. The aim of this study is to analyze how various educational university…

  5. Web-Based Seamless Migration for Task-Oriented Mobile Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Degan; Li, Yuan-chao; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Xinshang; Zeng, Guangping

    2006-01-01

    As a new kind of computing paradigm, pervasive computing will meet the requirements of human being that anybody maybe obtain services in anywhere and at anytime, task-oriented seamless migration is one of its applications. Apparently, the function of seamless mobility is suitable for mobile services, such as mobile Web-based learning. In this…

  6. 75 FR 69125 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China Determination... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless SLP pipe''), provided for in subheadings 7304..., and Pressure Pipe from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-469 and 731-TA-1168 (Final). \\4\\ On...

  7. 77 FR 54926 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel; Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or... 2012), entitled Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from...

  8. 75 FR 26273 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From China AGENCY...-fair-value imports from China of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure... than stainless steel) standard, line, and pressure pipes produced to the ASTM A-53, ASTM A-106, ASTM...

  9. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations... standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or... the determination regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and...

  10. 77 FR 19711 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany... pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from Germany would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of..., ] and pressure pipe and tube not more than 4.5 inches in outside diameter, and including redraw...

  11. 77 FR 47030 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... grooves or ridges), manufacturing process (e.g., hot finished, cold-drawn, annealed), outer surface (e.g... Department to base NV, in most cases, on the NME producer's factors of production (``FOP'') valued in a... possible, the prices or costs of factors of production in one or more market economy countries that...

  12. 75 FR 71070 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...) of the Act states that ``{i{time} f the {ITC{time} , in its final determination under section 735(b...-1175 (Final), USITC Publication 4193, November 2010; section 735(b)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act. Scope of the..., 2010, ministerial error memorandum.\\5\\ \\5\\ See Memorandum from Melissa G. Skinner, Director,...

  13. 77 FR 25136 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... statutory and regulatory requirements for initiation in accordance with section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Tariff... Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. v. United States, 366 F. Supp. 2d 1246, 1249 (CIT 2005). Because the information is... in the ordinary course of trade. In accordance with sections 771(16)(B) and (C) of the Act,...

  14. 75 FR 26726 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From Mexico: Notice of Preliminary Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... section 773(a)(7)(B) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.412(f). We calculated the CEP offset as the lesser of the... section 733(b)(1)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). The estimated margins of sales... questionnaire on December 24, 2009, and sections B (i.e., the section covering comparison market sales), C...

  15. 75 FR 60725 - Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... reported water consumption to reflect the water consumption calculated in Golden Dragon's cost... 2. 2. The Department revised the weighted-average per-unit FOP for water to include the FOP for water reported on a cubic meter per kilogram basis.\\27\\ \\27\\ See Issues and Decision Memorandum...

  16. Whacked and Rab35 polarize dynein motor complex-dependent seamless tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Ghabrial, Amin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seamless tubes form intracellularly without cell-cell or autocellular junctions. Such tubes have been described across phyla, but remain mysterious despite their simple architecture. In Drosophila, seamless tubes are found within tracheal terminal cells, which have dozens of branched protrusions extending hundreds of microns. We find that mutations in multiple components of the dynein motor complex block seamless tube growth, raising the possibility that the lumenal membrane forms through minus-end directed transport of apical membrane components along microtubules. Growth of seamless tube is polarized along the proximodistal axis by Rab35 and its apical membrane-localized GAP, Whacked. Strikingly, loss of whacked (or constitutive activation of Rab35) leads to tube overgrowth at terminal cell branch tips, while over-expression of whacked (or dominant negative Rab35) causes formation of ectopic tubes surrounding the terminal cell nucleus. Thus, vesicle trafficking plays key roles in making and shaping seamless tubes. PMID:22407366

  17. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  18. Opening Doors to the Seismic Data Community: IRIS Developments for Seamless Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Laughbon, C.; Muench, J.; Schoch, S.

    2006-05-01

    For the past five years, IRIS has enabled programmatic access to seismological databases worldwide through a data service technology called the Data Handling Interface (DHI). Basing the DHI on industry-standard CORBA technology has allowed a number of client programs to be developed in Java, Matlab and C/C++ which can access data from 6 regional and 2 global-area seismic data centers. More recently, the commonly used program SAC (Seismic Analysis Code) has been updated to interface with DHI, bringing seamless data access and powerful analysis tools together. In addition, noting the maturation of web services into an accepted data service technology, IRIS has developed a prototype web service version of the DHI using the SOAP protocol. As work continues in refining and expanding the utility of DHI, IRIS is also developing a searchable data product repository to allow registered data producers from locations across the globe to make their products available to the community. Here, scientists will be able to discover a myriad of data sources through a single web-service-oriented interface, searching via both common geographic and time-oriented attributes as well as product-specific metadata attributes. A facility for packaging and downloading these products is also being provided. As we move forward towards fully developing a service-oriented architecture (SOA) for IRIS data sources and facilities, we are creating software to allow data discovery and workflow computing to be at anyone's fingertips. Web service and portlet technologies allow easy incorporation of IRIS tools and data into research programs, educational websites and government planning. Data conversion and presentation are also concepts that are being explored in this growing field of cyberinfrastructure development.

  19. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  20. 77 FR 13079 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan during the period... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and...

  1. 77 FR 67336 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania. See Certain...

  2. 75 FR 18153 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1, 2008... the record. See Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe...

  3. 76 FR 66688 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4 \\1/2\\ inches) from Japan. The review covers four... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan for...

  4. 75 FR 38781 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan: Rescission of... diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan. The review covers four... order on carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/ 2\\ inches) from...

  5. 78 FR 25253 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure From the People... seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe ] (``seamless pipe'') from the...

  6. 76 FR 62762 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``large diameter pipe'') from Japan and certain...

  7. 78 FR 64475 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from... duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe...

  8. 78 FR 63164 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe... small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe from Romania.\\1\\ We...

  9. 75 FR 29972 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... antidumping duty investigation of certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe... in this proceeding. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure...

  10. 76 FR 47555 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Japan; Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (``large diameter pipe'') from Japan...

  11. 75 FR 57444 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe... alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China... determination. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the...

  12. What Seams Do We Remove in Mobile-Assisted Seamless Learning? A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    Seamless learning refers to the seamless integration of the learning experiences across various dimensions including formal and informal learning contexts, individual and social learning, and physical world and cyberspace. Inspired by the exposition by Chan et al. (2006) on the seamless learning model supported by the setting of one or more mobile…

  13. The OASE project: Object-based Analysis and Seamless prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troemel, Silke; Wapler, Kathrin; Bick, Theresa; Diederich, Malte; Deneke, Hartwig; Horvath, Akos; Senf, Fabian; Simmer, Clemens; Simon, Juergen

    2013-04-01

    The research group on Object-based Analysis and SEamless prediction (OASE) is part of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research (HErZ). The group consists of scientists at the Meteorological Institute, University of Bonn, the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig and the German Weather Service. OASE addresses seamless prediction of convective events from nowcasting to daily predictions by combining radar/satellite compositing and tracking with high-resolution model-based ensemble generation and prediction. While observation-based nowcasting provides good results for lead times between 0-1 hours, numerical weather prediction addresses lead times between 3-21 hours. Especially the discontinuity between 1-3 hours needs to be addressed. Therefore a central goal of the project is a near real-time high-resolved unprecedented data base. A radar and satellite remote sensing-driven 3D observation-microphysics composite covering Germany, currently under development, contains gridded observations and estimated microphysical quantities. Observations and microphysics are intertwined via forward operators and estimated inverse relations, which also provide uncertainties for model ensemble initialisations. The lifetime evolution of dynamics and microphysics in (severe) convective storms is analysed based on 3D scale-space tracking. An object-based analysis condenses the information contained in the dynamic 3D distributions of observables and related microphysics into descriptors, which will allow identifying governing processes leading to the formation and evolution of severe weather events. The object-based approach efficiently characterises and quantifies the process structure and life cycles of severe weather events, and facilitates nowcasting and the generation and initialisation of model prediction ensembles. Observation-based nowcasting will exploit the dual-composite based 3D feature detection and tracking to generate a set of predictions (observation

  14. Seamless particle-based modeling of blood clotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new multiscale framework that seamlessly integrate four key components of blood clotting namely, blood rheology, cell mechanics, coagulation kinetics and transport of species and platelet adhesive dynamics. We use transport dissipative particle dynamics (tDPD) which is an extended form of original DPD as the base solver to model both blood flow and the reactive transport of chemical species in the coagulation cascade. Further, we use a coarse-grained representation of blood cell's membrane that accounts for its mechanics; both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution, and stochastic bond formation/dissociation are included to account for platelet adhesive dynamics at the site of injury. Our results show good qualitative agreement with in vivo experiments. The numerical framework allows us to perform systematic analysis on different mechanisms of blood clotting. In addition, this new multiscale particle-based methodology can open new directions in addressing different biological processes from sub-cellular to macroscopic scales. NIH Grant No. U01HL116323.

  15. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  16. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  17. B Cell-Based Seamless Engineering of Antibody Fc Domains

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Akiho; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody’s Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the ‘ADLib system’). To upgrade this ADLib system with the ability to generate customized mAbs, we developed a novel and rapid engineering technology that enables seamless exchanges of mAbs’ Fc domains after initial selections of mAb-producing clones by the ADLib system, using a gene-replacement unit for recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). In this system, Cre-recombinase recognition sites were inserted into the Fc region of the active DT40 IgM allele, allowing the replacement of the Fc domain by the sequences of interest upon co-transfection of a Cre recombinase and a donor DNA, enabling the rapid exchange of Fc regions. Combining this method with the ADLib system, we demonstrate rapid Fc engineering to generate fluorescent antibodies and to enhance affinity to Fc receptors. PMID:27907066

  18. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  19. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  20. Hatch: Moving towards seamless database protocols for ecological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremier, A. K.; Blair, C.; Smith, S.; Weigel, D.; Newsom, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Data collection and ecological processes do not occur at similar scales. Monitoring our environment, therefore, requires research approaches that integrate data across spatial and temporal scales. Despite the enormous amount of data being collected annually, many government agencies are only now beginning to build coordinated data management systems. With efficient data flows and coded analysis tools, researchers will be better prepared to quickly answer key ecological questions across datasets. In this project, we designed an online platform for seamless data management, called Hatch. Our aim is to improve database protocols and data access to allow timely analysis of existing data, across time and space. Hatch is being developed for ecological monitoring of stream ecosystems in the Methow River basin in Washington State; however, the platform is general enough for managing multiple forms of database types. Hatch currently applies both a schema and schema-less database structure to link data collection events. It applies data standards developed and accepted across the Columbia River Basin. Initial data capture is driven by data needs for a mechanism-based model of ecosystem processes (namely periphyton production). Input data files, both past and current flows, are validated and stored along with metadata. Data search tools are being designed in accordance with data sharing agreements with appropriate security. The goal of Hatch is to defragment the analysis workspace by integrating data capture, search and analysis. Hatch helps researchers capture, search and analyze data in an online, flexible platform while conforming to project a specific schema. With less fragmented database protocols, scientists will be better prepared to efficiently answer scientific questions at relevant ecological scales.

  1. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  2. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  3. Method and apparatus for an optical function generator for seamless tiled displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael (Inventor); Chen, Chung-Jen (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Producing seamless tiled images from multiple displays includes measuring a luminance profile of each of the displays, computing a desired luminance profile for each of the displays, and determining a spatial gradient profile of each of the displays based on the measured luminance profile and the computed desired luminance profile. The determined spatial gradient profile is applied to a spatial filter to be inserted into each of the displays to produce the seamless tiled display image.

  4. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  5. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M.

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  6. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  7. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  8. Seamless Provenance Representation and Use in Collaborative Science Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missier, P.; Ludaescher, B.; Bowers, S.; Altintas, I.; Anand, M. K.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, A.; Shrestha, B.; Goble, C.

    2010-12-01

    The notion of sharing scientific data has only recently begun to gain ground in science, where data is still considered a private asset. There is growing evidence, however, that the benefits of scientific collaboration through early data sharing during the course of a science project may outgrow the risk of losing exclusive ownership of the data. As exemplar success stories are making the headlines[1], principles of effective information sharing have become the subject of e-science research. In particular, any piece of published data should be self-describing, to the extent necessary for consumers to determine its suitability for reuse in their own projects. This is accomplished by associating a body of formally specified and machine-processable metadata to the data. When data is produced and reused by independent groups, however, metadata interoperability issues emerge. This is the case for provenance, a form of metadata that describes the history of a data product, Y. Provenance is typically expressed as a graph-structured set of dependencies that account for the sequence of computational or interactive steps that led to Y, often starting from some primary, observational data. Traversing dependency graphs is one of the mechanisms used to answer questions on data reliability. In the context of the NSF DataONE project[2], we have been studying issues of provenance interoperability in scientific collaboration scenarios. Consider a first scientist, Alice, who publishes a data product X along with its provenance, and a second scientist who further transforms X into a new product Y, also along with its provenance. A third scientist, who is interested in Y, expects to be able to trace Y's history up to the inputs used by Alice. This is only possible, however, if provenance accumulates into a single, uniform graph that can be seamlessly traversed. This becomes problematic when provenance is captured using different tools and computational models (i.e. workflow systems

  9. Monitoring, Controlling, Refining Communication Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiess, John

    1975-01-01

    Because internal communications are essential to school system success, monitoring, controlling, and refining communicative processes have become essential activities for the chief school administrator. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author/IRT)

  10. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL.

    PubMed

    Sheldrick, George M

    2015-01-01

    The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as `a CIF') containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  11. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David

    1999-05-04

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems.

  12. Refining the shifted topological vertex

    SciTech Connect

    Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H.

    2009-01-15

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

  13. An Open Platform for Seamless Sensor Support in Healthcare for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Fischer Pedersen, Christian; Ravelo, Blaise; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2016-12-08

    Population aging and increasing pressure on health systems are two issues that demand solutions. Involving and empowering citizens as active managers of their health represents a desirable shift from the current culture mainly focused on treatment of disease, to one also focused on continuous health management and well-being. Current developments in technological areas such as the Internet of Things (IoT), lead to new technological solutions that can aid this shift in the healthcare sector. This study presents the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a platform called Common Recognition and Identification Platform (CRIP), a part of the CareStore project, which aims at supporting caregivers and citizens to manage health routines in a seamless way. Specifically, the CRIP offers sensor-based support for seamless identification of users and health devices. A set of initial requirements was defined with a focus on usability limitations and current sensor technologies. The CRIP was designed and implemented using several technologies that enable seamless integration and interaction of sensors and people, namely Near Field Communication and fingerprint biometrics for identification and authentication, Bluetooth for communication with health devices and web services for wider integration with other platforms. Two CRIP prototypes were implemented and evaluated in laboratory during a period of eight months. The evaluations consisted of identifying users and devices, as well as seamlessly configure and acquire vital data from the last. Also, the entire Carestore platform was deployed in a nursing home where its usability was evaluated with caregivers. The evaluations helped assess that seamless identification of users and seamless configuration and communication with health devices is feasible and can help enable the IoT on healthcare applications. Therefore, the CRIP and similar platforms could be transformed into a valuable enabling technology for secure and

  14. An Open Platform for Seamless Sensor Support in Healthcare for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Jorge; Cabral, Jorge; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Fischer Pedersen, Christian; Ravelo, Blaise; Memon, Mukhtiar; Mathiesen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Population aging and increasing pressure on health systems are two issues that demand solutions. Involving and empowering citizens as active managers of their health represents a desirable shift from the current culture mainly focused on treatment of disease, to one also focused on continuous health management and well-being. Current developments in technological areas such as the Internet of Things (IoT), lead to new technological solutions that can aid this shift in the healthcare sector. This study presents the design, development, implementation and evaluation of a platform called Common Recognition and Identification Platform (CRIP), a part of the CareStore project, which aims at supporting caregivers and citizens to manage health routines in a seamless way. Specifically, the CRIP offers sensor-based support for seamless identification of users and health devices. A set of initial requirements was defined with a focus on usability limitations and current sensor technologies. The CRIP was designed and implemented using several technologies that enable seamless integration and interaction of sensors and people, namely Near Field Communication and fingerprint biometrics for identification and authentication, Bluetooth for communication with health devices and web services for wider integration with other platforms. Two CRIP prototypes were implemented and evaluated in laboratory during a period of eight months. The evaluations consisted of identifying users and devices, as well as seamlessly configure and acquire vital data from the last. Also, the entire Carestore platform was deployed in a nursing home where its usability was evaluated with caregivers. The evaluations helped assess that seamless identification of users and seamless configuration and communication with health devices is feasible and can help enable the IoT on healthcare applications. Therefore, the CRIP and similar platforms could be transformed into a valuable enabling technology for secure and

  15. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect

    Okihira, K.; Hara, H.; Ikeda, N.; Inoue, F.; Sennyu, K.; Geng, Rongli; Rimmer, Robert A.; Kako, E.

    2014-12-01

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  16. Model Refinement Using Eigensystem Assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    2000-01-01

    IA novel approach for the refinement of finite-element-based analytical models of flexible structures is presented. The proposed approach models the possible refinements in the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the finite element model in the form of a constant gain feedback with acceleration, velocity, and displacement measurements, respectively. Once the free elements of the structural matrices have been defined, the problem of model refinement reduces to obtaining position, velocity, and acceleration gain matrices with appropriate sparsity that reassign a desired subset of the eigenvalues of the model, along with partial mode shapes, from their baseline values to those obtained from system identification test data. A sequential procedure is used to assign one conjugate pair of eigenvalues at each step using symmetric output feedback gain matrices, and the eigenvectors are partially assigned, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The procedure can also impose that gain matrices be dissipative to guarantee the stability of the refined model. A numerical example, involving finite element model refinement for a structural testbed at NASA Langley Research Center (Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary model) is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  17. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  18. 75 FR 13255 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., line, and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with the... Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 74...

  19. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  20. 78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe... Pressure Pipe (Over 4 \\1/2\\ Inches) from Japan,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  1. 75 FR 69052 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe..., and pressure pipe (``seamless pipe'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). In addition, the... and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China:...

  2. 78 FR 41369 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... on certain small diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line and pressure pipe (small diameter... Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe from Romania,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary...

  3. 77 FR 21968 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of... countervailing duty order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the...

  4. 75 FR 11119 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Japan, covering the period June 1,...

  5. 75 FR 6183 - Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping... investigation on certain seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

  6. 77 FR 27428 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure..., line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan. The review covers four manufacturers/exporters... alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\ inches) from Japan for the period June...

  7. 77 FR 46385 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... circular cross-section, not more than 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) in outside diameter, regardless of wall... applications. Pipes produced in non- standard wall thicknesses are commonly referred to as tubes. The seamless..., Characteristics and Uses: Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam,...

  8. 77 FR 56809 - Certain Small Diameter Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ..., not more than 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) in outside diameter, regardless of wall thickness, manufacturing... produced in non- standard wall thicknesses are commonly referred to as tubes. The seamless pipes subject to... Uses: Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam,...

  9. Status of the seamless coupled modelling system ICON-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Bernhard; Rieger, Daniel; Schroeter, Jenniffer; Bischoff-Gauss, Inge; Deetz, Konrad; Eckstein, Johannes; Foerstner, Jochen; Gasch, Philipp; Ruhnke, Roland; Vogel, Heike; Walter, Carolin; Weimer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The integrated modelling framework ICON-ART [1] (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic - Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) extends the numerical weather prediction modelling system ICON by modules for gas phase chemistry, aerosol dynamics and related feedback processes. The nonhydrostatic global modelling system ICON [2] is a joint development of German Weather Service (DWD) and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with local grid refinement down to grid sizes of a few kilometers. It will be used for numerical weather prediction, climate projections and for research purposes. Since January 2016 ICON runs operationally at DWD for weather forecast on the global scale with a grid size of 13 km. Analogous to its predecessor COSMO-ART [3], ICON-ART is designed to account for feedback processes between meteorological variables and atmospheric trace substances. Up to now, ICON-ART contains the dispersion of volcanic ash, radioactive tracers, sea salt aerosol, as well as ozone-depleting stratospheric trace substances [1]. Recently, we have extended ICON-ART by a mineral dust emission scheme with global applicability and nucleation parameterizations which allow the cloud microphysics to explicitly account for prognostic aerosol distributions. Also very recently an emission scheme for volatile organic compounds was included. We present first results of the impact of natural aerosol (i.e. sea salt aerosol and mineral dust) on cloud properties and precipitation as well as the interaction of primary emitted particles with radiation. Ongoing developments are the coupling with a radiation scheme to calculate the photolysis frequencies, a coupling with the RADMKA (1) chemistry and first steps to include isotopologues of water. Examples showing the capabilities of the model system will be presented. This includes a simulation of the transport of ozone depleting short-lived trace gases from the surface into the stratosphere as well as of long-lived tracers. [1] Rieger, D., et al

  10. Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    and shell structures that can be further engineered to have highly controlled and ‘tunable’ properties. These include paramagnetic nanoparticles , which...Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Naomi J. Halas, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  11. Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Naomi J. Halas, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Seamless Integration of Detection and Therapy for Breast Cancer using Targeted Engineered Nanoparticles 5b. GRANT NUMBER... nanoparticles and studying the efficiency of nanoparticle attachment to cancer cells. We have demonstrated in mouse tumor models a number of diagnostic

  12. Improving Education through Collaboration: A Case Study of the Long Beach Seamless Education Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Natalie; McCarthy, Kirstin

    2009-01-01

    Business-Higher Education Forum's study of the Seamless Education Partnership began with a theory of action for cross-sector efforts to increase alignment from Pre-K through graduate school (P-20) and improve educational outcomes. BHEF's theory of action posits that community leaders coalesce around a shared vision that is shaped by local context…

  13. Surveying and Modeling Students' Motivation and Learning Strategies for Mobile-Assisted Seamless Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.

    2016-01-01

    Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…

  14. Creating More Seamless Connections between University-Based Coursework and School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    New accreditation standards for teacher preparation programs call for more seamless and effective connections between methods courses, clinical experiences, and school-based mentoring. Intentional clinical experiences and intermediate instructional strategies can foster collaboration between teacher preparation programs and teacher leaders in K-12…

  15. A Field Study of a Video Supported Seamless-Learning-Setting with Elementary Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fößl, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Schön, Sandra; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seamless Learning shall initiate human learning processes that exceeds lesson and classroom limits. At the same time this approach fosters a self-regulated learning, by means of inspirational, open education settings. Advanced learning materials are easily accessible via mobile digital devices connected to the Internet. In this study it was…

  16. Enculturating Seamless Language Learning through Artifact Creation and Social Interaction Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…

  17. A Wiki Technology-Supported Seamless Learning Approach for Chinese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Tay, Boon-Pei

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an intervention study on Singapore primary five (fifth Grade) students' ICT (information and communication technology)-mediated Chinese idiom learning. We introduced "seamless learning" to the learning design, that is, the bridging of formal and informal learning, and individual and social learning, conforming to the…

  18. Utilization of Concurrent Buffers to Facilitate Seamless Data Transition in Tactical Cellular Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    CONCURRENT BUFFERS TO FACILITATE SEAMLESS DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS by Darien M. Pitts September 2015 Thesis...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments... DATA TRANSITION IN TACTICAL CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Pitts, Darien M. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  19. Reaching More Hungry Children: The Seamless Summer Food Waiver. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Tania; Ohls, Jim

    The Seamless Summer Food Waiver is a federal initiative to help school food authorities reach a larger number of hungry children in low-income areas during the summer months, by reducing paperwork and administrative burdens associated with operating the Summer Food Service Program (SFSP). This issue brief describes the SFSP and the impact of the…

  20. Optimizing the seamless tube extrusion process using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Li, Li; Wang, Xiang; Ma, Xu Liang

    2010-03-01

    In order to reveal the mechanism of extrusion forming for large-scale aluminum alloy seamless pipe, in this research the rigid-viscous plastic finite element method was used to analyze the effect of the technological parameters of the aluminum alloy pipe extrusion process, consistent with the use requirements.

  1. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 125 pounds water capacity (nominal) and a service pressure at least 150 to not over 500...) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 15,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch...

  2. 49 CFR 178.46 - Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change in cylinder wall thickness, service pressure, or diameter; a 30 percent or greater change in water...) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water... specimen 6061-T6 38,000 35,000 214 1 “D” represents specimen diameters. When the cylinder wall is...

  3. 49 CFR 178.38 - Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall... permitted in paragraph (d) of this section. (f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 24,000...

  4. 49 CFR 178.45 - Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water... eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained. (5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted. (d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall...

  5. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... steel cylinder with a water capacity not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500... per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to...

  6. Seamless Assessment in Science: A Guide for Elementary & Middle School. Grades: K - 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    When a classroom is opened to inquiry-based learning, teachers can no longer rely solely on traditional end-of-unit tests. "Seamless Assessment" is a one-stop guide to strategies that mirror the investigatory spirit. Working with the popular 5E model as an instructional framework, the authors have designed methods for embedding formative and…

  7. 49 CFR 178.39 - Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material, as follows: (1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of... AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS...) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water...

  8. Interprofessional education for students of the health professions: the "Seamless Care" model.

    PubMed

    Mann, K V; Mcfetridge-Durdle, J; Martin-Misener, R; Clovis, J; Rowe, R; Beanlands, H; Sarria, M

    2009-05-01

    "Seamless Care" was one of 21 grants awarded by Health Canada to inform policymakers of the effectiveness of interprofessional education in promoting collaborative patient-centred practice among health professionals. The "Seamless Care" model of interprofessional education was designed with input from three Faculties at Dalhousie University (Medicine, Dentistry and Health Professions). The design was grounded in relevant learning theories--Social Cognitive Theory, Self-efficacy, Situated Learning theory and Constructivism. The intervention was informed by principles of active learning, problem-based learning, reflection and role modeling. The primary goal of Seamless Care was to develop students' interprofessional patient-centred collaborative skills through experiential learning. Fourteen student teams, each including one student from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry and dental hygiene, learned with, from and about each other while they were mentored in the collaborative care of patients transitioning from acute care to the community. Student teams providing collaborative care assisted patients experiencing a chronic illness to become more active in managing their health through development of self-management and decision-making skills. This paper describes the Seamless Care model of interprofessional education and discusses the theoretical underpinnings of this experiential model of interprofessional education designed to extend classroom-based interprofessional education to the clinical setting.

  9. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Garmella, Rao

    2009-01-01

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  10. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  11. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, Bahman; Heestand, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  12. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  13. Refining analgesia strategies using lasers.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Sound programs for the humane care and use of animals within research facilities incorporate experimental refinements such as multimodal approaches for pain management. These approaches can include non-traditional strategies along with more established ones. The use of lasers for pain relief is growing in popularity among companion animal veterinary practitioners and technologists. Therefore, its application in the research sector warrants closer consideration.

  14. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  15. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac-Neice, Peter; Olson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Library (PARAMESH) is a package of Fortran 90 subroutines designed to provide a computer programmer with an easy route to extension of (1) a previously written serial code that uses a logically Cartesian structured mesh into (2) a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, PARAMESH can operate as a domain-decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes but who do not wish to utilize adaptivity. The package builds a hierarchy of sub-grids to cover the computational domain of a given application program, with spatial resolution varying to satisfy the demands of the application. The sub-grid blocks form the nodes of a tree data structure (a quad-tree in two or an oct-tree in three dimensions). Each grid block has a logically Cartesian mesh. The package supports one-, two- and three-dimensional models.

  16. Progress Toward Standards for the Seamless Interoperability of Broadband Satellite Communication Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Glover, Daniel R.; vonDeak, Thomas C.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1998-01-01

    The realization of the full potential of the National Information Infrastructure (NH) and Global Information Infrastructure (GII) requires seamless interoperability of emerging satellite networks with terrestrial networks. This requires a cooperative effort between industry, academia and government agencies to develop and advocate new, satellite-friendly communication protocols and modifications to existing communication protocol standards. These groups have recently come together to actively participating in a number of standards making bodies including: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Forum, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Telecommunication Industry Association MA) to ensure that issues regarding efficient use of these protocols over satellite links are not overlooked. This paper will summarize the progress made toward standards development to achieve seamless integration and accelerate the deployment of multimedia applications.

  17. Beneficial effects of Bifidobacteria in a gastroresistant seamless capsule on hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Taki, Kentaro; Takayama, Fumio; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal microflora is deranged in hemodialysis (HD) patients as an increase in aerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and a decrease in anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium . Bifidobacteria ferment carbohydrates to produce acetic acid and lactic acid, which inhibit the intestinal putrefaction. Thus, intake of Bifidobacteria effectively restores the disturbed microflora to normal. However, Bifidobacteria in most medical products and healthy foods cannot usually survive because of exposure to gastric juices before it reaches the intestines. A gastroresistant seamless capsule prevents Bifidobacteria from inactivation by acidic gastric juice and allows it to be active in the intestines. We showed that the oral administration of Bifidobacterium longum in a gastroresistant seamless capsule to HD patients is effective in decreasing the pre-HD serum levels of homocysteine, indoxyl sulfate, and triglyceride. The reduction in the serum level of homocysteine is mainly attributable to the supply of folate produced by Bifidobacterium longum in the human intestines.

  18. Toward Seamless Weather-Climate Prediction with a Global Cloud Resolving Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    and the El Nino -Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Organized moist convections in the tropical atmosphere have their origins at space scale of less than...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward Seamless Weather-Climate...performance in reproducing the atmospheric internal modes such as MJO and teleconnection patterns associated with El Nino . This experiment may be

  19. A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.

  20. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  1. Low-power consumption seamless wireless and wired links using transparent waveform transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes wired and wireless seamless networks consisting of radiowave and optical fiber links. Digital coherent technology developed for high-speed optical fiber transmission can mitigate signal deformation in radiowave links in the air as well as in optical fibers. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technique, which transmits radio waveforms on intensity envelops of optical signals, can provide direct waveform transfer between optical and radio signals by using optical-to-electric or electric-to-optical conversion devices. Combination of RoF in millimeter-wave bands and digital coherent with high-performance digital signal processing (DSP) can provide wired and wireless seamless links where bit rate of wireless links would be close to 100 Gb/s. Millimeter-wave transmission distance would be shorter than a few kilometers due to large atmospheric attenuation, so that many moderate distance wireless links, which are seamlessly connected to optical fiber networks should be required to provide high-speed mobile-capable networks. In such systems, reduction of power consumption at media converters connecting wired and wireless links would be very important to pursue both low-power consumption and large capacity.

  2. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  3. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-20

    thermodynamics . 2) Experimental verify the effectiveness of possible nucleating compounds. 3) Extend grain refinement theory and solidification...knowledge through experimental data. 4) Determine structure property relationships for the examined grain refiners. 5) Formulate processing techniques for...using grain refiners in the steel casting industry. During Fiscal Year 2010, this project worked on determining structure property -relationships

  4. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...] Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 4\\1/2\\ Inches... and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from Japan for...

  5. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  6. Crystallographic refinement of ligand complexes

    PubMed Central

    Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    Model building and refinement of complexes between biomacromolecules and small molecules requires sensible starting coordinates as well as the specification of restraint sets for all but the most common non-macromolecular entities. Here, it is described why this is necessary, how it can be accomplished and what pitfalls need to be avoided in order to produce chemically plausible models of the low-molecular-weight entities. A number of programs, servers, databases and other resources that can be of assistance in the process are also discussed. PMID:17164531

  7. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  8. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  9. Materials refining on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  10. Decoding the Epigenetic Heterogeneity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells with Seamless Gene Editing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar M; Perry, Dustin W; Steffey, Valeriya V Adjan; Miller, Kenneth; Allison, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells exhibit cell cycle-regulated heterogeneity for trimethylation of histone-3 on lysine-4 (H3K4me3) on developmental gene promoters containing bivalent epigenetic domains. The heterogeneity of H3K4me3 can be attributed to Cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) phosphorylation and activation of the histone methyltransferase, MLL2 (KMT2B), during late-G1. The deposition of H3K4me3 on developmental promoters in late-G1 establishes a permissive chromatin architecture that enables signaling cues to promote differentiation from the G1 phase. These data suggest that the inhibition of MLL2 phosphorylation and activation will prevent the initiation of differentiation. Here, we describe a method to seamlessly modify a putative CDK2 phosphorylation site on MLL2 to restrict its phosphorylation and activation. Specifically, by utilizing dimeric CRISPR RNA-guided nucleases, RFNs (commercially known as the NextGEN™ CRISPR), in combination with an excision-only piggyBac™ transposase, we demonstrate how to generate a point mutation of threonine-542, a predicted site to prevent MLL2 activation. This gene editing method enables the use of both positive and negative selection, and allows for subsequent removal of the donor cassette without leaving behind any unwanted DNA sequences or modifications. This seamless "donor-excision" approach provides clear advantages over using single stranded oligo-deoxynucleotides (ssODN) as donors to create point mutations, as the use of ssODN necessitate additional mutations in the donor PAM sequence, along with extensive cloning efforts. The method described here therefore provides the highest targeting efficiency with the lowest "off-target" mutation rates possible, while removing the labor-intensive efforts associated with screening thousands of clones. In sum, this chapter describes how seamless gene editing may be utilized to examine stem cell heterogeneity of epigenetic marks, but is also widely applicable for performing

  11. Innovative Technology for Preparation of Seamless Nitinol Tubes Using SHS Without Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetr, Pavel; Pecenová, Zuzana; Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents innovative technology for the production of seamless Ni-Ti tubes using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The proposed production technology is a unique method which removes the need of forming operations, reduces machining processes, and at the same time it eliminates the negatives of production Ni-Ti alloys by conventional melting methods. The proposed process consists in SHS reaction in evacuated silica tube with the use of extremely high heating rate (over 300 K min-1).

  12. Seamless full color holographic printing method based on spatial partitioning of SLM.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Stoykova, Elena; Kang, Hoonjong; Hong, Sunghee; Park, Joosup; Park, Jiyong; Hong, Jisoo

    2015-01-12

    The holographic wavefront printer decodes the wavefront coming from a three-dimensional object from a computer generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator. By recording this wavefront as an analog volume hologram this printing method is highly suitable for realistic color 3D imaging. We propose in the paper spatial partitioning of the spatial light modulator to perform mosaic delivery of exposures at primary colors for seamless reconstruction of a white light viewable color hologram. The method is verified for a 3 × 3 color partitioning scheme by a wavefront printer with demagnification of the light beam diffracted from the modulator.

  13. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  14. Innovative Technology for Preparation of Seamless Nitinol Tubes Using SHS Without Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetr, Pavel; Pecenová, Zuzana; Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents innovative technology for the production of seamless Ni-Ti tubes using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The proposed production technology is a unique method which removes the need of forming operations, reduces machining processes, and at the same time it eliminates the negatives of production Ni-Ti alloys by conventional melting methods. The proposed process consists in SHS reaction in evacuated silica tube with the use of extremely high heating rate (over 300 K min-1).

  15. OEPR Cloning: an Efficient and Seamless Cloning Strategy for Large- and Multi-Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Jiang, Hui; Wu, Lei; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Meng, Er; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Here, an efficient cloning strategy for large DNA fragments and for simultaneous assembly of multiple DNA fragments assembly is presented. This strategy is named OEPR (based on Overlap Extension PCR and Recombination in vivo). OEPR cloning is a seamless, restriction- and ligation-independent method. The method takes advantage of both homologous recombination enzymes in E. coli and overlap PCR. Using OEPR cloning, a long fragment (1–6 kb) or multiple fragments (2–4 fragments) can be easily constructed and simultaneously assembled into a target vector. PMID:28300166

  16. Silicon refinement by chemical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, J.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon refinement by chemical vapor transport is discussed. The operating characteristics of the purification process, including factors affecting the rate, purification efficiency and photovoltaic quality of the refined silicon were studied. The casting of large alloy plates was accomplished. A larger research scale reactor is characterized, and it is shown that a refined silicon product yields solar cells with near state of the art conversion efficiencies.

  17. 1988 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Innumerable revisions in names, addresses, phone numbers, telex numbers, and cable numbers have been made since the publication of the previous edition. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry including the U.S. Refining Survey, The Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Eax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association.

  18. Refining the shallow slip deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Tong, Xiaopeng; Sandwell, David T.; Milliner, Christopher W. D.; Dolan, James F.; Hollingsworth, James; Leprince, Sebastien; Ayoub, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Geodetic slip inversions for three major (Mw > 7) strike-slip earthquakes (1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah) show a 15-60 per cent reduction in slip near the surface (depth < 2 km) relative to the slip at deeper depths (4-6 km). This significant difference between surface coseismic slip and slip at depth has been termed the shallow slip deficit (SSD). The large magnitude of this deficit has been an enigma since it cannot be explained by shallow creep during the interseismic period or by triggered slip from nearby earthquakes. One potential explanation for the SSD is that the previous geodetic inversions lack data coverage close to surface rupture such that the shallow portions of the slip models are poorly resolved and generally underestimated. In this study, we improve the static coseismic slip inversion for these three earthquakes, especially at shallow depths, by: (1) including data capturing the near-fault deformation from optical imagery and SAR azimuth offsets; (2) refining the interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing with non-boxcar phase filtering, model-dependent range corrections, more complete phase unwrapping by SNAPHU (Statistical Non-linear Approach for Phase Unwrapping) assuming a maximum discontinuity and an on-fault correlation mask; (3) using more detailed, geologically constrained fault geometries and (4) incorporating additional campaign global positioning system (GPS) data. The refined slip models result in much smaller SSDs of 3-19 per cent. We suspect that the remaining minor SSD for these earthquakes likely reflects a combination of our elastic model's inability to fully account for near-surface deformation, which will render our estimates of shallow slip minima, and potentially small amounts of interseismic fault creep or triggered slip, which could `make up' a small percentages of the coseismic SSD during the interseismic period. Our results indicate that it is imperative that slip inversions include

  19. Microsphere-Based Seamless Scaffolds Containing Macroscopic Gradients of Encapsulated Factors for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Morris, Casey P.; Ellis, Ryan J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal control of bioactive signals in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds is greatly desired. Coupled together, these attributes may mimic and maintain complex signal patterns, such as those observed during axonal regeneration or neovascularization. Seamless polymer constructs may provide a route to achieve spatial control of signal distribution. In this study, a novel microparticle-based scaffold fabrication technique is introduced as a method to create 3D scaffolds with spatial control over model dyes using uniform poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Uniform microspheres were produced using the Precision Particle Fabrication technique. Scaffolds were assembled by flowing microsphere suspensions into a cylindrical glass mold, and then microspheres were physically attached to form a continuous scaffold using ethanol treatment. An ethanol soak of 1 h was found to be optimum for improved mechanical characteristics. Morphological and physical characterization of the scaffolds revealed that microsphere matrices were porous (41.1 ± 2.1%) and well connected, and their compressive stiffness ranged from 142 to 306 kPa. Culturing chondrocytes on the scaffolds revealed the compatibility of these substrates with cell attachment and viability. In addition, bilayered, multilayered, and gradient scaffolds were fabricated, exhibiting excellent spatial control and resolution. Such novel scaffolds can serve as sustained delivery devices of heterogeneous signals in a continuous and seamless manner, and may be particularly useful in future interfacial tissue engineering investigations. PMID:18795865

  20. Laser direct write system for fabricating seamless roll-to-roll lithography tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrzelka, Joseph E.; Hardt, David E.

    2013-03-01

    Implementations of roll to roll contact lithography require new approaches towards manufacturing tooling, including stamps for roll to roll nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and soft lithography. Suitable roll based tools must have seamless micro- or nano-scale patterns and must be scalable to roll widths of one meter. The authors have developed a new centrifugal stamp casting process that can produce uniform cylindrical polymer stamps in a scalable manner. The pattern on the resulting polymer tool is replicated against a corresponding master pattern on the inner diameter of a centrifuge drum. This master pattern is created in photoresist using a UV laser direct write system. This paper discusses the design and implementation of a laser direct write system targeting the internal diameter of a rotating drum. The design uses flying optics to focus a laser beam along the axis of the centrifuge drum and to redirect the beam towards the drum surface. Experimental patterning results show uniform coatings of negative photoresist in the centrifuge drum that are effectively patterned with a 405 nm laser diode. Seamless patterns are shown to be replicated in a 50 mm diameter, 60 mm long cylindrical stamp made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Direct write results show gratings with line widths of 10 microns in negative photoresist. Using an FPGA, the laser can be accurately timed against the centrifuge encoder to create complex patterns.

  1. Seamless Insert-Plasmid Assembly at High Efficiency and Low Cost.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Roger M; Ostermeier, Christian; Geiser, Martin; Li, Julia Su Zhou; Widmer, Hans; Auer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Seamless cloning methods, such as co-transformation cloning, sequence- and ligation-independent cloning (SLIC) or the Gibson assembly, are essential tools for the precise construction of plasmids. The efficiency of co-transformation cloning is however low and the Gibson assembly reagents are expensive. With the aim to improve the robustness of seamless cloning experiments while keeping costs low, we examined the importance of complementary single-stranded DNA ends for co-transformation cloning and the influence of single-stranded gaps in circular plasmids on SLIC cloning efficiency. Most importantly, our data show that single-stranded gaps in double-stranded plasmids, which occur in typical SLIC protocols, can drastically decrease the efficiency at which the DNA transforms competent E. coli bacteria. Accordingly, filling-in of single-stranded gaps using DNA polymerase resulted in increased transformation efficiency. Ligation of the remaining nicks did not lead to a further increase in transformation efficiency. These findings demonstrate that highly efficient insert-plasmid assembly can be achieved by using only T5 exonuclease and Phusion DNA polymerase, without Taq DNA ligase from the original Gibson protocol, which significantly reduces the cost of the reactions. We successfully used this modified Gibson assembly protocol with two short insert-plasmid overlap regions, each counting only 15 nucleotides.

  2. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    PubMed

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate.

  3. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Microelectronic Device Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom; Lou, John; Norton, Charles

    1999-01-01

    Finite element and finite volume methods are used in a variety of design simulations when it is necessary to compute fields throughout regions that contain varying materials or geometry. Convergence of the simulation can be assessed by uniformly increasing the mesh density until an observable quantity stabilizes. Depending on the electrical size of the problem, uniform refinement of the mesh may be computationally infeasible due to memory limitations. Similarly, depending on the geometric complexity of the object being modeled, uniform refinement can be inefficient since regions that do not need refinement add to the computational expense. In either case, convergence to the correct (measured) solution is not guaranteed. Adaptive mesh refinement methods attempt to selectively refine the region of the mesh that is estimated to contain proportionally higher solution errors. The refinement may be obtained by decreasing the element size (h-refinement), by increasing the order of the element (p-refinement) or by a combination of the two (h-p refinement). A successful adaptive strategy refines the mesh to produce an accurate solution measured against the correct fields without undue computational expense. This is accomplished by the use of a) reliable a posteriori error estimates, b) hierarchal elements, and c) automatic adaptive mesh generation. Adaptive methods are also useful when problems with multi-scale field variations are encountered. These occur in active electronic devices that have thin doped layers and also when mixed physics is used in the calculation. The mesh needs to be fine at and near the thin layer to capture rapid field or charge variations, but can coarsen away from these layers where field variations smoothen and charge densities are uniform. This poster will present an adaptive mesh refinement package that runs on parallel computers and is applied to specific microelectronic device simulations. Passive sensors that operate in the infrared portion of

  4. Automated knowledge-base refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Raymond J.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last several years, we have developed several systems for automatically refining incomplete and incorrect knowledge bases. These systems are given an imperfect rule base and a set of training examples and minimally modify the knowledge base to make it consistent with the examples. One of our most recent systems, FORTE, revises first-order Horn-clause knowledge bases. This system can be viewed as automatically debugging Prolog programs based on examples of correct and incorrect I/O pairs. In fact, we have already used the system to debug simple Prolog programs written by students in a programming language course. FORTE has also been used to automatically induce and revise qualitative models of several continuous dynamic devices from qualitative behavior traces. For example, it has been used to induce and revise a qualitative model of a portion of the Reaction Control System (RCS) of the NASA Space Shuttle. By fitting a correct model of this portion of the RCS to simulated qualitative data from a faulty system, FORTE was also able to correctly diagnose simple faults in this system.

  5. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    SciTech Connect

    Berntsen, Karen R. M.; Vriend, Gert

    2014-04-01

    The side-chain torsion angles of isoleucines in X-ray protein structures are a function of resolution, secondary structure and refinement software. Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve protein structure refinement. A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers were similar in high-resolution structures solved using either the REFMAC, CNS or PHENIX software. However, at low resolution these programs often refine towards somewhat different χ{sub 1} and χ{sub 2} values. Small systematic differences can be observed between refinement software that uses molecular dynamics-type energy terms (for example CNS) and software that does not use these terms (for example REFMAC). Detailing the standard torsion angles used in refinement software can improve the refinement of protein structures. The target values in the molecular dynamics-type energy functions can also be improved.

  6. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  7. Enhancing Access to NASA Data via Seamless Integration Into Decision Support Systems: two Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W.; Rui, H.; Rishe, N.; Tetrault, R.

    2005-12-01

    The amount and variety of information that can be extracted from NASA satellite data form a rich resource that is largely untapped by the applications user community. In part, this is because of the complexity and cost of using such data. Many approaches, such as subsetting, have been taken to ameliorate this situation. Mostly, however, they have not sufficiently addressed the core needs of the applications community. The latter is generally not interested in the data per se (e.g., how they are processed), but rather in the specific measurements (e.g., surface rain) from the data, which can be infused in some decision support system. These measurements should ideally be seamlessly accessible. To rapidly bridge the gap between NASA information systems and services and the practical needs of the applications (and research) community, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has collaborated with the Florida International University High Performance Database Research Center (FIU HPDRC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA FAS) to demonstrate the feasibility of making NASA data more easily and seamlessly accessible via the Web, from within the FIU's TerraFly and the FAS' Crop Explorer environments, respectively. TerraFly currently serves a broad segment of the research and applications community (some 10,000 unique users per day), by facilitating the access to various textual, remotely sensed, and vector data. Crop Explorer is the primary decision support tool used by the FAS analysts to monitor the production, supply, and demand of agricultural commodities worldwide. The key NASA information system providing the data integrated into TerraFly and Crop Explorer is the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni), which enables users to easily and quickly obtain science information from the data, without having to download and handle large amounts of data. The

  8. Protein NMR structures refined without NOE data.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyojung; Kim, Tae-Rae; Ahn, SeonJoo; Ji, Sunyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.

  9. Seamless Management of Paper and Electronic Documents for Task Knowledge Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Ken

    Due to the progress of Internet technology and the increase of distributed information on networks, the present knowledge management has been based more and more on the performance of various experienced users. In addition to the increase of electronic documents, the use of paper documents has not been reduced because of their convenience. This paper describes a method of tracking paper document locations and contents using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This research also focuses on the expression of a task process and the seamless structuring of related electronic and paper documents as a result of task knowledge formalization using information organizing. A system is proposed here that implements information organization for both Web documents and paper documents with the task model description and RFID technology. Examples of a prototype system are also presented.

  10. Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Navigation for Unmanned Multi-Sensor Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranoa, , D.; Uijt de Haag, M.; Dill, E.; Vilardaga, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of navigation algorithms to enable seamless operation of a small-size multi-copter in an indoor-outdoor environment. In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may be unavailable not only due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. The proposed navigation algorithm uses data from a GPS receiver, multiple 2D laser scanners, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). This paper addresses the proposed multi-mode fusion algorithm and provides initial result using flight test data. This paper furthermore describes the 3DR hexacopter platform that has been used to collect data in an operational environment, starting in an open environment, transitioning to an indoor environment, traversing a building, and, finally, transitioning back to the outdoor environment. Implementation issues will be discussed.

  11. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  12. Availability Improvement of Layer 2 Seamless Networks Using OpenFlow

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Elias; Jacob, Eduardo; Matias, Jon; Moreira, Naiara; Astarloa, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The network robustness and reliability are strongly influenced by the implementation of redundancy and its ability of reacting to changes. In situations where packet loss or maximum latency requirements are critical, replication of resources and information may become the optimal technique. To this end, the IEC 62439-3 Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP) provides seamless recovery in layer 2 networks by delegating the redundancy management to the end-nodes. In this paper, we present a combination of the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) approach and PRP topologies to establish a higher level of redundancy and thereby, through several active paths provisioned via the OpenFlow protocol, the global reliability is increased, as well as data flows are managed efficiently. Hence, the experiments with multiple failure scenarios, which have been run over the Mininet network emulator, show the improvement in the availability and responsiveness over other traditional technologies based on a single active path. PMID:25759861

  13. A seamless acquisition digital storage oscilloscope with three-dimensional waveform display.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuojun; Tian, Shulin; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Lei; Guo, Lianping

    2014-04-01

    In traditional digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), sampled data need to be processed after each acquisition. During data processing, the acquisition is stopped and oscilloscope is blind to the input signal. Thus, this duration is called dead time. With the rapid development of modern electronic systems, the effect of infrequent events becomes significant. To capture these occasional events in shorter time, dead time in traditional DSO that causes the loss of measured signal needs to be reduced or even eliminated. In this paper, a seamless acquisition oscilloscope without dead time is proposed. In this oscilloscope, three-dimensional waveform mapping (TWM) technique, which converts sampled data to displayed waveform, is proposed. With this technique, not only the process speed is improved, but also the probability information of waveform is displayed with different brightness. Thus, a three-dimensional waveform is shown to the user. To reduce processing time further, parallel TWM which processes several sampled points simultaneously, and dual-port random access memory based pipelining technique which can process one sampling point in one clock period are proposed. Furthermore, two DDR3 (Double-Data-Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are used for storing sampled data alternately, thus the acquisition can continue during data processing. Therefore, the dead time of DSO is eliminated. In addition, a double-pulse test method is adopted to test the waveform capturing rate (WCR) of the oscilloscope and a combined pulse test method is employed to evaluate the oscilloscope's capture ability comprehensively. The experiment results show that the WCR of the designed oscilloscope is 6,250,000 wfms/s (waveforms per second), the highest value in all existing oscilloscopes. The testing results also prove that there is no dead time in our oscilloscope, thus realizing the seamless acquisition.

  14. A seamless acquisition digital storage oscilloscope with three-dimensional waveform display

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuojun Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Zeng, Hao; Qiu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    In traditional digital storage oscilloscope (DSO), sampled data need to be processed after each acquisition. During data processing, the acquisition is stopped and oscilloscope is blind to the input signal. Thus, this duration is called dead time. With the rapid development of modern electronic systems, the effect of infrequent events becomes significant. To capture these occasional events in shorter time, dead time in traditional DSO that causes the loss of measured signal needs to be reduced or even eliminated. In this paper, a seamless acquisition oscilloscope without dead time is proposed. In this oscilloscope, three-dimensional waveform mapping (TWM) technique, which converts sampled data to displayed waveform, is proposed. With this technique, not only the process speed is improved, but also the probability information of waveform is displayed with different brightness. Thus, a three-dimensional waveform is shown to the user. To reduce processing time further, parallel TWM which processes several sampled points simultaneously, and dual-port random access memory based pipelining technique which can process one sampling point in one clock period are proposed. Furthermore, two DDR3 (Double-Data-Rate Three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) are used for storing sampled data alternately, thus the acquisition can continue during data processing. Therefore, the dead time of DSO is eliminated. In addition, a double-pulse test method is adopted to test the waveform capturing rate (WCR) of the oscilloscope and a combined pulse test method is employed to evaluate the oscilloscope's capture ability comprehensively. The experiment results show that the WCR of the designed oscilloscope is 6 250 000 wfms/s (waveforms per second), the highest value in all existing oscilloscopes. The testing results also prove that there is no dead time in our oscilloscope, thus realizing the seamless acquisition.

  15. Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietl, J.

    1986-01-01

    A basic requirement of large scale solar cell fabrication is to provide low cost base material. Unconventional refining of metallurical grade silicon represents one of the most promising ways of silicon meltstock processing. The refining concept is based on an optimized combination of metallurgical treatments. Commercially available crude silicon, in this sequence, requires a first pyrometallurgical step by slagging, or, alternatively, solvent extraction by aluminum. After grinding and leaching, high purity qualtiy is gained as an advanced stage of refinement. To reach solar grade quality a final pyrometallurgical step is needed: liquid-gas extraction.

  16. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  17. Seamless Learning in the Mobile Age: A Theoretical and Methodological Discussion on Using Cooperative Inquiry to Study Digital Kids On-the-Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Yancy; So, Hyo-Jeong; Seow, Peter; Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2013-01-01

    This paper shares the theoretical and methodological frameworks that are deployed in a 3-year study to examine how Singapore primary school students leverage on mobile technology for seamless learning. This notion of seamless learning refers to the integrated and synergistic effects of learning in both formal and informal settings, which is…

  18. Use of Multiple Parallel Interface Strategies To Create a Seamless Accessible Interface for Next-Generation Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.

    Information systems in public places such as community centers and libraries require some means to provide access to individuals with physical, visual, and, if sound is involved, hearing impairments. This paper proposes a seamless adaptable human interface protocol that would allow users to incrementally modify the command and presentation aspects…

  19. The McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program: Toward a Seamless Approach to the Production of African American Doctorates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.

    2006-01-01

    The McKnight Doctoral Fellowship Program (MDFP) in Florida addresses the issue of under-representation of African American doctorates by adopting a "seamless" approach in supporting African-Americans pursuing a doctoral degree and beyond. The success of the MDFP suggests a need to reconsider graduate support for minority students that…

  20. 77 FR 43806 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the... steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is... carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China covering...

  1. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Romania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... and pressure pipe from Romania for the period August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. See Initiation...

  2. 76 FR 44608 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania; Scheduling of..., Line, and Pressure Pipe from Japan and Romania AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  3. 78 FR 33809 - Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Rescission..., line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic of China. The period of review is November 1, 2011... order on seamless carbon and alloy steel standard, line, and pressure pipe from the People's Republic...

  4. 76 FR 39852 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... diameter, regardless of wall- thickness, manufacturing process (hot finished or cold-drawn), end finish... such as oil, gas, or water pipeline, or utility distribution systems. Seamless pressure pipes are intended for the conveyance of water, steam, petrochemicals, chemicals, oil products, natural gas and...

  5. Refined Phenotyping of Modic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Määttä, Juhani H.; Karppinen, Jaro; Paananen, Markus; Bow, Cora; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-01-01

    . The strength of the associations increased with the number of MC. This large-scale study is the first to definitively note MC types and specific morphologies to be independently associated with prolonged severe LBP and back-related disability. This proposed refined MC phenotype may have direct implications in clinical decision-making as to the development and management of LBP. Understanding of these imaging biomarkers can lead to new preventative and personalized therapeutics related to LBP. PMID:27258491

  6. 1987 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates an ever-varying aspect of the industry. Personnel names, plant sites, home office locations, sales and relocations - all have been compiled in this book. Inactive refineries have been updated and listed in a special section as well as active major refining and gas processing and construction projects worldwide. This directory also contains several of the most vital and informative surveys of the petroleum industry. It discusses the worldwide Construction Survey, U.S. Refining Survey, Worldwide Gas Processing Plant Survey, Worldwide Refining Survey, Worldwide Survey of Petroleum Derived Sulfur Production, and Worldwide Catalyst Report. Also included in the directory is the National Petroleum Refiners Association's U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Study.

  7. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  8. Refiners discuss HF alkylation process and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    Safety and oxygenate operations made HF alkylation a hot topic of discussion at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. This paper provides answers to a variety of questions regarding the mechanical, process, and safety aspects of the HF alkylation process. Among the issues discussed were mitigation techniques, removal of oxygenates from alkylation unit feed, and amylene alkylation.

  9. A comparison of U.S. geological survey seamless elevation models with shuttle radar topography mission data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.

    2001-01-01

    Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.

  10. Refinement of protein structures in explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Linge, Jens P; Williams, Mark A; Spronk, Christian A E M; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Nilges, Michael

    2003-02-15

    We present a CPU efficient protocol for refinement of protein structures in a thin layer of explicit solvent and energy parameters with completely revised dihedral angle terms. Our approach is suitable for protein structures determined by theoretical (e.g., homology modeling or threading) or experimental methods (e.g., NMR). In contrast to other recently proposed refinement protocols, we put a strong emphasis on consistency with widely accepted covalent parameters and computational efficiency. We illustrate the method for NMR structure calculations of three proteins: interleukin-4, ubiquitin, and crambin. We show a comparison of their structure ensembles before and after refinement in water with and without a force field energy term for the dihedral angles; crambin was also refined in DMSO. Our results demonstrate the significant improvement of structure quality by a short refinement in a thin layer of solvent. Further, they show that a dihedral angle energy term in the force field is beneficial for structure calculation and refinement. We discuss the optimal weight for the energy constant for the backbone angle omega and include an extensive discussion of meaning and relevance of the calculated validation criteria, in particular root mean square Z scores for covalent parameters such as bond lengths.

  11. Structure refinement from precession electron diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Jacob, Damien; Cuvillier, Priscille; Klementová, Mariana; Sinkler, Wharton; Marks, Laurence D

    2013-03-01

    Electron diffraction is a unique tool for analysing the crystal structures of very small crystals. In particular, precession electron diffraction has been shown to be a useful method for ab initio structure solution. In this work it is demonstrated that precession electron diffraction data can also be successfully used for structure refinement, if the dynamical theory of diffraction is used for the calculation of diffracted intensities. The method is demonstrated on data from three materials - silicon, orthopyroxene (Mg,Fe)(2)Si(2)O(6) and gallium-indium tin oxide (Ga,In)(4)Sn(2)O(10). In particular, it is shown that atomic occupancies of mixed crystallographic sites can be refined to an accuracy approaching X-ray or neutron diffraction methods. In comparison with conventional electron diffraction data, the refinement against precession diffraction data yields significantly lower figures of merit, higher accuracy of refined parameters, much broader radii of convergence, especially for the thickness and orientation of the sample, and significantly reduced correlations between the structure parameters. The full dynamical refinement is compared with refinement using kinematical and two-beam approximations, and is shown to be superior to the latter two.

  12. The Geodetic Seamless Archive Centers Service Layer: A System Architecture for Federating Geodesy Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Jamason, P.; Squibb, M. B.; Noll, C. E.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    Three geodesy Archive Centers, Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), NASA's Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) and UNAVCO are engaged in a joint effort to define and develop a common Web Service Application Programming Interface (API) for accessing geodetic data holdings. This effort is funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS Program to modernize the original GPS Seamless Archive Centers (GSAC) technology which was developed in the 1990s. A new web service interface, the GSAC-WS, is being developed to provide uniform and expanded mechanisms through which users can access our data repositories. In total, our respective archives hold tens of millions of files and contain a rich collection of site/station metadata. Though we serve similar user communities, we currently provide a range of different access methods, query services and metadata formats. This leads to a lack of consistency in the userís experience and a duplication of engineering efforts. The GSAC-WS API and its reference implementation in an underlying Java-based GSAC Service Layer (GSL) supports metadata and data queries into site/station oriented data archives. The general nature of this API makes it applicable to a broad range of data systems. The overall goals of this project include providing consistent and rich query interfaces for end users and client programs, the development of enabling technology to facilitate third party repositories in developing these web service capabilities and to enable the ability to perform data queries across a collection of federated GSAC-WS enabled repositories. A fundamental challenge faced in this project is to provide a common suite of query services across a heterogeneous collection of data yet enabling each repository to expose their specific metadata holdings. To address this challenge we are developing a "capabilities" based service where a repository can describe its specific query and metadata capabilities. Furthermore, the architecture of

  13. Zeolites as catalysts in oil refining.

    PubMed

    Primo, Ana; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-11-21

    Oil is nowadays the main energy source and this prevalent position most probably will continue in the next decades. This situation is largely due to the degree of maturity that has been achieved in oil refining and petrochemistry as a consequence of the large effort in research and innovation. The remarkable efficiency of oil refining is largely based on the use of zeolites as catalysts. The use of zeolites as catalysts in refining and petrochemistry has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in the chemistry of the XXth century. In this tutorial review, the introductory part describes the main features of zeolites in connection with their use as solid acids. The main body of the review describes important refining processes in which zeolites are used including light naphtha isomerization, olefin alkylation, reforming, cracking and hydrocracking. The final section contains our view on future developments in the field such as the increase in the quality of the transportation fuels and the coprocessing of increasing percentage of biofuels together with oil streams. This review is intended to provide the rudiments of zeolite science applied to refining catalysis.

  14. Multidataset Refinement Resonant Diffraction, and Magnetic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scope of Rietveld and other powder diffraction refinements continues to expand, driven by improvements in instrumentation, methodology and software. This will be illustrated by examples from our research in recent years. Multidataset refinement is now commonplace; the datasets may be from different detectors, e.g., in a time-of-flight experiment, or from separate experiments, such as at several x-ray energies giving resonant information. The complementary use of x rays and neutrons is exemplified by a recent combined refinement of the monoclinic superstructure of magnetite, Fe3O4, below the 122 K Verwey transition, which reveals evidence for Fe2+/Fe3+ charge ordering. Powder neutron diffraction data continue to be used for the solution and Rietveld refinement of magnetic structures. Time-of-flight instruments on cold neutron sources can produce data that have a high intensity and good resolution at high d-spacings. Such profiles have been used to study incommensurate magnetic structures such as FeAsO4 and β–CrPO4. A multiphase, multidataset refinement of the phase-separated perovskite (Pr0.35Y0.07Th0.04Ca0.04Sr0.5)MnO3 has been used to fit three components with different crystal and magnetic structures at low temperatures. PMID:27366599

  15. Software for Refining or Coarsening Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daines, Russell; Woods, Jody

    2003-01-01

    A computer program performs calculations for refinement or coarsening of computational grids of the type called structured (signifying that they are geometrically regular and/or are specified by relatively simple algebraic expressions). This program is designed to facilitate analysis of the numerical effects of changing structured grids utilized in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Unlike prior grid-refinement and -coarsening programs, this program is not limited to doubling or halving: the user can specify any refinement or coarsening ratio, which can have a noninteger value. In addition to this ratio, the program accepts, as input, a grid file and the associated restart file, which is basically a file containing the most recent iteration of flow-field variables computed on the grid. The program then refines or coarsens the grid as specified, while maintaining the geometry and the stretching characteristics of the original grid. The program can interpolate from the input restart file to create a restart file for the refined or coarsened grid. The program provides a graphical user interface that facilitates the entry of input data for the grid-generation and restart-interpolation routines.

  16. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carried out at each location. (2) Crude oil capacity. (i) The total corporate crude oil capacity of each... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.1340 Section 80.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  17. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... January 1, 1999; and the type of business activities carried out at each location; or (ii) In the case...

  18. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... January 1, 1999; and the type of business activities carried out at each location; or (ii) In the case...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner... for small refiner status must be sent to: Attn: MSAT2 Benzene, Mail Stop 6406J, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. For commercial delivery: MSAT2...

  20. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner... for small refiner status must be sent to: Attn: MSAT2 Benzene, Mail Stop 6406J, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. For commercial delivery: MSAT2...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1340 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner... for small refiner status must be sent to: Attn: MSAT2 Benzene, Mail Stop 6406J, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460. For commercial delivery: MSAT2...

  2. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... reputable source, such as a professional publication or trade journal. The information submitted to EIA...

  3. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... reputable source, such as a professional publication or trade journal. The information submitted to EIA...

  4. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner? 80.235 Section 80.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... reputable source, such as a professional publication or trade journal. The information submitted to EIA...

  5. Business planning in Hong Kong hospitals: the emergence of a seamless health care management process.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the progress made by public hospitals in Hong Kong in implementing a business planning approach. A review of available literature suggests two main exploratory themes. The first establishes the key features of business planning in the private sector. The second theme discusses the problems of adapting this approach to the distinctive requirements of the public sector. The literature also suggests three dimensions for evaluating planning: incremental-developmental; reactive-proactive; ends-means. Qualitative data were collected by scrutinizing relevant organizational documentation and by discussions with focus groups formed by participants in the planning process. The data were analyzed against eight key elements of a business plan identified from the literature and from panels of business experts. These elements were found to be present in the Hospital Authority's plans but were less evident in hospital level plans. Because of the unitary nature of hospital organization in Hong Kong, it has been difficult for hospitals to break out of a reactive, incremental and ends-based pattern to a more imaginative identification of the distinctive business and market that they may be in. This is, however, changing rapidly and it is clear that there is in place a robust and 'seamless' health care management process.

  6. Indoor/Outdoor Seamless Positioning Using Lighting Tags and GPS Cellular Phones for Personal Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namie, Hiromune; Morishita, Hisashi

    The authors focused on the development of an indoor positioning system which is easy to use, portable and available for everyone. This system is capable of providing the correct position anywhere indoors, including onboard ships, and was invented in order to evaluate the availability of GPS indoors. Although the performance of GPS is superior outdoors, there has been considerable research regarding indoor GPS involving sensitive GPS, pseudolites (GPS pseudo satellite), RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tags, and wireless LAN .However, the positioning rate and the precision are not high enough for general use, which is the reason why these technologies have not yet spread to personal navigation systems. In this regard, the authors attempted to implement an indoor positioning system using cellular phones with built-in GPS and infrared light data communication functionality, which are widely used in Japan. GPS is becoming increasingly popular, where GPGGS sentences of the NMEA outputted from the GPS receiver provide spatiotemporal information including latitude, longitude, altitude, and time or ECEF xyz coordinates. As GPS applications grow rapidly, spatiotemporal data becomes key to the ubiquitous outdoor and indoor seamless positioning services at least for the entire area of Japan, as well as to becoming familiar with satellite positioning systems (e.g. GPS). Furthermore, the authors are also working on the idea of using PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants), as cellular phones with built-in GPS and PDA functionality are also becoming increasingly popular.

  7. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-09

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  8. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-08

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations.

  9. Seamless positioning and navigation by using geo-referenced images and multi-sensor data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-07-12

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments.

  10. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  11. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  12. Recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction allows rapid and seamless cloning of oligomeric genes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jonathan R; Mackay, J Andrew; Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-04-12

    This paper reports a new strategy, recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction (PRe-RDL), to rapidly clone highly repetitive polypeptides of any sequence and specified length over a large range of molecular weights. In a single cycle of PRe-RDL, two halves of a parent plasmid, each containing a copy of an oligomer, are ligated together, thereby dimerizing the oligomer and reconstituting a functional plasmid. This process is carried out recursively to assemble an oligomeric gene with the desired number of repeats. PRe-RDL has several unique features that stem from the use of type IIs restriction endonucleases: first, PRe-RDL is a seamless cloning method that leaves no extraneous nucleotides at the ligation junction. Because it uses type IIs endonucleases to ligate the two halves of the plasmid, PRe-RDL also addresses the major limitation of RDL in that it abolishes any restriction on the gene sequence that can be oligomerized. The reconstitution of a functional plasmid only upon successful ligation in PRe-RDL also addresses two other limitations of RDL: the significant background from self-ligation of the vector observed in RDL, and the decreased efficiency of ligation due to nonproductive circularization of the insert. PRe-RDL can also be used to assemble genes that encode different sequences in a predetermined order to encode block copolymers or append leader and trailer peptide sequences to the oligomerized gene.

  13. Microstructure evolution in TRIP-aided seamless steel tube during T-shape hydroforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Zicheng; Manabe, Ken-ichi; Li, Yanmei; Misra, R.D.K.

    2014-08-15

    Transformation-induced plasticity aided seamless steel tube comprising of ferrite, bainite, and metastable austenite was processed through forging, piercing, cold-drawing, and two-stage heat treatment. T-shape hydroforming is a classic forming method for experimental research and practical production. The current work studied austenite-to-martensite transformation and microcrack initiation and propagation of the tube during T-shape hydroforming using electron backscattering diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The strain distribution in the bcc-phase and fcc-phase was studied by evaluating changes in the average local misorientation. Compared to the compressive stress, metastable austenite with similar strain surrounding or inside the grains transformed easier under tensile loading conditions. The inclusions were responsible for microcrack initiation. The propagation of the cracks is hindered by martensite/austenite constituent due to transformation induced plasticity effect. The volume fraction of untransformed retained austenite decreased with increase in strain implying transformation-induced plasticity effect. - Highlights: • Hydroformed tubes processed via TRIP concept • EBSD provided estimate of micro local strain. • Retained austenite hinders propagation of microcracks.

  14. An Adaptive Handover Prediction Scheme for Seamless Mobility Based Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Safa Sadiq, Ali; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches. PMID:25574490

  15. Seamless Positioning and Navigation by Using Geo-Referenced Images and Multi-Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Wang, Jinling; Li, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous positioning is considered to be a highly demanding application for today's Location-Based Services (LBS). While satellite-based navigation has achieved great advances in the past few decades, positioning and navigation in indoor scenarios and deep urban areas has remained a challenging topic of substantial research interest. Various strategies have been adopted to fill this gap, within which vision-based methods have attracted growing attention due to the widespread use of cameras on mobile devices. However, current vision-based methods using image processing have yet to revealed their full potential for navigation applications and are insufficient in many aspects. Therefore in this paper, we present a hybrid image-based positioning system that is intended to provide seamless position solution in six degrees of freedom (6DoF) for location-based services in both outdoor and indoor environments. It mainly uses visual sensor input to match with geo-referenced images for image-based positioning resolution, and also takes advantage of multiple onboard sensors, including the built-in GPS receiver and digital compass to assist visual methods. Experiments demonstrate that such a system can greatly improve the position accuracy for areas where the GPS signal is negatively affected (such as in urban canyons), and it also provides excellent position accuracy for indoor environments. PMID:23857267

  16. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  17. Seamless texture mapping algorithm for image-based three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiapeng; Liu, Bin; Fang, Tao; Huo, Hong; Zhao, Yuming

    2016-09-01

    Texture information plays an important role in rendering true objects, especially with the wide application of image-based three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and 3-D laser scanning. This paper proposes a seamless texture mapping algorithm to achieve a high-quality visual effect for 3-D reconstruction. At first, a series of image sets is produced by analyzing the visibility of triangular facets, the image sets are clustered and segmented into a number of optimal reference texture patches. Second, the generated texture patches are sequenced to create a rough texture map, then a weighting process is adopted to reduce the color discrepancies between adjacent patches. Finally, a multiresolution decomposition and fusion technique is used to generate the transition section and eliminate the boundary effect. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and practical for obtaining high-quality 3-D texture mapping for 3-D reconstruction. Compared with traditional methods, it maintains the texture clarity while eliminating the color seams, in addition, it also supports 3-D texture mapping for big data application.

  18. Seamless Tracing of Human Behavior Using Complementary Wearable and House-Embedded Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Smoleń, Magdalena; Mikrut, Zbigniew; Kańtoch, Eliasz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal system for seamless surveillance of elderly people in their living environment. The system uses simultaneously a wearable sensor network for each individual and premise-embedded sensors specific for each environment. The paper demonstrates the benefits of using complementary information from two types of mobility sensors: visual flow-based image analysis and an accelerometer-based wearable network. The paper provides results for indoor recognition of several elementary poses and outdoor recognition of complex movements. Instead of complete system description, particular attention was drawn to a polar histogram-based method of visual pose recognition, complementary use and synchronization of the data from wearable and premise-embedded networks and an automatic danger detection algorithm driven by two premise- and subject-related databases. The novelty of our approach also consists in feeding the databases with real-life recordings from the subject, and in using the dynamic time-warping algorithm for measurements of distance between actions represented as elementary poses in behavioral records. The main results of testing our method include: 95.5% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the video system, 96.7% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the accelerometer-based system, 98.9% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the combined accelerometer and video-based system, and 80% accuracy of complex outdoor activity recognition by the accelerometer-based wearable system. PMID:24787640

  19. Balloon focus: a seamless multi-focus+context method for treemaps.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ying; Shen, Han-Wei

    2008-01-01

    The treemap is one of the most popular methods for visualizing hierarchical data. When a treemap contains a large number of items, inspecting or comparing a few selected items in a greater level of detail becomes very challenging. In this paper, we present a seamless multi-focus and context technique, called Balloon Focus, that allows the user to smoothly enlarge multiple treemap items served as the foci, while maintaining a stable treemap layout as the context. Our method has several desirable features. First, this method is quite general and hence can be used with different treemap layout algorithms. Second, as the foci are enlarged, the relative positions among all items are preserved. Third, the foci are placed in a way that the remaining space is evenly distributed back to the non-focus treemap items. When Balloon Focus enlarges the focus items to a maximum degree, the above features ensure that the treemap will maintain a consistent appearance and avoid any abrupt layout changes. In our algorithm, a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) is used to maintain the positional constraints, and an elastic model is employed to govern the placement of the treemap items. We demonstrate a treemap visualization system that integrates data query, manual focus selection, and our novel multi-focus+context technique, Balloon Focus, together. A user study was conducted. Results show that with Balloon Focus, users can better perform the tasks of comparing the values and the distribution of the foci.

  20. Improved seamless mutagenesis by recombineering using ccdB for counterselection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Bian, Xiaoying; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Müller, Rolf; Zhang, Youming; Fu, Jun; Stewart, A. Francis

    2014-01-01

    Recombineering, which is the use of homologous recombination for DNA engineering in Escherichia coli, usually uses antibiotic selection to identify the intended recombinant. When combined in a second step with counterselection using a small molecule toxin, seamless products can be obtained. Here, we report the advantages of a genetic strategy using CcdB as the counterselectable agent. Expression of CcdB is toxic to E. coli in the absence of the CcdA antidote so counterselection is initiated by the removal of CcdA expression. CcdB counterselection is robust and does not require titrations or experiment-to-experiment optimization. Because counterselection strategies necessarily differ according to the copy number of the target, we describe two variations. For multi-copy targets, we use two E. coli hosts so that counterselection is exerted by the transformation step that is needed to separate the recombined and unrecombined plasmids. For single copy targets, we put the ccdA gene onto the temperature-sensitive pSC101 Red expression plasmid so that counterselection is exerted by the standard temperature shift to remove the expression plasmid. To reduce unwanted intramolecular recombination, we also combined CcdB counterselection with Redα omission. These options improve the use of counterselection in recombineering with BACs, plasmids and the E. coli chromosome. PMID:24369425

  1. Seamless tracing of human behavior using complementary wearable and house-embedded sensors.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Smoleń, Magdalena; Mikrut, Zbigniew; Kańtoch, Eliasz

    2014-04-29

    This paper presents a multimodal system for seamless surveillance of elderly people in their living environment. The system uses simultaneously a wearable sensor network for each individual and premise-embedded sensors specific for each environment. The paper demonstrates the benefits of using complementary information from two types of mobility sensors: visual flow-based image analysis and an accelerometer-based wearable network. The paper provides results for indoor recognition of several elementary poses and outdoor recognition of complex movements. Instead of complete system description, particular attention was drawn to a polar histogram-based method of visual pose recognition, complementary use and synchronization of the data from wearable and premise-embedded networks and an automatic danger detection algorithm driven by two premise- and subject-related databases. The novelty of our approach also consists in feeding the databases with real-life recordings from the subject, and in using the dynamic time-warping algorithm for measurements of distance between actions represented as elementary poses in behavioral records. The main results of testing our method include: 95.5% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the video system, 96.7% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the accelerometer-based system, 98.9% accuracy of elementary pose recognition by the combined accelerometer and video-based system, and 80% accuracy of complex outdoor activity recognition by the accelerometer-based wearable system.

  2. An adaptive handover prediction scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Ali Safa; Fisal, Norsheila Binti; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Lloret, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.

  3. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  4. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  5. Algorithm refinement for the stochastic Burgers' equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, John B.; Foo, Jasmine; Garcia, Alejandro L. . E-mail: algarcia@algarcia.org

    2007-04-10

    In this paper, we develop an algorithm refinement (AR) scheme for an excluded random walk model whose mean field behavior is given by the viscous Burgers' equation. AR hybrids use the adaptive mesh refinement framework to model a system using a molecular algorithm where desired while allowing a computationally faster continuum representation to be used in the remainder of the domain. The focus in this paper is the role of fluctuations on the dynamics. In particular, we demonstrate that it is necessary to include a stochastic forcing term in Burgers' equation to accurately capture the correct behavior of the system. The conclusion we draw from this study is that the fidelity of multiscale methods that couple disparate algorithms depends on the consistent modeling of fluctuations in each algorithm and on a coupling, such as algorithm refinement, that preserves this consistency.

  6. FEM electrode refinement for electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Grychtol, Bartlomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) reconstructs images of electrical tissue properties within a body from electrical transfer impedance measurements at surface electrodes. Reconstruction of EIT images requires the solution of an inverse problem in soft field tomography, where a sensitivity matrix, J, of the relationship between internal changes and measurements is calculated, and then a pseudo-inverse of J is used to update the image estimate. It is therefore clear that a precise calculation of J is required for solution accuracy. Since it is generally not possible to use analytic solutions, the finite element method (FEM) is typically used. It has generally been recommended in the EIT literature that FEMs be refined near electrodes, since the electric field and sensitivity is largest there. In this paper we analyze the accuracy requirement for FEM refinement near electrodes in EIT and describe a technique to refine arbitrary FEMs.

  7. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  8. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  9. Refinement in reanimation of the lower face.

    PubMed

    Sherris, David A

    2004-01-01

    Both the temporalis muscle transfer and the static sling procedure are techniques that improve deglutition, speech, and aesthetics in patients who are afflicted with paralysis of the lower part of the face. A refinement that is applicable to either of these procedures is described. By bringing the perioral attachment of either the muscle or the static sling exactly to the midline of the upper and lower lips, the surgeon can make the patient's mouth more symmetrical. This simple refinement will improve the results obtained with either procedure and has not been associated with any increased perioperative risks or complications.

  10. Parabolic Refined Invariants and Macdonald Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

    2015-05-01

    A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

  11. California refining: It's all or nothing, now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-18

    The State of California has a budget deficit of more than US $14-billion, stringent and costly environmental protection laws, and a giant fiercely competitive market for high-quality gasoline. This issue of Energy Detente examines some of the emerging consequences of this dramatic combination for petroleum refining. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of July 12, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1991 edition. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Ying

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise (SNR) environment, symbol rate is often changed to maximize ata return. However, the symbol-rate change has some undesirable effects such as changing the ransmission bandwidth and perhaps causing the receiver symbol loop to lose lock temporarily, thus osing some data. In this article, we are proposing an alternate way of varying the data rate without hanging the symbol rate and therefore the transmission bandwidth. The data rate change is achieved n a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream to adapt to the hanging SNR environment. We have also derived an exact expression to enumerate the number of nique puncturing patterns. To demonstrate this seamless rate-change capability, we searched for good uncturing patterns for the Galileo (14, 1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the unctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997.

  13. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  14. The Method to Obtain Position Using Gnss and Rfid for Realization of Indoor and Outdoor Seamless Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikada, M.; Shiraishi, S.; Takeuchi, S.

    2012-07-01

    To obtain indoor positioning by using GPS (GNSS) satellite is difficult now. Additionally it is difficult to obtain high accuracy outdoor position when GPS receiver cannot find four or more GPS satellites in the viewing field of sky. The Japanese Government executed a new law NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) for a spatial information society on May 30, 2007. In this law, everybody can know positional information in real time, anytime and anywhere. In addition, it is necessary to use satellite positioning for realization of seamless positioning, and to promote ubiquitous network technology. Realization of advanced geospatial information society will achieve by creating condition which can obtain positional information anytime and anywhere. However, those technologies have not been established yet. Our laboratory conducted seamless positioning experiment to verify whether it can obtain position seamlessly by using VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference System-GPS) ,QZSS(LEX signal) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for realizing an advanced spatial information society. Especially, QZSS was launched in 2010 by JAXA and is satellite system taken by a combination of multi orbit plane and each satellite deployed to appear constantly 1 satellite near the zenith in Japan. We are joining the demonstration experiment of a part of Hokuriku area in Japan at 5th to 9th in March and 23th to 27th in April 2012. In this paper we described advanced spatial information society will realize by a combination of GPS(GNSS),RFID and QZSS.

  15. Grain Refining and Microstructural Modification during Solidification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    and 100 ml of distilled water (called etchant A) for 5 to 15 seconds. The others were etched with aqua regia (called etchant B) for 10 to 25 seconds... reverse lide It noceoav. aid IduntIty by block um-bet) Grain refining, microstructure, solidification, phase diagrams, electromagnetic stirring, Cu-Fe

  16. Theory of a refined earth model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, H. G. L.

    1968-01-01

    Refined equations are derived relating the variations of the earths gravity and radius as functions of longitude and latitude. They particularly relate the oblateness coefficients of the old harmonics and the difference of the polar radii /respectively, ellipticities and polar gravity accelerations/ in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  17. Refining the Eye: Dermatology and Visual Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Corinne; Huang, Jennifer T.; Buzney, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Museum of Fine Arts Boston and Harvard Medical School began a partnership focused on building visual literacy skills for dermatology residents in the Harvard Combined Dermatology Residency Program. "Refining the Eye: Art and Dermatology", a four session workshop, took place in the museum's galleries and utilized the Visual…

  18. Refiners respond to strategic driving forces

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.

    1996-05-01

    Better days should lie ahead for the international refining industry. While political unrest, lingering uncertainty regarding environmental policies, slowing world economic growth, over capacity and poor image will continue to plague the industry, margins in most areas appear to have bottomed out. Current margins, and even modestly improved margins, do not cover the cost of capital on certain equipment nor provide the returns necessary to achieve reinvestment economics. Refiners must determine how to improve the financial performance of their assets given this reality. Low margins and returns are generally characteristic of mature industries. Many of the business strategies employed by emerging businesses are no longer viable for refiners. The cost-cutting programs of the `90s have mainly been realized, leaving little to be gained from further reduction. Consequently, refiners will have to concentrate on increasing efficiency and delivering higher value products to survive. Rather than focusing solely on their competition, companies will emphasize substantial improvements in their own operations to achieve financial targets. This trend is clearly shown by the growing reliance on benchmarking services.

  19. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  20. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  1. Robust Refinement as Implemented in TOPAS

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.; Stephens, P

    2010-01-01

    A robust refinement procedure is implemented in the program TOPAS through an iterative reweighting of the data. Examples are given of the procedure as applied to fitting partially overlapped peaks by full and partial models and also of the structures of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the presence of unmodeled impurity contributions

  2. Purification of Germanium Crystals by Zone Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Kyler; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    2016-09-01

    Germanium zone refining is one of the most important techniques used to produce high purity germanium (HPGe) single crystals for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors. During zone refining the impurities are isolated to different parts of the ingot. In practice, the effective isolation of an impurity is dependent on many parameters, including molten zone travel speed, the ratio of ingot length to molten zone width, and number of passes. By studying the theory of these influential factors, perfecting our cleaning and preparation procedures, and analyzing the origin and distribution of our impurities (aluminum, boron, gallium, and phosphorous) identified using photothermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS), we have optimized these parameters to produce HPGe. We have achieved a net impurity level of 1010 /cm3 for our zone-refined ingots, measured with van der Pauw and Hall-effect methods. Zone-refined ingots of this purity can be processed into a detector grade HPGe single crystal, which can be used to fabricate detectors for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay detection. This project was financially supported by DOE Grant (DE-FG02-10ER46709) and the State Governor's Research Center.

  3. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-24

    Steelmaking. Vol. 33,pp. 292-300, 2005. 13. Alvarez, P.: Lesch. C: Bleck, W.; Petitgand. H.: Schottler. J.; Sevillano, J. Gil ., "Grain refinement...34 Metallurgical Transactions, vol. 1, pp 1987-1995 (1970). 7. Villars , P., Pauling File, 1995, http://crystdb.nims.go.jp/, (2 March, 2009). 8

  4. Seamless lamination of a concave-convex architecture with single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Taekyung; Baik, Jaeyoon; Seo, Keumyoung; Moon, Youngkwon; Park, Noejung; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kyu Kwak, Sang; Ju, Sanghyun; Real Ahn, Joung

    2015-10-01

    Graphene has been used as an electrode and channel material in electronic devices because of its superior physical properties. Recently, electronic devices have changed from a planar to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometry to overcome the limitations of planar devices. The evolution of electronic devices requires that graphene be adaptable to a 3D substrate. Here, we demonstrate that chemical-vapor-deposited single-layer graphene can be transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate with a 3D geometry, such as a concave-convex architecture. A variety of silicon dioxide concave-convex architectures were uniformly and seamlessly laminated with graphene using a thermal treatment. The planar graphene was stretched to cover the concave-convex architecture, and the resulting strain on the curved graphene was spatially resolved by confocal Raman spectroscopy; molecular dynamic simulations were also conducted and supported the observations. Changes in electrical resistivity caused by the spatially varying strain induced as the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate varies dimensionally from 2D to 3D were measured by using a four-point probe. The resistivity measurements suggest that the electrical resistivity can be systematically controlled by the 3D geometry of the graphene-silicon dioxide laminate. This 3D graphene-insulator laminate will broaden the range of graphene applications beyond planar structures to 3D materials.Graphene has been used as an electrode and channel material in electronic devices because of its superior physical properties. Recently, electronic devices have changed from a planar to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometry to overcome the limitations of planar devices. The evolution of electronic devices requires that graphene be adaptable to a 3D substrate. Here, we demonstrate that chemical-vapor-deposited single-layer graphene can be transferred onto a silicon dioxide substrate with a 3D geometry, such as a concave-convex architecture. A

  5. Refining aggregate exposure: example using parabens.

    PubMed

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; Robison, Steven H

    2009-12-01

    The need to understand and estimate quantitatively the aggregate exposure to ingredients used broadly in a variety of product types continues to grow. Currently aggregate exposure is most commonly estimated by using a very simplistic approach of adding or summing the exposures from all the individual product types in which the chemical is used. However, the more broadly the ingredient is used in related consumer products, the more likely this summation will result in an unrealistic estimate of exposure because individuals in the population vary in their patterns of product use including co-use and non-use. Furthermore the ingredient may not be used in all products of a given type. An approach is described for refining this aggregate exposure using data on (1) co-use and non-use patterns of product use, (2) extent of products in which the ingredient is used and (3) dermal penetration and metabolism. This approach and the relative refinement in the aggregate exposure from incorporating these data is illustrated using methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, the most widely used preservative system in personal care and cosmetic products. When these refining factors were used, the aggregate exposure compared to the simple addition approach was reduced by 51%, 58%, 90% and 92% for methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and ethyl parabens, respectively. Since biomonitoring integrates all sources and routes of exposure, the estimates using this approach were compared to available paraben biomonitoring data. Comparison to the 95th percentile of these data showed that these refined estimates were still conservative by factors of 2-92. All of our refined estimates of aggregate exposure are less than the ADI of 10mg/kg/day for parabens.

  6. Refining industry trends: Europe and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Guariguata, U.G.

    1997-05-01

    The European refining industry, along with its counterparts, is struggling with low profitability due to excess primary and conversion capacity, high operating costs and impending decisions of stringent environmental regulations that will require significant investments with hard to justify returns. This region was also faced in the early 1980s with excess capacity on the order of 4 MMb/d and satisfying the {open_quotes}at that point{close_quotes} demand by operating at very low utilization rates (60%). As was the case in the US, the rebalancing of the capacity led to the closure of some 51 refineries. Since the early 1990s, the increase in demand growth has essentially balanced the capacity threshold and utilization rates are settled around the 90% range. During the last two decades, the major oil companies have reduced their presence in the European refining sector, giving some state oil companies and producing countries the opportunity to gain access to the consumer market through the purchase of refining capacity in various countries-specifically, Kuwait in Italy; Libya and Venezuela in Germany; and Norway in other areas of Scandinavia. Although the market share for this new cast of characters remains small (4%) relative to participation by the majors (35%), their involvement in the European refining business set the foundation whereby US independent refiners relinquished control over assets that could not be operated profitably as part of a previous vertically integrated structure, unless access to the crude was ensured. The passage of time still seems to render this model valid.

  7. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  8. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  9. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A.; Kaplan, David L.; Peattie, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm2), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques. PMID:22890517

  10. Seamless Level 2/Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment using dynamic event tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Douglas Matthew

    The current approach to Level 2 and Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the conventional event-tree/fault-tree methodology requires pre-specification of event order occurrence which may vary significantly in the presence of uncertainties. Manual preparation of input data to evaluate the possible scenarios arising from these uncertainties may also lead to errors from faulty/incomplete input preparation and their execution using serial runs may lead to computational challenges. A methodology has been developed for Level 2 analysis using dynamic event trees (DETs) that removes these limitations with systematic and mechanized quantification of the impact of aleatory uncertainties on possible consequences and their likelihoods. The methodology is implemented using the Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees (ADAPT) software. For the purposes of this work, aleatory uncertainties are defined as those arising from the stochastic nature of the processes under consideration, such as the variability of weather, in which the probability of weather patterns is predictable but the conditions at the time of the accident are a matter of chance. Epistemic uncertainties are regarded as those arising from the uncertainty in the model (system code) input parameters (e.g., friction or heat transfer correlation parameters). This work conducts a seamless Level 2/3 PRA using a DET analysis. The research helps to quantify and potentially reduce the magnitude of the source term uncertainty currently experienced in Level 3 PRA. Current techniques have been demonstrated with aleatory uncertainties for environmental releases of radioactive materials. This research incorporates epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in a phenomenologically consistent manner through use of DETs. The DETs were determined using the ADAPT framework and linking ADAPT with MELCOR, MELMACCS, and the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2. Aleatory and epistemic uncertainties incorporated

  11. Efficient Buffering Scheme in the LMA for Seamless Handover in PMIPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ryoul; Lee, Hyo-Beom; Choi, Hyon-Young; Min, Sung-Gi; Han, Youn-Hee

    Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) is proposed as a new network-based local mobility protocol which does not involve the Mobile Node (MN) in mobility management. PMIPv6, which uses link-layer attachment information, reduces the movement detection time and eliminates duplicate address detection procedures in order to provide faster handover than Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). To eliminate packet loss during the handover period, the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA) buffering scheme is proposed. In this scheme, the LMA buffers lost packets of the Mobile Access Gateway (MAG) and the MN during the handover and recovers them after handover. A new Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) handler is defined which efficiently manages the LMA buffer. The ARQ handler relays ARQ result between the MAG and the MN to the LMA. The LMA removes any buffered packets which have been successfully delivered to the MN. The ARQ handler recovers the packet loss during the handover using buffered packets in the LMA. The ARQ information, between the MAG and LMA, is inserted in the outer header of IP-in-IP encapsulated packets of a standard PMIPv6 tunnel. Since the proposed scheme simply adds information to the standard operation of an IP-in-IP tunnel between the LMA and the MAG, it can be implemented seamlessly without modification to the original PMIPv6 messages and signaling sequence. Unlike other Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) based enhancement for PMIPv6, the proposed scheme does not require any handover related information before the actual handover.

  12. Development of a seamless multisource topographic/bathymetric elevation model of Tampa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Wilson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require knowledge of the nearshore topography and bathymetry. However, because existing topographic and bathymetric data have been collected independently for different purposes, it has been difficult to use them together at the land/water interface owing to differences in format, projection, resolution, accuracy, and datums. As a first step toward solving the problems of integrating diverse coastal datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are collaborating on a joint demonstration project to merge their data for the Tampa Bay region of Florida. The best available topographic and bathymetric data were extracted from the USGS National Elevation Dataset and the NOAA hydrographic survey database, respectively. Before being merged, the topographic and bathymetric datasets were processed with standard geographic information system tools to place them in a common horizontal reference frame. Also, a key part of the preprocessing was transformation to a common vertical reference through the use of VDatum, a new tool created by NOAA's National Geodetic Survey for vertical datum conversions. The final merged product is a seamless topographic/bathymetric model covering the Tampa Bay region at a grid spacing of 1 arc-second. Topographic LIDAR data were processed and merged with the bathymetry to demonstrate the incorporation of recent third party data sources for several test areas. A primary application of a merged topographic/bathymetric elevation model is for user-defined shoreline delineation, in which the user decides on the tidal condition (for example, low or high water) to be superimposed on the elevation data to determine the spatial position of the water line. Such a use of merged topographic/bathymetric data could lead to the development of a shoreline zone, which could reduce redundant mapping efforts by federal, state, and local agencies

  13. Seamless, axially aligned, fiber tubes, meshes, microbundles and gradient biomaterial constructs.

    PubMed

    Jose, Rod R; Elia, Roberto; Firpo, Matthew A; Kaplan, David L; Peattie, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    A new electrospinning apparatus was developed to generate nanofibrous materials with improved organizational control. The system functions by oscillating the deposition signal (ODS) of multiple collectors, allowing significantly improved nanofiber control by manipulating the electric field which drives the electrospinning process. Other electrospinning techniques designed to impart deposited fiber organizational control, such as rotating mandrels or parallel collector systems, do not generate seamless constructs with high quality alignment in sizes large enough for medical devices. In contrast, the ODS collection system produces deposited fiber networks with highly pure alignment in a variety of forms and sizes, including flat (8 × 8 cm(2)), tubular (1.3 cm diameter), or rope-like microbundle (45 μm diameter) samples. Additionally, the mechanism of our technique allows for scale-up beyond these dimensions. The ODS collection system produced 81.6 % of fibers aligned within 5° of the axial direction, nearly a four-fold improvement over the rotating mandrel technique. The meshes produced from the 9 % (w/v) fibroin/PEO blend demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy due to the fiber alignment. In 37 °C PBS, aligned samples produced an ultimate tensile strength of 16.47 ± 1.18 MPa, a Young's modulus of 37.33 MPa, and a yield strength of 7.79 ± 1.13 MPa. The material was 300 % stiffer when extended in the direction of fiber alignment and required 20 times the amount of force to be deformed, compared to aligned meshes extended perpendicular to the fiber direction. The ODS technique could be applied to any electrospinnable polymer to overcome the more limited uniformity and induced mechanical strain of rotating mandrel techniques, and greatly surpasses the limited length of standard parallel collector techniques.

  14. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  15. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.

  16. Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-03-01

    In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry.

  17. Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, J.E.

    1995-09-01

    High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

  18. The Refinement of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aştefănoaei, L.; de Boer, F. S.

    This chapter introduces an encompassing theory of refinement which supports a top-down methodology for designing multi-agent systems. We present a general modelling framework where we identify different abstraction levels of BDI agents. On the one hand, at a higher level of abstraction we introduce the language BUnity as a way to specify “what” an agent can do. On the other hand, at a more concrete layer we introduce the language BUpL as implementing not only what an agent can do but also “when” the agent can do. At this stage of individual agent design, refinement is understood as trace inclusion. Having the traces of an implementation included in the traces of a given specification means that the implementation is correct with respect to the specification.

  19. Automata Learning with Automated Alphabet Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howar, Falk; Steffen, Bernhard; Merten, Maik

    on is the key when learning behavioral models of realistic systems, but also the cause of a major problem: the introduction of non-determinism. In this paper, we introduce a method for refining a given abstraction to automatically regain a deterministic behavior on-the-fly during the learning process. Thus the control over abstraction becomes part of the learning process, with the effect that detected non-determinism does not lead to failure, but to a dynamic alphabet abstraction refinement. Like automata learning itself, this method in general is neither sound nor complete, but it also enjoys similar convergence properties even for infinite systems as long as the concrete system itself behaves deterministically, as illustrated along a concrete example.

  20. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  1. The indirect electrochemical refining of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Recent work performed on an electrolytic cell is reported which addresses the implicit limitations in various approaches to refining lunar ores. The cell uses an oxygen vacancy conducting stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte to effect separation between a molten salt catholyte compartment where alkali metals are deposited, and an oxygen-evolving anode of composition La(0.89)Sr(0.1)MnO3. The cell configuration is shown and discussed along with a polarization curve and a steady-state current-voltage curve. In a practical cell, cathodically deposited liquid lithium would be continuously removed from the electrolytic cell and used as a valuable reducing agent for ore refining under lunar conditions. Oxygen would be indirectly electrochemically extracted from lunar ores for breathing purposes.

  2. Substance abuse in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Little, A. Jr. ); Ross, J.K. ); Lavorerio, R. ); Richards, T.A. )

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide some background for the NPRA Annual Meeting Management Session panel discussion on Substance Abuse in the Refining and Petrochemical Industries, NPRA distributed a questionnaire to member companies requesting information regarding the status of their individual substance abuse policies. The questionnaire was designed to identify general trends in the industry. The aggregate responses to the survey are summarized in this paper, as background for the Substance Abuse panel discussions.

  3. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  4. Humanoid Mobile Manipulation Using Controller Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Burridge, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Graf, Jodi; Goza, Mike; Huber, Eric

    2006-01-01

    An important class of mobile manipulation problems are move-to-grasp problems where a mobile robot must navigate to and pick up an object. One of the distinguishing features of this class of tasks is its coarse-to-fine structure. Near the beginning of the task, the robot can only sense the target object coarsely or indirectly and make gross motion toward the object. However, after the robot has located and approached the object, the robot must finely control its grasping contacts using precise visual and haptic feedback. In this paper, it is proposed that move-to-grasp problems are naturally solved by a sequence of controllers that iteratively refines what ultimately becomes the final solution. This paper introduces the notion of a refining sequence of controllers and characterizes this type of solution. The approach is demonstrated in a move-to-grasp task where Robonaut, the NASA/JSC dexterous humanoid, is mounted on a mobile base and navigates to and picks up a geological sample box. In a series of tests, it is shown that a refining sequence of controllers decreases variance in robot configuration relative to the sample box until a successful grasp has been achieved.

  5. Humanoid Mobile Manipulation Using Controller Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Burridge, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Graf, Jodi; Goza, Mike; Huber, Eric; Brock, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    An important class of mobile manipulation problems are move-to-grasp problems where a mobile robot must navigate to and pick up an object. One of the distinguishing features of this class of tasks is its coarse-to-fine structure. Near the beginning of the task, the robot can only sense the target object coarsely or indirectly and make gross motion toward the object. However, after the robot has located and approached the object, the robot must finely control its grasping contacts using precise visual and haptic feedback. This paper proposes that move-to-grasp problems are naturally solved by a sequence of controllers that iteratively refines what ultimately becomes the final solution. This paper introduces the notion of a refining sequence of controllers and characterizes this type of solution. The approach is demonstrated in a move-to-grasp task where Robonaut, the NASA/JSC dexterous humanoid, is mounted on a mobile base and navigates to and picks up a geological sample box. In a series of tests, it is shown that a refining sequence of controllers decreases variance in robot configuration relative to the sample box until a successful grasp has been achieved.

  6. Seamless Digital Environment – Plan for Data Analytics Use Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron

    2016-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program initiated research in to what is needed in order to provide a roadmap or model for Nuclear Power Plants to reference when building an architecture that can support the growing data supply and demand flowing through their networks. The Digital Architecture project published report Digital Architecture Planning Model (Oxstrand et. al, 2016) discusses things to consider when building an architecture to support the increasing needs and demands of data throughout the plant. Once the plant is able to support the data demands it still needs to be able to provide the data in an easy, quick and reliable method. A common method is to create a “one stop shop” application that a user can go to get all the data they need. The creation of this leads to the need of creating a Seamless Digital Environment (SDE) to integrate all the “siloed” data. An SDE is the desired perception that should be presented to users by gathering the data from any data source (e.g., legacy applications and work management systems) without effort by the user. The goal for FY16 was to complete a feasibility study for data mining and analytics for employing information from computer-based procedures enabled technologies for use in developing improved business analytics. The research team collaborated with multiple organizations to identify use cases or scenarios, which could be beneficial to investigate in a feasibility study. Many interesting potential use cases were identified throughout the FY16 activity. Unfortunately, due to factors out of the research team’s control, none of the studies were initiated this year. However, the insights gained and the relationships built with both PVNGS and NextAxiom will be valuable when moving forward with future research. During the 2016 annual Nuclear Information Technology Strategic Leadership (NITSL) group meeting it was identified would be very beneficial to the industry to

  7. Towards a seamless model of Quaternary sediments for continental-scale hydrogeology in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, M.; Schumacher, M. N.; Chen, J.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    One of the challenges in modelling groundwater flow systems at the continental-scale is to integrate the geology, i.e. the physical properties of the media, into the grid of a numerical model. In Canada, the development of such a model has been hampered by both the scarcity of data in some remote areas where thick stratigraphic sequences occur (e.g. Hudson Bay Lowlands) and the fact that large subsurface datasets, such as sediment thickness maps, have yet to be compiled in file formats and at scales that would allow seamless coverage across provincial boundaries. Furthermore, thickness maps, where available, are generally not subdivided according to a stratigraphic framework. Here we present a preliminary digital map of Quaternary sediment types and their estimated thickness for Canada and parts of the United States designed specifically for continental-scale groundwater flow modelling. This preliminary map currently consists of a triangulated surface whose internal topological boundaries match sediment unit contacts from pre-existing map compilations of surficial materials at the provincial/state and national scales. Thickness data, mainly derived from available thickness maps, and estimated hydraulic conductivities are stored as values (min, average, max) on the nodes of the surface rather than as a range or a description in a text field or legend. This is a significant improvement from previous map compilations which greatly facilitates interoperability with numerical models. When completed, the map will consist of three surfaces: 1) a surface layer; 2) a subsurface layer representing the characteristics of the dominant subsurface unit; and, 3) locally, a deeper layer to account for important buried valley aquifers. To date, only the surface layer (0-5 m thickness) has been integrated in the numerical model but it has already led to improved depth to water table in drift covered areas over previous model runs which did not take into account the Quaternary

  8. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm2 and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, — one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources. PMID:26601246

  9. Fabrication of seamless electrospun collagen/PLGA conduits whose walls comprise highly longitudinal aligned nanofibers for nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yuanming; Huang, Chen; Zhu, Yi; Fan, Cunyi; Ke, Qinfei

    2013-06-01

    An ideal nerve scaffold should supply structural guidance and trophic support to facilitate nerve regeneration. Aligned electrospun nanofibers have shown considerable promise for the precise guidance of regenerating axons in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, uniaxially aligned three-dimension (3D) nanofiberous scaffolds may allow regenerating axons to traverse large gaps to treat severe nerve injuries. However, the aligned 3D conduit was always rolled by an aligned 2-dimensional (2D) sheet in current fabrication methods, which was inconvenient for transplant due to the discontinuous joint and inconsistent size. We developed a modified one-step electrospinning technique to produce a seamless 3D nanofiberous nerve conduit (NC) with highly longitudinal aligned nanofibers that combines the biocompatibility of natural collagen and the strength of the synthetic polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the parallel alignment of the scaffold fibers. To test the effectiveness of these scaffolds at restoring neuronal connections, they were implanted into adult rats across a 13 mm sciatic nerve defect. Tests of, motor function, nerve conduction, axonal and Schwann cell morphology, and marker expression all revealed that uniaxially aligned seamless 3D electrospun collagen/PLGA NCs were superior to randomly oriented NCs and inferior to autografts for promoting axon regeneration, myelination, action potential propagation, neuromuscular transmission, and functional recovery. These uniaxially aligned seamless 3D electrospun collagen/PLGA nerve guides can also incorporate signaling molecules and additional structural cues to guide nerve growth, and so may be a promising substitute for autogenous nerve grafts.

  10. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  11. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  12. Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement are presented. Topics covered include: grid generation; cell cutting; data structures; flow solver formulation; adaptive mesh refinement; and viscous flow.

  13. Manufacturing process controls for high reliability carbon filament-wound seamless-aluminum-lined composite pressure vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, C. A.; Haddock, R. C.

    1992-07-01

    An account is given of the manufacturing, inspection, and test-process variables associated with the production of carbon filament-wound/epoxy-matrix, seamless aluminum-lined pressure vessels, which have achieved operating pressures of the order of 10,000 psi and burst-to-operating safety factors of as low as 1.5-1.0. Attention is given to the process controls that are needed to reach current reliability requirements. Attention is given to liner surface preparation, age sensitivity, and the dangers of exposure to heat and stress.

  14. ViDI: Virtual Diagnostics Interface. Volume 2; Unified File Format and Web Services as Applied to Seamless Data Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Technical Monitor); Schwartz, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The desire to revolutionize the aircraft design cycle from its currently lethargic pace to a fast turn-around operation enabling the optimization of non-traditional configurations is a critical challenge facing the aeronautics industry. In response, a large scale effort is underway to not only advance the state of the art in wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and information technology, but to unify these often disparate elements into a cohesive design resource. This paper will address Seamless Data Transfer, the critical central nervous system that will enable a wide variety of varied components to work together.

  15. The blind leading the blind: Mutual refinement of approximate theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar T.; Bresina, John L.; Dent, C. Lisa

    1991-01-01

    The mutual refinement theory, a method for refining world models in a reactive system, is described. The method detects failures, explains their causes, and repairs the approximate models which cause the failures. The approach focuses on using one approximate model to refine another.

  16. Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.

  17. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  18. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  19. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  20. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  1. 48 CFR 208.7304 - Refined precious metals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refined precious metals... Government-Owned Precious Metals 208.7304 Refined precious metals. See PGI 208.7304 for a list of refined precious metals managed by DSCP....

  2. Refining the asteroid taxonomy by polarimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belskaya, I. N.; Fornasier, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Antonyuk, K.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Dovgopol, A. N.; Faggi, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present new results of polarimetric observations of 15 main belt asteroids of different composition. By merging new and published data we determined polarimetric parameters characterizing individual asteroids and mean values of the same parameters characterizing different taxonomic classes. The majority of asteroids show polarimetric phase curves close to the average curve of the corresponding class. We show that using polarimetric data it is possible to refine asteroid taxonomy and derive a polarimetric classification for 283 main belt asteroids. Polarimetric observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia are found to exhibit possible variations of the position angle of the polarization plane over the surface.

  3. Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

  4. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  5. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

  6. WASP-41b: Refined Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaňko, M.; Pribulla, T.; Tan, T. G.; Parimucha, Š.; Evans, P.; Mašek, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first follow-up study of the transiting system WASP-41 after its discovery in 2011. Our main goal is to refine the physical parameters of the system and to search for possible signs of transit timing variations. The observations used for the analysis were taken from the public archive Exoplanet Transit Database (ETD). The Safronov number and equilibrium temperature of WASP-41b indicate that it belongs to the so-called Class I. No transit timing variations (TTV) were detected.

  7. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan

    2010-01-01

    Project Description These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the western Florida coastline beachface, acquired post-Hurricane Charley on August 17 and 18, 2004. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  8. Seamless data-range change using punctured convolutional codes for time-varying signal-to-noise ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.; Cheung, K.-M.

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise ration (SNR) environment, symbol rate is often changed to maximize data return. However, the symbol-rate change has some undesirable effects, such as changing the transmission bandwidth and perhaps causing the receiver symbol loop to lose lock temporarily, thus losing some data. In this article, we are proposing an alternate way of varying the data rate without changing the symbol rate and, therefore, the transmission bandwidth. The data rate change is achieved in a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream to adapt to the changing SNR environment. We have also derived an exact expression to enumerate the number of distinct puncturing patterns. To demonstrate this seamless rate change capability, we searched for good puncturing patterns for the Galileo (14,1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the punctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997. We show that this scheme reduces the symbol-rate changes from nine to two and provides a comparable data return in a day and a higher symbol SNR during most of the day.

  9. Novel design of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores toward phononic band gap engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2015-04-01

    A novel design for the geometric configuration of honeycombs using a seamless combination of auxetic and conventional cores-elements with negative and positive Possion ratios respectively, has been presented. The proposed design has been shown to generate a superior band gap property while retaining all major advantages of a purely conventional or purely auxetic honeycomb structure. Seamless combination ensures that joint cardinality is also retained. Several configurations involving different degree of auxeticity and different proportions auxetic and conventional elements have been analyzed. It has been shown that the preferred configurations open up wide and clean band gap at a significantly lower frequency ranges compared to their pure counterparts. In view of existence of band gaps being desired feature for the phononic applications, reported results might be appealing. Use of such design may enable superior vibration control as well. Proposed configurations can be made isovolumic and iso-weight giving designers a fairer ground of applying such configurations without significantly changing size and weight criteria.

  10. Counter-selection recombineering of the baculovirus genome: a strategy for seamless modification of repeat-containing BACs.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, Marcel; Soedling, Helen M; Mann, Derek A; Nicholson, Linda J; Dolphin, Colin T

    2010-09-01

    Recombineering is employed to modify large DNA clones such as fosmids, BACs and PACs. Subtle and seamless modifications can be achieved using counter-selection strategies in which a donor cassette carrying both positive and negative markers inserted in the target clone is replaced by the desired sequence change. We are applying counter-selection recombineering to modify bacmid bMON14272, a recombinant baculoviral genome, as we wish to engineer the virus into a therapeutically useful gene delivery vector with cell targeting characteristics. Initial attempts to replace gp64 with Fusion (F) genes from other baculoviruses resulted in many rearranged clones in which the counter-selection cassette had been deleted. Bacmid bMON14272 contains nine highly homologous regions (hrs) and deletions were mapped to recombination between hr pairs. Recombineering modifications were attempted to decrease intramolecular recombination and/or increase recombineering efficiency. Of these only the use of longer homology arms on the donor molecule proved effective permitting seamless modification. bMON14272, because of the presence of the hr sequences, can be considered equivalent to a highly repetitive BAC and, as such, the optimized method detailed here should prove useful to others applying counter-selection recombineering to modify BACs or PACs containing similar regions of significant repeating homologies.

  11. Simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb generation using an InAs/InP quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiupu; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Zhenxiang; Dai, Shixun; Liu, Taijun

    2017-03-15

    A simple and seamless broadband optical frequency comb (OFC) generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a Fabry-Perot quantum dot mode-locked laser combined with a dual-driven LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by a low-power radio frequency (RF) signal. It is experimentally demonstrated that the 10-dB seamless bandwidth of the OFC is 8.2 nm (1.02 THz), which has 62 and 40 comb lines for frequency intervals of 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz, respectively. The single-sideband phase noise is as low as -112 and -108  dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 kHz, respectively, for the photodetector-converted 16.56 and 24.84 GHz frequency carriers. Correspondingly, the RF linewidths of the 16.56 GHz and 24.84 GHz carriers are about 251 Hz-263 Hz, respectively. Using a QD laser, an ultra-low phase noise and quasi-tunable broadband OFC generator is obtained easily.

  12. Refinement Of Hexahedral Cells In Euler Flow Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Thomas, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    Topologically Independent Grid, Euler Refinement (TIGER) computer program solves Euler equations of three-dimensional, unsteady flow of inviscid, compressible fluid by numerical integration on unstructured hexahedral coordinate grid refined where necessary to resolve shocks and other details. Hexahedral cells subdivided, each into eight smaller cells, as needed to refine computational grid in regions of high flow gradients. Grid Interactive Refinement and Flow-Field Examination (GIRAFFE) computer program written in conjunction with TIGER program to display computed flow-field data and to assist researcher in verifying specified boundary conditions and refining grid.

  13. Increased delignification by white rot fungi after pressure refining Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul W; Charlton, Adam; Hale, Mike D C

    2015-01-01

    Pressure refining, a pulp making process to separate fibres of lignocellulosic materials, deposits lignin granules on the surface of the fibres that could enable increased access to lignin degrading enzymes. Three different white rot fungi were grown on pressure refined (at 6 bar and 8 bar) and milled Miscanthus. Growth after 28 days showed highest biomass losses on milled Miscanthus compared to pressure refined Miscanthus. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora caused a significantly higher proportion of lignin removal when grown on 6 bar pressure refined Miscanthus compared to growth on 8 bar pressure refined Miscanthus and milled Miscanthus. RM22b followed a similar trend but Phlebiopsis gigantea SPLog6 did not. Conversely, C. subvermispora growing on pressure refined Miscanthus revealed that the proportion of cellulose increased. These results show that two of the three white rot fungi used in this study showed higher delignification on pressure refined Miscanthus than milled Miscanthus.

  14. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for ICF Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyfe, David

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes our use of the package PARAMESH to create an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) version of NRL's FASTRAD3D code. PARAMESH was designed to create an MPI-based AMR code from a block structured serial code such as FASTRAD3D. FASTRAD3D is a compressible hydrodynamics code containing the physical effects relevant for the simulation of high-temperature plasmas including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) Rayleigh-Taylor unstable direct drive laser targets. These effects include inverse bremmstrahlung laser energy absorption, classical flux-limited Spitzer thermal conduction, real (table look-up) equation-of-state with either separate or identical electron and ion temperatures, multi-group variable Eddington radiation transport, and multi-group alpha particle transport and thermonuclear burn. Numerically, this physics requires an elliptic solver and a ray tracing approach on the AMR grid, which is the main subject of this paper. A sample ICF calculation will be presented. MacNeice et al., ``PARAMESH: A parallel adaptive mesh refinement community tool,'' Computer Physics Communications, 126 (2000), pp. 330-354.

  16. Evolutionary Optimization of a Geometrically Refined Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.; Dozier, G. V.

    2007-01-01

    Structural optimization is a field of research that has experienced noteworthy growth for many years. Researchers in this area have developed optimization tools to successfully design and model structures, typically minimizing mass while maintaining certain deflection and stress constraints. Numerous optimization studies have been performed to minimize mass, deflection, and stress on a benchmark cantilever truss problem. Predominantly traditional optimization theory is applied to this problem. The cross-sectional area of each member is optimized to minimize the aforementioned objectives. This Technical Publication (TP) presents a structural optimization technique that has been previously applied to compliant mechanism design. This technique demonstrates a method that combines topology optimization, geometric refinement, finite element analysis, and two forms of evolutionary computation: genetic algorithms and differential evolution to successfully optimize a benchmark structural optimization problem. A nontraditional solution to the benchmark problem is presented in this TP, specifically a geometrically refined topological solution. The design process begins with an alternate control mesh formulation, multilevel geometric smoothing operation, and an elastostatic structural analysis. The design process is wrapped in an evolutionary computing optimization toolset.

  17. Molecular refinement of gibbon genome rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Wilson, Richard K; Mardis, Elaine R; Lomiento, Mariana; Tuzun, Eray; Cheng, Ze; Mootnick, Alan R; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E

    2007-02-01

    The gibbon karyotype is known to be extensively rearranged when compared to the human and to the ancestral primate karyotype. By combining a bioinformatics (paired-end sequence analysis) approach and a molecular cytogenetics approach, we have refined the synteny block arrangement of the white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys, NLE) with respect to the human genome. We provide the first detailed clone framework map of the gibbon genome and refine the location of 86 evolutionary breakpoints to <1 Mb resolution. An additional 12 breakpoints, mapping primarily to centromeric and telomeric regions, were mapped to approximately 5 Mb resolution. Our combined FISH and BES analysis indicates that we have effectively subcloned 49 of these breakpoints within NLE gibbon BAC clones, mapped to a median resolution of 79.7 kb. Interestingly, many of the intervals associated with translocations were gene-rich, including some genes associated with normal skeletal development. Comparisons of NLE breakpoints with those of other gibbon species reveal variability in the position, suggesting that chromosomal rearrangement has been a longstanding property of this particular ape lineage. Our data emphasize the synergistic effect of combining computational genomics and cytogenetics and provide a framework for ultimate sequence and assembly of the gibbon genome.

  18. Current sheets, reconnection and adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliani, Christiane

    1998-11-01

    Adaptive structured mesh refinement methods have proved to be an appropriate tool for the numerical study of a variety of problems where largely separated length scales are involved, e.g. [R. Grauer, C. Marliani, K. Germaschewski, PRL, 80, 4177, (1998)]. A typical example in plasma physics are the current sheets in magnetohydrodynamic flows. Their dynamics is investigated in the framework of incompressible MHD. We present simulations of the ideal and inviscid dynamics in two and three dimensions. In addition, we show numerical simulations for the resistive case in two dimensions. Specifically, we show simulations for the case of the doubly periodic coalescence instability. At the onset of the reconnection process the kinetic energy rises and drops rapidly and afterwards settles into an oscillatory phase. The timescale of the magnetic reconnection process is not affected by these fast events but consistent with the Sweet-Parker model of stationary reconnection. Taking into account the electron inertia terms in the generalized Ohm's law the electron skin depth is introduced as an additional parameter. The modified equations allow for magnetic reconnection in the collisionless regime. Current density and vorticity concentrate in extremely long and thin sheets. Their dynamics becomes numerically accessible by means of adaptive mesh refinement.

  19. Proving refinement transformations for deriving high-assurance software

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.; Boyle, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The construction of a high-assurance system requires some evidence, ideally a proof, that the system as implemented will behave as required. Direct proofs of implementations do not scale up well as systems become more complex and therefore are of limited value. In recent years, refinement-based approaches have been investigated as a means to manage the complexity inherent in the verification process. In a refinement-based approach, a high-level specification is converted into an implementation through a number of refinement steps. The hope is that the proofs of the individual refinement steps will be easier than a direct proof of the implementation. However, if stepwise refinement is performed manually, the number of steps is severely limited, implying that the size of each step is large. If refinement steps are large, then proofs of their correctness will not be much easier than a direct proof of the implementation. The authors describe an approach to refinement-based software development that is based on automatic application of refinements, expressed as program transformations. This automation has the desirable effect that the refinement steps can be extremely small and, thus, easy to prove correct. They give an overview of the TAMPR transformation system that the use for automated refinement. They then focus on some aspects of the semantic framework that they have been developing to enable proofs that TAMPR transformations are correctness preserving. With this framework, proofs of correctness for transformations can be obtained with the assistance of an automated reasoning system.

  20. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  1. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  2. The evolution and refinements of varicocele surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marmar, Joel L

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles had been recognized in clinical practice for over a century. Originally, these procedures were utilized for the management of pain but, since 1952, the repairs had been mostly for the treatment of male infertility. However, the diagnosis and treatment of varicoceles were controversial, because the pathophysiology was not clear, the entry criteria of the studies varied among centers, and there were few randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, clinicians continued developing techniques for the correction of varicoceles, basic scientists continued investigations on the pathophysiology of varicoceles, and new outcome data from prospective randomized trials have appeared in the world's literature. Therefore, this special edition of the Asian Journal of Andrology was proposed to report much of the new information related to varicoceles and, as a specific part of this project, the present article was developed as a comprehensive review of the evolution and refinements of the corrective procedures. PMID:26732111

  3. Seasat orbit refinement for altimetry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. N.; Hamata, N. E.; Stavert, R. L.; Bierman, G. J.

    1980-12-01

    This paper describes the use of stochastic differential correction models in refining the Seasat orbit based on post-flight analysis of tracking data. The objective is to obtain orbital-height precision that is commensurate with the inherent Seasat altimetry data precision level of 10 cms. Local corrections to a mean ballistic arc, perturbed principally by atmospheric drag variations and local gravitational anomalies, are obtained by the introduction of stochastic dynamical models in conjunction with optimal estimation/smoothing techniques. Assessment of the resulting orbit with 'ground truth' provided by Seasat altimetry data shows that the orbital height precision is improved by 32% when compared to a conventional least-squares solution using the same data set. The orbital height precision realized by employing stochastic differential correction models is in the range of 73 cms to 208 cms rms.

  4. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  5. GRChombo: Numerical relativity with adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Katy; Figueras, Pau; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A.; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we introduce {\\mathtt{GRChombo}}: a new numerical relativity code which incorporates full adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) using block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation. The code supports non-trivial ‘many-boxes-in-many-boxes’ mesh hierarchies and massive parallelism through the message passing interface. {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} evolves the Einstein equation using the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. The AMR capability permits the study of a range of new physics which has previously been computationally infeasible in a full 3 + 1 setting, while also significantly simplifying the process of setting up the mesh for these problems. We show that {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} can stably and accurately evolve standard spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers and scalar collapses into black holes, demonstrate the performance characteristics of our code, and discuss various physics problems which stand to benefit from the AMR technique.

  6. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  7. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  8. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Chang, Brian L.; Percec, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005–2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration–approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that “product customization” is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes. PMID:28018778

  9. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  10. Seamless Data-Rate Change Using Punctured Convolutional Codes for a Time-Varying Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Ying; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    1995-01-01

    In a time-varying signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) environment, symbol rate is changed to maximize data return. However, the symbol-rate changes may cause the receiver symbol loop to lose lock, thus losing real-time data. We propose an alternate way of varying the data rate in a seamless fashion by puncturing the convolutionally encoded symbol stream and transmitting the punctured encoded symbols with a constant symbol rate. We systematically searched for good puncturing patterns for the Galileo (14,1/4) convolutional code and changed the data rates by using the punctured codes to match the Galileo SNR profile of November 9, 1997. We concluded that this scheme reduces the symbol-rate changes from 9 to 2 and provides a larger data return and a higher symbol SNR during most of the day.

  11. Bioelectrochemistry of heme peptide at seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes/graphene hybrid films for highly sensitive electrochemical biosensing.

    PubMed

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-02-18

    A seamless three-dimensional hybrid film consisting of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (CNTs/G) is a promising material for the application to highly sensitive enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. The CNTs/G film was used as a conductive nanoscaffold for enzymes. The heme peptide (HP) was immobilized on the surface of the CNTs/G film for amperometric sensing of H2O2. Compared with flat graphene electrodes modified with HP, the catalytic current for H2O2 reduction at the HP-modified CNTs/G electrode increased due to the increase in the surface coverage of HP. In addition, microvoids in the CNTs/G film contributed to diffusion of H2O2 to modified HP, resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic cathodic currents. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HP was also analyzed.

  12. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution withinteratomic scatterers

    SciTech Connect

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2007-11-09

    A study of the accurate electron density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution, better than {approx} 1.0 {angstrom}, requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8-1.0 {angstrom}, the number of experimental data is insufficient for the full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark datasets gave results comparable in quality with results of multipolar refinement and superior of those for conventional models. Applications to several datasets of both small- and macro-molecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  13. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Weare, J.; Ong, E.; Baden, S.

    1996-12-01

    We have applied structured adaptive mesh refinement techniques to the solution of the LDA equations for electronic structure calculations. Local spatial refinement concentrates memory resources and numerical effort where it is most needed, near the atomic centers and in regions of rapidly varying charge density. The structured grid representation enables us to employ efficient iterative solver techniques such as conjugate gradients with multigrid preconditioning. We have parallelized our solver using an object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement framework.

  14. Improved ligand geometries in crystallographic refinement using AFITT in PHENIX

    PubMed Central

    Janowski, Pawel A.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Kelley, Brian P.; Case, David A.; York, Darrin M.; Adams, Paul D.; Warren, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Modern crystal structure refinement programs rely on geometry restraints to overcome the challenge of a low data-to-parameter ratio. While the classical Engh and Huber restraints work well for standard amino-acid residues, the chemical complexity of small-molecule ligands presents a particular challenge. Most current approaches either limit ligand restraints to those that can be readily described in the Crystallographic Information File (CIF) format, thus sacrificing chemical flexibility and energetic accuracy, or they employ protocols that substantially lengthen the refinement time, potentially hindering rapid automated refinement workflows. PHENIX–AFITT refinement uses a full molecular-mechanics force field for user-selected small-molecule ligands during refinement, eliminating the potentially difficult problem of finding or generating high-quality geometry restraints. It is fully integrated with a standard refinement protocol and requires practically no additional steps from the user, making it ideal for high-throughput workflows. PHENIX–AFITT refinements also handle multiple ligands in a single model, alternate conformations and covalently bound ligands. Here, the results of combining AFITT and the PHENIX software suite on a data set of 189 protein–ligand PDB structures are presented. Refinements using PHENIX–AFITT significantly reduce ligand conformational energy and lead to improved geometries without detriment to the fit to the experimental data. For the data presented, PHENIX–AFITT refinements result in more chemically accurate models for small-molecule ligands. PMID:27599738

  15. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  16. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  17. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  18. Analysis of Learning Behavior in Problem-Solving-Based and Project-Based Discussion Activities within the Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Hou, Huei-Tse; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both asynchronous and synchronous discussions have advantages and limitations for online learning. This study conducts an empirical analysis of these discussion activities while applying the proposed Seamless Online Learning Integrated Discussion (SOLID) system, which can instantly integrate Facebook's asynchronous discussion function with the MSN…

  19. The Impact of a Principle-Based Pedagogical Design on Inquiry-Based Learning in a Seamless Learning Environment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Song, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    An inquiry-based learning pedagogy coupled with a seamless learning environment is a potential way to realise the educational goal of learner-centred learning in digital classrooms in the 21st century. An overarching research framework is proposed for preparing teachers to effectively develop pedagogical designs that are premised on theoretical…

  20. Refined seismic stratigraphy in prograding carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Pomar, L. )

    1991-03-01

    Complete exposure of the upper Miocene Reef Complex in the sea cliffs of Mallorca (Spain) allows for a more refined interpretation of seismic lines with similar progradational patterns. A 6 km long high-resolution cross section in the direction of reef progradation displays four hierarchical orders of accretional units. Although all these units are of higher order, they all exhibit similar characteristics as a third order depositional sequence and can likewise be interpreted as the result of high order sea-level cycles. The accretional units are composed of lagoonal horizontal beds, reefal sigmoids and gently dipping slope deposits. They are bounded by erosion surfaces at the top and basinwards by their correlative conformities. These architectural patterns are similar to progradational sequences seen on seismic lines. On seismic lines, the progradational pattern often shows the following geometrical details: (1) discontinuous climbing high-energy reflectors, (2) truncation of clinoforms by these high-energy reflectors with seaward dips, (3) transparent areas intercalated between clinoforms. Based on facies distribution in the outcrops of Mallorca the high-energy reflectors are interpreted as sectors where the erosion surfaces truncated the reef wall and are overlain by lagoonal sediments deposited during the following sealevel rise. The more transparent zones seem to correspond with areas of superposition of undifferentiated lagoonal beds. Offlapping geometries can also be detected in highest quality seismic lines. The comparison between seismic and outcrop data provides a more accurate prediction of lithologies, facies distribution, and reservoir properties on seismic profiles.

  1. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

    1999-06-03

    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  2. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Mishra, R.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2013-02-01

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb0.93La0.07(Zr0.60Ti0.40)O3, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)Å and c=4.0938(7)Å and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)Å and c=4.1010(5)Å . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)Å3 respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) Å3. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  3. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  4. Astrocytes refine cortical connectivity at dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Risher, W Christopher; Patel, Sagar; Kim, Il Hwan; Uezu, Akiyoshi; Bhagat, Srishti; Wilton, Daniel K; Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Calhan, Osman Y; Silver, Debra L; Stevens, Beth; Calakos, Nicole; Soderling, Scott H; Eroglu, Cagla

    2014-01-01

    During cortical synaptic development, thalamic axons must establish synaptic connections despite the presence of the more abundant intracortical projections. How thalamocortical synapses are formed and maintained in this competitive environment is unknown. Here, we show that astrocyte-secreted protein hevin is required for normal thalamocortical synaptic connectivity in the mouse cortex. Absence of hevin results in a profound, long-lasting reduction in thalamocortical synapses accompanied by a transient increase in intracortical excitatory connections. Three-dimensional reconstructions of cortical neurons from serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) revealed that, during early postnatal development, dendritic spines often receive multiple excitatory inputs. Immuno-EM and confocal analyses revealed that majority of the spines with multiple excitatory contacts (SMECs) receive simultaneous thalamic and cortical inputs. Proportion of SMECs diminishes as the brain develops, but SMECs remain abundant in Hevin-null mice. These findings reveal that, through secretion of hevin, astrocytes control an important developmental synaptic refinement process at dendritic spines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04047.001 PMID:25517933

  5. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  6. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  7. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  8. Refined Pichia pastoris reference genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Sturmberger, Lukas; Chappell, Thomas; Geier, Martina; Krainer, Florian; Day, Kasey J; Vide, Ursa; Trstenjak, Sara; Schiefer, Anja; Richardson, Toby; Soriaga, Leah; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glick, Benjamin S; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Cregg, James; Madden, Knut; Glieder, Anton

    2016-10-10

    Strains of the species Komagataella phaffii are the most frequently used "Pichia pastoris" strains employed for recombinant protein production as well as studies on peroxisome biogenesis, autophagy and secretory pathway analyses. Genome sequencing of several different P. pastoris strains has provided the foundation for understanding these cellular functions in recent genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics experiments. This experimentation has identified mistakes, gaps and incorrectly annotated open reading frames in the previously published draft genome sequences. Here, a refined reference genome is presented, generated with genome and transcriptome sequencing data from multiple P. pastoris strains. Twelve major sequence gaps from 20 to 6000 base pairs were closed and 5111 out of 5256 putative open reading frames were manually curated and confirmed by RNA-seq and published LC-MS/MS data, including the addition of new open reading frames (ORFs) and a reduction in the number of spliced genes from 797 to 571. One chromosomal fragment of 76kbp between two previous gaps on chromosome 1 and another 134kbp fragment at the end of chromosome 4, as well as several shorter fragments needed re-orientation. In total more than 500 positions in the genome have been corrected. This reference genome is presented with new chromosomal numbering, positioning ribosomal repeats at the distal ends of the four chromosomes, and includes predicted chromosomal centromeres as well as the sequence of two linear cytoplasmic plasmids of 13.1 and 9.5kbp found in some strains of P. pastoris.

  9. A parallel adaptive mesh refinement algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, James J.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) algorithms which dynamically match the local resolution of the computational grid to the numerical solution being sought have emerged as powerful tools for solving problems that contain disparate length and time scales. In particular, several workers have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing an adaptive, block-structured hierarchical grid system for simulations of complex shock wave phenomena. Unfortunately, from the parallel algorithm developer's viewpoint, this class of scheme is quite involved; these schemes cannot be distilled down to a small kernel upon which various parallelizing strategies may be tested. However, because of their block-structured nature such schemes are inherently parallel, so all is not lost. In this paper we describe the method by which Quirk's AMR algorithm has been parallelized. This method is built upon just a few simple message passing routines and so it may be implemented across a broad class of MIMD machines. Moreover, the method of parallelization is such that the original serial code is left virtually intact, and so we are left with just a single product to support. The importance of this fact should not be underestimated given the size and complexity of the original algorithm.

  10. Spatially Refined Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing Efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, Daven K.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Akhtar, Farhan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Pinder, Robert W.; Loughlin, Dan; Kopacz, Monika; Singh, Kumaresh; Shim, Changsub

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is an important metric for assessing potential climate impacts of future emissions changes. However, the radiative consequences of emissions perturbations are not readily quantified nor well understood at the level of detail necessary to assess realistic policy options. To address this challenge, here we show how adjoint model sensitivities can be used to provide highly spatially resolved estimates of the DRF from emissions of black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OC), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3), using the example of emissions from each sector and country following multiple Representative Concentration Pathway (RCPs). The radiative forcing efficiencies of many individual emissions are found to differ considerably from regional or sectoral averages for NH3, SO2 from the power sector, and BC from domestic, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sources. Consequently, the amount of emissions controls required to attain a specific DRF varies at intracontinental scales by up to a factor of 4. These results thus demonstrate both a need and means for incorporating spatially refined aerosol DRF into analysis of future emissions scenario and design of air quality and climate change mitigation policies.

  11. Virtual Oregon: A Proof-of-Concept for Seamless Access to Distributed Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keon, D.; Pancake, C.; Wright, D. J.; Walsh, K.

    2002-12-01

    of individuals and research centers and maintained in the distributed nodes using enterprise RDBMS products (Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft SQL Server) residing on UNIX and Windows platforms. Query Markup Language (QML, a middleware product developed at NACSE) supports database-to-Web interactions by transparently performing queries across multiple RDBMSs and displaying the results as though from a single source. Web-based mapping interfaces (powered by ESRI's Internet Map Server and Spatial Database Engine products) can also be used to explore data visually. In a proof-of-concept under development, users currently have the option of beginning with either the "thematic" or "place-based" interfaces. Ultimately, users will be able to move freely back and forth between the two paradigms, for example initially narrowing the scope of inquiry based on discipline or attributes, moving to the visual interface to refine the search based on location or some set of geospatial characteristics, then moving back to query-based exploration to delve to fine levels of detail. Usability engineering methodologies are being applied so that all navigation and query mechanisms are both maximally productive and easily learned by novices.

  12. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  13. Carpet: Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Cactus Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetter, Erik; Hawley, Scott; Hawke, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Carpet is an adaptive mesh refinement and multi-patch driver for the Cactus Framework (ascl:1102.013). Cactus is a software framework for solving time-dependent partial differential equations on block-structured grids, and Carpet acts as driver layer providing adaptive mesh refinement, multi-patch capability, as well as parallelization and efficient I/O.

  14. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  15. Refining primary lead by granulation-leaching-electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojebuoboh, F.; Wang, S.; Maccagni, M.

    2003-04-01

    This article describes the development of a new process in which lead bullion obtained from smelting concentrates is refined by leaching-electrowinning. In the last half century, the challenge to treat and refine lead in order to minimize emissions of lead and lead compounds has intensified. Within the primary lead industry, the treatment aspect has transformed from the sinter-blast furnace model to direct smelting, creating gains in hygiene, environmental control, and efficiency. The refining aspect has remained based on kettle refining, or to a lesser extent, the Betts electrolytic refining. In the mid-1990s, Asarco investigated a concept based on granulating the lead bullion from the blast furnace. The granular material was fed into the Engitec Fluobor process. This work resulted in the operation of a 45 kg/d pilot plant that could produce lead sheets of 99.9% purity.

  16. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingzhi; Jaimes, Kimberly F; Aller, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    The recently determined C. elegans P-glycoprotein (Pgp) structure revealed significant deviations compared to the original mouse Pgp structure, which suggested possible misinterpretations in the latter model. To address this concern, we generated an experimental electron density map from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing of an original mouse Pgp dataset to 3.8 Å resolution. The map exhibited significantly more detail compared to the original MAD map and revealed several regions of the structure that required de novo model building. The improved drug-free structure was refined to 3.8 Å resolution with a 9.4 and 8.1% decrease in Rwork and Rfree, respectively, (Rwork = 21.2%, Rfree = 26.6%) and a significant improvement in protein geometry. The improved mouse Pgp model contains ∼95% of residues in the favorable Ramachandran region compared to only 57% for the original model. The registry of six transmembrane helices was corrected, revealing amino acid residues involved in drug binding that were previously unrecognized. Registry shifts (rotations and translations) for three transmembrane (TM)4 and TM5 and the addition of three N-terminal residues were necessary, and were validated with new mercury labeling and anomalous Fourier density. The corrected position of TM4, which forms the frame of a portal for drug entry, had backbone atoms shifted >6 Å from their original positions. The drug translocation pathway of mouse Pgp is 96% identical to human Pgp and is enriched in aromatic residues that likely play a collective role in allowing a high degree of polyspecific substrate recognition. PMID:24155053

  17. 40 CFR 80.551 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner under this subpart? 80.551 Section 80.551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... preceding January 1, 2000; and the type of business activities carried out at each location; or (ii) In...

  18. 40 CFR 80.551 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner under this subpart? 80.551 Section 80.551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... preceding January 1, 2000; and the type of business activities carried out at each location; or (ii) In...

  19. Adjoint Methods for Guiding Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Tsunami Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, B. N.; LeVeque, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    One difficulty in developing numerical methods for tsunami modeling is the fact that solutions contain time-varying regions where much higher resolution is required than elsewhere in the domain, particularly when tracking a tsunami propagating across the ocean. The open source GeoClaw software deals with this issue by using block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to selectively refine around propagating waves. For problems where only a target area of the total solution is of interest (e.g., one coastal community), a method that allows identifying and refining the grid only in regions that influence this target area would significantly reduce the computational cost of finding a solution. In this work, we show that solving the time-dependent adjoint equation and using a suitable inner product with the forward solution allows more precise refinement of the relevant waves. We present the adjoint methodology first in one space dimension for illustration and in a broad context since it could also be used in other adaptive software, and potentially for other tsunami applications beyond adaptive refinement. We then show how this adjoint method has been integrated into the adaptive mesh refinement strategy of the open source GeoClaw software and present tsunami modeling results showing that the accuracy of the solution is maintained and the computational time required is significantly reduced through the integration of the adjoint method into adaptive mesh refinement.

  20. Modeling of black carbon in Asia using a global-to-regional seamless aerosol-transport model.

    PubMed

    Goto, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    In Asia, the evaluation of black carbon (BC) using global aerosol-transport models has been incomplete due to a lack of available measurements. Recently, new measurements and datasets at various Asian sites have become available for use in model validation. In this study, we compared the BC mass concentrations obtained by an aerosol-coupled global nonhydrostatic model adopting a uniform-grid system with in-situ measurements and other models over Asia. The results revealed that our model, as well as other global models, was unable to reproduce the observed BC values at most sites in China and India, most likely due to strong local hotspots. To overcome the inconsistency between the models and measurements, we developed a new aerosol-transport model using a stretched-grid system for high-resolution simulations with up to approximately 10 km grids. Our model can be used as a global-to-regional seamless aerosol-transport model for low to high horizontal resolution simulations.

  1. Integrating weather and climate predictions for seamless hydrologic ensemble forecasting: A case study in the Yalong River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Aizhong; Deng, Xiaoxue; Ma, Feng; Duan, Qingyun; Zhou, Zheng; Du, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Despite the tremendous improvement made in numerical weather and climate models over the recent years, the forecasts generated by those models still cannot be used directly for hydrological forecasting. A post-processor like the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP) developed by U.S. National Weather Service must be used to remove various biases and to extract useful predictive information from those forecasts. In this paper, we investigate how different designs of canonical events in the EPP can help post-process precipitation forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The use of canonical events allow those products to be linked seamlessly and then the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts can be generated using the Schaake Shuffle procedure. We used the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive a distributed hydrological model to obtain ensemble streamflow forecasts and evaluated those forecasts against the observed streamflow. We found that the careful design of canonical events can help extract more useful information, especially when up-to-date observed precipitation is used to setup the canonical events. We also found that streamflow forecasts using post-processed precipitation forecasts have longer lead times and higher accuracy than streamflow forecasts made by traditional Extend Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and the forecasts based on original GEFS and CFSv2 precipitation forecasts.

  2. Evaluation of a regional model climatology in Europe using dynamical downscaling from a seamless Earth prediction approach (EC-Earth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montavez, Juan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate and weather forecasting applications share a common ancestry and build on the same physical principles. Nevertheless, climate research and numerical weather prediction are commonly seen as different disciplines. The emerging concept of "seamless prediction" forges weather forecasting and climate change studies into a single framework (Palmer et al., 2008). In principle, as models develop towards higher resolution and more feedbacks are included, some aspects of model uncertainty should reduce. However, global models can only resolve processes down to 50-100 km at present. Moreover, users of climate information often require much higher detail and downscaling methods are needed to provide regional climate information consistent with global climate trajectories. Therefore, this work presents an evaluation of the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to reproduce the present climatology over Europe using a high resolution (25 km). The RCM used in this study is a climate version of the MM5 model (Fernández et al., 2007). The analysis here focuses on the annual and seasonal biases and variability for temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) and precipitation. The statistical parameters are obtained by interpolating the simulated values on the E-OBS gridded dataset from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) at a resolution of 0.5° for the period 1990-2000. The novel approach of this contribution is that the driving model is EC-Earth version 2 (Hazeleger et al., 2010), which follows the seamless prediction approach to provide climate forcings to the regional model. The atmospheric model of EC-Earth is based on ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System, cycle 31r1, corresponding to the current seasonal forecast system of ECMWF. The standard configuration runs at T159 horizontal spectral resolution with 62 vertical levels. The ocean component is based on version 2 of the NEMO model with a horizontal resolution of nominally 1 degree and 42 vertical levels

  3. Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Cao, Zizheng; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Tao, Li

    2012-10-22

    We experimentally demonstrated the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100 GHz by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which make up a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on microwave polarization multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance.

  4. Hybrid polylingual object model: an efficient and seamless integration of Java and native components on the Dalvik virtual machine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yukun; Chen, Rong; Wei, Jingbo; Pei, Xilong; Cao, Jing; Prakash Jayaraman, Prem; Ranjan, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    JNI in the Android platform is often observed with low efficiency and high coding complexity. Although many researchers have investigated the JNI mechanism, few of them solve the efficiency and the complexity problems of JNI in the Android platform simultaneously. In this paper, a hybrid polylingual object (HPO) model is proposed to allow a CAR object being accessed as a Java object and as vice in the Dalvik virtual machine. It is an acceptable substitute for JNI to reuse the CAR-compliant components in Android applications in a seamless and efficient way. The metadata injection mechanism is designed to support the automatic mapping and reflection between CAR objects and Java objects. A prototype virtual machine, called HPO-Dalvik, is implemented by extending the Dalvik virtual machine to support the HPO model. Lifespan management, garbage collection, and data type transformation of HPO objects are also handled in the HPO-Dalvik virtual machine automatically. The experimental result shows that the HPO model outweighs the standard JNI in lower overhead on native side, better executing performance with no JNI bridging code being demanded.

  5. Adaptive mesh refinement for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayati, Basil; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for adaptive mesh refinement applied to mesoscopic stochastic simulations of spatially evolving reaction-diffusion processes. The transition rates for the diffusion process are derived on adaptive, locally refined structured meshes. Convergence of the diffusion process is presented and the fluctuations of the stochastic process are verified. Furthermore, a refinement criterion is proposed for the evolution of the adaptive mesh. The method is validated in simulations of reaction-diffusion processes as described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov and Gray-Scott equations.

  6. GAMER: GPU-accelerated Adaptive MEsh Refinement code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Tsai, Yu-Chih; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2016-12-01

    GAMER (GPU-accelerated Adaptive MEsh Refinement) serves as a general-purpose adaptive mesh refinement + GPU framework and solves hydrodynamics with self-gravity. The code supports adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), hydrodynamics with self-gravity, and a variety of GPU-accelerated hydrodynamic and Poisson solvers. It also supports hybrid OpenMP/MPI/GPU parallelization, concurrent CPU/GPU execution for performance optimization, and Hilbert space-filling curve for load balance. Although the code is designed for simulating galaxy formation, it can be easily modified to solve a variety of applications with different governing equations. All optimization strategies implemented in the code can be inherited straightforwardly.

  7. Adaptive mesh refinement strategies in isogeometric analysis— A computational comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Paul; Kästner, Markus; Morgenstern, Philipp; Peterseim, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    We explain four variants of an adaptive finite element method with cubic splines and compare their performance in simple elliptic model problems. The methods in comparison are Truncated Hierarchical B-splines with two different refinement strategies, T-splines with the refinement strategy introduced by Scott et al. in 2012, and T-splines with an alternative refinement strategy introduced by some of the authors. In four examples, including singular and non-singular problems of linear elasticity and the Poisson problem, the H1-errors of the discrete solutions, the number of degrees of freedom as well as sparsity patterns and condition numbers of the discretized problem are compared.

  8. Refined numerical solution of the transonic flow past a wedge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, S.-M.; Fung, K.-Y.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical procedure combining the ideas of solving a modified difference equation and of adaptive mesh refinement is introduced. The numerical solution on a fixed grid is improved by using better approximations of the truncation error computed from local subdomain grid refinements. This technique is used to obtain refined solutions of steady, inviscid, transonic flow past a wedge. The effects of truncation error on the pressure distribution, wave drag, sonic line, and shock position are investigated. By comparing the pressure drag on the wedge and wave drag due to the shocks, a supersonic-to-supersonic shock originating from the wedge shoulder is confirmed.

  9. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructural evolution of AA7449 aerospace alloy refined by intensive shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghayeghi, R.; Nastac, L.

    2012-10-01

    Many aerospace alloys are sensitive to their composition thus cannot be chemically grain refined. In addition, only 1% grain refiners can act as nuclei for refining the structure. In this paper, physical refinement by intensive shearing above liquidus as an alternative technique will be investigated for AA7449 aerospace alloy. The results can open a new gateway for aerospace industry for refining their microstructure.

  10. Fingerprinting seamless single-walled carbon nanotube junctions via the migration of encapsulated N2 molecules from bottom to top: are arrays of VA-SWNTs continuous?

    PubMed

    Thurakitseree, Theerapol; Kramberger, Christian; Singjai, Pisith; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2017-03-17

    Structure control such as diameter changes along single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be achieved in arrays of vertically aligned (VA-) SWNTs by switching the feedstock during growth. The local nature of the macroscopic transition from one diameter to another is then questioned as one can either envisage seamless transitions or discontinuous individual SWNTs. Here, we demonstrate that encapsulated molecules can serve as markers to doubtlessly identify seamless interconnections in macroscopic samples. A migration of nitrogen molecules inside the continuous SWNTs is observed using bulk scale measurements on double-layered SWNT arrays synthesized from different carbon/nitrogen feedstocks. The existence of N2 molecules at the top of the SWNT arrays proves that there are continuous SWNTs throughout the double layered arrays with different diameters.

  11. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan

    2012-01-01

    such as moonquake location, timing errors, and potential seismic heterogeneities. In addition, the modeled velocities may vary with a 1-to-1 trade ]off with the modeled reflector depth. The GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission, launched in Sept. 2011, placed two nearly identical spacecraft in lunar orbit. The two satellites make extremely high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field, which can be used to constrain the interior structure of the Moon using a "crust to core" approach. GRAIL fs constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten) will complement seismic investigations in several ways. Here we present a progress report on our efforts to advance our knowledge of the Moon fs internal structure using joint gravity and seismic analyses. We will focus on methodology, including 1) refinements to the seismic core constraint accomplished through array processing of Apollo seismic data, made by applying a set of travel time corrections based on GRAIL structure estimates local to each Apollo seismic station; 2) modeling deep lunar structure through synthetic seismograms, to test whether the seismic core model can reproduce the core reflections observed in the Apollo seismograms; and 3) a joint seismic and gravity inversion in which we attempt to fit a family of seismic structure models with the gravity constraints from GRAIL, resulting in maps of seismic velocities and densities that vary from a nominal model both laterally and with depth.

  12. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  13. CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CITGO Petroleum Corporation and PDV Midwest Refining, LLC (collectively, CITGO) have agreed to pay a $1,955,000 civil penalty, perform environmental projects totaling more than $2 million, and spend an estimated $42 million in injunctive relief to resolve.

  14. Rack gasoline and refining margins - wanted: a summer romance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-13

    For the first time since late 1987, apparent refining margins on the US benchmark crude oil (based on spot purchase prices) are virtually zero. This felicitous bit of news comes loaded with possibilities of positive (maybe even good.) margins in coming months, if the differential between crude buying prices and the value of the refined barrel continues to improve. What refiners in the US market are watching most closely right now are motorists. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and Western Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, prices for early April 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, April 1988 edition. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  15. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  16. Controlling Reflections from Mesh Refinement Interfaces in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; Van Meter, James R.

    2005-01-01

    A leading approach to improving the accuracy on numerical relativity simulations of black hole systems is through fixed or adaptive mesh refinement techniques. We describe a generic numerical error which manifests as slowly converging, artificial reflections from refinement boundaries in a broad class of mesh-refinement implementations, potentially limiting the effectiveness of mesh- refinement techniques for some numerical relativity applications. We elucidate this numerical effect by presenting a model problem which exhibits the phenomenon, but which is simple enough that its numerical error can be understood analytically. Our analysis shows that the effect is caused by variations in finite differencing error generated across low and high resolution regions, and that its slow convergence is caused by the presence of dramatic speed differences among propagation modes typical of 3+1 relativity. Lastly, we resolve the problem, presenting a class of finite-differencing stencil modifications which eliminate this pathology in both our model problem and in numerical relativity examples.

  17. Local block refinement with a multigrid flow solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, C. F.; Schäfer, M.; Durst, F.

    2002-01-01

    A local block refinement procedure for the efficient computation of transient incompressible flows with heat transfer is presented. The procedure uses patched structured grids for the blockwise refinement and a parallel multigrid finite volume method with colocated primitive variables to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. No restriction is imposed on the value of the refinement rate and non-integer rates may also be used. The procedure is analysed with respect to its sensitivity to the refinement rate and to the corresponding accuracy. Several applications exemplify the advantages of the method in comparison with a common block structured grid approach. The results show that it is possible to achieve an improvement in accuracy with simultaneous significant savings in computing time and memory requirements. Copyright

  18. Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Alejandro L.; Bell, John B.; Crutchfield, William Y.; Alder, Berni J.

    1999-09-01

    Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement (AMAR) embeds a particle method within a continuum method at the finest level of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. The coupling between the particle region and the overlaying continuum grid is algorithmically equivalent to that between the fine and coarse levels of AMR. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used as the particle algorithm embedded within a Godunov-type compressible Navier-Stokes solver. Several examples are presented and compared with purely continuum calculations.

  19. Refiners match Rvp reduction measures to operating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Musumeci, J.

    1997-02-03

    Reduction in gasoline vapor pressure specifications have created operational challenges for many refiners. Removal of butanes from gasoline blendstocks has become more critical to meeting product vapor pressure requirements. Some refiners have made major unit modifications, such as adding alkylation capacity for butane conversion. Others have debottlenecked existing fractionation equipment, thus increasing butane removal. Three case studies will illustrate vapor pressure reduction solutions. The solutions include: changing unit operating targets, maintaining existing equipment, and debottlenecking minor equipment.

  20. Adaptive Local Grid Refinement in Computational Fluid Mechanics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Adaptive mesh refinements in reservoir simulation applications (R.E. Ew- ing), Proceedings Intl. Conference on Accuracy Est. and Adaptive Refine... reservoir simulation (R.E. Ewing and .J.V. 1{oebbe), Innovati’ve Numerical Mlethods in Engineering, (R.P. Shaw, J. Pc- riaux, A. Chaudouet, J. Wu...Universities, Cheyenne, Wyoming, February 21, 1986, O 9. Finite element techniques for reservoir simulation , Fourth International Sym- posium on Numerical

  1. Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids Jason R. Looker Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence...Science and Technology Organisation DSTO–TR–3095 ABSTRACT This report provides a comprehensive implementation of an unstructured mesh generation method...relatively simple to implement, has the capacity to quickly generate a refined mesh with triangles that rapidly change size over a short distance, and does

  2. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  3. Mesh quality control for multiply-refined tetrahedral grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for controlling the quality of multiply-refined tetrahedral meshes is presented in this paper. The basic dynamic mesh adaption procedure allows localized grid refinement and coarsening to efficiently capture aerodynamic flow features in computational fluid dynamics problems; however, repeated application of the procedure may significantly deteriorate the quality of the mesh. Results presented show the effectiveness of this mesh quality algorithm and its potential in the area of helicopter aerodynamics and acoustics.

  4. A Seamless Grid-Based Interface for Mean-Field QM/MM Coupled with Efficient Solvation Free Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Hankyul; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-10-11

    Among various models that incorporate solvation effects into first-principles-based electronic structure theory such as density functional theory (DFT), the average solvent electrostatic potential/molecular dynamics (ASEP/MD) method is particularly advantageous. This method explicitly includes the nature of complicated solvent structures that is absent in implicit solvation methods. Because the ASEP/MD method treats only solvent molecule dynamics, it requires less computational cost than the conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches. Herein, we present a real-space rectangular grid-based method to implement the mean-field QM/MM idea of ASEP/MD to plane-wave DFT, which is termed "DFT in classical explicit solvents", or DFT-CES. By employing a three-dimensional real-space grid as a communication medium, we can treat the electrostatic interactions between the DFT solute and the ASEP sampled from MD simulations in a seamless and straightforward manner. Moreover, we couple a fast and efficient free energy calculation method based on the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model with our DFT-CES method, which enables direct and simultaneous computation of the solvation free energies as well as the geometric and electronic responses of a solute of interest under the solvation effect. With the aid of DFT-CES/2PT, we investigate the solvation free energies and detailed solvation thermodynamics for 17 types of organic molecules, which show good agreement with the experimental data. We further compare our simulation results with previous theoretical models and assumptions made for the development of implicit solvation models. We anticipate that our proposed method, DFT-CES/2PT, will enable vast utilization of the ASEP/MD method for investigating solvation properties of materials by using periodic DFT calculations in the future.

  5. Evaluation of the Hinge Moment and Normal Force Aerodynamic Loads from a Seamless Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Eric J.; Cruz, Josue; Lung, Shun-Fat; Kota, Sridhar; Ervin, Gregory; Lu, Kerr-Jia; Flick, Pete

    2016-01-01

    A seamless adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap was demonstrated in flight on a Gulfstream III aircraft at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The trailing edge flap was deflected between minus 2 deg up and plus 30 deg down in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The safety-of-flight parameters for the ACTE flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. The attachment fittings connecting the flap to the aircraft wing rear spar were instrumented with strain gages and calibrated using known loads for measuring hinge moment and normal force loads in flight. The interface hardware instrumentation layout and load calibration are discussed. Twenty-one applied calibration test load cases were developed for each individual fitting. The 2-sigma residual errors for the hinge moment was calculated to be 2.4 percent, and for normal force was calculated to be 7.3 percent. The hinge moment and normal force generated by the ACTE flap with a hinge point located at 26-percent wing chord were measured during steady state and symmetric pitch maneuvers. The loads predicted from analysis were compared to the loads observed in flight. The hinge moment loads showed good agreement with the flight loads while the normal force loads calculated from analysis were over-predicted by approximately 20 percent. Normal force and hinge moment loads calculated from the pressure sensors located on the ACTE showed good agreement with the loads calculated from the installed strain gages.

  6. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  7. Seamless Transition for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Test, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Postschool outcomes for students with disabilities have been dismal for quite some time now. Although recent data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 indicate some improvement, students with severe intellectual disabilities continue to transition into segregated employment at unacceptable rates in spite of a multitude of studies,…

  8. Refinement performance and mechanism of an Al-50Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, H.S.; Liu, X.F.

    2008-11-15

    The microstructure and melt structure of primary silicon particles in an Al-50%Si (wt.%) alloy have been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and a high temperature X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the Al-50Si alloy can be effectively refined by a newly developed Si-20P master alloy, and the melting temperature is crucial to the refinement process. The minimal overheating degree {delta}T{sub min} ({delta}T{sub min} is the difference between the minimal overheating temperature T{sub min} and the liquidus temperature T{sub L}) for good refinement is about 260 deg. C. Primary silicon particles can be refined after adding 0.2 wt.% phosphorus amount at sufficient temperature, and their average size transforms from 2-4 mm to about 30 {mu}m. The X-ray diffraction data of the Al-50Si melt demonstrate that structural change occurs when the melting temperature varies from 1100 deg. C to 1300 deg. C. Additionally, the relationship between the refinement mechanism and the melt structure is discussed.

  9. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  10. Production and Refining of Magnesium Metal from Turkey Originating Dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Yeliz; Yücel, Onuralp

    2012-06-01

    In this study crown magnesium produced from Turkish calcined dolomite by the Pigeon Process was refined and corrosion tests were applied. By using factsage thermodynamic program metalothermic reduction behavior of magnesium oxide and silicate formation structure during this reaction were investigated. After thermodynamic studies were completed, calcination of dolomite and it's metalothermic reduction at temperatures of 1473 K, 1523 K and within a vacuum (varied from 20 to 200 Pa) and refining of crown magnesium was studied. Different flux compositions consisting of MgCl2, KCl, CaCl2, MgO, CaF2, NaCl, and SiO2 with and without B2O3 additions were selected for the refining process. These tests were carried out at 963 K for 15, 30 and 45 minutes setting time. Considerable amount of iron was transferred into the sludge phase and its amount decreased from 0.08% to 0.027%. This refined magnesium was suitable for the production of various magnesium alloys. As a result of decreasing iron content, minimum corrosion rate of refined magnesium was obtained 2.35 g/m2/day. The results are compared with previous studies.

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, William Wenlong

    2010-01-01

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  12. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Ifland, J R; Preuss, H G; Marcus, M T; Rourke, K M; Taylor, W C; Burau, K; Jacobs, W S; Kadish, W; Manso, G

    2009-05-01

    Overeating in industrial societies is a significant problem, linked to an increasing incidence of overweight and obesity, and the resultant adverse health consequences. We advance the hypothesis that a possible explanation for overeating is that processed foods with high concentrations of sugar and other refined sweeteners, refined carbohydrates, fat, salt, and caffeine are addictive substances. Therefore, many people lose control over their ability to regulate their consumption of such foods. The loss of control over these foods could account for the global epidemic of obesity and other metabolic disorders. We assert that overeating can be described as an addiction to refined foods that conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. To examine the hypothesis, we relied on experience with self-identified refined foods addicts, as well as critical reading of the literature on obesity, eating behavior, and drug addiction. Reports by self-identified food addicts illustrate behaviors that conform to the 7 DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders. The literature also supports use of the DSM-IV criteria to describe overeating as a substance use disorder. The observational and empirical data strengthen the hypothesis that certain refined food consumption behaviors meet the criteria for substance use disorders, not unlike tobacco and alcohol. This hypothesis could lead to a new diagnostic category, as well as therapeutic approaches to changing overeating behaviors.

  13. The changing face of U. S. refining: Ominous notes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-31

    As environmental protection comes of age in the US, a complex series of structural changes is also expected - in enforcement bureaucracy, manufacturing, and in energy consumption. It is already quite obvious in the petroleum refining industry. A side effect may be the export of jobs. Buyouts and closures are expected, as is increased refined product import dependency. This issue updates expected changes in gasoline and distillate product requirements in the US, and reports some ominous statements from some of the oil industry's affected parties. This issue also presented the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Jan. 24, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Jan. 1992 edition.

  14. Survey shows over 1,000 refining catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1991-10-14

    The Journal's latest survey of worldwide refining catalysts reveals that there are more than 1,040 unique catalyst designations in commercial use in 19 processing categories - an increase of some 140 since the compilation of refining catalysts was last published. As a matter of interest, some 700 catalysts were determined during the first survey. The processing categories surveyed in this paper are: Catalytic naphtha reforming. Dimerization, Isomerization (C{sub 4}), Isomerization (C{sub 5} and C{sub 6}), Isomerization (xylenes), Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), Hydrocracking, Mild hydrocracking, hydrotreating/hydrogenation/ saturation, Hydrorefining, Polymerization, Sulfur (elemental) recovery, Steam hydrocarbon reforming, Sweetening, Clause unit tail gas treatment, Oxygenates, Combustion promoters (FCC), Sulfur oxides reduction (FCC), and Other refining processes.

  15. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannnetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  16. Steam refining as an alternative to steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Fokko; Westereng, Bjørge; Horn, Svein J; Puls, Jürgen; Saake, Bodo

    2012-05-01

    In steam pretreatment the defibration is usually achieved by an explosion at the end of the treatment, but can also be carried out in a subsequent refiner step. A steam explosion and a steam refining unit were compared by using the same raw material and pretreatment conditions, i.e. temperature and time. Smaller particle size was needed for the steam explosion unit to obtain homogenous slurries without considerable amounts of solid chips. A higher amount of volatiles could be condensed from the vapour phase after steam refining. The results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences. It could be shown that, beside the chemical changes in the cell wall, the decrease of the particle size is the decisive factor to enhance the enzymatic accessibility while the explosion effect is not required.

  17. Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip, B.

    2000-07-24

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.

  18. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  19. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, P., LLNL

    1997-01-26

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results.

  20. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Segregation Coefficients of Impurities in Selenium by Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao

    1998-01-01

    The purification of Se by zone refining process was studied. The impurity solute levels along the length of a zone-refined Se sample were measured by spark source mass spectrographic analysis. By comparing the experimental concentration levels with theoretical curves the segregation coefficient, defined as the ratio of equilibrium concentration of a given solute in the solid to that in the liquid, k = x(sub s)/x(sub l) for most of the impurities in Se are found to be close to unity, i.e., between 0.85 and 1.15, with the k value for Si, Zn, Fe, Na and Al greater than 1 and that for S, Cl, Ca, P, As, Mn and Cr less than 1. This implies that a large number of passes is needed for the successful implementation of zone refining in the purification of Se.

  2. Simulation of the expected performance of a seamless scanner for brain PET based on highly pixelated CdTe detectors.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels/cm(3), for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1 × 1 × 2 mm(3)), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept.

  3. A seamless hybrid RANS-LES model based on transport equations for the subgrid stresses and elliptic blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadai-Ghotbi, Atabak; Friess, Christophe; Manceau, Rémi; Borée, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a seamless hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) large-eddy simulation (LES) model based on transport equations for the subgrid stresses, using the elliptic-blending method to account for the nonlocal kinematic blocking effect of the wall. It is shown that the elliptic relaxation strategy of Durbin is valid in a RANS (steady) as well as a LES context (unsteady). In order to reproduce the complex production and redistribution mechanisms when the cutoff wavenumber is located in the productive zone of the turbulent energy spectrum, the model is based on transport equations for the subgrid-stress tensor. The partially integrated transport model (PITM) methodology offers a consistent theoretical framework for such a model, enabling to control the cutoff wavenumber κc, and thus the transition from RANS to LES, by making the Cɛ2 coefficient in the dissipation equation of a RANS model a function of κc. The equivalence between the PITM and the Smagorinsky model is shown when κc is in the inertial range of the energy spectrum. The extension of the underlying RANS model used in the present work, the elliptic-blending Reynolds-stress model, to the hybrid RANS-LES context, brings out some modeling issues. The different modeling possibilities are compared in a channel flow at Reτ=395. Finally, a dynamic procedure is proposed in order to adjust during the computation the dissipation rate necessary to drive the model toward the expected amount of resolved energy. The final model gives very encouraging results in comparison to the direct numerical simulation data. In particular, the turbulence anisotropy in the near-wall region is satisfactorily reproduced. The contribution of the resolved and modeled fields to the Reynolds stresses behaves as expected: the modeled part is dominant in the near-wall zones (RANS mode) and decreases toward the center of the channel, where the relative contribution of the resolved part increases

  4. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  5. Automatic adaptive grid refinement for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, M. J.; Jameson, A.

    1983-01-01

    A method of adaptive grid refinement for the solution of the steady Euler equations for transonic flow is presented. Algorithm automatically decides where the coarse grid accuracy is insufficient, and creates locally uniform refined grids in these regions. This typically occurs at the leading and trailing edges. The solution is then integrated to steady state using the same integrator (FLO52) in the interior of each grid. The boundary conditions needed on the fine grids are examined and the importance of treating the fine/coarse grid inerface conservatively is discussed. Numerical results are presented.

  6. Spherical Harmonic Decomposition of Gravitational Waves Across Mesh Refinement Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, David R.; Baker, John; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan M.

    2005-01-01

    We evolve a linearized (Teukolsky) solution of the Einstein equations with a non-linear Einstein solver. Using this testbed, we are able to show that such gravitational waves, defined by the Weyl scalars in the Newman-Penrose formalism, propagate faithfully across mesh refinement boundaries, and use, for the first time to our knowledge, a novel algorithm due to Misner to compute spherical harmonic components of our waveforms. We show that the algorithm performs extremely well, even when the extraction sphere intersects refinement boundaries.

  7. Refinable C(1) spline elements for irregular quad layout.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thien; Peters, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Building on a result of U. Reif on removable singularities, we construct C(1) bi-3 splines that may include irregular points where less or more than four tensor-product patches meet. The resulting space complements PHT splines, is refinable and the refined spaces are nested, preserving for example surfaces constructed from the splines. As in the regular case, each quadrilateral has four degrees of freedom, each associated with one spline and the splines are linearly independent. Examples of use for surface construction and isogeometric analysis are provided.

  8. Refined Estimation Of Thermal Tensile Stresses In Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, Larry C.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal changes in tensile stresses and strains in bolt and in corresponding compressive stresses and strains in bolted material estimated more accurately by use of equations incorporating two refinements over previous equations. Elasticity of bolted material and radial thermal expansion also taken into account. Refined equations improve design and analysis of bolted joints assembled at one temperature (e.g., room temperature) and in which specified minimum tension must be maintained (and/or specified maximum tension not exceeded) at higher or lower operational temperature.

  9. 19 CFR 19.21 - Smelting and refining in separate establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smelting and refining in separate establishments... THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.21 Smelting and refining in separate establishments. (a) If the operations of smelting and refining are not carried on in the same establishment, the smelted...

  10. 19 CFR 19.18 - Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage; withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smelting and refining; allowance for wastage... OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Smelting and Refining Warehouses § 19.18 Smelting and refining; allowance for... dutiable metals entirely lost in smelting or refining, or both), shall constitute the quantity of...

  11. Towards a Seamless Framework for Drought Analysis and Prediction from Seasonal to Climate Change Time Scales (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Justin

    2013-04-01

    predicting drought are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited. Evaluation of past droughts and their mechanisms is limited by data availability and especially before the instrumental period of the last 50-100 years, for which there is reliance on incomplete spatial proxy data, such as tree rings. Seasonal predictability is currently mainly limited to tropical and sub-tropical regions through connections with sea surface temperature variations such as ENSO. Predictability in mid-latitudes is low and especially for precipitation, although dynamical model predictions appear to be edging statistical models in many aspects of seasonal prediction. This presentation describes ongoing research on evaluation of drought risk and drought mechanisms at regional to global scales with the eventual goal of developing a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales. Such a framework would allow consistent assessment of drought from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental global drought monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions and the state of drought. Seasonal climate model forecasts are downscaled and bias-corrected to drive the land surface model to provide hydrological forecasts and drought products out 6-9 months. The system relies on historic reconstructions of drought variability over the 20th century, which forms the background climatology to which current conditions can be assessed and drought mechanisms can be diagnosed. Future drought risk is quantified based on bias-corrected and downscaled climate model projections that are used to drive the land

  12. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  13. Flow-through polymerase chain reaction inside a seamless 3D helical microreactor fabricated utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenming; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2015-03-07

    We introduce a new strategy for fabricating a seamless three-dimensional (3D) helical microreactor utilizing a silicone tube and a paraffin mold. With this method, various shapes and sizes of 3D helical microreactors were fabricated, and a complicated and laborious photolithographic process, or 3D printing, was eliminated. With dramatically enhanced portability at a significantly reduced fabrication cost, such a device can be considered to be the simplest microreactor, developed to date, for performing the flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  14. 40 CFR 80.555 - What provisions are available to a large refiner that acquires a small refiner or one or more of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... approved small refiner status who acquires a refinery from a refiner with approved status as a motor... May 31, 2010 for a refinery acquired from a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or beyond...

  15. AMR++: Object-Oriented Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.; Philip, B.

    2000-02-02

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) computations are complicated by their dynamic nature. The development of solvers for realistic applications is complicated by both the complexity of the AMR and the geometry of realistic problem domains. The additional complexity of distributed memory parallelism within such AMR applications most commonly exceeds the level of complexity that can be reasonable maintained with traditional approaches toward software development. This paper will present the details of our object-oriented work on the simplification of the use of adaptive mesh refinement on applications with complex geometries for both serial and distributed memory parallel computation. We will present an independent set of object-oriented abstractions (C++ libraries) well suited to the development of such seemingly intractable scientific computations. As an example of the use of this object-oriented approach we will present recent results of an application modeling fluid flow in the eye. Within this example, the geometry is too complicated for a single curvilinear coordinate grid and so a set of overlapping curvilinear coordinate grids' are used. Adaptive mesh refinement and the required grid generation work to support the refinement process is coupled together in the solution of essentially elliptic equations within this domain. This paper will focus on the management of complexity within development of the AMR++ library which forms a part of the Overture object-oriented framework for the solution of partial differential equations within scientific computing.

  16. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choptuik, M. W.

    An implementation of the Berger/Oliger mesh refinement algorithm for a model problem in numerical relativity is described. The principles of operation of the method are reviewed and its use in conjunction with leap-frog schemes is considered. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated with results from a study of the Einstein/massless scalar field equations in spherical symmetry.

  17. Advances in multi-domain lattice Boltzmann grid refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrava, D.; Malaspinas, O.; Latt, J.; Chopard, B.

    2012-05-01

    Grid refinement has been addressed by different authors in the lattice Boltzmann method community. The information communication and reconstruction on grid transitions is of crucial importance from the accuracy and numerical stability point of view. While a decimation is performed when going from the fine to the coarse grid, a reconstruction must performed to pass form the coarse to the fine grid. In this context, we introduce a decimation technique for the copy from the fine to the coarse grid based on a filtering operation. We show this operation to be extremely important, because a simple copy of the information is not sufficient to guarantee the stability of the numerical scheme at high Reynolds numbers. Then we demonstrate that to reconstruct the information, a local cubic interpolation scheme is mandatory in order to get a precision compatible with the order of accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann method. These two fundamental extra-steps are validated on two classical 2D benchmarks, the 2D circular cylinder and the 2D dipole-wall collision. The latter is especially challenging from the numerical point of view since we allow strong gradients to cross the refinement interfaces at a relatively high Reynolds number of 5000. A very good agreement is found between the single grid and the refined grid cases. The proposed grid refinement strategy has been implemented in the parallel open-source library Palabos.

  18. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into ...

  19. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  20. Some refinements of the theory of the viscous screw pump.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Recently performed analysis for herringbone thrust bearings has been incorporated into the theory of the viscous screw pump for Newtonian fluids. In addition, certain earlier corrections for sidewall and channel curvature effects have been simplified. The result is a single, refined formula for the prediction of the pressure-flow relation for these pumps.

  1. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  2. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  3. Computations of Aerodynamic Performance Databases Using Output-Based Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Handle complex geometry problems; Control discretization errors via solution-adaptive mesh refinement; Focus on aerodynamic databases of parametric and optimization studies: 1. Accuracy: satisfy prescribed error bounds 2. Robustness and speed: may require over 105 mesh generations 3. Automation: avoid user supervision Obtain "expert meshes" independent of user skill; and Run every case adaptively in production settings.

  4. Comprehensive Data Collected from the Petroleum Refining Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On April 1, 2011 EPA sent a comprehensive industry-wide information collection request (ICR) to all facilities in the U.S. petroleum refining industry. EPA has received this ICR data and compiled these data into databases and spreadsheets for the web

  5. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  6. Shakeout gathers momentum in Europe`s refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1996-03-25

    This paper reviews the decline and restructuring of the petroleum refining industry in Europe which is facing increased competition from foreign operators and more stringent environmental compliance laws. The excess production capacity has forced mergers between companies and consolidation of plants. The paper reviews the production and capacity of each of the major European petroleum producing countries.

  7. Evaluating and Refining High Throughput Tools for Toxicokinetics

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster summarizes efforts of the Chemical Safety for Sustainability's Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry (RED) team to facilitate the development and refinement of toxicokinetics (TK) tools to be used in conjunction with the high throughput toxicity testing data generated as a par...

  8. Optimization of Melt Treatment for Austenitic Steel Grain Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakh, Simon N.; Ge, Jun; Richards, Von; O'Malley, Ron; TerBush, Jessica R.

    2017-02-01

    Refinement of the as-cast grain structure of austenitic steels requires the presence of active solid nuclei during solidification. These nuclei can be formed in situ in the liquid alloy by promoting reactions between transition metals (Ti, Zr, Nb, and Hf) and metalloid elements (C, S, O, and N) dissolved in the melt. Using thermodynamic simulations, experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a predicted sequence of reactions targeted to form precipitates that could act as active nuclei for grain refinement in austenitic steel castings. Melt additions performed to promote the sequential precipitation of titanium nitride (TiN) onto previously formed spinel (Al2MgO4) inclusions in the melt resulted in a significant refinement of the as-cast grain structure in heavy section Cr-Ni-Mo stainless steel castings. A refined as-cast structure consisting of an inner fine-equiaxed grain structure and outer columnar dendrite zone structure of limited length was achieved in experimental castings. The sequential of precipitation of TiN onto Al2MgO4 was confirmed using automated SEM/EDX and TEM analyses.

  9. Refinement and Selection of Near-native Protein Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiong; Zhang, Jingfen; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2013-03-01

    In recent years in silico protein structure prediction reached a level where a variety of servers can generate large pools of near-native structures. However, the identification and further refinement of the best structures from the pool of decoys continue to be problematic. To address these issues, we have developed a selective refinement protocol (based on the Rosetta software package), and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based ranking method (MDR). The refinement of the selected structures is done by employing Rosetta's relax mode, subject to certain constraints. The selection of the final best models is done with MDR by testing their relative stability against gradual heating during all atom MD simulations. We have implemented the selective refinement protocol and the MDR method in our fully automated server Mufold-MD. Assessments of the performance of the Mufold-MD server in the CASP10 competition and other tests will be presented. This work was supported by grants from NIH. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  10. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  11. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  12. Improved successive refinement for wavelet-based embedded image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creusere, Charles D.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we consider a new form of successive coefficient refinement which can be used in conjunction with embedded compression algorithms like Shapiro's EZW (Embedded Zerotree Wavelet) and Said & Pearlman's SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees). Using the conventional refinement process, the approximation of a coefficient that was earlier determined to be significantly is refined by transmitting one of two symbols--an `up' symbol if the actual coefficient value is in the top half of the current uncertainty interval or a `down' symbol if it is the bottom half. In the modified scheme developed here, we transmit one of 3 symbols instead--`up', `down', or `exact'. The new `exact' symbol tells the decoder that its current approximation of a wavelet coefficient is `exact' to the level of precision desired. By applying this scheme in earlier work to lossless embedded compression (also called lossy/lossless compression), we achieved significant reductions in encoder and decoder execution times with no adverse impact on compression efficiency. These excellent results for lossless systems have inspired us to adapt this refinement approach to lossy embedded compression. Unfortunately, the results we have achieved thus far for lossy compression are not as good.

  13. Refinement of a Chemistry Attitude Measure for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoying; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the evaluation and refinement of a chemistry attitude measure, Attitude toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI), for college students. The original 20-item and revised 8-item versions of ASCI (V1 and V2) were administered to different samples. The evaluation for ASCI had two main foci: reliability and validity. This…

  14. Nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Due to a great combination of physical and mechanical properties, beta titanium alloys have become promising candidates in the field of chemical industry, aerospace and biomedical materials. The microstructure of beta titanium alloys is the governing factor that determines their properties and performances, especially the size scale, distribution and volume fraction of precipitate phase in parent phase matrix. Therefore in order to enhance the performance of beta titanium alloys, it is critical to obtain a thorough understanding of microstructural evolution in beta titanium alloys upon various thermal and/or mechanical processes. The present work is focusing on the study of nucleation mechanisms of refined alpha microstructure and super-refined alpha microstructure in beta titanium alloys in order to study the influence of instabilities within parent phase matrix on precipitates nucleation, including compositional instabilities and/or structural instabilities. The current study is primarily conducted in Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr (wt%, Ti-5553), a commercial material for aerospace application. Refined and super-refined precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553 are obtained under specific accurate temperature controlled heat treatments. The characteristics of either microstructure are investigated in details using various characterization techniques, such as SEM, TEM, STEM, HRSTEM and 3D atom probe to describe the features of microstructure in the aspect of morphology, distribution, structure and composition. Nucleation mechanisms of refined and super-refined precipitates are proposed in order to fully explain the features of different precipitates microstructure in Ti-5553. The necessary thermodynamic conditions and detailed process of phase transformations are introduced. In order to verify the reliability of proposed nucleation mechanisms, thermodynamic calculation and phase field modeling simulation are accomplished using the database of simple binary Ti-Mo system

  15. Procedures and computer programs for telescopic mesh refinement using MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Claar, David V.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water models are commonly used to evaluate flow systems in areas that are small relative to entire aquifer systems. In many of these analyses, simulation of the entire flow system is not desirable or will not allow sufficient detail in the area of interest. The procedure of telescopic mesh refinement allows use of a small, detailed model in the area of interest by taking boundary conditions from a larger model that encompasses the model in the area of interest. Some previous studies have used telescopic mesh refinement; however, better procedures are needed in carrying out telescopic mesh refinement using the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model, referred to as MODFLOW. This report presents general procedures and three computer programs for use in telescopic mesh refinement with MODFLOW. The first computer program, MODTMR, constructs MODFLOW data sets for a local or embedded model using MODFLOW data sets and simulation results from a regional or encompassing model. The second computer program, TMRDIFF, provides a means of comparing head or drawdown in the local model with head or drawdown in the corresponding area of the regional model. The third program, RIVGRID, provides a means of constructing data sets for the River Package, Drain Package, General-Head Boundary Package, and Stream Package for regional and local models using grid-independent data specifying locations of these features. RIVGRID may be needed in some applications of telescopic mesh refinement because regional-model data sets do not contain enough information on locations of head-dependent flow features to properly locate the features in local models. The program is a general utility program that can be used in constructing data sets for head-dependent flow packages for any MODFLOW model under construction.

  16. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  17. Decontamination of transuranic waste metal by melt refining

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Melt refining of transuraniuc- (TRU-) contaminated metals has been proposed as a decontamination process with the potential advantages of reclaiming metal and simplifying analytical problems. The feasibility of routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g (approx. 0.1 ppM) decontamination level by melt refining will demonstrate the removing of scrap metal from the TRU waste classification. To demonstrate this feasibility, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppM PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. Four different fluxes, borosilicate glass, blast furnace slag, high silica slag, and artificial basalt, were used in these studies. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents by the use of a combination of wet chemical and ..cap alpha..-activity counting technique. Partition ratios were calculated for plutonium using the analytical results of each experiment. Some metals were doubled refined to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate its effect on plutonium removal. The results indicated that the use of proper slags is necessary for effective removal of plutonium. All four slags were effective in removing plutonium from the metals. Values of less than 1 ppM Pu (approx. 100 nCi/g) could be obtained in all cases. The double-refined samples were cleaned to less than 0.1 ppM Pu (approx. nCi/g), which is the goal. Variation in the slag weight did not change the results significantly. Double refining of the metal with small primary and secondary slag volume can be an effective process for removal of TRU contaminants from metals.

  18. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    PubMed

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented.

  19. Groundwater flow parameter estimation using refinement and coarsening indicators for adaptive downscaling parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Mamadou Maina F. Z.; Ackerer, P.

    2017-02-01

    In the context of parameter identification by inverse methods, an optimized adaptive downscaling parameterization is described in this work. The adaptive downscaling parameterization consists of (i) defining a parameter mesh for each parameter, independent of the flow model mesh, (ii) optimizing the parameters set related to the parameter mesh, and (iii) if the match between observed and computed heads is not accurate enough, creating a new parameter mesh via refinement (downscaling) and performing a new optimization of the parameters. Refinement and coarsening indicators are defined to optimize the parameter mesh refinement. The robustness of the refinement and coarsening indicators was tested by comparing the results of inversions using refinement without indicators, refinement with only refinement indicators and refinement with coarsening and refinement indicators. These examples showed that the indicators significantly reduce the number of degrees of freedom necessary to solve the inverse problem without a loss of accuracy. They, therefore, limit over-parameterization.

  20. Venezuela's stake in US refining may grow: xenophobia addressed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-23

    Is this an invasion of U.S. oil industry sovereignty, or a happy marriage of upstream and downstream between US and foreign interests. Venezuela, a founding member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries who has also been a chief supplier to the US during times of peace and war, now owns half of two important US refining and marketing organizations. Many US marketers have felt uneasy about this foreign penetration of their turf. In this issue, for the sake of public information, the entire policy statement from the leader of that Venezuelan market strategy is provided. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of late September, 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 19 edition. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  2. Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

  3. Segmental Refinement: A Multigrid Technique for Data Locality

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark

    2014-10-27

    We investigate a technique - segmental refinement (SR) - proposed by Brandt in the 1970s as a low memory multigrid method. The technique is attractive for modern computer architectures because it provides high data locality, minimizes network communication, is amenable to loop fusion, and is naturally highly parallel and asynchronous. The network communication minimization property was recognized by Brandt and Diskin in 1994; we continue this work by developing a segmental refinement method for a finite volume discretization of the 3D Laplacian on massively parallel computers. An understanding of the asymptotic complexities, required to maintain textbook multigrid efficiency, are explored experimentally with a simple SR method. A two-level memory model is developed to compare the asymptotic communication complexity of a proposed SR method with traditional parallel multigrid. Performance and scalability are evaluated with a Cray XC30 with up to 64K cores. We achieve modest improvement in scalability from traditional parallel multigrid with a simple SR implementation.

  4. PARAMESH: A Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement Community Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Olson, Kevin M.; Mobarry, Clark; deFainchtein, Rosalinda; Packer, Charles

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a community toolkit which is designed to provide parallel support with adaptive mesh capability for a large and important class of computational models, those using structured, logically cartesian meshes. The package of Fortran 90 subroutines, called PARAMESH, is designed to provide an application developer with an easy route to extend an existing serial code which uses a logically cartesian structured mesh into a parallel code with adaptive mesh refinement. Alternatively, in its simplest use, and with minimal effort, it can operate as a domain decomposition tool for users who want to parallelize their serial codes, but who do not wish to use adaptivity. The package can provide them with an incremental evolutionary path for their code, converting it first to uniformly refined parallel code, and then later if they so desire, adding adaptivity.

  5. Measuring coalition functioning: refining constructs through factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louis D; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    Internal and external coalition functioning is an important predictor of coalition success that has been linked to perceived coalition effectiveness, coalition goal achievement, coalition ability to support evidence-based programs, and coalition sustainability. Understanding which aspects of coalition functioning best predict coalition success requires the development of valid measures of empirically unique coalition functioning constructs. The goal of the present study is to examine and refine the psychometric properties of coalition functioning constructs in the following six domains: leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participation benefits/costs, sustainability planning, and community support. The authors used factor analysis to identify problematic items in our original measure and then piloted new items and scales to create a more robust, psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of coalition functioning. Scales displayed good construct validity through correlations with other measures. Discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of the refined instrument.

  6. Contactless heater floating zone refining and crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kou, Sindo (Inventor); Lan, Chung-Wen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Floating zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by providing rapid relative rotation of a feed rod and finish rod while providing heat to the junction between the two rods so that significant forced convection occurs in the melt zone between the two rods. The forced convection distributes heat in the melt zone to allow the rods to be melted through with a much shorter melt zone length than possible utilizing conventional floating zone processes. One of the rods can be rotated with respect to the other, or both rods can be counter-rotated, with typical relative rotational speeds of the rods ranging from 200 revolutions per minute (RPM) to 400 RPM or greater. Zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by traversing the melt zone through the feed rod.

  7. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Algorithms for Parallel Unstructured Finite Element Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, I D; Solberg, J M

    2006-02-03

    This project produced algorithms for and software implementations of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods for solving practical solid and thermal mechanics problems on multiprocessor parallel computers using unstructured finite element meshes. The overall goal is to provide computational solutions that are accurate to some prescribed tolerance, and adaptivity is the correct path toward this goal. These new tools will enable analysts to conduct more reliable simulations at reduced cost, both in terms of analyst and computer time. Previous academic research in the field of adaptive mesh refinement has produced a voluminous literature focused on error estimators and demonstration problems; relatively little progress has been made on producing efficient implementations suitable for large-scale problem solving on state-of-the-art computer systems. Research issues that were considered include: effective error estimators for nonlinear structural mechanics; local meshing at irregular geometric boundaries; and constructing efficient software for parallel computing environments.

  8. Prioritization and Refinement of Clinical Data Elements within EHR Systems

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sarah A; Gesner, Emily; Mar, Perry L.; Colburn, Doreen M.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization of clinical data element (CDE) definitions is foundational to track, interpret, and analyze patient states, populations, and costs across providers, settings and time – critical activities to achieve the Triple Aim: improving the experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing per capita healthcare costs. We defined and implemented two analytical methods to prioritize and refine CDE definitions within electronic health records (EHRs), taking into account resource restrictions to carry out the analysis and configuration changes: 1) analysis of downstream data needs to identify high priority clinical topics, and 2) gap analysis of EHR CDEs when compared to reference models for the same clinical topics. We present use cases for six clinical topics. Pain Assessment and Skin Alteration Assessment were topics with the highest regulatory and non-regulatory downstream data needs and with significant gaps across documention artifacts in our system, confirming that these topics should be refined first. PMID:28269837

  9. Measuring Coalition Functioning: Refining Constructs through Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louis D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Internal and external coalition functioning is an important predictor of coalition success that has been linked to perceived coalition effectiveness, coalition goal achievement, coalition ability to support evidence-based programs, and coalition sustainability. Understanding which aspects of coalition functioning best predict coalition success requires the development of valid measures of empirically unique coalition functioning constructs. The goal of the present study is to examine and refine the psychometric properties of coalition functioning constructs in the following six domains: leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participation benefits/costs, sustainability planning, and community support. We used factor analysis to identify problematic items in our original measure and then piloted new items and scales to create a more robust, psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of coalition functioning. Scales displayed good construct validity through correlations with other measures. Discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of the refined instrument. PMID:22193112

  10. Facade model refinement by fusing terrestrial laser data and image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawen; Qin, Sushun

    2015-12-01

    The building facade model is one of main landscapes of a city and basic data of city geographic information. It is widely useful in accurate path planning, real navigation through the urban environment, location-based application, etc. In this paper, a method of facade model refinement by fusing terrestrial laser data and image is presented. It uses the matching of model edge and image line combined with laser data verification and effectively refines facade geometry model that reconstructed from laser data. The laser data of geometric structures on building facade such as window, balcony and door are segmented, and used as a constraint for further selecting the optical model edges that are located at the cross-line of point data and no data. The results demonstrate the deviation of model edges caused by laser sampling interval can be removed in the proposed method.

  11. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment.

  12. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2017-03-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  13. Thermal-chemical Mantle Convection Models With Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Zhong, S.

    2008-12-01

    In numerical modeling of mantle convection, resolution is often crucial for resolving small-scale features. New techniques, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allow local mesh refinement wherever high resolution is needed, while leaving other regions with relatively low resolution. Both computational efficiency for large- scale simulation and accuracy for small-scale features can thus be achieved with AMR. Based on the octree data structure [Tu et al. 2005], we implement the AMR techniques into the 2-D mantle convection models. For pure thermal convection models, benchmark tests show that our code can achieve high accuracy with relatively small number of elements both for isoviscous cases (i.e. 7492 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements) and for temperature-dependent viscosity cases (i.e. 14620 AMR elements v.s. 65536 uniform elements). We further implement tracer-method into the models for simulating thermal-chemical convection. By appropriately adding and removing tracers according to the refinement of the meshes, our code successfully reproduces the benchmark results in van Keken et al. [1997] with much fewer elements and tracers compared with uniform-mesh models (i.e. 7552 AMR elements v.s. 16384 uniform elements, and ~83000 tracers v.s. ~410000 tracers). The boundaries of the chemical piles in our AMR code can be easily refined to the scales of a few kilometers for the Earth's mantle and the tracers are concentrated near the chemical boundaries to precisely trace the evolvement of the boundaries. It is thus very suitable for our AMR code to study the thermal-chemical convection problems which need high resolution to resolve the evolvement of chemical boundaries, such as the entrainment problems [Sleep, 1988].

  14. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  15. French refiners grappling with new octane specs, environmental rules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    After emerging from the doldrums of the 1980s, France's refining industry faces new challenges to meet tightening gasoline and diesel specifications and greater environmental pressures. This paper reports on three stage investment program that is under way to adapt the pared down and restructured plant network to satisfy a changing products market. Current outlays, involving the first stage of investments, are geared to the rapidly developing unleaded gasoline market to meet quantity and quality requirements.

  16. Dietary Refinements in a Sensitive Fish Liver Tumor Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-20

    Composition of Purified Casein (PC) diet for medaka INGREDIENTS PERCENT COMPOSITION Vitamin- free casein 31.0 Wheat gluten 15.0 Dextrin 27.2 Refined soy...and plankton of unknown source and variability and may contribute confounding environmental contaminants . Since these diets are flaked, attempts to add...with a given dose of initiating carcinogen. Furthermore, since dietary contaminants are important modulators of carcinogenesis, a highly purified

  17. A Precision Recursive Estimate for Ephemeris Refinement (PREFER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, B.

    1980-01-01

    A recursive filter/smoother orbit determination program was developed to refine the ephemerides produced by a batch orbit determination program (e.g., CELEST, GEODYN). The program PREFER can handle a variety of ground and satellite to satellite tracking types as well as satellite altimetry. It was tested on simulated data which contained significant modeling errors and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the program compared to batch estimation.

  18. A refined methodology for modeling volume quantification performance in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Wilson, Joshua; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The utility of CT lung nodule volume quantification technique depends on the precision of the quantification. To enable the evaluation of quantification precision, we previously developed a mathematical model that related precision to image resolution and noise properties in uniform backgrounds in terms of an estimability index (e'). The e' was shown to predict empirical precision across 54 imaging and reconstruction protocols, but with different correlation qualities for FBP and iterative reconstruction (IR) due to the non-linearity of IR impacted by anatomical structure. To better account for the non-linearity of IR, this study aimed to refine the noise characterization of the model in the presence of textured backgrounds. Repeated scans of an anthropomorphic lung phantom were acquired. Subtracted images were used to measure the image quantum noise, which was then used to adjust the noise component of the e' calculation measured from a uniform region. In addition to the model refinement, the validation of the model was further extended to 2 nodule sizes (5 and 10 mm) and 2 segmentation algorithms. Results showed that the magnitude of IR's quantum noise was significantly higher in structured backgrounds than in uniform backgrounds (ASiR, 30-50%; MBIR, 100-200%). With the refined model, the correlation between e' values and empirical precision no longer depended on reconstruction algorithm. In conclusion, the model with refined noise characterization relfected the nonlinearity of iterative reconstruction in structured background, and further showed successful prediction of quantification precision across a variety of nodule sizes, dose levels, slice thickness, reconstruction algorithms, and segmentation software.

  19. Decadal climate prediction with a refined anomaly initialisation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, Danila; Guemas, Virginie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Hawkins, Ed; Nichols, Nancy K.

    2016-06-01

    In decadal prediction, the objective is to exploit both the sources of predictability from the external radiative forcings and from the internal variability to provide the best possible climate information for the next decade. Predicting the climate system internal variability relies on initialising the climate model from observational estimates. We present a refined method of anomaly initialisation (AI) applied to the ocean and sea ice components of the global climate forecast model EC-Earth, with the following key innovations: (1) the use of a weight applied to the observed anomalies, in order to avoid the risk of introducing anomalies recorded in the observed climate, whose amplitude does not fit in the range of the internal variability generated by the model; (2) the AI of the ocean density, instead of calculating it from the anomaly initialised state of temperature and salinity. An experiment initialised with this refined AI method has been compared with a full field and standard AI experiment. Results show that the use of such refinements enhances the surface temperature skill over part of the North and South Atlantic, part of the South Pacific and the Mediterranean Sea for the first forecast year. However, part of such improvement is lost in the following forecast years. For the tropical Pacific surface temperature, the full field initialised experiment performs the best. The prediction of the Arctic sea-ice volume is improved by the refined AI method for the first three forecast years and the skill of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is significantly increased compared to a non-initialised forecast, along the whole forecast time.

  20. Evolving a Puncture Black Hole with Fixed Mesh Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbiriba, Breno; Baker, John; Choi, Dae-II; Centrella, Joan; Fiske. David R.; Brown, J. David; vanMeter, James R.; Olson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of mesh refinement boundaries on the convergence and stability of simulations of black hole spacetimes. We find no technical problems. In our applications of this technique to the evolution of puncture initial data, we demonstrate that it is possible to simulaneously maintain second order convergence near the puncture and extend the outer boundary beyond 100M, thereby approaching the asymptotically flat region in which boundary condition problems are less difficult.