Science.gov

Sample records for a-45 decay heat

  1. Decay heat uncertainty quantification of MYRRHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, Luca; Buss, Oliver; Hoefer, Axel; Stankovskiy, Alexey; Eynde, Gert Van den

    2017-09-01

    MYRRHA is a lead-bismuth cooled MOX-fueled accelerator driven system (ADS) currently in the design phase at SCK·CEN in Belgium. The correct evaluation of the decay heat and of its uncertainty level is very important for the safety demonstration of the reactor. In the first part of this work we assessed the decay heat released by the MYRRHA core using the ALEPH-2 burnup code. The second part of the study focused on the nuclear data uncertainty and covariance propagation to the MYRRHA decay heat. Radioactive decay data, independent fission yield and cross section uncertainties/covariances were propagated using two nuclear data sampling codes, namely NUDUNA and SANDY. According to the results, 238U cross sections and fission yield data are the largest contributors to the MYRRHA decay heat uncertainty. The calculated uncertainty values are deemed acceptable from the safety point of view as they are well within the available regulatory limits.

  2. Decay Heat Removal from a GFR Core by Natural Convection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Wesley C.; Hejzlar, Pavel; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    One of the primary challenges for Gas-cooled Fast Reactors (GFR) is decay heat removal after a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Due to the fact that thermal gas cooled reactors currently under design rely on passive mechanisms to dissipate decay heat, there is a strong motivation to accomplish GFR core cooling through natural phenomena. This work investigates the potential of post-LOCA decay heat removal from a GFR core to a heat sink using an external convection loop. A model was developed in the form of the LOCA-COLA (Loss of Coolant Accident - Convection Loop Analysis) computer code as a meansmore » for 1D steady state convective heat transfer loop analysis. The results show that decay heat removal by means of gas cooled natural circulation is feasible under elevated post-LOCA containment pressure conditions. (authors)« less

  3. The induction and decay of heat acclimatisation in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, L E; Maresh, C M

    1991-11-01

    Heat acclimatisation/acclimation involves a complex of adaptations which includes decreased heart rate, rectal temperature, perceived exertion as well as increased plasma volume and sweat rate. These adaptations serve to reduce physiological strain, improve an athlete's ability to exercise in a hot environment, and reduce the incidence of some forms of heat illness. Few differences exist in the ability of men and women to acclimatise to heat. Typically, older runners do not perform in the heat as well as younger runners, but physical training can negate differences between these groups. Hormonal adaptations (e.g. aldosterone, vasopressin) during heat acclimatisation encourage fluid-electrolyte retention and cardiovascular stability. Athletes with high maximal aerobic power (VO2max) acclimatise to heat faster (and lose adaptations slower when they are inactive in a cool environment) than athletes with low VO2max values. Physical training in a cool environment improves physiological responses to exercise at high ambient temperatures. In attempting to optimise heat acclimatisation, athletes should maintain fluid-electrolyte balance, exercise at intensities greater than 50% VO2max for 10 to 14 days, and avoid factors (e.g. sleep loss, infectious disease) which are known to reduce heat tolerance. Once acclimatisation has been achieved, inactivity results in a decay of favourable adaptations, after only a few days or weeks.

  4. PANDA asymmetric-configuration passive decay heat removal test results

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, O.; Dreier, J.; Aubert, C.

    1997-12-01

    PANDA is a large-scale, low-pressure test facility for investigating passive decay heat removal systems for the next generation of LWRs. In the first series of experiments, PANDA was used to examine the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The test objectives include concept demonstration and extension of the database available for qualification of containment codes. Also included is the study of the effects of nonuniform distributions of steam and noncondensable gases in the Dry-well (DW) and in the Suppression Chamber (SC). 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at E/A=45 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in the reactions 139La + 27Al, 51V, natCu, and 139La were studied by the coincident detection of up to four complex fragments (Z > 3) emitted in these reactions. Fragments were characterized as to their atomic number, energy and in- and out-of-plane angles. The probability of the decay by an event of a given complex fragment multiplicity as a function of excitation energy per nucleon of the source is nearly independent of the system studied. Additionally, there is no large increase in the proportion of multiple fragment events as the excitation energy of themore » source increases past 5 MeV/nucleon. This is at odds with many prompt multifragmentation models of nuclear decay. The reactions 139La + 27Al, 51V, natCu were also studied by combining a dynamical model calculation that simulates the early stages of nuclear reactions with a statistical model calculation for the latter stages of the reactions. For the reaction 139La + 27Al, these calculations reproduced many of the experimental features, but other features were not reproduced. For the reaction 139La + 51V, the calculation failed to reproduce somewhat more of the experimental features. The calculation failed to reproduce any of the experimental features of the reaction 139La + natCu, with the exception of the source velocity distributions.« less

  6. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at E/A=45 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, B.

    1993-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in the reactions [sup 139]La + [sup 27]Al, [sup 51]V, [sup nat]Cu, and [sup 139]La were studied by the coincident detection of up to four complex fragments (Z > 3) emitted in these reactions. Fragments were characterized as to their atomic number, energy and in- and out-of-plane angles. The probability of the decay by an event of a given complex fragment multiplicity as a function of excitation energy per nucleon of the source is nearly independent of the system studied. Additionally, there is no large increase in the proportion of multiple fragment events asmore » the excitation energy of the source increases past 5 MeV/nucleon. This is at odds with many prompt multifragmentation models of nuclear decay. The reactions [sup 139]La + [sup 27]Al, [sup 51]V, [sup nat]Cu were also studied by combining a dynamical model calculation that simulates the early stages of nuclear reactions with a statistical model calculation for the latter stages of the reactions. For the reaction [sup 139]La + [sup 27]Al, these calculations reproduced many of the experimental features, but other features were not reproduced. For the reaction [sup 139]La + [sup 51]V, the calculation failed to reproduce somewhat more of the experimental features. The calculation failed to reproduce any of the experimental features of the reaction [sup 139]La + [sup nat]Cu, with the exception of the source velocity distributions.« less

  7. Decay heat uncertainty for BWR used fuel due to modeling and nuclear data uncertainties

    DOE PAGES

    Ilas, Germina; Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2017-05-19

    Characterization of the energy released from radionuclide decay in nuclear fuel discharged from reactors is essential for the design, safety, and licensing analyses of used nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and repository systems. There are a limited number of decay heat measurements available for commercial used fuel applications. Because decay heat measurements can be expensive or impractical for covering the multitude of existing fuel designs, operating conditions, and specific application purposes, decay heat estimation relies heavily on computer code prediction. Uncertainty evaluation for calculated decay heat is an important aspect when assessing code prediction and a key factor supporting decision makingmore » for used fuel applications. While previous studies have largely focused on uncertainties in code predictions due to nuclear data uncertainties, this study discusses uncertainties in calculated decay heat due to uncertainties in assembly modeling parameters as well as in nuclear data. Capabilities in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system were used to quantify the effect on calculated decay heat of uncertainties in nuclear data and selected manufacturing and operation parameters for a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assembly. Furthermore, the BWR fuel assembly used as the reference case for this study was selected from a set of assemblies for which high-quality decay heat measurements are available, to assess the significance of the results through comparison with calculated and measured decay heat data.« less

  8. Decay heat uncertainty for BWR used fuel due to modeling and nuclear data uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    Characterization of the energy released from radionuclide decay in nuclear fuel discharged from reactors is essential for the design, safety, and licensing analyses of used nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and repository systems. There are a limited number of decay heat measurements available for commercial used fuel applications. Because decay heat measurements can be expensive or impractical for covering the multitude of existing fuel designs, operating conditions, and specific application purposes, decay heat estimation relies heavily on computer code prediction. Uncertainty evaluation for calculated decay heat is an important aspect when assessing code prediction and a key factor supporting decision makingmore » for used fuel applications. While previous studies have largely focused on uncertainties in code predictions due to nuclear data uncertainties, this study discusses uncertainties in calculated decay heat due to uncertainties in assembly modeling parameters as well as in nuclear data. Capabilities in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system were used to quantify the effect on calculated decay heat of uncertainties in nuclear data and selected manufacturing and operation parameters for a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assembly. Furthermore, the BWR fuel assembly used as the reference case for this study was selected from a set of assemblies for which high-quality decay heat measurements are available, to assess the significance of the results through comparison with calculated and measured decay heat data.« less

  9. Whole-body heat exchange during heat acclimation and its decay.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Martin P; Gagnon, Daniel; Friesen, Brian J; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify how much whole-body heat loss increases during heat acclimation and the decay in these improvements after heat acclimation. Ten males underwent a 14-d heat acclimation protocol that consisted of 90 min of cycling in the heat (40°C, 20% relative humidity) at approximately 50% of maximum oxygen consumption. Before (day 0), during (day 7), and at the end (day 14) of the heat acclimation protocol as well as 7 and 14 d after heat acclimation (days 21 and 28), whole-body heat exchange (evaporative and dry) was measured using direct calorimetry during three bouts of 30-min exercise at 300 (Ex1), 350 (Ex2), and 400 W·m (Ex3), each separated by 10 and 20 min of recovery, respectively, at 35°C and 16% relative humidity. Concurrent measurements of metabolic heat production (indirect calorimetry) allowed for the direct calculation of change in body heat content (ΔHb). After accounting for an increase in net dry heat gain, increases in whole-body evaporative heat loss were evident for Ex2 and Ex3 on day 7 (Ex2, 4.9 ± 5.6%; Ex3, 9.0 ± 6.0%; both P ≤ 0.05) and all heat loads on day 14 (Ex1, 7.6 ± 8.3%; Ex2, 7.7 ± 5.5%; Ex3, 11.2 ± 4.6%; all P ≤ 0.05) relative to day 0 (Ex1, 494 ± 27 W; Ex2, 583 ± 21 W; Ex3, 622 ± 36 W). As a result, a lower cumulative ΔHb was measured on day 7 (-18 ± 8%, P ≤ 0.001) and day 14 (-26 ± 10%, P ≤ 0.001) compared with that measured on day 0 (1062 ± 123 kJ). Most of these improvements were retained after 2 wk of nonexposure to the heat. This is the first study to quantify how much 14 d of heat acclimation can increase whole-body evaporative heat loss, which can improve by as much as approximately 11%.

  10. Probabilistic approach for decay heat uncertainty estimation using URANIE platform and MENDEL depletion code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsilanizara, A.; Gilardi, N.; Huynh, T. D.; Jouanne, C.; Lahaye, S.; Martinez, J. M.; Diop, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the decay heat quantity and the associated uncertainties are important issues for the safety of nuclear facilities. Many codes are available to estimate the decay heat. ORIGEN, FISPACT, DARWIN/PEPIN2 are part of them. MENDEL is a new depletion code developed at CEA, with new software architecture, devoted to the calculation of physical quantities related to fuel cycle studies, in particular decay heat. The purpose of this paper is to present a probabilistic approach to assess decay heat uncertainty due to the decay data uncertainties from nuclear data evaluation like JEFF-3.1.1 or ENDF/B-VII.1. This probabilistic approach is based both on MENDEL code and URANIE software which is a CEA uncertainty analysis platform. As preliminary applications, single thermal fission of uranium 235, plutonium 239 and PWR UOx spent fuel cell are investigated.

  11. [The influence of oil heat treatment on wood decay resistance by Fourier infrared spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Ma, Shu-Ling; Feng, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Wood preservative treatment can improve defects of plantation wood such as easy to corrupt and moth eaten. Among them heat-treatment is not only environmental and no pollution, also can improve the corrosion resistance and dimension stability of wood. In this test Poplar and Mongolian Seoteh Pine was treated by soybean oil as heat-conducting medium, and the heat treatment wood was studied for indoor decay resistance; wood chemical components before and after treatment, the effect of heat treatment on wood decay resistance performance and main mechanism of action were analysed by Fourier infrared spectrometric. Results showed that the mass loss rate of poplar fell from 19.37% to 5% and Mongolian Seoteh Pine's fell from 8.23% to 3.15%, so oil heat treatment can effectively improve the decay resistance. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that the heat treatment made wood's hydrophilic groups such as hydroxyl groups in largely reduced, absorbing capacity decreased and the moisture of wood rotting fungi necessary was reduced; during the heat treatment wood chemical components such as cellulose, hemicellu lose were degraded, and the nutrient source of wood rotting fungi growth necessary was reduced. Wood decay fungi can grow in the wood to discredit wood is because of that wood can provide better living conditions for wood decay fungi, such as nutrients, water, oxygen, and so on. The cellulose and hemicellulose in wood is the main nutrition source of wood decay fungi. So the oil heat-treatment can reduce the cellulose, hemicellulose nutrition source of wood decay fungi so as to improve the decay resistance of wood.

  12. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  13. Determination of the NPP Kr\\vsko spent fuel decay heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromar, Marjan; Kurinčič, Bojan

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear fuel is designed to support fission process in a reactor core. Some of the isotopes, formed during the fission, decay and produce decay heat and radiation. Accurate knowledge of the nuclide inventory producing decay heat is important after reactor shut down, during the fuel storage and subsequent reprocessing or disposal. In this paper possibility to calculate the fuel isotopic composition and determination of the fuel decay heat with the Serpent code is investigated. Serpent is a well-known Monte Carlo code used primarily for the calculation of the neutron transport in a reactor. It has been validated for the burn-up calculations. In the calculation of the fuel decay heat different set of isotopes is important than in the neutron transport case. Comparison with the Origen code is performed to verify that the Serpent is taking into account all isotopes important to assess the fuel decay heat. After the code validation, a sensitivity study is carried out. Influence of several factors such as enrichment, fuel temperature, moderator temperature (density), soluble boron concentration, average power, burnable absorbers, and burnup is analyzed.

  14. Method for utilizing decay heat from radioactive nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1974-10-14

    Management of radioactive heat-producing waste material while safely utilizing the heat thereof is accomplished by encapsulating the wastes after a cooling period, transporting the capsules to a facility including a plurality of vertically disposed storage tubes, lowering the capsules as they arrive at the facility into the storage tubes, cooling the storage tubes by circulating a gas thereover, employing the so heated gas to obtain an economically beneficial result, and continually adding waste capsules to the facility as they arrive thereat over a substantial period of time.

  15. Changes in heart rate variability during the induction and decay of heat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poirier, Martin P; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Herry, Christophe; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the changes in core temperature, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) during the induction and decay of heat acclimation. Ten males (23 ± 3 years; 79.5 ± 3.5 kg; 15.2 ± 4.5 percent body fat; 51.13 ± 4.61 mLO(2)∙kg(-1)∙min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) underwent a 14-day heat acclimation protocol comprising of 90-min cycling at ~50 % peak oxygen uptake at 40 °C and ~20 % relative humidity. Core temperature, heart rate, and 102 HRV measures were recorded during a heat tolerance test conducted at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the induction (day 14) and decay (day 28) phases. Heat acclimation resulted in significantly reduced core temperature [rectal (χ (2) = 1298.14, p < 0.001); esophageal (χ (2) = 1069.88, p < 0.001)] and heart rate (χ (2) = 1230.17, p < 0.001). Following the decay phase, 26, 40, and 60 % of the heat acclimation-induced reductions in rectal temperature, esophageal temperature, and heart rate, respectively, were lost. Heat acclimation was accompanied by profound and broad changes in HRV: at the end of the induction phase, 75 of the 102 variability measures computed were significantly different (p < 0.001), compared to only 47 of the 102 at the end of the decay phase. Heat acclimation is accompanied by reduced core temperature, significant bradycardia, and marked alterations in HRV, which we interpret as being related to vagal dominance. The observed changes in core temperature persist for at least 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat, while the changes in heart rate and HRV decay faster and are only partly evident after 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat.

  16. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment.

  17. Natural circulation decay heat removal from an SP-100, 550 kWe power system for a lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the decay heat removal from the SP-100 reactor core of a 550-kWe power system for a lunar outpost by natural circulation of lithium coolant. A transient model that simulates the decay heat removal loop (DHRL) of the power system was developed and used to assess the system's decay heat removal capability. The effects of the surface area of the decay heat rejection radiator, the dimensions of the decay heat exchanger (DHE) flow duct, the elevation of the DHE, and the diameter of the rise and down pipes in the DHRL on the decay heat removal capability were examined. Also, to determine the applicability of test results at earth gravity to actual system performance on the lunar surface, the effect of the gravity constant (1 g and 1/6 g) on the thermal behavior of the system after shutdown was investigated.

  18. Understanding decay resistance, dimensional stability and strength changes in heat treated and acetylated wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; James McSweeny; Thomas Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Reductions in hygroscopicity, increased dimensional stability and decay resistance of heat-treated wood depend on decomposition of a large portion of the hemicelluloses in the wood cell wall. In theory, these hemicelluloses are converted to small organic molecules, water and volatile furan-type intermediates that can polymerize in the cell wall. Reductions in...

  19. Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter Theory Including Heat Losses and Other Decaying Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, T. Mark; Olivares, Ricardo A.; Philippidis, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model, termed the Slug Loss Model, has been developed for describing thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeter behavior when heat losses and other decaying processes are not negligible. This model results in the temperature time slope taking the mathematical form of exponential decay. When data is found to fit well to this model, it allows a heat flux value to be calculated that corrects for the losses and may be a better estimate of the cold wall fully catalytic heat flux, as is desired in arc jet testing. The model was applied to the data from a copper slug calorimeter inserted during a particularly severe high heating rate arc jet run to illustrate its use. The Slug Loss Model gave a cold wall heat flux 15% higher than the value of 2,250 W/sq cm obtained from the conventional approach to processing the data (where no correction is made for losses). For comparison, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was created and applied to the same data, where conduction heat losses from the slug were simulated. The heat flux determined by the FEA model was found to be in close agreement with the heat flux determined by the Slug Loss Model.

  20. Nonlinear Decay and Plasma Heating by a Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.; Chen, L.; Zonca, F.; Chen, W.

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that a toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) can parametrically decay into a geodesic acoustic mode and kinetic TAE in a toroidal plasma. The corresponding threshold condition for the TAE amplitude is estimated to be |δ B⊥/B0|˜O (10-4). Here, δ B⊥ and B0 are, respectively, the perturbed magnetic field of the pump TAE and the equilibrium magnetic field. This novel decay process, in addition to contributing to the nonlinear saturation of energetic-particle or α -particle driven TAE instability, could also contribute to the heating as well as regulating the transports of thermal plasmas.

  1. Fission yields data generation and benchmarks of decay heat estimation of a nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Choong-Sup; Kim, Do Heon; Yoo, Jae Kwon; Lee, Jounghwa

    2017-09-01

    Fission yields data with the ENDF-6 format of 235U, 239Pu, and several actinides dependent on incident neutron energies have been generated using the GEF code. In addition, fission yields data libraries of ORIGEN-S, -ARP modules in the SCALE code, have been generated with the new data. The decay heats by ORIGEN-S using the new fission yields data have been calculated and compared with the measured data for validation in this study. The fission yields data ORIGEN-S libraries based on ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1, and JENDL/FPY-2011 have also been generated, and decay heats were calculated using the ORIGEN-S libraries for analyses and comparisons.

  2. Heat-induced ribosome pausing triggers mRNA co-translational decay in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Merret, Rémy; Nagarajan, Vinay K.; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Park, Sunhee; Favory, Jean-Jacques; Descombin, Julie; Picart, Claire; Charng, Yee-yung; Green, Pamela J.; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    The reprogramming of gene expression in heat stress is a key determinant to organism survival. Gene expression is downregulated through translation initiation inhibition and release of free mRNPs that are rapidly degraded or stored. In mammals, heat also triggers 5′-ribosome pausing preferentially on transcripts coding for HSC/HSP70 chaperone targets, but the impact of such phenomenon on mRNA fate remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, heat provokes 5′-ribosome pausing leading to the XRN4-mediated 5′-directed decay of translating mRNAs. We also show that hindering HSC/HSP70 activity at 20°C recapitulates heat effects by inducing ribosome pausing and co-translational mRNA turnover. Strikingly, co-translational decay targets encode proteins with high HSC/HSP70 binding scores and hydrophobic N-termini, two characteristics that were previously observed for transcripts most prone to pausing in animals. This work suggests for the first time that stress-induced variation of translation elongation rate is an evolutionarily conserved process leading to the polysomal degradation of thousands of ‘non-aberrant’ mRNAs. PMID:25845591

  3. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth-Cooled Natural-Circulation Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Takaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Takashi

    2004-03-15

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multidimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural-circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 300-MW(thermal) lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400-MW(electric) lead-bismuth-cooled natural-circulation reactor designed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. The primary reactor auxiliary cooling system (PRACS) is prepared for the JNC concept to get sufficient heat removal capacity. During 2000 smore » after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 deg. C because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporarily reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system, and the outlet temperature decreases successfully.« less

  4. Modeling Coronal Response in Decaying Active Regions with Magnetic Flux Transport and Steady Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Upton, Lisa A.; Young, Peter R.

    2017-09-01

    We present new measurements of the dependence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiance on the total magnetic flux in active regions as obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using observations of nine active regions tracked along different stages of evolution, we extend the known radiance—magnetic flux power-law relationship (I\\propto {{{Φ }}}α ) to the AIA 335 Å passband, and the Fe xviii 93.93 Å spectral line in the 94 Å passband. We find that the total unsigned magnetic flux divided by the polarity separation ({{Φ }}/D) is a better indicator of radiance for the Fe xviii line with a slope of α =3.22+/- 0.03. We then use these results to test our current understanding of magnetic flux evolution and coronal heating. We use magnetograms from the simulated decay of these active regions produced by the Advective Flux Transport model as boundary conditions for potential extrapolations of the magnetic field in the corona. We then model the hydrodynamics of each individual field line with the Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops model with steady heating scaled as the ratio of the average field strength and the length (\\bar{B}/L) and render the Fe xviii and 335 Å emission. We find that steady heating is able to partially reproduce the magnitudes and slopes of the EUV radiance—magnetic flux relationships and discuss how impulsive heating can help reconcile the discrepancies. This study demonstrates that combined models of magnetic flux transport, magnetic topology, and heating can yield realistic estimates for the decay of active region radiances with time.

  5. Fission product transport analysis in a loss of decay heat removal accident at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Weber, C.F.; Hodge, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes an analysis of the movement of noble gases, iodine, and cesium fission products within the Mark-I containment BWR reactor system represented by Browns Ferry Unit 1 during a postulated accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal (DHR) capability following a scram. The event analysis showed that this accident could be brought under control by various means, but the sequence with no operator action ultimately leads to containment (drywell) failure followed by loss of water from the reactor vessel, core degradation due to overheating, and reactor vessel failure with attendant movement of core debris ontomore » the drywell floor.« less

  6. System Analysis for Decay Heat Removal in Lead-Bismuth Cooled Natural Circulated Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Takaaki Sakai; Yasuhiro Enuma; Takashi Iwasaki

    2002-07-01

    Decay heat removal analyses for lead-bismuth cooled natural circulation reactors are described in this paper. A combined multi-dimensional plant dynamics code (MSG-COPD) has been developed to conduct the system analysis for the natural circulation reactors. For the preliminary study, transient analysis has been performed for a 100 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled reactor designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, decay heat removal characteristics of a 400 MWe lead-bismuth-cooled natural circulation reactor designed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been evaluated by using MSG-COPD. PRACS (Primary Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System) is prepared for the JNC's concept to get sufficient heatmore » removal capacity. During 2000 sec after the transient, the outlet temperature shows increasing tendency up to the maximum temperature of 430 Centigrade, because the buoyancy force in a primary circulation path is temporary reduced. However, the natural circulation is recovered by the PRACS system and the out let temperature decreases successfully. (authors)« less

  7. Decay Heat Removal in GEN IV Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Lap-Yan; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    The safety goal of the current designs of advanced high-temperature thermal gas-cooled reactors (HTRs) is that no core meltdown would occur in a depressurization event with a combination of concurrent safety system failures. This study focused on the analysis of passive decay heat removal (DHR) in a GEN IV direct-cycle gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) which is based on the technology developments of the HTRs. Given the different criteria and design characteristics of the GFR, an approach different from that taken for the HTRs for passive DHR would have to be explored. Different design options based on maintaining core flow weremore » evaluated by performing transient analysis of a depressurization accident using the system code RELAP5-3D. The study also reviewed the conceptual design of autonomous systems for shutdown decay heat removal and recommends that future work in this area should be focused on the potential for Brayton cycle DHRs.« less

  8. Beta decay heat following U-235, U-238 and Pu-239 neutron fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengjie

    1997-09-01

    This is an experimental study of beta-particle decay heat from 235U, 239Pu and 238U aggregate fission products over delay times 0.4-40,000 seconds. The experimental results below 2s for 235U and 239Pu, and below 20s for 238U, are the first such results reported. The experiments were conducted at the UMASS Lowell 5.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator and 1-MW swimming-pool research reactor. Thermalized neutrons from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction induced fission in 238U and 239Pu, and fast neutrons produced in the reactor initiated fission in 238U. A helium-jet/tape-transport system rapidly transferred fission fragments from a fission chamber to a low background counting area. Delay times after fission were selected by varying the tape speed or the position of the spray point relative to the beta spectrometer that employed a thin-scintillator-disk gating technique to separate beta-particles from accompanying gamma-rays. Beta and gamma sources were both used in energy calibration. Based on low-energy(<1 MeV) internal-conversion electron studies, a set of trial responses for the spectrometer was established and spanned electron energies 0-10 MeV. Measured beta spectra were unfolded for their energy distributions by the program FERD, and then compared to other measurements and summation calculations based on ENDF/B-VI fission-product data performed on the LANL Cray computer. Measurements of the beta activity as a function of decay time furnished a relative normalization. Results for the beta decay heat are presented and compared with other experimental data and the summation calculations.

  9. Thermal hydraulic design and decay heat removal of a solid target for a spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Nio, D.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Mishima, K.; Kawai, M.; Furusaka, M.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal hydraulic design and thermal stress calculations were conducted for a water-cooled solid target irradiated by a MW-class proton beam for a spallation neutron source. Plate type and rod bundle type targets were examined. The thickness of the plate and the diameter of the rod were determined based on the maximum and the wall surface temperature. The thermal stress distributions were calculated by a finite element method (FEM). The neutronics performance of the target is roughly proportional to its average density. The averaged densities of the designed targets were calculated for tungsten plates, tantalum clad tungsten plates, tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy and they were compared with mercury density. It was shown that the averaged density was highest for the tungsten plates and was high for the tantalum cladding tungsten plates, the tungsten rods sheathed by tantalum and Zircaloy in order. They were higher than or equal to that of mercury for the 1 2 MW proton beams. Tungsten target without the cladding or the sheath is not practical due to corrosion by water under irradiation condition. Therefore, the tantalum cladding tungsten plate already made successfully by HIP and the sheathed tungsten rod are the candidate of high performance solid targets. The decay heat of each target was calculated. It was low enough low compared to that of ISIS for the target without tantalum but was about four times as high as that of ISIS when the thickness of the tantalum cladding was 0.5 mm. Heat removal methods of the decay heat with tantalum were examined. It was shown that a special cooling system was required for the target exchange when tantalum was used for the target. It was concluded that the tungsten rod target sheathed with stainless steel or Zircaloy was the most reliable from the safety considerations and had similar neutronics performance to that of mercury.

  10. Quantification of the decay and re-induction of heat acclimation in dry-heat following 12 and 26 days without exposure to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Weller, Andrew S; Linnane, Denise M; Jonkman, Anna G; Daanen, Hein A M

    2007-12-01

    Compared with the induction of heat acclimation (HA), studies investigating the decay and re-induction of HA (RA) are relatively sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, 16 semi-nude men were acclimated to dry-heat by undertaking an exercise protocol in a hot chamber (dry-bulb temperature 46.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C; relative humidity 17.9 +/- 0.1%) on 10 consecutive days (HA1-10) in winter UK. Thereafter, the subjects were divided into two groups and re-exposed to the work-in-heat tests after 12 and 26 days until RA was attained (RA(12), n = 8; RA(26), n = 8). The exercise protocol consisted of 60 min of treadmill walking (1.53 m s(-1)) at an incline individually set to induce a rectal temperature (T (re)) of approximately 38.5 degrees C during HA1 (equating to 45 +/- 4% peak oxygen uptake), followed by 10 min of rest and 40 min of further treadmill exercise, the intensity of which was increased across HA to maintain T(re )at approximately 38.5 degrees C. T(re), mean skin temperature, heart rate and rate of total water loss measured at 60 min did not change after HA7, and HA was taken as the mean of the responses during HA8-10. For both groups, there was no decay in T(re) and for all measured variables RA was attained after 2 and 4 days in RA(12) and RA(26), respectively. It is concluded that once adaptation to heat has been attained, the time that individuals may spend in cooler conditions before returning to a hot environment could be as long as one month, without the need for extensive re-adaptation to heat.

  11. Global, decaying solutions of a focusing energy-critical heat equation in R4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, Stephen; Roxanas, Dimitrios

    2018-05-01

    We study solutions of the focusing energy-critical nonlinear heat equation ut = Δu - | u|2 u in R4. We show that solutions emanating from initial data with energy and H˙1-norm below those of the stationary solution W are global and decay to zero, via the "concentration-compactness plus rigidity" strategy of Kenig-Merle [33,34]. First, global such solutions are shown to dissipate to zero, using a refinement of the small data theory and the L2-dissipation relation. Finite-time blow-up is then ruled out using the backwards-uniqueness of Escauriaza-Seregin-Sverak [17,18] in an argument similar to that of Kenig-Koch [32] for the Navier-Stokes equations.

  12. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  13. Novel measurement method of heat and light detection for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. B.; Choi, J. H.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Li, J.; Oh, S. Y.; So, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    We developed a cryogenic phonon-scintillation detector to search for 0νββ decay of 100Mo. The detector module, a proto-type setup of the AMoRE experiment, has a scintillating 40Ca100MoO4 absorber composed of 100Mo-enriched and 48Ca-depleted elements. This new detection method employs metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) as the sensor technology for simultaneous detection of heat and light signals. It is designed to have high energy and timing resolutions to increase sensitivity to probe the rare event. The detector, which is composed of a 200 g 40Ca100MoO4 crystal and phonon/photon sensors, showed an energy resolution of 8.7 keV FWHM at 2.6 MeV, with a weak temperature dependence in the range of 10-40 mK. Using rise-time and mean-time parameters and light/heat ratios, the proposed method showed a strong capability of rejecting alpha-induced events from electron events with as good as 20σ separation. Moreover, we discussed how the signal rise-time improves the rejection efficiency for random coincidence signals.

  14. Effect of Permissive Dehydration on Induction and Decay of Heat Acclimation, and Temperate Exercise Performance

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Rebecca A.; Massey, Heather C.; Tipton, Michael J.; Young, John S.; Corbett, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion. Methods: Eight males [VO2max: 56.9(7.2) mL·kg−1·min−1] undertook two HA programmes (balanced cross-over design), once drinking to maintain euhydration (HAEu) and once with restricted fluid-intake (HADe). Days 1, 6, 11, and 18 were 60 min exercise-heat stress tests [HST (40°C; 50% RH)], days 2–5 and 7–10 were 90 min, isothermal-strain (Tre ~ 38.5°C), exercise-heat sessions. Performance parameters [VO2max, lactate threshold, efficiency, peak power output (PPO)] were determined pre and post HA by graded exercise test (22°C; 55%RH). Results: During isothermal-strain sessions hypohydration was achieved in HADe and euhydration maintained in HAEu [average body mass loss −2.71(0.82)% vs. −0.56(0.73)%, P < 0.001], but aldosterone concentration, power output, and cardiovascular strain were unaffected by dehydration. HA was evident on day 6 {reduced end-exercise Tre [−0.30(0.27)°C] and exercise heart rate [−12(15) beats.min−1], increased PV [+7.2(6.4)%] and sweat-loss [+0.25(0.22) L.h−1], P < 0.05} with some further adaptations on day 11 {further reduced end-exercise Tre [−0.25(0.19)°C] and exercise heart rate [−3(9) beats.min−1], P < 0.05}. These adaptations were not notably affected by dehydration and were generally maintained 7-days post HA. Performance parameters were unchanged, apart from increased PPO (+16(20) W, irrespective of condition). Conclusions: When thermal-strain is matched

  15. Experimental and numerical simulation of passive decay heat removal by sump cooling after cool melt down

    SciTech Connect

    Knebel, J.U.; Kuhn, D.; Mueller, U.

    1997-12-01

    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of passive decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The above results are applied to the SUCO program that is performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of a sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. The sump cooling concept is based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and themore » Siemens AG. The article gives results of temperature and velocity measurements in the 1:20 linearly scaled SUCOS-2D test facility. The experiments are backed up by numerical calculations using the commercial software package Fluent. Finally, using the similarity analysis from above, the experimental results of the model geometry are scaled-up to the conditions in the prototype, allowing a first statement with regard to the feasibility of the sump cooling concept. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  16. Decay heat of sodium fast reactor: Comparison of experimental measurements on the PHENIX reactor with calculations performed with the French DARWIN package

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J. C.; Bourdot, P.; Eschbach, R.

    2012-07-01

    A Decay Heat (DH) experiment on the whole core of the French Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor PHENIX has been conducted in May 2008. The measurements began an hour and a half after the shutdown of the reactor and lasted twelve days. It is one of the experiments used for the experimental validation of the depletion code DARWIN thereby confirming the excellent performance of the aforementioned code. Discrepancies between measured and calculated decay heat do not exceed 8%. (authors)

  17. Link between von-Karman energy decay and reconnection heating in turbulent plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, M. A.; Parashar, T.; Haggerty, C. C.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Phan, T.; Drake, J. F.; Cassak, P.; Wu, P.

    2016-12-01

    Coherent structures such as current sheets are prevalent in many turbulent plasmas and have been shown to be correlated with dissipation and heating in observations of solar wind turbulence and dissipation in kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, the role that they play in the dissipation of turbulent energy and ultimately the heating of the plasma are still not well understood. A recent study [1] using kinetic PIC simulations of turbulence found that the total heating in the plasma is consistent with a von-Karman scaling of the cascade rate, and that the proton to electron heating ratio was proportional to the total heating rate and linked to the ratio of gyroperiod to nonlinear turnover time at the ion kinetic scales. We review recent findings regarding the rate of heating in outflow jets during laminar reconnection and apply it to kinetic PIC simulations of turbulence, employing some reasonable assumptions to connect the two theories. The goal is to determine if reconnection is a primary heating mechanism or plays less of a role. Conversely, we also apply the new understanding of the von-Karman cascade to isolated reconnection events to determine if a cascade-like process is controlling the heating rate. [1] W. Matthaeus et al., ApJ Letters, 827, L7, 2016, doi:10.3847/2041-8205/827/1/L7

  18. Scattering of lattice solitons and decay of heat-current correlation in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-α -β model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tao; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Hong

    2017-08-01

    As is well known, solitons can be excited in nonlinear lattice systems; however, whether, and if so, how, this kind of nonlinear excitation can affect the energy transport behavior is not yet fully understood. Here we study both the scattering dynamics of solitons and heat transport properties in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-α -β model with an asymmetric interparticle interaction. By varying the asymmetry degree of the interaction (characterized by α ), we find that (i) for each α there exists a momentum threshold for exciting solitons from which one may infer an α -dependent feature of probability of presentation of solitons at a finite-temperature equilibrium state and (ii) the scattering rate of solitons is sensitively dependent on α . Based on these findings, we conjecture that the scattering between solitons will cause the nonmonotonic α -dependent feature of heat conduction. Fortunately, such a conjecture is indeed verified by our detailed examination of the time decay behavior of the heat current correlation function, but it is only valid for an early time stage. Thus, this result may suggest that solitons can have only a relatively short survival time when exposed in a thermal environment, eventually affecting the heat transport in a short time.

  19. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  20. Comparison of deterministic and stochastic approaches for isotopic concentration and decay heat uncertainty quantification on elementary fission pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, S.; Huynh, T. D.; Tsilanizara, A.

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification of interest outputs in nuclear fuel cycle is an important issue for nuclear safety, from nuclear facilities to long term deposits. Most of those outputs are functions of the isotopic vector density which is estimated by fuel cycle codes, such as DARWIN/PEPIN2, MENDEL, ORIGEN or FISPACT. CEA code systems DARWIN/PEPIN2 and MENDEL propagate by two different methods the uncertainty from nuclear data inputs to isotopic concentrations and decay heat. This paper shows comparisons between those two codes on a Uranium-235 thermal fission pulse. Effects of nuclear data evaluation's choice (ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-2011) is inspected in this paper. All results show good agreement between both codes and methods, ensuring the reliability of both approaches for a given evaluation.

  1. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  2. Noble gas, iodine, and cesium transport in a postulated loss of decay heat removal accident at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Hodge, S.A.; Weber, C.F.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents an analysis of the movement of noble gas, iodine, and cesium fission products within the Mark-I containment BWR reactor system represented by Browns Ferry Unit 1 during a postulated accident sequence initiated by a loss of decay heat removal capability following a scram. The event analysis showed that this accident could be brought under control by various means, but the sequence with no operator action ultimately leads to containment (drywell) failure followed by loss of water from the reactor vessel, core degradation due to overheating, and reactor vessel failure with attendant movement of core debris onto themore » drywell floor. The analysis of fission product transport presented in this report is based on the no-operator-action sequence and provides an estimate of fission product inventories, as a function of time, within 14 control volumes outside the core, with the atmosphere considered as the final control volume in the transport sequence. As in the case of accident sequences previously studied, we find small barrier for noble gas ejection to air, these gases being effectively purged from the drywell and reactor building by steam and concrete degradation gases. However, significant decay of krypton isotopes occurs during the long delay times involved in this sequence. In contrast, large degrees of holdup for iodine and cesium are projected due to the chemical reactivity of these elements. Only about 2 x 10/sup -4/% of the initial iodine and cesium activity are predicted to be released to the atmosphere. Principal barriers for release are deposition on reactor vessel and containment walls. A significant amount of iodine is captured in the water pool formed in the reactor building basement after actuation of the fire protection system.« less

  3. Complete ? -decay pattern for the high-priority decay-heat isotopes I 137 and Xe 137 determined using total absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Rasco, B. C.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijalkowska, A.; ...

    2017-05-31

    We measured the complete -decay intensities of 137I and 137Xe with the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We describe a novel technique for measuring the -delayed neutron energy spectrum, which also provides a measurement of the -neutron branching ratio, P n.

  4. Excitation of half-integer up-shifted decay channel and quasi-mode in plasma edge for high power electron Bernstein wave heating scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali Asgarian, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) consist of promising tools in driving localized off-axis current needed for sustained operation as well as effective selective heating scenarios in advanced over dense fusion plasmas like spherical tori and stellarators by applying high power radio frequency waves within the range of Megawatts. Here some serious non-linear effects like parametric decay modes are highly expect-able which have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. In general, the decay of an EBW depends on the ratio of the incident frequency and electron cyclotron frequency. At ratios less than two, parametric decay leads to a lower hybrid wave (or an ion Bernstein wave) and EBWs at a lower frequency. For ratios more than two, the daughter waves constitute either an electron cyclotron quasi-mode and another EBW or an ion wave and EBW. However, in contrast with these decay patterns, the excitation of an unusual up-shifted frequency decay channel for the ratio less than two is demonstrated in this study which is totally different as to its generation and persistence. It is shown that this mode varies from the conventional parametric decay channels which necessarily satisfy the matching conditions in frequency and wave-vector. Moreover, the excitation of some less-known local non-propagating quasi-modes (virtual modes) through weak-turbulence theory and their contributions to energy leakage from conversion process leading the reduction in conversion efficiency is assessed.

  5. Measurement of elastic precursor decay in pre-heated aluminum films under ultra-fast laser generated shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuanetti, Bryan; McGrane, Shawn D.; Bolme, Cynthia A.; Prakash, Vikas

    2018-05-01

    This article presents results from laser-driven shock compression experiments performed on pre-heated pure aluminum films at temperatures ranging from 23 to 400 °C. The samples were vapor deposited on the surface of a 500 μm thick sapphire substrate and mounted onto a custom holder with an integrated ring-heater to enable variable initial temperature conditions. A chirped pulse amplified laser was used to generate a pulse for both shocking the films and for probing the free surface velocity using Ultrafast Dynamic Ellipsometry. The particle velocity traces measured at the free surface clearly show elastic and plastic wave separation, which was used to estimate the decay of the elastic precursor amplitude over propagation distances ranging from 0.278 to 4.595 μm. Elastic precursors (which also correspond to dynamic material strength under uniaxial strain) of increasing amplitudes were observed with increasing initial sample temperatures for all propagation distances, which is consistent with expectations for aluminum in a deformation regime where phonon drag limits the mobility of dislocations. The experimental results show peak elastic amplitudes corresponding to axial stresses of over 7.5 GPa; estimates for plastic strain-rates in the samples are of the order 109/s. The measured elastic amplitudes at the micron length scales are compared with those at the millimeter length-scales using a two-parameter model and used to correlate the rate sensitivity of the dynamic strength at strain-rates ranging from 103 to 109/s and elevated temperature conditions. The overall trend, as inferred from the experimental data, indicates that the temperature-strengthening effect decreases with increasing plastic strain-rates.

  6. Measurement of elastic precursor decay in pre-heated aluminum films under ultra-fast laser generated shocks

    DOE PAGES

    Zuanetti, Bryan; McGrane, Shawn David; Bolme, Cynthia Anne; ...

    2018-05-18

    Here, this article presents results from laser-driven shock compression experiments performed on pre-heated pure aluminum films at temperatures ranging from 23 to 400 °C. The samples were vapor deposited on the surface of a 500 μm thick sapphire substrate and mounted onto a custom holder with an integrated ring-heater to enable variable initial temperature conditions. A chirped pulse amplified laser was used to generate a pulse for both shocking the films and for probing the free surface velocity using Ultrafast Dynamic Ellipsometry. The particle velocity traces measured at the free surface clearly show elastic and plastic wave separation, which wasmore » used to estimate the decay of the elastic precursor amplitude over propagation distances ranging from 0.278 to 4.595 μm. Elastic precursors (which also correspond to dynamic material strength under uniaxial strain) of increasing amplitudes were observed with increasing initial sample temperatures for all propagation distances, which is consistent with expectations for aluminum in a deformation regime where phonon drag limits the mobility of dislocations. The experimental results show peak elastic amplitudes corresponding to axial stresses of over 7.5 GPa; estimates for plastic strain-rates in the samples are of the order 10 9/s. The measured elastic amplitudes at the micron length scales are compared with those at the millimeter length-scales using a two-parameter model and used to correlate the rate sensitivity of the dynamic strength at strain-rates ranging from 10 3 to 10 9/s and elevated temperature conditions. The overall trend, as inferred from the experimental data, indicates that the temperature-strengthening effect decreases with increasing plastic strain-rates.« less

  7. Measurement of elastic precursor decay in pre-heated aluminum films under ultra-fast laser generated shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Zuanetti, Bryan; McGrane, Shawn David; Bolme, Cynthia Anne

    Here, this article presents results from laser-driven shock compression experiments performed on pre-heated pure aluminum films at temperatures ranging from 23 to 400 °C. The samples were vapor deposited on the surface of a 500 μm thick sapphire substrate and mounted onto a custom holder with an integrated ring-heater to enable variable initial temperature conditions. A chirped pulse amplified laser was used to generate a pulse for both shocking the films and for probing the free surface velocity using Ultrafast Dynamic Ellipsometry. The particle velocity traces measured at the free surface clearly show elastic and plastic wave separation, which wasmore » used to estimate the decay of the elastic precursor amplitude over propagation distances ranging from 0.278 to 4.595 μm. Elastic precursors (which also correspond to dynamic material strength under uniaxial strain) of increasing amplitudes were observed with increasing initial sample temperatures for all propagation distances, which is consistent with expectations for aluminum in a deformation regime where phonon drag limits the mobility of dislocations. The experimental results show peak elastic amplitudes corresponding to axial stresses of over 7.5 GPa; estimates for plastic strain-rates in the samples are of the order 10 9/s. The measured elastic amplitudes at the micron length scales are compared with those at the millimeter length-scales using a two-parameter model and used to correlate the rate sensitivity of the dynamic strength at strain-rates ranging from 10 3 to 10 9/s and elevated temperature conditions. The overall trend, as inferred from the experimental data, indicates that the temperature-strengthening effect decreases with increasing plastic strain-rates.« less

  8. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  9. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of natural convection decay heat removal in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using RELAP5 and TEMPEST: Part 1, Models and simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.

    A study was conducted to examine decay heat removal requirements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) following shutdown from 85 MW. The objective of the study was to determine when forced flow through the core could be terminated without causing the fuel to melt. This question is particularly relevant when a station blackout caused by an external event is considered. Analysis of natural circulation in the core, vessel upper plenum, and reactor pool indicates that 12 h of forced flow will permit a safe shutdown with some margin. However, uncertainties in the analysis preclude conclusive proof that 12 hmore » is sufficient. As a result of the study, two seismically qualified diesel generators were installed in HFIR. 9 refs., 4 figs.« less

  10. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  11. Trunk decays

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1989-01-01

    Trunk decays are major causes of low quality wood-wood with little or no economic value. As a forest practitioner you should be able to recognize trees at high risk for decay and remove them if timber production is your primary objective. Remember, however, that decayed trees often develop into den trees or nesting sites and provide essential habitat for wildlife....

  12. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole ... or abscess. To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between ...

  13. Thermal-hydraulic simulation of natural convection decay heat removal in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using RELAP5 and TEMPEST: Part 2, Interpretation and validation of results

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, A.E.; Morris, D.G.

    The RELAP5/MOD2 code was used to predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the HFIR core during decay heat removal through boiling natural circulation. The low system pressure and low mass flux values associated with boiling natural circulation are far from conditions for which RELAP5 is well exercised. Therefore, some simple hand calculations are used herein to establish the physics of the results. The interpretation and validation effort is divided between the time average flow conditions and the time varying flow conditions. The time average flow conditions are evaluated using a lumped parameter model and heat balance. The Martinelli-Nelson correlations are usedmore » to model the two-phase pressure drop and void fraction vs flow quality relationship within the core region. Systems of parallel channels are susceptible to both density wave oscillations and pressure drop oscillations. Periodic variations in the mass flux and exit flow quality of individual core channels are predicted by RELAP5. These oscillations are consistent with those observed experimentally and are of the density wave type. The impact of the time varying flow properties on local wall superheat is bounded herein. The conditions necessary for Ledinegg flow excursions are identified. These conditions do not fall within the envelope of decay heat levels relevant to HFIR in boiling natural circulation. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Electron capture decay in Jovian planets

    SciTech Connect

    Zito, R.R.; Schiferl, D.

    1987-12-01

    Following the commonly acknowledged fact that the decay of K-40 substantially contributes to the heating of planetary interiors, an examination is made of the possibility that interior heat in the Jovian planets and stars, where interior pressures may exceed 45 Mbar, may be generated by the pressure-accelerated electron capture decay of a variety of isotopes. The isotopes considered encompass K-40, V-50, Te-123, La-138, Al-26, and Cl-36. 19 references.

  15. Residue levels and effectiveness of pyrimethanil vs imazalil when using heated postharvest dip treatments for control of Penicillium decay on citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Migheli, Quirico

    2006-06-28

    The influence of fungicide concentration and treatment temperature on residue levels of pyrimethanil (PYR) in comparison with the commonly used fungicide imazalil (IMZ) was investigated in orange fruits following postharvest dip treatments. The dissipation rate of PYR residues was recorded as a function of storage conditions. The fungicide efficacy against green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, was evaluated on different citrus varieties following the fungicide application at 20 or 50 degrees C. Residue levels of PYR in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with the fungicide dosage, but residue concentrations were notably higher (ca. 13-19-fold) after treatment at 50 degrees C as compared to treatments at 20 degrees C. After treatment at temperatures ranging from 20 to 60 degrees C, PYR and IMZ residues in Salustiana oranges were significantly correlated with dip temperatures. Dissipation rates of PYR during storage were negligible in both Salustiana and Tarocco oranges. Results obtained on wounded, noninoculated Miho satsumas revealed that when treatments were performed at 50 degrees C, PYR or IMZ concentrations needed to achieve the complete control of decay were 8- and 16-fold less than by treatment at 20 degrees C. When fruits were inoculated with either P. digitatum or P. italicum, the application of 400 mg L(-1) PYR at 20 degrees C or 100 mg L(-1) PYR at 50 degrees C similarly reduced green and blue mold development. These results were corroborated by storage trials on Marsh grapefruits and Tarocco oranges. The lowest concentration of PYR required to achieve almost total protection of the fruit against decay accounted for 100 mg L(-1) at 50 degrees C and 400 mg L(-1) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Treatments did not affect fruit external appearance, flavor, and taste. It is concluded that postharvest PYR treatment represents an effective option to control green and blue mold in citrus fruit and

  16. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  17. Radiative decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubega, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements on rare radiative B decays are performed with the LHCb experiment at LHC. The LHCb results regarding the ratio of branching fractions for two radiative decays, B 0 → K *0 γ and B s → ϕ γ, the direct CP asymmetry in B 0 → K *0 γ decay channel and the observation of the photon polarization in the B ± → K ±π∓π± γ decay, are included. The first two measurements were performed in 1 fb-1 of pp collisions data and the third one in 3 fb-1 of data, respectively.

  18. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  19. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  20. Iconic Decay in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Luck, Steven J.; Gold, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0–1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia. PMID:20053864

  1. Iconic decay in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Britta; Kappenman, Emily S; Robinson, Benjamin M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Luck, Steven J; Gold, James M

    2011-09-01

    Working memory impairment is considered a core deficit in schizophrenia, but the precise nature of this deficit has not been determined. Multiple lines of evidence implicate deficits at the encoding stage. During encoding, information is held in a precategorical sensory store termed iconic memory, a literal image of the stimulus with high capacity but rapid decay. Pathologically increased iconic decay could reduce the number of items that can be transferred into working memory before the information is lost and could thus contribute to the working memory deficit seen in the illness. The current study used a partial report procedure to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia (n = 37) display faster iconic memory decay than matched healthy control participants (n = 28). Six letters, arranged in a circle, were presented for 50 ms. Following a variable delay of 0-1000 ms, a central arrow cue indicated the item to be reported. In both patients and control subjects, recall accuracy decreased with increasing cue delay, reflecting decay of the iconic representation of the stimulus array. Patients displayed impaired memory performance across all cue delays, consistent with an impairment in working memory, but the rate of iconic memory decay did not differ between patients and controls. This provides clear evidence against faster loss of iconic memory representations in schizophrenia, ruling out iconic decay as an underlying source of the working memory impairment in this population. Thus, iconic decay rate can be added to a growing list of unimpaired cognitive building blocks in schizophrenia.

  2. Combinedatomic–nuclear decay

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyublik, A. Ya., E-mail: dzyublik@ukr.net

    We analyzed in details the combined decay of the atomic-nuclear state, which consists of the excited 3/2{sup +} level of {sub 63}{sup 153}Eu and K hole, formed in the K capture by {sup 153}Gd. This decay proceeds in two stages. First, the nucleus transfers its energy to 2p electron, which flies into the continuum spectrum, and then returns into 1s hole, emitting γ quantum with the energy equal to the sum of energies of the nuclear and atomic transitions. We estimated the decay probability to be 2.2 × 10{sup −13}, that is much less than the recent experimental findings.

  3. Decay of 34Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Donlad; Benjamin Luna Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    One of concepts of modern physics that is not understood is the strong nuclear force. One manifestation of this is our lack of understanding of so-called `islands of inversion', which are groups of nuclides which have deformed ground states. It is known that 34Mg is included in this island, and that its decay (34Al) has a mixed ground state configuration. By studying their decays we hoped to discover definitive information about the branching ratios and the half lives of 34Mg and 34Al. In order to accomplish these goals, we studied the gamma radiation from the decays of 34Mg and 34Al. A Magnesium beam was implanted into a strip of mylar tape and transported to the center of an array of scintillators and germanium detectors, which has allowed us to determine the half-lives for the decays, and the branching ratios for the beta decay. My work on this project began with writing scripts to draw histograms with the data, and using those histograms to gather information that would allow me to gate our data on any number of variables and pieces of information. By cutting out bad portions of our data collection runs and gating on the coincidence of beta decays and other gamma rays, I was able to cut out a significant amount background radiation from our data.

  4. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  5. Flavor violating Higgs decays

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kopp, Joachim; Zupan, Jure

    2013-03-01

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We rederive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We confirm that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h → τμ and h → τemore » branching ratios of (10%) perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h → τμ and h → τe decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the ττ channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches and we outline a possible search strategy. Flavor violating Higgs decays therefore present an opportunity for discovery of new physics which in some cases may be easier to access experimentally than flavor conserving deviations from the Standard Model Higgs framework.« less

  6. Weak decays and double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, H.W.

    1983-08-01

    Work to measure the ..sigma../sup +/ 0 degree differential cross section in the reaction K/sup -/p ..-->.. ..sigma../sup +/..pi../sup -/ at several incident K/sup -/ momenta between 600 and 800 MeV/c as well as the asymmetries in the decays of polarized ..sigma../sup +/'s into protons and neutral pions and of polarized ..sigma../sup -/'s into neutrons and negative pions in collaboration with experimenters from Yale, Brookhaven, and the University of Pittsburgh (Brookhaven experiment 702) has been completed. Data from this experiment is currently being analyzed at Yale. Work is currently underway to develop and construct an experiment to search for neutrinolessmore » double beta decay in thin foils of Mo/sup 100/ in collaboration with experimenters from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Development work on the solid state silicon detectors should be complete in the next six months and construction should e well underway within the next year.« less

  7. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B 0 → D *- a 0 + decays and the non-resonant B 0 → D *- ηπ + decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → Bmore » $$\\bar{B}$$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B 0 → D *- a{sub 0} + decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10 -6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the measurement of this angle. However, the low expected branching fraction for the B 0 → D *- a 0 + decay channels could

  8. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Junpei

    Double beta decay is a key process to reveal a fundamental property of neutrinos. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, that is they are equivalent to their antiparticles, neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay, (A,Z) → (A,Z + 2) + 2e‑, would occur. The process is beyond the standard model and would lead to a scenario which can explain the extremely small masses of neutrinos and provide a solution to the current matter dominance of the world. In this talk experimental efforts searching for 0νββ decays are presented. Then, major 0νββ experiments together with searches using 136Xe nuclei are described, followed by the current status of the KamLAND-Zen experiment.

  9. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  10. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  11. Discoloration & decay in oak

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1971-01-01

    Diseases that result in discoloration and decay of wood are major problems affecting all species of oak. Wounds often start the processes that can lead to these diseases. The type and severity of the wound, the vigor of the tree, the environment, and the aggressiveness of microorganisms that infect are some of the most important factors that determine the nature of the...

  12. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  13. Protecting log cabins from decay

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rowell; J. M. Black; L. R. Gjovik; W. C. Feist

    1977-01-01

    This report answers the questions most often asked of the Forest Service on the protection of log cabins from decay, and on practices for the exterior finishing and maintenance of existing cabins. Causes of stain and decay are discussed, as are some basic techniques for building a cabin that will minimize decay. Selection and handling of logs, their preservative...

  14. Fast proton decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2010-10-01

    We consider proton decay in the testable flipped SU(5)×U(1)X models with TeV-scale vector-like particles which can be realized in free fermionic string constructions and F-theory model building. We significantly improve upon the determination of light threshold effects from prior studies, and perform a fresh calculation of the second loop for the process p→eπ from the heavy gauge boson exchange. The cumulative result is comparatively fast proton decay, with a majority of the most plausible parameter space within reach of the future Hyper-Kamiokande and DUSEL experiments. Because the TeV-scale vector-like particles can be produced at the LHC, we predict a strong correlation between the most exciting particle physics experiments of the coming decade.

  15. Charmonium Decays at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jielei

    The BESIII Experiment at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) has accumulated the largest e+e‑ collisions data sets in the τ-charm region in the world. Using the data sets of 448.1 million ψ(3686) events and 1.3 billion J/ψ events, the branching fractions and the angular distributions of J/ψ and ψ(3686) decay to ΛΛ¯, Σ0Σ¯0, Σ(1385)0Σ¯(1385)0 and Ξ0Ξ¯0 are measured. The branching fractions of ψ(3686) → γχcJ are reported with improved precision. The higher-order multipole amplitudes in ψ(3686) → γχc1,2 with χc1,2 → γJ/ψ are measured, as a byproduct the ηc(2S) → γJ/ψ transition is searched. The Dalitz decays of ψ(3686) → e+e‑χ cJ and χcJ → e+e‑J/ψ are observed and the branching fractions are measured. hc radiative decays hc → γη‧(η) are observed for the first time. Improved measurement of ηc → ϕϕ and search for ηc → ωϕ are reported.

  16. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  17. Shannon entropy and particle decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Millán, Pedro; García-Ferrero, M. Ángeles; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Porras Riojano, Ana; Sánchez García, Esteban M.

    2018-05-01

    We deploy Shannon's information entropy to the distribution of branching fractions in a particle decay. This serves to quantify how important a given new reported decay channel is, from the point of view of the information that it adds to the already known ones. Because the entropy is additive, one can subdivide the set of channels and discuss, for example, how much information the discovery of a new decay branching would add; or subdivide the decay distribution down to the level of individual quantum states (which can be quickly counted by the phase space). We illustrate the concept with some examples of experimentally known particle decay distributions.

  18. What heated the parent meteorite planets?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John A.; Pellas, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The plausibility of the two most wide discussed mechanisms, decay of short-lived Al-26 and solar wind induction heating, for heating the small planetesimals in which the meteorites formed are examined and shown to have significant problems. The main problem for the Al-26 decay mechanism is the fact that eucritic lavas, melted by the mysterious heating mechanism in some early planetesimal, did not contain enough Al-26 to decay to radiogenic Mg-26 when they erupted to their planetesimal surface and cooled. It is necessary to postulate that the lavas lingered underground while their Al-26 decayed away. The solar wind induction heat concept has the problem that astrophysical evidence has made is seem increasingly unlikely that an intense solar wind flux blew past planetesimals in the early solar system. Instead, it was probably collimated in the direction of the sun's poles by the persistence of the solar nebula during the T Tauri epoch.

  19. Study of the $$\\beta $$ Decay of Fission Products with the DTAS Detector

    DOE PAGES

    Guadilla, V.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; ...

    2017-01-01

    Total Absorption Spectroscopy measurements of the β decay of 103Mo and 103Tc, important contributors to the decay heat summation calculation in reactors, are reported in this work. Furthermore, the analysis of the experiment, performed at IGISOL with the new DTAS detector, show new β intensity that was not detected in previous measurements with Ge detectors.

  20. NEANDC specialists meeting on yields and decay data of fission product nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers presented. Workshop reports on decay heat, fission yields, beta- and gamma-ray spectroscopy, and delayed neutrons are included. An appendix contains a survey of the most recent compilations and evaluations containing fission product yield, fission product decay data, and delayed neutron yield information. (WHK)

  1. HAGRID/ VANDLE spectroscopy of Rb decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Thomas; Grzywacz, Robert; Taylor, Steven; Paulauskas, Stanley; Smith, Karl; Vandle Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Many neutron-rich isotopes that contribute in both decay heat production and r-process nucleosynthesis have substantial beta-delayed neutron branching ratios. Beta-delayed neutron emission is a relatively complicated mechanism which can leave the daughter in an gamma-emitting excited state. A comprehensive understanding of their energy output and decay strength, S_beta, therefore requires the detection of both neutrons and gamma rays in coincidence. A series of measurements of delayed neutron precursors were performed at the On-Line Test Facility (OLTF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratories using chemically selective ion sources and an enhanced VANDLE array. The main goal of this experiment was to revisit the decays of IAEA-marked priority precursors, including bromine, rubidium, cesium, and iodine, that are required to model the global properties in the fission of 238U.The unique data set, with neutron and gamma ray coincidences, benefited from the addition of a high-efficiency gamma-ray array, consisting of 16 LaBr3 crystals (HAGRiD), and a set of large volume NaI detectors to the VANDLE array. Characterization of and preliminary results from the new gamma-ray array for the decays of 94Rb and 97Rb will be presented. National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Award No. DE-NA0002132 and the Office of Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-96ER40983.

  2. Tree Decay - An Expanded Concept

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to wounding and infection-compartmentalization-and the orderly infection of wounds by many microorganisms-successions. The heartrot concept must be abandoned because it deals only with decay-causing fungi and it...

  3. Tree decay an expanded concept

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1979-01-01

    This publication is the final one in a series on tree decay developed in cooperation with Harold G. Marx, Research Application Staff Assistant, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The purpose of this publication is to clarify further the tree decay concept that expands the classical concept to include the orderly response of the tree to...

  4. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  5. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous levels and you can develop a heat illness. Most heat illnesses happen when you stay out ... in high heat can also lead to heat illness. Older adults, young children, and those who are ...

  6. Heat emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Heatstroke; Heat illness ... who is in good shape can suffer heat illness if warning signs are ignored. The following make ... Heat cramps are the first stage of heat illness. If these symptoms are not treated, it can ...

  7. Light Meson Decays at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangshi

    2017-04-01

    At present the world's largest sample of 1.3 billion J/ψ events was accumulated at the BESIII detector, which offers a unique place to study light meson decays. The recent results on the light meson decays are reviewed in this talk. An emphasis is put on the significant progresses on the study of η/η' decays, including Dalitz plot analysis of η/η' → πππ, observation of new decay modes (η' → π+π-π+(0)π-(0), η' → ρ±π∓, η' → γe+e- and η' → e+e-ω), study of η' → γπ+π- and search for the rare decay of η' → Kπ. In addition, a prospect on the Dalitz plot analysis of ω → π+π-π0 is presented.

  8. Update and evaluation of decay data for spent nuclear fuel analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Teodosi; Wemple, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Studsvik's approach to spent nuclear fuel analyses combines isotopic concentrations and multi-group cross-sections, calculated by the CASMO5 or HELIOS2 lattice transport codes, with core irradiation history data from the SIMULATE5 reactor core simulator and tabulated isotopic decay data. These data sources are used and processed by the code SNF to predict spent nuclear fuel characteristics. Recent advances in the generation procedure for the SNF decay data are presented. The SNF decay data includes basic data, such as decay constants, atomic masses and nuclide transmutation chains; radiation emission spectra for photons from radioactive decay, alpha-n reactions, bremsstrahlung, and spontaneous fission, electrons and alpha particles from radioactive decay, and neutrons from radioactive decay, spontaneous fission, and alpha-n reactions; decay heat production; and electro-atomic interaction data for bremsstrahlung production. These data are compiled from fundamental (ENDF, ENSDF, TENDL) and processed (ESTAR) sources for nearly 3700 nuclides. A rigorous evaluation procedure of internal consistency checks and comparisons to measurements and benchmarks, and code-to-code verifications is performed at the individual isotope level and using integral characteristics on a fuel assembly level (e.g., decay heat, radioactivity, neutron and gamma sources). Significant challenges are presented by the scope and complexity of the data processing, a dearth of relevant detailed measurements, and reliance on theoretical models for some data.

  9. β-decay properties in the Cs decay chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzoni, G.; Lică, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; IDS Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The study of the decay of neutron-rich Cs isotopes has two main objectives: on one side β decay is a perfect tool to access the low-spin structures in the daughter Ba nuclei, where the evolution of octupole deformed shapes can be followed, while, on the other hand, the study of the gross properties of these decays, in terms of decay rates and branching to delayed-neutron emission, are fundamental inputs for the modelling of the r-process in the Rare-Earth Elements peak. Results obtained at CERN-ISOLDE are discussed within this framework and compared to existing data and predictions from state-of-the-art nuclear models.

  10. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  11. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  12. A dispersive treatment of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, Peter; Colangelo, Gilberto; Passemar, Emilie

    2017-01-01

    decays have several features of interest: they allow an accurate measurement of ππ-scattering lengths; the decay is the best source for the determination of some low-energy constants of chiral perturbation theory (χPT) one form factor of the decay is connected to the chiral anomaly. We present the results of our dispersive analysis of decays, which provides a resummation of ππ- and Kπ-rescattering effects. The free parameters of the dispersion relation are fitted to the data of the high-statistics experiments E865 and NA48/2. By matching to χPT at NLO and NNLO, we determine the low-energy constants and . In contrast to a pure chiral treatment, the dispersion relation describes the observed curvature of one of the form factors, which we understand as an effect of rescattering beyond NNLO.

  13. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  14. Effects of proliferation on the decay of thermotolerance in Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed

    Armour, E P; Li, G C; Hahn, G M

    1985-09-01

    Development and decay of thermotolerance were observed in Chinese hamster HA-1 cells. The thermotolerance kinetics of exponentially growing and fed plateau-phase cells were compared. Following a 10-min heat exposure at 45 degrees C, cells in both growth states had similar rates of development of tolerance to a subsequent 45-min exposure at 45 degrees C. This thermotolerant state started to decay between 12 and 24 hr after the initial heat exposure. The decay appeared to initiate slightly sooner in the exponentially growing cells when compared to the fed plateau-phase cells. During the decay phase, the rate of thermotolerance decay was similar in the two growth conditions. In other experiments, cells were induced to divide at a slower rate by chronic growth (3 months) in a low concentration of fetal calf serum. Under these low serum conditions cells became more sensitive to heat and the rate of decay of thermotolerance remained the same for exponentially growing cells. Plateau-phase cells were also more sensitive, but thermotolerance decayed more rapidly in these cells. Although dramatic cell cycle perturbations were seen in the exponentially growing cells, these changes appeared not to be related to thermotolerance kinetics.

  15. Human heat adaptation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2014-01-01

    In this overview, human morphological and functional adaptations during naturally and artificially induced heat adaptation are explored. Through discussions of adaptation theory and practice, a theoretical basis is constructed for evaluating heat adaptation. It will be argued that some adaptations are specific to the treatment used, while others are generalized. Regarding ethnic differences in heat tolerance, the case is put that reported differences in heat tolerance are not due to natural selection, but can be explained on the basis of variations in adaptation opportunity. These concepts are expanded to illustrate how traditional heat adaptation and acclimatization represent forms of habituation, and thermal clamping (controlled hyperthermia) is proposed as a superior model for mechanistic research. Indeed, this technique has led to questioning the perceived wisdom of body-fluid changes, such as the expansion and subsequent decay of plasma volume, and sudomotor function, including sweat habituation and redistribution. Throughout, this contribution was aimed at taking another step toward understanding the phenomenon of heat adaptation and stimulating future research. In this regard, research questions are posed concerning the influence that variations in morphological configuration may exert upon adaptation, the determinants of postexercise plasma volume recovery, and the physiological mechanisms that modify the cholinergic sensitivity of sweat glands, and changes in basal metabolic rate and body core temperature following adaptation. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  16. a Search for Nucleon Decay with Multiple Muon Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Thomas James

    A search was made for nucleon decays which result in multiple delayed muon decays using the HPW (Harvard -Purdue-Wisconsin) water Cerenkov detector. The HPW detector consists of 680 metric tons of purified water instrumented with 704 five-inch photomultiplier tubes. The phototubes are situated on a volume array with a lattice spacing of approximately one meter, and the inside walls of the detector are lined with mirrors. This combination of mirrors and a volume array of phototubes gives the HPW detector a low trigger energy threshold and a high muon decay detection efficiency. The detector is surrounded by wire chambers to provide an active shield, and is located at a depth of 1500 meters-of-water-equivalent in the Silver King Mine in Park City, Utah. The entire HPW data set, consisting of 17.2 million events collec- ted during 282 live days between May 1983 and October 1984, was analyzed. No contained events with multiple muon decays were found in a 180 ton fiducial volume. This is consistent with the background rate from neutrino interactions, which is expected to be 0.7 (+OR-) 0.2 events. The calculated lower lifetime limit for the decay mode p (--->) (mu)('+)(mu)('+)(mu)('-) is: (tau)/B.R. = 1 x 10('31) years (90% C.L.). Limits are calculated for ten other proton decay modes and five bound neutron decay modes, most of which are around 4 x 10('30) years (90% C.L.). No previous studies have reported results from direct searches for eight of these modes.

  17. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  18. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, W. A.; Hysell, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  19. Recent advances in β-decay spectroscopy at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, P.; Savard, G.; Lister, C. J.; Lane, G. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Clark, J. A.; Zhu, S.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bottoni, S.; Brown, T. B.; Chowdhury, P.; Chillery, T. W.; David, H. M.; Hartley, D. J.; Heckmaier, E.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kolos, K.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Norman, E. B.; Padgett, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, M. L.; Wilson, G. L.

    2016-09-01

    β-decay spectroscopy of nuclei far from stability can provide powerful insight into a broad variety of topics in nuclear science, ranging from exotic nuclear structure phenomena, stellar nucleosynthesis processes, and applied topics such as quantifying "decay heat" discrepancies for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Neutronrich nuclei approaching the drip-line are difficult to access experimentally, leaving many key examples largely under studied. The CARIBU radioactive beam facility at Argonne National Laboratory exploits spontaneous fission of 252Cf in production of such beams. The X-Array and SATURN decay station have been commissioned to perform detailed decay spectroscopy of low-energy CARIBU beams. An extended science campaign was started during 2015; with projects investigating nuclear shape changes, collective octupole vibrations, β-delayed neutron emission, and decay-scheme properties which could explain the reactor antineutrino puzzle. In this article we review the current status of the setup, update on the first results and recent hardware upgrades, and look forward to future possibilities.

  20. Heat Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  1. Penguin Decays of B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingel, Karen; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, James G.

    Penguin, or loop, decays of B mesons induce effective flavor-changing neutral currents, which are forbidden at tree level in the standard model. These decays give special insight into the CKM matrix and are sensitive to non-standard-model effects. In this review, we give a historical and theoretical introduction to penguins and a description of the various types of penguin processes: electromagnetic, electroweak, and gluonic. We review the experimental searches for penguin decays, including the measurements of the electromagnetic penguins b -> sgamma and B -> K*gamma and gluonic penguins B -> Kpi, B+ -> omegaK+ and B -> eta'K, and their implications for the standard model and new physics. We conclude by exploring the future prospects for penguin physics.

  2. The decay of triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, A. I.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations have been carried out in the general three-body problem with equal masses with zero initial velocities, to investigate the distribution of the decay times T based on a representative sample of initial conditions. The distribution has a power-law character on long time scales, f( T) ∝ T - α , with α = 1.74. Over small times T < 30 T cr ( T cr is the mean crossing time for a component of the triple system), a series of local maxima separated by about 1.0 T cr is observed in the decay-time distribution. These local peaks correspond to zones of decay after one or a few triple encounters. Figures showing the arrangement of these zones in the domain of the initial conditions are presented.

  3. Decays of the vector glueball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacosa, Francesco; Sammet, Julia; Janowski, Stanislaus

    2017-06-01

    We calculate two- and three-body decays of the (lightest) vector glueball into (pseudo)scalar, (axial-)vector, as well as pseudovector and excited vector mesons in the framework of a model of QCD. While absolute values of widths cannot be predicted because the corresponding coupling constants are unknown, some interesting branching ratios can be evaluated by setting the mass of the yet hypothetical vector glueball to 3.8 GeV as predicted by quenched lattice QCD. We find that the decay mode ω π π should be one of the largest (both through the decay chain O →b1π →ω π π and through the direct coupling O →ω π π ). Similarly, the (direct and indirect) decay into π K K*(892 ) is sizable. Moreover, the decays into ρ π and K*(892 )K are, although subleading, possible and could play a role in explaining the ρ π puzzle of the charmonium state ψ (2 S ) thanks to a (small) mixing with the vector glueball. The vector glueball can be directly formed at the ongoing BESIII experiment as well as at the future PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility. If the width is sufficiently small (≲100 MeV ) it should not escape future detection. It should be stressed that the employed model is based on some inputs and simplifying assumptions: the value of glueball mass (at present, the quenched lattice value is used), the lack of mixing of the glueball with other quarkonium states, and the use of few interaction terms. It then represents a first step toward the identification of the main decay channels of the vector glueball, but shall be improved when corresponding experimental candidates and/or new lattice results will be available.

  4. Existence and energy decay of a nonuniform Timoshenko system with second sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadouche, Taklit; Messaoudi, Salim A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a linear thermoelastic Timoshenko system with variable physical parameters, where the heat conduction is given by Cattaneo's law and the coupling is via the displacement equation. We discuss the well-posedness and the regularity of solution using the semigroup theory. Moreover, we establish the exponential decay result provided that the stability function χ r(x)=0. Otherwise, we show that the solution decays polynomially.

  5. β decay of Na32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Koopmans, K. A.; Leslie, J. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Washbrook, B.; Zganjar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The β-decay of Na32 has been studied using β-γ coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of Mg32 from an analysis of γ-γ and β-γ-γ coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in Mg32 removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in Mg32 is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of Na32.

  6. The decay of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1981-06-01

    The principal decay modes of subatomic particles are governed by fundamental conservation laws, and it is recounted how traditional views of conservation laws have been altered by the development of modern theories of elementary particle interactions. Proton decay experiments have gradually increased the empirical lower boundary on the lifetime of the proton. It is now known to have a lifetime at least 10 to the 30th times the age of the universe, but recent theoretical work is cited as an indication that this fundamental constituent of matter is not immortal. The conclusion is that all matter will eventually disintegrate if the proton indeed does not live forever.

  7. Proof of concept of a 45-second cardiorespiratory fitness self-test for coronary artery disease patients based on accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Papini, Gabriele; Bonomi, Alberto G; Stut, Wim; Kraal, Jos J; Kemps, Hareld M C; Sartor, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) provides important diagnostic and prognostic information. It is measured directly via laboratory maximal testing or indirectly via submaximal protocols making use of predictor parameters such as submaximal [Formula: see text], heart rate, workload, and perceived exertion. We have established an innovative methodology, which can provide CRF prediction based only on body motion during a periodic movement. Thirty healthy subjects (40% females, 31.3 ± 7.8 yrs, 25.1 ± 3.2 BMI) and eighteen male coronary artery disease (CAD) (56.6 ± 7.4 yrs, 28.7 ± 4.0 BMI) patients performed a [Formula: see text] test on a cycle ergometer as well as a 45 second squatting protocol at a fixed tempo (80 bpm). A tri-axial accelerometer was used to monitor movements during the squat exercise test. Three regression models were developed to predict CRF based on subject characteristics and a new accelerometer-derived feature describing motion decay. For each model, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the root mean squared error percentage were calculated using the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation method (rcv, RMSEcv). The model built with all healthy individuals' data showed an rcv = 0.68 and an RMSEcv = 16.7%. The CRF prediction improved when only healthy individuals with normal to lower fitness (CRF<40 ml/min/kg) were included, showing an rcv = 0.91 and RMSEcv = 8.7%. Finally, our accelerometry-based CRF prediction CAD patients, the majority of whom taking β-blockers, still showed high accuracy (rcv = 0.91; RMSEcv = 9.6%). In conclusion, motion decay and subject characteristics could be used to predict CRF in healthy people as well as in CAD patients taking β-blockers, accurately. This method could represent a valid alternative for patients taking β-blockers, but needs to be further validated in a larger population.

  8. Detecting decay in wood components

    Treesearch

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  9. First observation of the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Holtrop, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-11-01

    The first observation of the decay is reported. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 of pp collisions at TeV, collected with the LHCb detector. A yield of 30 ± 6 decays is found in the mass windows 1012.5 < M ( K + K -) < 1026.5 MeV/ c 2 and 746 < M( K - π +) < 1046 MeV/ c 2. The signal yield is found to be dominated by decays, and the corresponding branching fraction is measured to be = (1.10 ± 0.24 (stat) ± 0.14 (syst) ± 0.08 ( f d / f s )) × 10-6, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and from the ratio of fragmentation fractions f d / f s which accounts for the different production rate of B 0 and mesons. The significance of signal is 6.1 standard deviations. The fraction of longitudinal polarization in decays is found to be f 0 = 0.51 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Phomopsis seed decay of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. Infected seed range from symptomless to shriveled, elongated, ...

  11. Multiple photon emission in heavy particle decays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M. J.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions, at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon, in emulsion chambers flown on high altitude balloons have yielded two events showing apparent decays of a heavy particle into one charged particle and four photons. The photons converted into electron pairs very close to the decay vertex. Attempts to explain this decay topology with known particle decays are presented. Unless both events represent a b yields u transition, which is statistically unlikely, then other known decay modes for charmed or bottom particles do not account satisfactorily for these observations. This could indicate, possibly, a new decay channel.

  12. Rare decays in quark flavour physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Johannes; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Rare heavy-flavour decays are an ideal place to search for the effects of potential new particles that modify the decay rates or the Lorentz structure of the decay vertices. Recent results on Flavour Changing Neutral Current decays from the LHC are reviewed. An emphasis is put on the very rare decay Bs0 →μ+μ-, which was recently observed by the CMS and LHCb experiments, on a recent test of lepton universality in loop processes and on the analysis of the angular distributions of the B0 →K*0μ+μ- decays, both by the LHCb collaboration.

  13. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-06-01

    A critical challenge for long-term operation of ITER and beyond to a Demonstration reactor (DEMO) and future fusion reactor will be the development of plasma-facing components (PFCs) that demonstrate erosion resistance to steady-state/transient heat fluxes and intense neutral/ion particle fluxes under the extreme fusion nuclear environment, while at the same time minimizing in-vessel tritium inventories and permeation fluxes into the PFC’s coolant. Tritium will diffuse in bulk tungsten at elevated temperatures, and can be trapped in radiation-induced trap site (up to 1 at. % T/W) in tungsten [1,2]. Tritium decay into helium-3 may also play a major role in microstructuralmore » evolution (e.g. helium embrittlement) in tungsten due to relatively low helium-4 production (e.g. He/dpa ratio of 0.4-0.7 appm [3]) in tungsten. Tritium-decay helium-3 effect on tungsten is hardly understood, and its database is very limited. Two tungsten samples (99.99 at. % purity from A.L.M.T. Co., Japan) were exposed to high flux (ion flux of 1.0x1022 m-2s-1 and ion fluence of 1.0x1026 m-2) 0.5%T2/D2 plasma at two different temperatures (200, and 500°C) in Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. Tritium implanted samples were stored at ambient temperature in air for more than 3 years to investigate tritium decay helium-3 effect in tungsten. The tritium distributions on plasma-exposed was monitored by a tritium imaging plate technique during storage period [4]. Thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed with a ramp rate of 10°C/min up to 900°C to outgas residual deuterium and tritium but keep helium-3 in tungsten. These helium-3 implanted samples were exposed to deuterium plasma in TPE to investigate helium-3 effect on deuterium behavior in tungsten. The results show that tritium surface concentration in 200°C sample decreased to 30 %, but tritium surface concentration in 500°C sample did not alter over the 3 years storage period, indicating possible

  14. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) project seeks to combine the development of an electrically heated, single GPHS module simulator with the evaluation of potential nuclear surface power systems. The simulator is designed to match the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which normally generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of the subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Current GPHS activities are centered on developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights which closely match those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. Designs are being pursued which will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  15. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from...

  16. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from bacterial or fungus infection...

  17. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from...

  18. 7 CFR 51.898 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.898 Decay. Decay means any soft breakdown of the flesh or skin of the berry resulting from bacterial or fungus infection...

  19. 7 CFR 51.490 - Decay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.490 Decay. Decay means breakdown, disintegration or...

  20. Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD Format

    Science.gov Websites

    nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD National Laboratory Report BNL-NCS-52142, February 29, 1988) More information concerning medical

  1. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  2. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  3. Wood decay: a submicroscopic view

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Typical patterns of decay in softwoods are shown by ultrastructural differences revealed by SEM. Illustrative micrographs are reproduced showing fungi and their effects. Brown rot fungi (e.g. Fomitopsis pinicolor) degrade cellulose leaving a lignin skeleton. White rot fungi (e.g. Coriolus versicolor and Hirschioporus abietinus) degrade both lignin and cellulose. White pocket rots (e.g. Phellinus pini) primarily degrade lignin; they have potential for use in paper making, or the production of animal feed.

  4. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  5. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  6. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  7. Proton decay of 73Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Andrew; Anderson, C.; Barney, J.; Estee, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Manfredi, J.; Setiawan, H.; Showalter, R. H.; Sweany, S.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Brown, K. W.; Elson, J. M.; Pruitt, C.; Sobotka, L. G.; Chajecki, Z.; Lee, J.

    2017-09-01

    Properties of nuclei beyond the proton drip-line are important for mass models, nuclear structure, and astrophysics. Weakly-bound or proton-unbound nuclei near the rp-process waiting points, such as the unbound Tz = -1/2 nucleus 73Rb, play a critical role in constraining calculations and observations of type I x-ray bursts. For instance, the rp process is greatly slowed near 72Kr (N = Z) due to its relatively long β-decay half life and inhibited proton capture. This waiting point, however, may be bypassed by sequential 2p-capture through 73Rb -a reaction which is sensitive to the 73Rb proton separation energy, Sp. Using invariant-mass spectroscopy, we have performed an experiment at NSCL to measure the decay of 73Rb ->p+72Kr in an attempt to directly determine Sp (73Rb) . Analysis of reconstructed proton-emission spectra and decay signatures will be discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, Award No. DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  8. Heated Goggles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrically heated ski goggles shown incorporate technology similar to that once used in Apollo astronauts' helmet visors, and for the same reason-providing fogfree sight in an activity that demands total vision. Defogging is accomplished by applying heat to prevent moisture condensation. Electric heat is supplied by a small battery built into the h goggles' headband. Heat is spread across the lenses by means of an invisible coating of electrically conductive metallic film. The goggles were introduced to the market last fall. They were designed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California, specialists in the field of heated transparent materials. The company produces heated windshields for military planes and for such civil aircraft as the Boeing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE EXPOSURE TO AND DOSE FROM RADON DECAY PRODUCTS IN NORMALLY OCCUPIED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the exposure to radon decay products in seven houses in northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. n two houses, a single individual smoked cigarettes. ariety of heating and cooking appliances were in the houses. hese studies provided 5...

  10. Vacuum Decay via Lorentzian Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, J. L.

    We speculate about the space-time description due to the presence of Lorentzian worm-holes (handles in space-time joining two distant regions or other universes) in quantum gravity. The semiclassical rate of production of these Lorentzian wormholes in Reissner-Nordström space-times is calculated as a result of the spontaneous decay of vacuum due to a real tunneling configuration. In the magnetic case it only depends on the value of the field theoretical fine structure constant. We predict that the quantum probability corresponding to the nucleation of such geodesically complete space-times should be acutally negligible in our physical Universe.

  11. Weak decays of doubly heavy baryons: multi-body decay channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Xing, Ye; Xu, Ji

    2018-01-01

    The newly-discovered Ξ _{cc}^{++} decays into the Λ c^+ K^-π ^+π ^+, but the experimental data has indicated that this decay is not saturated by any two-body intermediate state. In this work, we analyze the multi-body weak decays of doubly heavy baryons Ξ _{cc}, Ω _{cc}, Ξ _{bc}, Ω _{bc}, Ξ _{bb} and Ω _{bb}, in particular the three-body nonleptonic decays and four-body semileptonic decays. We classify various decay modes according to the quark-level transitions and present an estimate of the typical branching fractions for a few golden decay channels. Decay amplitudes are then parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. With these amplitudes, we find a number of relations for decay widths, which can be examined in future.

  12. The decay widths, the decay constants, and the branching fractions of a resonant state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    We introduce the differential and the total decay widths of a resonant (Gamow) state decaying into a continuum of stable states. When the resonance has several decay modes, we introduce the corresponding partial decay widths and branching fractions. In the approximation that the resonance is sharp, the expressions for the differential, partial and total decay widths of a resonant state bear a close resemblance with the Golden Rule. In such approximation, the branching fractions of a resonant state are the same as the standard branching fractions obtained by way of the Golden Rule. We also introduce dimensionless decay constants along with their associated differential decay constants, and we express experimentally measurable quantities such as the branching fractions and the energy distributions of decay events in terms of those dimensionless decay constants.

  13. Decay of ultralight axion condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion massesmore » $$m\\sim10^{-22}$$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. As a result, we find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.« less

  14. Heavy neutrino decay at SHALON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Masip, M.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2013-06-01

    The SHALON Cherenkov telescope has recorded over 2 × 106 extensive air showers during the past 17 years. The analysis of the signal at different zenith angles has included observations from the sub-horizontal direction Θ = 97° This inclination defines an Earth skimming trajectory with 7 km of air and around 1000 km of rock in front of the telescope. During a period of 324 hours of observation, after a cut of shower-like events that may be caused by chaotic sky flashes or reflections on the snow of vertical showers, we have detected 5 air showers of TeV energies. We argue that these events may be caused by the decay of a long-lived penetrating particle entering the atmosphere from the ground and decaying in front of the telescope. We show that this particle can it not be a muon or a tau lepton. As a possible explanation, we discuss two scenarios with an unstable neutrino of mass m ≈ 0.5 GeV and cτ ≈ 30 m. Remarkably, one of these models has been recently proposed to explain an excess of electron-like neutrino events at MiniBooNE.

  15. Decay of ultralight axion condensates

    DOE PAGES

    Eby, Joshua; Ma, Michael; Suranyi, Peter; ...

    2018-01-15

    Axion particles can form macroscopic condensates, whose size can be galactic in scale for models with very small axion massesmore » $$m\\sim10^{-22}$$ eV, and which are sometimes referred to under the name of Fuzzy Dark Matter. Many analyses of these condensates are done in the non-interacting limit, due to the weakness of the self-interaction coupling of axions. We investigate here how certain results change upon inclusion of these interactions, finding a decreased maximum mass and a modified mass-radius relationship. Further, these condensates are, in general, unstable to decay through number-changing interactions. We analyze the stability of galaxy-sized condensates of axion-like particles, and sketch the parameter space of stable configurations as a function of a binding energy parameter. As a result, we find a strong lower bound on the size of Fuzzy Dark Matter condensates which are stable to decay, with lifetimes longer than the age of the universe.« less

  16. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  17. Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeenko, V. G.; Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru; Turikov, V. A.

    2015-03-15

    Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations showsmore » that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.« less

  18. Rare decays at the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rare flavour-changing neutral-current (FCNC) decays of beauty and charm quarks, lepton flavour- and lepton-number-violating decays can provide a powerful probe for as yet unobserved virtual particles. Recent results on these topics from the LHCb experiment are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the angular distribution of the B^0 → K^{*0}μ^+μ^- decay, where a measurement performed by LHCb shows a local discrepancy of 3.7 standard deviations with respect to the SM prediction. Using the decay B+ → K+ π+π- γ , LHCb have also been able to demonstrate the polarisation of photons produced in b → s transitions. An update for the studies dedicated to decays τ+ → μ+ μ- μ+ and B^0_{(s)} → μ^{±} e^{∓} and to the on-shell Majorana neutrinos coupling to muons in the B+ → π- μ+ μ+ decay channel are also presented.

  19. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav, E-mail: dvornicky@dnp.fmph.uniba.sk; Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 48 Bratislava; Šimkovic, Fedor

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  20. Decay assessment through thermographic analysis in architectural and archaeological heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Martinez-Perez, Laura; Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica

    2010-05-01

    Any exposed stone-built structure is subject to thermal variations due to daily, seasonal and secular environmental temperature changes. Surface temperature is a function of air temperature (due to convective heat transfer) and of infrared radiation received through insolation. While convective heat transfer homogenizes surface temperature, stone response to insolation is much more complex and the temporal and spatial temperature differences across structures are enhanced. Surface temperature in stone-built structures will be affected by orientation, sunlight inclination and the complex patterns of light and shadows generated by the often intricate morphology of historical artefacts and structures. Surface temperature will also be affected by different material properties, such as albedo, thermal conductivity, transparency and absorbance to infrared radiation of minerals and rocks. Moisture and the occurrence of salts will also be a factor affecting surface temperatures. Surface temperatures may as well be affected by physical disruptions of rocks due to differences in thermal inertia generated by cracks and other discontinuities. Thermography is a non-invasive, non-destructive technique that measures temperature variations on the surface of a material. With this technique, surface temperature rates of change and their spatial variations can be analysed. This analysis may be used not only to evaluate the incidence of thermal decay as a factor that generates or enhances stone decay, but also to detect and evaluate other factors that affect the state of conservation of architectural and archaeological heritage, as for example moisture, salts or mechanical disruptions.

  1. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  2. Heat collector

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  3. Growth of a 45-year-old ponderosa pine plantation: An Arizona case study

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Cody L. Stropki; L. J. Heidmann

    2008-01-01

    Information on the growth of forest plantations is necessary for planning of ecosystem-based management of the plantations. This information is also useful in validating or refining computer simulators that estimate plantation growth into the future. Such growth information has been obtained from a 45-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)...

  4. Growth of a 45-year-old ponderosa pine plantation: An Arizona case study (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Cody L. Stropki; L. J. Heidmann

    2008-01-01

    Information on the growth of forest plantations is necessary for planning of ecosystem-based management of the plantations. This information is also useful in validating or refining computer simulators that estimate plantation growth into the future. Such growth information has been obtained from a 45-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) plantation in the Hart...

  5. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  6. Heat intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003094.htm Heat intolerance To use the sharing features on this ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  7. HEAT EXCHANGER

    DOEpatents

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  8. QCD in heavy quark production and decay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiss, J.

    1997-06-01

    The author discusses how QCD is used to understand the physics of heavy quark production and decay dynamics. His discussion of production dynamics primarily concentrates on charm photoproduction data which are compared to perturbative QCD calculations which incorporate fragmentation effects. He begins his discussion of heavy quark decay by reviewing data on charm and beauty lifetimes. Present data on fully leptonic and semileptonic charm decay are then reviewed. Measurements of the hadronic weak current form factors are compared to the nonperturbative QCD-based predictions of Lattice Gauge Theories. He next discusses polarization phenomena present in charmed baryon decay. Heavy Quark Effectivemore » Theory predicts that the daughter baryon will recoil from the charmed parent with nearly 100% left-handed polarization, which is in excellent agreement with present data. He concludes by discussing nonleptonic charm decay which is traditionally analyzed in a factorization framework applicable to two-body and quasi-two-body nonleptonic decays. This discussion emphasizes the important role of final state interactions in influencing both the observed decay width of various two-body final states as well as modifying the interference between interfering resonance channels which contribute to specific multibody decays. 50 refs., 77 figs.« less

  9. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  10. Growth and decay losses in Colorado aspen

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Wengert Hinds

    1977-01-01

    Decay in Colorado aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., was extensively surveyed in 1954-56, but volume estimates were presented on a cubic foot basis. This paper reanalyzes the data on a board foot (Scribner) basis. Tree growth and gross and net volumes per acre expected on commercial aspen sites are given. Decay volumes are correlatzd with site class...

  11. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  12. Decay not serious in northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1971-01-01

    A study of 114 northern red oak, Quercus rubra, indicated that decay is not serious during the time necessary to produce high-quality saw logs and veneer logs. Two heart-rot fungi, Poria oleraceae and P. cocos, accounted for almost 25 percent of the total decay volume in the study trees. Basal fire wounds, dead...

  13. Bacterial associations with decaying wood : a review

    Treesearch

    C. A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of...

  14. Decay causes little loss in hickory

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1972-01-01

    A study of 600 hickory trees indicated that heart-rot fungi cause little economic loss in species of the genus Carya. More than half of the decay volume for which a fungus could be identified was caused by Poria spiculosa, one of seven species of heart-rot fungi associated with decay in hickory that were isolated and identified....

  15. Wood decay fungi of subalpine conifer forests

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2016-01-01

    One of the fundamental skills needed for hazard tree assessment is the evaluation of decay. This may be a difficult task as we usually only use external symptoms (wounds, basal swellings, decayed branch stubs), signs (mushrooms, fungal crusts or brackets) or mechanical/indirect sampling methods (drilling, electrical or sonic resistance) to estimate the amount of sound...

  16. Ecosystem processes related to wood decay

    Treesearch

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2017-01-01

    Wood decay elements include snags, down wood, root wads, tree stumps, litter, duff, broomed or diseased branches, and partially dead trees, all of which contribute to ecological processes and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem. Down wood can serve as reservoirs for moisture and mycorrhizal fungi beneficial to the health and growth of commercial tree species. Decaying...

  17. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  18. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems

    Treesearch

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  19. Stick slip, charge separation and decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.; Kuksenko, V.S.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of charge separation in rock during stable and unstable deformation give unexpectedly large decay times of 50 sec. Time-domain induced polarization experiments on wet and dry rocks give similar decay times and suggest that the same decay mechanisms operate in the induced polarization response as in the relaxation of charge generated by mechanical deformation. These large decay times are attributed to electrochemical processes in the rocks, and they require low-frequency relative permittivity to be very large, in excess of 105. One consequence of large permittivity, and therefore long decay times, is that a significant portion of any electrical charge generated during an earthquake can persist for tens or hundreds of seconds. As a result, electrical disturbances associated with earthquakes should be observable for these lengths of time rather than for the milliseconds previously suggested. ?? 1986 Birka??user Verlag.

  20. Detailed α -decay study of 180Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andel, B.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Comas, V. F.; Diriken, J.; Elseviers, J.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Heredia, J. A.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Köster, U.; Liberati, V.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Patronis, N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Vermote, S.; Veselský, M.; Wagemans, C.

    2017-11-01

    A detailed α -decay spectroscopy study of 180Tl has been performed at ISOLDE (CERN). Z -selective ionization by the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) coupled to mass separation provided a high-purity beam of 180Tl. Fine-structure α decays to excited levels in the daughter 176Au were identified and an α -decay scheme of 180Tl was constructed based on an analysis of α -γ and α -γ -γ coincidences. Multipolarities of several γ -ray transitions deexciting levels in 176Au were determined. Based on the analysis of reduced α -decay widths, it was found that all α decays are hindered, which signifies a change of configuration between the parent and all daughter states.

  1. Neutron Decay with PERC: a Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, G.; Abele, H.; Beck, M.; Drescher, C.; Dubbers, D.; Erhart, J.; Fillunger, H.; Gösselsberger, C.; Heil, W.; Horvath, M.; Jericha, E.; Klauser, C.; Klenke, J.; Märkisch, B.; Maix, R. K.; Mest, H.; Nowak, S.; Rebrova, N.; Roick, C.; Sauerzopf, C.; Schmidt, U.; Soldner, T.; Wang, X.; Zimmer, O.; Perc Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The PERC collaboration will perform high-precision measurements of angular correlations in neutron beta decay at the beam facility MEPHISTO of the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany. The new beam station PERC, a clean, bright, and versatile source of neutron decay products, is designed to improve the sensitivity of neutron decay studies by one order of magnitude. The charged decay products are collected by a strong longitudinal magnetic field directly from inside a neutron guide. This combination provides the highest phase space density of decay products. A magnetic mirror serves to perform precise cuts in phase space, reducing related systematic errors. The new instrument PERC is under development by an international collaboration. The physics motivation, sensitivity, and applications of PERC as well as the status of the design and preliminary results on uncertainties in proton spectroscopy are presented in this paper.

  2. Search for CP violation in hyperon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyla, Piotr; Chan, A.; Chen, Y. C.; Ho, C.; Teng, P. K.; Choong, W. S.; Gidal, G.; Fu, Y.; Gu, P.; Jones, T.; Luk, K. B.; Turko, B.; Zyla, P.; James, C.; Volk, J.; Felix, J.; Burnstein, R. A.; Chakrovorty, A.; Kaplan, D. M.; Lederman, L. M.; Luebke, W.; Rajaram, D.; Rubin, H. A.; Solomey, N.; Torun, Y.; White, C. G.; White, S. L.; Leros, N.; Perroud, J. P.; Gustafson, H. R.; Longo, M. J.; Lopez, F.; Park, H. K.; Clark, K.; Jenkins, M.; Dukes, E. C.; Durandet, C.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Lu, L.; Nelson, K. S.

    2003-02-01

    Direct CP violation in nonleptonic hyperon decays can be established by comparing the decays of hyperons and anti-hyperons. For Ξ decay to Λπ followed by Λ to pπ, the proton distribution in the rest frame of Lambda is governed by the product of the decay parameters αΞαΛ. The asymmetry ΛΞΛ, proportional to the difference of αΞαΛ of the hyperon and anti-hyperon decays, vanishes if CP is conserved. We report on an analysis of a fraction of 1997 and 1999 data collected by the HyperCP (E871) collaboration during the fixed-target runs at Fermilab. The preliminary measurement of the assymmetry is AΞΛ = [-7±12(stat)±6.2(sys)] × 10 -4, an order of magnitude better than the present limit.

  3. Regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2012-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means to modulate gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies focused largely on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay, and the ribonucleases that catalyze decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This review examines our current understanding of how mammalian-cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signaling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. PMID:22392217

  4. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  5. Ultrafast Molecular Three-Electron Auger Decay.

    PubMed

    Feifel, Raimund; Eland, John H D; Squibb, Richard J; Mucke, Melanie; Zagorodskikh, Sergey; Linusson, Per; Tarantelli, Francesco; Kolorenč, Přemysl; Averbukh, Vitali

    2016-02-19

    Three-electron Auger decay is an exotic and elusive process, in which two outer-shell electrons simultaneously refill an inner-shell double vacancy with emission of a single Auger electron. Such transitions are forbidden by the many-electron selection rules, normally making their decay lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the few-femtosecond lifetimes of normal (two-electron) Auger decay. Here we present theoretical predictions and direct experimental evidence for a few-femtosecond three-electron Auger decay of a double inner-valence-hole state in CH_{3}F. Our analysis shows that in contrast to double core holes, double inner-valence vacancies in molecules can decay exclusively by this ultrafast three-electron Auger process, and we predict that this phenomenon occurs widely.

  6. Production and sequential decay of charmed hyperons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäldt, Göran

    2018-03-01

    We investigate production and decay of the Λc+ hyperon. The production considered is through the e+e- annihilation channel, e+e-→Λc+Λ¯c - , with summation over the Λ¯c- antihyperon spin directions. It is in this situation that the Λc+ decay chain is identified. Two kinds of sequential decays are studied. The first one is the doubly weak decay B1→B2M2 , followed by B2→B3M3. The other one is the mixed weak-electromagnetic decay B1→B2M2, followed by B2→B3γ . In both schemes B denotes baryons and M mesons. We should also mention that the initial state of the Λc+ hyperon is polarized.

  7. The effects of moderately high temperature on zeaxanthin accumulation and decay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Kramer, David M; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Struck, Kimberly R; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-09-01

    Moderately high temperature reduces photosynthetic capacities of leaves with large effects on thylakoid reactions of photosynthesis, including xanthophyll conversion in the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane. In previous studies, we have found that leaf temperature of 40°C increased zeaxanthin accumulation in dark-adapted, intact tobacco leaves following a brief illumination, but did not change the amount of zeaxanthin in light-adatped leaves. To investigate heat effects on zeaxanthin accumulation and decay, zeaxanthin level was monitored optically in dark-adapted, intact tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves at either 23 or 40°C under 45-min illumination. Heated leaves had more zeaxanthin following 3-min light but had less or comparable amounts of zeaxanthin by the end of 45 min of illumination. Zeaxanthin accumulated faster at light initiation and decayed faster upon darkening in leaves at 40°C than leaves at 23°C, indicating that heat increased the activities of both violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZE). In addition, our optical measurement demonstrated in vivo that weak light enhances zeaxanthin decay relative to darkness in intact leaves of tobacco and Arabidopsis, confirming previous observations in isolated spinach chloroplasts. However, the maximum rate of decay is similar for weak light and darkness, and we used the maximum rate of decay following darkness as a measure of the rate of ZE during steady-state light. A simulation indicated that high temperature should cause a large shift in the pH dependence of the amount of zeaxanthin in leaves because of differential effects on VDE and ZE. This allows for the reduction in ΔpH caused by heat to be offset by increased VDE activity relative to ZE.

  8. Relevance of Tidal Heating on Large TNOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Prabal; Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.; Jutzi, Martin; Hurford, Terry A.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relevance of tidal heating for large Trans-Neptunian Objects, with a focus on its potential to melt and maintain layers of subsurface liquid water. Depending on their past orbital evolution, tidal heating may be an important part of the heat budget for a number of discovered and hypothetical TNO systems and may enable formation of, and increased access to, subsurface liquid water. Tidal heating induced by the process of despinning is found to be particularly able to compete with heating due to radionuclide decay in a number of different scenarios. In cases where radiogenic heating alone may establish subsurface conditions for liquid water, we focus on the extent by which tidal activity lifts the depth of such conditions closer to the surface. While it is common for strong tidal heating and long lived tides to be mutually exclusive, we find this is not always the case, and highlight when these two traits occur together. We find cases where TNO systems experience tidal heating that is a significant proportion of, or greater than radiogenic heating for periods ranging from100 s of millions to a billion years. For subsurface oceans that contain a small antifreeze component, tidal heating due to very high initial spin states may enable liquid water to be preserved right up to the present day. Of particular interest is the Eris-Dysnomia system, which in those cases may exhibit extant cryovolcanism.

  9. Relevance of tidal heating on large TNOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Prabal; Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.; Jutzi, Martin; Hurford, Terry

    2018-03-01

    We examine the relevance of tidal heating for large Trans-Neptunian Objects, with a focus on its potential to melt and maintain layers of subsurface liquid water. Depending on their past orbital evolution, tidal heating may be an important part of the heat budget for a number of discovered and hypothetical TNO systems and may enable formation of, and increased access to, subsurface liquid water. Tidal heating induced by the process of despinning is found to be particularly able to compete with heating due to radionuclide decay in a number of different scenarios. In cases where radiogenic heating alone may establish subsurface conditions for liquid water, we focus on the extent by which tidal activity lifts the depth of such conditions closer to the surface. While it is common for strong tidal heating and long lived tides to be mutually exclusive, we find this is not always the case, and highlight when these two traits occur together. We find cases where TNO systems experience tidal heating that is a significant proportion of, or greater than radiogenic heating for periods ranging from100‧s of millions to a billion years. For subsurface oceans that contain a small antifreeze component, tidal heating due to very high initial spin states may enable liquid water to be preserved right up to the present day. Of particular interest is the Eris-Dysnomia system, which in those cases may exhibit extant cryovolcanism.

  10. The decay width of stringy hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we further develop a string model of hadrons by computing their strong decay widths and comparing them to experiment. The main decay mechanism is that of a string splitting into two strings. The corresponding total decay width behaves as Γ = π/2 ATL where T and L are the tension and length of the string and A is a dimensionless universal constant. We show that this result holds for a bosonic string not only in the critical dimension. The partial width of a given decay mode is given by Γi / Γ =Φi exp ⁡ (- 2 πCmsep2 / T) where Φi is a phase space factor, msep is the mass of the "quark" and "antiquark" created at the splitting point, and C is a dimensionless coefficient close to unity. Based on the spectra of hadrons we observe that their (modified) Regge trajectories are characterized by a negative intercept. This implies a repulsive Casimir force that gives the string a "zero point length". We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K*, ϕ, D, and Ds*, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A = 0.095 ± 0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark-diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.

  11. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  12. B, D and K decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchalla, G.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Muheim, F.; Silvestrini, L.; Artuso, M.; Asner, D. M.; Ball, P.; Baracchini, E.; Bell, G.; Beneke, M.; Berryhill, J.; Bevan, A.; Bigi, I. I.; Blanke, M.; Bobeth, Ch.; Bona, M.; Borzumati, F.; Browder, T.; Buanes, T.; Buchmüller, O.; Buras, A. J.; Burdin, S.; Cassel, D. G.; Cavanaugh, R.; Ciuchini, M.; Colangelo, P.; Crosetti, G.; Dedes, A.; de Fazio, F.; Descotes-Genon, S.; Dickens, J.; Doležal, Z.; Dürr, S.; Egede, U.; Eggel, C.; Eigen, G.; Fajfer, S.; Feldmann, Th.; Ferrandes, R.; Gambino, P.; Gershon, T.; Gibson, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golob, B.; Golutvin, A.; Grossman, Y.; Guadagnoli, D.; Haisch, U.; Hazumi, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Hiller, G.; Hitlin, D.; Huber, T.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Isidori, G.; Jäger, S.; Khodjamirian, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Lagouri, T.; Langenegger, U.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lenz, A.; Lubicz, V.; Lucha, W.; Mahlke, H.; Melikhov, D.; Mescia, F.; Misiak, M.; Nakao, M.; Napolitano, J.; Nikitin, N.; Nierste, U.; Oide, K.; Okada, Y.; Paradisi, P.; Parodi, F.; Patel, M.; Petrov, A. A.; Pham, T. N.; Pierini, M.; Playfer, S.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Poschenrieder, A.; Raimondi, P.; Recksiegel, S.; Řezníček, P.; Robert, A.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruggiero, G.; Sarti, A.; Schneider, O.; Schwab, F.; Simula, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Slavich, P.; Smith, C.; Smizanska, M.; Soni, A.; Speer, T.; Spradlin, P.; Spranger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stech, B.; Stocchi, A.; Stone, S.; Tarantino, C.; Teubert, F.; T'jampens, S.; Toms, K.; Trabelsi, K.; Trine, S.; Uhlig, S.; Vagnoni, V.; van Hunen, J. J.; Weiglein, G.; Weiler, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Xie, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Zhu, G.; Zupan, J.; Zwicky, R.

    2008-09-01

    The present report documents the results of Working Group 2: B, D and K decays, of the workshop on Flavor in the Era of the LHC, held at CERN from November 2005 through March 2007. With the advent of the LHC, we will be able to probe New Physics (NP) up to energy scales almost one order of magnitude larger than it has been possible with present accelerator facilities. While direct detection of new particles will be the main avenue to establish the presence of NP at the LHC, indirect searches will provide precious complementary information, since most probably it will not be possible to measure the full spectrum of new particles and their couplings through direct production. In particular, precision measurements and computations in the realm of flavor physics are expected to play a key role in constraining the unknown parameters of the Lagrangian of any NP model emerging from direct searches at the LHC. The aim of Working Group 2 was twofold: on the one hand, to provide a coherent up-to-date picture of the status of flavor physics before the start of the LHC; on the other hand, to initiate activities on the path towards integrating information on NP from high- p T and flavor data. This report is organized as follows: in Sect. 1, we give an overview of NP models, focusing on a few examples that have been discussed in some detail during the workshop, with a short description of the available computational tools for flavor observables in NP models. Section 2 contains a concise discussion of the main theoretical problem in flavor physics: the evaluation of the relevant hadronic matrix elements for weak decays. Section 3 contains a detailed discussion of NP effects in a set of flavor observables that we identified as “benchmark channels” for NP searches. The experimental prospects for flavor physics at future facilities are discussed in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 contains some assessments on the work done at the workshop and the prospects for future developments.

  13. Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  14. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  15. How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... life-threatening infections. Tooth decay (called early childhood caries) is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood. Tooth decay may also be called nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay . Healthy dental habits ...

  16. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  17. Beta decay of 187Re and cosmochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashktorab, K.; Jänecke, J. W.; Becchetti, F. D.

    1993-06-01

    Uncertainties which limit the use of the 187-187Os isobaric pair as a cosmochronometer for the age of the galaxy and the universe include those of the partial half-lives of the continuum and bound-state decays of 187Re. While the total half-life of the decay is well established, the partial half-life for the continuum decay is uncertain, and several previous measurements are not compatible with each other. A high-temperature quartz proportional counter has been used in this work to remeasure the continuum decay of 187Re by introducing a metallo-organic rhenium compound into the counting gas. The measured beta end-point energy for the continuum decay of neutral 187Re to singly ionized 187Os of 2.70+/-0.09 keV agrees with earlier results. However, the present half-life measurement of (45+/-3) Gyr agrees within the quoted uncertainties only with the earlier measurement of Payne [Ph.D. thesis, University of Glasgow, 1965 (unpublished)] and Drever (private communication). The new half-life for the continuum decay and the total half-life of (43.5+/-1.3) Gyr, as reported by Linder et al. [Nature (London) 320, 246 (1986)] yield a branching ratio for the bound-state decay into discrete atomic states of (3+/-6)%. This is in agreement with the most recent calculated theoretical branching ratio of approximately 1%.

  18. Chromospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    The solar chromosphere is identified with the atmosphere inside magnetic flux tubes. Between the temperature minimum and the 7000 K level, the chromosphere in the bright points of the quiet sun is heated by large-amplitude, long-period, compressive waves with periods mainly between 2 and 4 minutes. These waves do not observe the cutoff condition according to which acoustic waves with periods longer than 3 minutes do not propagate vertically in the upper solar photosphere. It is concluded that the long-period waves probably supply all the energy required for the heating of the bright points in the quiet solar chromosphere.

  19. HEAT GENERATION

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1963-12-01

    Heat is generated by the utilization of high energy neutrons produced as by nuclear reactions between hydrogen isotopes in a blanket zone containing lithium, a neutron moderator, and uranium and/or thorium effective to achieve multtplicatton of the high energy neutron. The rnultiplied and moderated neutrons produced react further with lithium-6 to produce tritium in the blanket. Thermal neutron fissionable materials are also produced and consumed in situ in the blanket zone. The heat produced by the aggregate of the various nuclear reactions is then withdrawn from the blanket zone to be used or otherwise disposed externally. (AEC)

  20. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  1. String splitting and strong coupling meson decay.

    PubMed

    Cotrone, A L; Martucci, L; Troost, W

    2006-04-14

    We study the decay of high spin mesons using the gauge-string theory correspondence. The rate of the process is calculated by studying the splitting of a macroscopic string intersecting a D-brane. The result is applied to the decay of mesons in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a small number of flavors and in a gravity dual of large N QCD. In QCD the decay of high spin mesons is found to be heavily suppressed in the regime of validity of the supergravity description.

  2. Charmless and Penguin Decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Dorigo, Mirco; Collaboration, for the CDF

    2010-12-01

    Penguin transitions play a key role in the search of New Physics hints in the heavy flavor sector. During the last decade CDF has been exploring this opportunity with a rich study of two-body charmless decays of neutral B mesons into charged final-state particles. After briefly introducing the aspects of this physics peculiar to the hadron collision environment, I report on two interesting results: the first polarization measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi} decay and the update of the B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{prime}{sup -} decays analysis.

  3. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  4. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, Barbara

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  5. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  6. Heat-Related Illnesses

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  7. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find information on the benefits of renewable heating and cooling technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  8. Dual protection of wood surface treated with melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resin mixed with ammonium polyphosphate against both fire and decay

    Treesearch

    Xing-xia Ma; Grant T. Kirker; Ming-liang Jiang; Yu-zhang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate. Dual protection of wood against both decay and fire has been proposed for remedial...

  9. Parametric decay instability near the upper hybrid resonance in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Stejner, M.; Stober, J.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we investigate parametric decay of an electromagnetic pump wave into two electrostatic daughter waves, particularly an X-mode pump wave decaying into a warm upper hybrid wave (a limit of an electron Bernstein wave) and a warm lower hybrid wave. We describe the general theory of the above parametric decay instability (PDI), unifying earlier treatments, and show that it may occur in underdense and weakly overdense plasmas. The PDI theory is used to explain anomalous sidebands observed in collective Thomson scattering (CTS) spectra at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The theory may also account for similar observations during CTS experiments in stellarators, as well as in some 1st harmonic electron cyclotron resonance and O-X-B heating experiments.

  10. Infrared heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  11. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  12. Random walk with memory enhancement and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Xian-Wu; Huang, Sheng-You; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Zhun-Zhi

    2002-04-01

    A model of random walk with memory enhancement and decay was presented on the basis of the characteristics of the biological intelligent walks. In this model, the movement of the walker is determined by the difference between the remaining information at the jumping-out site and jumping-in site. The amount of the memory information si(t) at a site i is enhanced with the increment of visiting times to that site, and decays with time t by the rate e-βt, where β is the memory decay exponent. When β=0, there exists a transition from Brownian motion (BM) to the compact growth of walking trajectory with the density of information energy u increasing. But for β>0, this transition does not appear and the walk with memory enhancement and decay can be considered as the BM of the mass center of the cluster composed of remembered sites in the late stage.

  13. Decay of turbulence at high reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P

    2015-01-23

    Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (10^{4}decay rate with the unprecedented precision of about 2%. Here U is the mean speed of the flow, M is the forcing scale, and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. We observe that the decay rate is Reynolds-number independent, which contradicts some models and supports others.

  14. The decay of highly excited open strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D.; Turok, N.; Wilkinson, R.; Jetzer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The decay rates of leading edge Regge trajectory states are calculated for very high level number in open bosonic string theories, ignoring tachyon final states. The optical theorem simplifies the analysis while enabling identification of the different mass level decay channels. The main result is that (in four dimensions) the greatest single channel is the emission of a single photon and a state of the next mass level down. A simple asymptotic formula for arbitrarily high level number is given for this process. Also calculated is the total decay rate exactly up to N=100. It shows little variation over this range but appears to decrease for larger N. The formalism is checked in examples and the decay rate of the first excited level calculated for open superstring theories. The calculation may also have implications for high spin meson resonances.

  15. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 . 10-5) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  16. Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.

  17. Scaling laws in decaying helical hydromagnetic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensson, M.; Hindmarsh, M.; Brandenburg, A.

    2005-07-01

    We study the evolution of growth and decay laws for the magnetic field coherence length ξ, energy E_M and magnetic helicity H in freely decaying 3D MHD turbulence. We show that with certain assumptions, self-similarity of the magnetic power spectrum alone implies that ξ σm t1/2. This in turn implies that magnetic helicity decays as Hσm t-2s, where s=(ξ_diff/ξH)2, in terms of ξ_diff, the diffusion length scale, and ξ_H, a length scale defined from the helicity power spectrum. The relative magnetic helicity remains constant, implying that the magnetic energy decays as E_M σm t-1/2-2s. The parameter s is inversely proportional to the magnetic Reynolds number Re_M, which is constant in the self-similar regime.

  18. The Particle Adventure | Particle Decays and Annihilations

    Science.gov Websites

    Electromagnetism Residual EM force What about the nucleus? Strong Color charge Quark confinement Quarks emit gluons Decaying to two photons Shortcomings of the first data Is this particle really the Higgs Boson? Does it

  19. Search for nucleon decays with EXO-200

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, J. B.; Anton, G.; Badhrees, I.; ...

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, a search for instability of nucleons bound in 136Xe nuclei is reported with 223 kg·yr exposure of 136Xe in the EXO-200 experiment. Lifetime limits of 3.3 × 10 23 and 1.9 × 10 23 yr are established for nucleon decay to 133Sb and 133Te, respectively. These are the most stringent to date, exceeding the prior decay limits by a factor of 9 and 7, respectively.

  20. Search for nucleon decays with EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J. B.; Anton, G.; Badhrees, I.

    In this paper, a search for instability of nucleons bound in 136Xe nuclei is reported with 223 kg·yr exposure of 136Xe in the EXO-200 experiment. Lifetime limits of 3.3 × 10 23 and 1.9 × 10 23 yr are established for nucleon decay to 133Sb and 133Te, respectively. These are the most stringent to date, exceeding the prior decay limits by a factor of 9 and 7, respectively.

  1. Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Perkins, W. B.; Davis, A.-C.; Brandenberger, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. The catalysis processes are reviewed both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and the implications for baryogenesis are discussed. A computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay is presented using classical physics. Also discussed are some effects which can screen catalysis processes.

  2. Cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ruth; Davis, Anne-Christine; Brandenberger, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Callan-Witten picture is developed for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay in order to analyze the corresponding cosmic string scenario. It is discovered that cosmic strings (both ordinary and superconducting) can catalyze proton decay, but that this catalysis only occurs on the scale of the core of the string. In order to do this we have to develop a vortex model for the superconducting string. An argument is also given for the difference in the enhancement factors for monopoles and strings.

  3. Search for nucleon decays with EXO-200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J. B.; Anton, G.; Badhrees, I.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bayerlein, R.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Cao, G. F.; Cen, W. R.; Chambers, C.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Craycraft, A.; Cree, W.; Daniels, T.; Danilov, M.; Daugherty, S. J.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J.; Delaquis, S.; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A.; DeVoe, R.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dolinski, M. J.; Fairbank, W.; Farine, J.; Feyzbakhsh, S.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Hall, C.; Hansen, E. V.; Hoessl, J.; Homiller, S.; Hufschmidt, P.; Hughes, M.; Jamil, A.; Jewell, M. J.; Johnson, A.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Lan, Y.; Leonard, D. S.; Li, G. S.; Li, S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; MacLellan, R.; Michel, T.; Mong, B.; Moore, D.; Murray, K.; Nelson, R.; Njoya, O.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Retière, F.; Robinson, A. L.; Rowson, P. C.; Schmidt, S.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Soma, A. K.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Tsang, R.; Vogel, P.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Wagenpfeil, M.; Waite, A.; Walton, T.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Wrede, G.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; Zettlemoyer, J.; Ziegler, T.; EXO-200 Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    A search for instability of nucleons bound in 136Xe nuclei is reported with 223 kg.yr exposure of 136Xe in the EXO-200 experiment. Lifetime limits of 3.3 ×1023 and 1.9 ×1023 yr are established for nucleon decay to 133Sb and 133Te, respectively. These are the most stringent to date, exceeding the prior decay limits by a factor of 9 and 7, respectively.

  4. Force decay and deformation of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.

    PubMed

    Taloumis, L J; Smith, T M; Hondrum, S O; Lorton, L

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated commercially available molded gray elastomeric ligatures from seven companies for force decay, dimensional change, and the relationship between ligature dimension and force. The initial wall thickness, inside diameter, outside diameter, and force levels of each ligature were measured. Three of four test groups of ligatures were stretched over stainless steel dowels with a circumference approximating that of a large orthodontic twin bracket. Test group 1 was kept at room temperature and humidity for 28 days and test group 2 in a synthetic saliva bath at 37 degrees C, pH 6.84 for 28 days. The residual forces and dimensional changes were measured. The third test group was placed in a synthetic saliva bath at 37 degrees C, pH 6.84, and force levels recorded at initial, 24 hours, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. The fourth test group of unstretched samples was placed in a synthetic saliva bath at 37 degrees C, pH 6.84 for 28 days to evaluate dimensional changes due solely to moisture sorption. The results for stretched samples in a simulated oral environment revealed the following: (1) Moisture and heat had a pronounced effect on force decay and permanent deformation, (2) a positive correlation existed between the wall thickness and force, (3) a negative correlation existed between the inside diameter and force, (4) a weak correlation existed between outside diameter and force, (5) the greatest force loss occurred in the first 24 hours and the decay pattern was similar for all ligatures tested, and (6) unstretched ligatures absorbed moisture in the range of 0.060% to 3.15%. The ligatures tested appear to be suitable for use during initial aligning and leveling. However, the rapid force loss and permanent deformation of these products may preclude their use for rotational and torque corrections.

  5. Detection and Assessment of Wood Decay in Glulam Beams Using a Decay Rate Approach: A Review

    Treesearch

    C. Adam Senalik

    2013-01-01

    A glulam beam is subjected to X-ray computer tomography and acousto-ultrasonic measurements to detect and assess wood decay. A glulam beam without visible indications of wood decay was taken from field use. A modified impulse-echo technique is employed as an inspection method requiring access to only one side of the beam. It is observed that decay-rate analysis of the...

  6. Dark decay of the top quark

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Lee, Hye -Sung; Park, Myeonghun

    2014-04-01

    We suggest top quark decays as a venue to search for light dark force carriers. Top quark is the heaviest particle in the standard model whose decays are relatively poorly measured, allowing sufficient room for exotic decay modes from new physics. A very light (GeV scale) dark gauge boson (Z') is a recently highlighted hypothetical particle that can address some astrophysical anomalies as well as the 3.6 σ deviation in the muon g-2 measurement. We present and study a possible scenario that top quark decays as t → b W + Z's. This is the same as the dominant topmore » quark decay (t → b W) accompanied by one or multiple dark force carriers. The Z' can be easily boosted, and it can decay into highly collimated leptons (lepton-jet) with large branching ratio. In addition, we discuss the implications for the Large Hadron Collider experiments including the analysis based on the lepton-jets.« less

  7. Enhanced tau neutrino appearance through invisible decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Di Marco, Natalia; Mannarelli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to a change of the conversion and survival probability of neutrino flavor eigenstates. Exploiting the recent results released by the long-baseline OPERA experiment we perform the statistical investigation of the neutrino invisible decay hypothesis in the νμ→ντ appearance channel. We find that the neutrino decay provides an enhancement of the expected tau appearance signal with respect to the standard oscillation scenario for the long-baseline OPERA experiment. The increase of the νμ→ντ conversion probability by the decay of one of the mass eigenstates is due to a reduction of the "destructive interference" among the different massive neutrino components. Despite data showing a very mild preference for invisible decays with respect to the oscillations only hypothesis, we provide an upper limit for the neutrino decay lifetime in this channel of τ3/m3≳1.3 ×10-13 s /eV at the 90% confidence level.

  8. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P. A.; Lasenby, R. N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Jenkins, J. H.; Kerford, J. L.; Lee, R. H.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Morreale, B. L.; Morris, D. B.; Mudry, R. N.; Newport, J. R.; O'Keefe, D.; Petrelli, M. A.; Silver, M. A.; Stewart, C. A.; Terry, B.

    2010-10-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  9. The shock waves in decaying supersonic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Zuev, J. M.

    2000-04-01

    We here analyse numerical simulations of supersonic, hypersonic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is free to decay. Our goals are to understand the dynamics of the decay and the characteristic properties of the shock waves produced. This will be useful for interpretation of observations of both motions in molecular clouds and sources of non-thermal radiation. We find that decaying hypersonic turbulence possesses an exponential tail of fast shocks and an exponential decay in time, i.e. the number of shocks is proportional to t exp (-ktv) for shock velocity jump v and mean initial wavenumber k. In contrast to the velocity gradients, the velocity Probability Distribution Function remains Gaussian with a more complex decay law. The energy is dissipated not by fast shocks but by a large number of low Mach number shocks. The power loss peaks near a low-speed turn-over in an exponential distribution. An analytical extension of the mapping closure technique is able to predict the basic decay features. Our analytic description of the distribution of shock strengths should prove useful for direct modeling of observable emission. We note that an exponential distribution of shocks such as we find will, in general, generate very low excitation shock signatures.

  10. Tunneling decay of false vortices with gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, Manu B.; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of vortices on the tunneling decay of a symmetry-breaking false vacuum in three spacetime dimensions with gravity. The scenario considered is one in which the initial state, rather than being the homogeneous false vacuum, contains false vortices. The question addressed is whether, and, if so, under which circumstances, the presence of vortices has a significant catalyzing effect on vacuum decay. After studying the existence and properties of vortices, we study their decay rate through quantum tunneling using a variety of techniques. In particular, for so-called thin-wall vortices we devise a one-parameter family of configurations allowing a quantum-mechanical calculation of tunneling. Also for thin-wall vortices, we employ the Israel junction conditions between the interior and exterior spacetimes. Matching these two spacetimes reveals a decay channel which results in an unstable, expanding vortex. We find that the tunneling exponent for vortices, which is the dominant factor in the decay rate, is half that for Coleman-de Luccia bubbles. This implies that vortices are short-lived, making them cosmologically significant even for low vortex densities. In the limit of the vanishing gravitational constant we smoothly recover our earlier results for the decay of the false vortex in a model without gravity.

  11. Photon activation-15O decay studies of tumor blood flow.

    PubMed

    Ten Haken, R K; Nussbaum, G H; Emami, B; Hughes, W L

    1981-01-01

    A direct, noninvasive method for measuring absolute values of specific capillary blood flow in living tissue is described. The method is based on the photon activation, in situ, of tissue elements and the measurement of the subsequent decay of the positron activity induced, employing coincidence detection of the photon pairs produced in positron annihilation. Analysis of the time-dependent coincidence spectrum reveals the contribution to the total signal from the decay of 15O, from which the specific capillary blood flow in the imaged, activated volume is ultimately determined. By virtue of its introduction of the radioisotope of interest (15O) directly and uniformly into the tissue volume under investigation, the method described permits both the nonperfused and well perfused fractions of an activated volume to be estimated and hence, the average specific blood flow within imaged tumor volumes to be computed. The model employed to describe and analyze the data is discussed in detail. Results of application of the technique to measurement of specific blood flow in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors grown in WAG/Rij rats are presented and discussed. The method is shown to be reliable and well suited to studies designed to determined the effects of various agents, such as heat, radiation and drugs, on tumor blood flow.

  12. Temperature and heat flux scaling laws for isoviscous, infinite Prandtl number mixed heating convection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilella, Kenny; Deschamps, Frederic

    2018-04-01

    Thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by heat transfer through their silicate mantles. A suitable framework for modelling this heat transport is a system including bottom heating (from the core) and internal heating, e.g., generated by secular cooling or by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The mechanism of heat transfer depends on the physical properties of the system. In systems where convection is able to operate, two different regimes are possible depending on the relative amount of bottom and internal heating. For moderate internal heating rates, the system is composed of active hot upwellings and cold downwellings. For large internal heating rates, the bottom heat flux becomes negative and the system is only composed of active cold downwellings. Here, we build theoretical scaling laws for both convective regimes following the approach of Vilella & Kaminski (2017), which links the surface heat flux and the temperature jump across both the top and bottom thermal boundary layer (TBL) to the Rayleigh number and the dimensionless internal heating rate. Theoretical predictions are then verified against numerical simulations performed in 2D and 3D-Cartesian geometry, and covering a large range of the parameter space. Our theoretical scaling laws are more successful in predicting the thermal structure of systems with large internal heating rates than that of systems with no or moderate internal heating. The differences between moderate and large internal heating rates are interpreted as differences in the mechanisms generating thermal instabilities. We identified three mechanisms: conductive growth of the TBL, instability impacting, and TBL erosion, the last two being present only for moderate internal heating rates, in which hot plumes are generated at the bottom of the system and are able to reach the surface. Finally, we apply our scaling laws to the evolution of the early Earth, proposing a new model for the cooling of the primordial magma ocean

  13. Temperature and heat flux scaling laws for isoviscous, infinite Prandtl number mixed heating convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilella, Kenny; Deschamps, Frédéric

    2018-07-01

    Thermal evolution of terrestrial planets is controlled by heat transfer through their silicate mantles. A suitable framework for modelling this heat transport is a system including bottom heating (from the core) and internal heating, for example, generated by secular cooling or by the decay of radioactive isotopes. The mechanism of heat transfer depends on the physical properties of the system. In systems where convection is able to operate, two different regimes are possible depending on the relative amount of bottom and internal heating. For moderate internal heating rates, the system is composed of active hot upwellings and cold downwellings. For large internal heating rates, the bottom heat flux becomes negative and the system is only composed of active cold downwellings. Here, we build theoretical scaling laws for both convective regimes following the approach of Vilella & Kaminski (2017), which links the surface heat flux and the temperature jump across both the top and the bottom thermal boundary layer (TBL) to the Rayleigh number and the dimensionless internal heating rate. Theoretical predictions are then verified against numerical simulations performed in 2-D and 3-D Cartesiangeometry, and covering a large range of the parameter space. Our theoretical scaling laws are more successful in predicting the thermal structure of systems with large internal heating rates than that of systems with no or moderate internal heating. The differences between moderate and large internal heating rates are interpreted as differences in the mechanisms generating thermal instabilities. We identified three mechanisms: conductive growth of the TBL, instability impacting, and TBL erosion, the last two being present only for moderate internal heating rates, in which hot plumes are generated at the bottom of the system and are able to reach the surface. Finally, we apply our scaling laws to the evolution of the early Earth, proposing a new model for the cooling of the primordial

  14. Power-law Magnetic Field Decay and Constant Core Temperatures of Magnetars, Normal and Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The observed correlations, between the characteristic ages and dipole surface magnetic field strengths of all pulsars, can be well explained by magnetic field decay with core temperatures of 2×108 K, ˜2×107 K, and ˜105 K, for magnetars, normal radio pulsars, and millisecond pulsars, respectively; assuming that their characteristic ages are about two orders of magnitude larger than their true ages, the required core temperatures may be reduced by about a factor of 10. The magnetic decay follows a power-law and is dominated by the solenoidal component of the ambipolar diffusion mode. In this model, all NSs are assumed to have the same initial magnetic field strength, but different core temperature which does not change as the magnetic field decays. This suggests that the key distinguishing property between magnetars and normal pulsars is that magnetars were born much hotter than normal pulsars, and thus have much longer magnetic field decay time scales, resulting in higher surface magnetic field strength even with the same ages of normal pulsars. The above conclusion agrees well with the observed correlations between the surface temperatures of magnetars and other young NSs, which do not agree with the cooling dominated evolution of neutron stars. This suggests a possible scenario that heating, perhaps due to magnetic field decay, balances neutron star cooling for observed pulsars.

  15. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchangers and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  16. Heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  17. Chapter 4: Genetic Identification of Fungi Involved in Wood Decay

    Treesearch

    Grant Kirker

    2014-01-01

    Wood decay is a complex process that involves contributions from molds, bacteria, decay fungi, and often insects. The first step in the accurate diagnosis of decay is identification of the causal agents, but wood decay in the strictest sense (white and brown rot) is caused by cryptic fungal species that are very difficult to identify using traditional methods. Genetic...

  18. Decay behaviors of the Pc hadronic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Hui; Shen, Chao-Wei; Guo, Feng-Kun; Zou, Bing-Song

    2017-06-01

    The Pc(4380 ) and Pc(4450 ) states observed recently by the LHCb experiment were proposed to be either D ¯Σc* or D¯*Σc bound states. We analyze the decay behaviors of two such types of hadronic molecules within the effective Lagrangian framework. With branching ratios of ten possible decay channels calculated, it is found that the two types of hadronic molecules have distinguishable decay patterns. While the D ¯Σc* molecule decays dominantly to the D¯*Λc channel with a branching ratio by 2 orders of magnitude larger than to D ¯Λc, the D¯*Σc molecule decays to these two channels with a difference of less than a factor of 2. Our results show that the total decay width of Pc(4380 ) as the spin-parity-3/2- D ¯Σc* molecule is about a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding value for the D¯*Σc molecule. It suggests that the assignment of the D ¯Σc* molecule for Pc(4380 ) is more favorable than the D¯*Σc molecule. In addition, Pc(4450 ) seems to be a D¯*Σc molecule with JP=5/2+ in our scheme. Based on these partial decay widths of the Pc states, we estimate the cross sections for the reactions γ p →J /ψ p and π p →J /ψ p through the s-channel Pc states. The forthcoming γ p experiment at JLAB and the π p experiment at JPARC should be able to pin down the nature of these Pc states.

  19. Probing the N˜Z line via β decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinonen, Markku

    1999-11-01

    This contribution reports several beta-decay studies performed at ISOLDE On-line Mass Separator at CERN recently for nuclei close to N=Z line. Beta decay of 58Zn provides a possibility to compare Gamow-Teller strength extracted from complementary beta-decay studies and charge-exchange reactions. Measurement on beta-decay half-life of 70Kr shows importance of experimental information in modelling the path of the astrophysical rp process. Decay of 71Kr is an example of a mirror beta decay and extends the systematics of these particular decays towards highly deformed region close to A=80.

  20. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  1. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  2. A First Look at Tree Decay: An Introduction to How Injury and Decay Affect Trees

    Treesearch

    Kevin T Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1998-01-01

    Photosynthesis and decay are the two most essential processes in nature. Photosynthesis by green plants captures and stores energy from the sun. This energy is used to form wood and other tree parts. Photosynthesis also removes carbon dioxide and adds oxygen to the atmosphere. Decay releases stored energy and essential elements by the breakdown...

  3. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  4. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  5. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J.

    1986-04-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  6. Semiclassical approach to heterogeneous vacuum decay

    DOE PAGES

    Grinstein, Benjamin; Murphy, Christopher W.

    2015-12-10

    We derive the decay rate of an unstable phase of a quantum field theory in the presence of an impurity in the thin-wall approximation. This derivation is based on the how the impurity changes the (flat spacetime) geometry relative to case of pure false vacuum. Two examples are given that show how to estimate some of the additional parameters that enter into this heterogeneous decay rate. This formalism is then applied to the Higgs vacuum of the Standard Model (SM), where baryonic matter acts as an impurity in the electroweak Higgs vacuum. We find that the probability for heterogeneous vacuummore » decay to occur is suppressed with respect to the homogeneous case. That is to say, the conclusions drawn from the homogeneous case are not modified by the inclusion of baryonic matter in the calculation. On the other hand, we show that Beyond the Standard Model physics with a characteristic scale comparable to the scale that governs the homogeneous decay rate in the SM, can in principle lead to an enhanced decay rate.« less

  7. SEISMIC PREDICTION USING UNATTACHED RADON DECAY PRODUCTS.

    PubMed

    Harley, Naomi H; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Fisenne, Isabel M

    2017-11-01

    Long-term measurements of the 222Rn concentration, 222Rn decay product activity, particle size distribution, and unattached, and attached 222Rn decay products, were made at two locations using the 22 y radon decay product 210Pb as their tracer. The particle size sampler collects both short lived 222Rn decay products that ultimately decay to 210Pb on the filters, and also airborne 210Pb. The measurements were made outdoors, at a suburban home and at Fernald, OH, a former uranium processing facility, on top of one of the two 226Ra storage silos containing 150 TBq 226Ra. The size distributions showed the unattached fractions, i.e. particle diameter 2-4 nm, to be 1.5% at the home and 14% at the silos. The unattached fraction of 218Po can be shown to be an immediate measure of the 222Rn concentration. The data indicates detection of the pressure driven 222Rn flow at the silo and with the enhanced measurement capability of a filtered air source versus the usual 222Rn gas measurement. It is proposed that real time measurements of unattached 218Po may be used to identify rapidly changing 222Rn concentrations associated with pressure driven soil air flow associated with seismic activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  9. Beyond low beta-decay Q values

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, M. T.; Suhonen, J.

    Beta decays with low Q values can be utilized in the quest to determine the neutrino mass scale. This is being realized in two experiments, KATRIN and MARE, using tritium and {sup 187}Re, respectively. The beta-decay of {sup 187}Re had the lowest known Q value until 2005, when the beta decay of {sup 115}In to the first excited state of {sup 115}Sn was discovered in Gran Sasso underground laboratory. Last year two independent ion trap measurements confirmed that this decay breaks the former record by an order of magnitude.Our theoretical study on this tiny decay channel complemented the experimental effortmore » by the JYFLTRAP group in Finland and HADES underground laboratory in Belgium. A significant discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical results was found. This might be explained by various atomic contributions known to grow larger as the Q value decreases. However, the traditional recipes for taking these effects into account break down on this new ultra-low Q value regime, providing new challenges for theorists on the borderline between nuclear and atomic physics.« less

  10. Quantile regression applied to spectral distance decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocchini, D.; Cade, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery has long been recognized as a powerful support for characterizing and estimating biodiversity. Spectral distance among sites has proven to be a powerful approach for detecting species composition variability. Regression analysis of species similarity versus spectral distance allows us to quantitatively estimate the amount of turnover in species composition with respect to spectral and ecological variability. In classical regression analysis, the residual sum of squares is minimized for the mean of the dependent variable distribution. However, many ecological data sets are characterized by a high number of zeroes that add noise to the regression model. Quantile regressions can be used to evaluate trend in the upper quantiles rather than a mean trend across the whole distribution of the dependent variable. In this letter, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions to estimate the decay of species similarity versus spectral distance. The achieved decay rates were statistically nonzero (p < 0.01), considering both OLS and quantile regressions. Nonetheless, the OLS regression estimate of the mean decay rate was only half the decay rate indicated by the upper quantiles. Moreover, the intercept value, representing the similarity reached when the spectral distance approaches zero, was very low compared with the intercepts of the upper quantiles, which detected high species similarity when habitats are more similar. In this letter, we demonstrated the power of using quantile regressions applied to spectral distance decay to reveal species diversity patterns otherwise lost or underestimated by OLS regression. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  11. Neutrino mass implications for muon decay parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, Rebecca J.; Kile, Jennifer; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We use the scale of neutrino mass and naturalness considerations to obtain model-independent expectations for the magnitude of possible contributions to muon decay Michel parameters from new physics above the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale. Focusing on Dirac neutrinos, we obtain a complete basis of dimension four and dimension six effective operators that are invariant under the gauge symmetry of the standard model and that contribute to both muon decay and neutrino mass. We show that - in the absence of fine tuning - the most stringent neutrino-mass naturalness bounds on chirality-changing vector operators relevant to muon decay arise from one-loop operatormore » mixing. The bounds we obtain on their contributions to the Michel parameters are 2 orders of magnitude stronger than bounds previously obtained in the literature. In addition, we analyze the implications of one-loop matching considerations and find that the expectations for the size of various scalar and tensor contributions to the Michel parameters are considerably smaller than derived from previous estimates of two-loop operator mixing. We also show, however, that there exist gauge-invariant operators that generate scalar and tensor contributions to muon decay but whose flavor structure allows them to evade neutrino-mass naturalness bounds. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the interpretation of muon-decay experiments.« less

  12. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  13. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of wood substrates is likely relevant to bird species with life histories that require regular interactions with wood for food and shelter. Woodpeckers detect decayed wood for cavity placement or foraging, and some species may be capable of detecting trees decayed by specific fungi; however, a mechanism allowing for such specificity remains unidentified. We hypothesized that decay fungi associated with woodpecker cavity sites alter the substrate reflectance in a species-specific manner that is visually discriminable by woodpeckers. We grew 10 species of wood decay fungi from pure cultures on sterile wood substrates of 3 tree species. We then measured the relative reflectance spectra of decayed and control wood wafers and compared them using the receptor noise-limited (RNL) color discrimination model. The RNL model has been used in studies of feather coloration, egg shells, flowers, and fruit to model how the colors of objects appear to birds. Our analyses indicated 6 of 10 decayed substrate/control comparisons were above the threshold of discrimination (i.e., indicating differences discriminable by avian viewers), and 12 of 13 decayed substrate comparisons were also above threshold for a hypothetical woodpecker. We conclude that woodpeckers should be capable of visually detecting decayed wood on trees where bark is absent, and they should also be able to detect visually species-specific differences in wood substrates decayed by fungi used in this study. Our results provide evidence for a visual mechanism by which woodpeckers could identify and select substrates decayed by specific fungi, which has implications for understanding ecologically important woodpecker–fungus interactions.

  14. Exploring CP violation with Bc decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Robert; Wyler, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    We point out that the pure ``tree'' decays B+/-c-->D+/-sD are particularly well suited to extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle γ through amplitude relations. In contrast with conceptually similar strategies using B+/--->K+/-D or Bd-->K*0D decays, the advantage of the Bc approach is that the corresponding triangles have three sides of comparable length and do not involve small amplitudes. Decays of the type B+/-c-->D+/-D, the U-spin counterparts of B+/-c-->D+/-sD, can be added to the analysis, as well as channels, where the D+/-s and D+/- mesons are replaced by higher resonances.

  15. The apparent decay of pulsar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, A.; Astashenok, A.; Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.

    2017-12-01

    Neutron stars are extremely strong cosmic magnets which fields are expected to decay with time. Here we report on the simple test of this process. Adopting a novel approach, we have estimated surface magnetic fields B for 76 radiopulsars (the most numerous subclass of the known isolated neutron stars) which ages t are known independently. Focusing on the accurate evaluation of the precision of both quantities, we determined a significant power-law trend B(t) ∝ t -β with index β = 0.19 - 0.06 + 0.05 at 95% C.L. The effects of the observational selection turn this value into the upper limit for the intrinsic field decay rate. If so, then neutron star crusts are close to the “impurity-free crystals”, which results in a relatively slow magnetic fields decay.

  16. Supersymmetric contributions to weak decay correlation coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Profumo, S.; Ramsey-Musolf, M. J.; Tulin, S.

    2007-04-01

    We study supersymmetric contributions to correlation coefficients that characterize the spectral shape and angular distribution for polarized {mu}- and {beta}-decays. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), one-loop box graphs containing superpartners can give rise to non-(V-Ax(V-A) four-fermion operators in the presence of left-right or flavor mixing between sfermions. We analyze the present phenomenological constraints on such mixing and determine the range of allowed contributions to the weak decay correlation coefficients. We discuss the prospective implications for future {mu}- and {beta}-decay experiments, and argue that they may provide unique probes of left-right mixing in the first generation scalar fermion sector.

  17. The fully differential top decay distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Boudreau, J.; Escobar, C.

    We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → ℓνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons – those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and –1/2, respectively – could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex.

  18. The fully differential top decay distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Boudreau, J.; Escobar, C.; ...

    2017-03-29

    We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → ℓνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons – those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and –1/2, respectively – could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex.

  19. Decay modes of the excited pseudoscalar glueball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraim, Walaa I.; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We study three different chiral Lagrangians that describe the two- and three-body decays of an excited pseudoscalar glueball, JP C=0*-+ , into light mesons and charmonium states as well as into a scalar and pseudoscalar glueball. We compute the decay channels for an excited pseudoscalar glueball with a mass of 3.7 GeV and consider a ground-state pseudoscalar glueball of mass 2.6 GeV, following predictions from lattice QCD simulations. These states and channels are in reach of the ongoing BESIII experiment and the PANDA experiments at the upcoming FAIR facility experiment. We present the resulting decay branching ratios with a parameter-free prediction.

  20. Search for B+ ->KSKSh+ decays at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Vipin; Belle Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present updated measurements of charmless decays of charged B mesons to the three-body final states of KSKSK+ and KSKSπ+ , based on a data sample containing 770 ×106 B B events. The data were recorded with the Belle detector operating near the ϒ(4 S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The B+ ->KSKSK+ and B+ ->KSKSπ+ decays proceed via the b -> s and b -> d flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) transitions, respectively, providing a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model (SM). We report the results on the branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries for both the decay channels. Supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science.

  1. Measurement of the Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Rosaria; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    We propose an experiment for investigating how objects cool down toward the thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. We describe the time dependence of the temperature difference of the cooling objects and the environment with an exponential decay function. By measuring the thermal constant t, we determine the convective heat-transfer…

  2. Decay of helical and nonhelical magnetic knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelaresi, Simon; Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-07-01

    We present calculations of the relaxation of magnetic field structures that have the shape of particular knots and links. A set of helical magnetic flux configurations is considered, which we call n-foil knots of which the trefoil knot is the most primitive member. We also consider two nonhelical knots; namely, the Borromean rings as well as a single interlocked flux rope that also serves as the logo of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. The field decay characteristics of both configurations is investigated and compared with previous calculations of helical and nonhelical triple-ring configurations. Unlike earlier nonhelical configurations, the present ones cannot trivially be reduced via flux annihilation to a single ring. For the n-foil knots the decay is described by power laws that range form t-2/3 to t-1/3, which can be as slow as the t-1/3 behavior for helical triple-ring structures that were seen in earlier work. The two nonhelical configurations decay like t-1, which is somewhat slower than the previously obtained t-3/2 behavior in the decay of interlocked rings with zero magnetic helicity. We attribute the difference to the creation of local structures that contain magnetic helicity which inhibits the field decay due to the existence of a lower bound imposed by the realizability condition. We show that net magnetic helicity can be produced resistively as a result of a slight imbalance between mutually canceling helical pieces as they are being driven apart. We speculate that higher order topological invariants beyond magnetic helicity may also be responsible for slowing down the decay of the two more complicated nonhelical structures mentioned above.

  3. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  4. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, Lisa A., E-mail: poyneer1@llnl.gov; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall

    2016-05-15

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experimentmore » at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.« less

  5. Dynamic motion modes of high temperature superconducting maglev on a 45-m long ring test line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, W. Y.; Qian, N.; Zheng, J.; Jin, L. W.; Zhang, Y.; Deng, Z. G.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev, studies on the running stability have become more and more significant to ensure the operation safety. An experimental HTS maglev vehicle was tested on a 45-m long ring test line under the speed from 4 km/h to 20 km/h. The lateral and vertical acceleration signals of each cryostat were collected by tri-axis accelerometers in real time. By analyzing the phase relationship of acceleration signals on the four cryostats, several typical motion modes of the HTS maglev vehicle, including lateral, yaw, pitch and heave motions were observed. This experimental finding is important for the next improvement of the HTS maglev system.

  6. Loss of the SHOX gene associated with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis in a 45,X male

    PubMed Central

    Stuppia, L; Calabrese, G; Borrelli, P; Gatta, V; Morizio, E; Mingarelli, R; Di, G; Crino, A; Giannotti, A; Rappold, G; Palka, G

    1999-01-01

    A male patient is reported with a 45,X karyotype and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD). FISH analysis with SHOX and SRY gene probes was carried out. One copy of both SHOX and SRY was detected in interphase nuclei, clarifying the origin of LWD and the male phenotype. Molecular results suggested that the 45,X karyotype arose through two independent events. The first occurred at paternal meiosis leading to an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the X and Y chromosomes. As a consequence, the SRY gene was translocated onto Xp, thereby explaining the male phenotype of the patient. The second event probably occurred at maternal meiosis or at the early stages of the zygote resulting in the loss of the maternal X chromosome.


Keywords: 45,X karyotype; Leri-Weill syndrome; SHOX gene PMID:10507731

  7. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    DOE PAGES

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall; ...

    2016-05-20

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experimentmore » at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Lastly, direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.« less

  8. Brane decay and an initial spacelike singularity.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shinsuke; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Leigh, Robert G; Nowling, Sean

    2006-01-27

    We present a novel string theory scenario where matter in a spacetime originates from a decaying brane at the origin of time. The decay could be considered as a big-bang-like event at X0=0. The closed string interpretation is a time-dependent spacetime with a semi-infinite time direction, with the initial energy of the brane converted into energy flux from the origin. The open string interpretation can be viewed as a string theoretic nonsingular initial condition.

  9. Laser-induced caesium-137 decay

    SciTech Connect

    Barmina, E V; Simakin, A V; Shafeev, G A

    2014-08-31

    Experimental data are presented on the laser-induced beta decay of caesium-137. We demonstrate that the exposure of a gold target to a copper vapour laser beam (wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm, pulse duration of 15 ns) for 2 h in an aqueous solution of a caesium-137 salt reduces the caesium-137 activity by 70%, as assessed from the gamma activity of the daughter nucleus {sup 137m}Ba, and discuss potential applications of laser-induced caesium-137 decay in radioactive waste disposal. (letters)

  10. Proton decay and light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helo, Juan C.; Hirsch, Martin; Ota, Toshihiko

    2018-06-01

    Within the standard model, non-renormalizable operators at dimension six ( d = 6) violate baryon and lepton number by one unit and thus lead to proton decay. Here, we point out that the proton decay mode with a charged pion and missing energy can be a characteristic signature of d = 6 operators containing a light sterile neutrino, if it is not accompanied by the standard π0 e + final state. We discuss this effect first at the level of effective operators and then provide a concrete model with new physics at the TeV scale, in which the lightness of the active neutrinos and the stability of the proton are related.

  11. Re-ionization and decaying dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Jubas, Jay M.

    1991-01-01

    Gunn-Peterson tests suggest that the Universe was reionized after the standard recombination epoch. A systematic treatment is presented of the ionization process by deriving the Boltzmann equations appropriate to this regime. A compact solution for the photon spectrum is found in terms of the ionization ratio. These equations are then solved numerically for the Decaying Dark Matter scenario, wherein neutrinos with mass of order 30 eV radiatively decay producing photons which ionize the intergalactic medium. It was found that the neutrino mass and lifetime are severely constrained by Gunn-Peterson tests, observations of the diffuse photon spectrum in the ultraviolet regime, and the Hubble parameter.

  12. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskiy, Igor; O'Sullivan, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    We review current experimental efforts to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ). A description of the selected leading experiments is given and the strongest recent results are compared in terms of achieved background indexes (BI) and limits on effective Majorana mass. A combined limit is also shown. The second part of the review covers next generation experiments, highlighting the challenges and new technologies that may be necessary to achieve a justifiable discovery potential. A potential synergy with direct dark matter searches, which could be an especially prudent strategy in case the axial vector coupling constant is quenched in 0νββ decay, is emphasized.

  13. Helicity and nuclear β decay correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ran; Sternberg, Matthew G.; Garcia, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    We present simple derivations of nuclear β-decay correlations with an emphasis on the special role of helicity. This topic provides a good opportunity to teach students about helicity and chirality in particle physics with exercises that use simple aspects of quantum mechanics. In addition, this paper serves as an introduction to nuclear β-decay correlations from both a theoretical and experimental perspective. This article can be used to introduce students to ongoing experiments searching for hints of new physics in the low-energy precision frontier.

  14. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  15. Dual source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  16. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  17. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Suresh C.

    1994-03-01

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building's energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  18. Exploring Exponential Decay Using Limited Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred; Gordon, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Science students need exposure to activities that will help them to become familiar with phenomena exhibiting exponential decay. This paper describes an experiment that allows students to determine the rate of thermal energy loss by a hot object to its surroundings. It requires limited equipment, is safe, and gives reasonable results. Students…

  19. Simplifying the Mathematical Treatment of Radioactive Decay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Derivation of the law of radioactive decay is considered without prior knowledge of calculus or the exponential series. Calculus notation and exponential functions are used because ultimately they cannot be avoided, but they are introduced in a simple way and explained as needed. (Contains 10 figures, 1 box, and 1 table.)

  20. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay inmore » new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.« less

  1. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: audrey.todhunter@tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  2. Decaying fermionic dark matter search with CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Motz, H.; Torii, S.; Asaoka, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The ISS-based CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) detector can play an important role in indirect search for Dark Matter (DM), measuring the electron+positron flux in the TeV region for the first time directly. With its fine energy resolution of approximately 2% and good proton rejection ratio (1:105) it has the potential to search for fine structures in the Cosmic Ray (CR) electron spectrum. In this context we discuss the ability of CALET to discern between signals originating from astrophysical sources and DM decay. We fit a parametrization of the local interstellar electron and positron spectra to current measurements, with either a pulsar or 3-body decay of fermionic DM as the extra source causing the positron excess. The expected CALET data for scenarios in which DM decay explains the excess are calculated and analyzed. The signal from this particular 3-body DM decay which can explain the recent measurements from the AMS-02 experiment is shown to be distinguishable from a single pulsar source causing the positron excess by 5 years of observation with CALET, based on the shape of the spectrum. We also study the constraints from diffuse γ-ray data on this DM-only explanation of the positron excess and show that especially for the possibly remaining parameter space a clearly identifiable signature in the CR electron spectrum exists.

  3. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2008-01-01

    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  4. Hints on storing timber to prevent decay

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1919-01-01

    Many serious losses from decay in wooden structures are due to the fact that the timbers used were infected with wood-destroying fungi while in storage. These losses can be greatly reduced by keeping lumber storage yards in a sanitary condition. Some hints as to how to do this are given below.

  5. Evidence against Decay in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which…

  6. Exotic decays of heavy B quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David

    2016-01-08

    Heavy vector-like quarks of charge –1/3, B, have been searched for at the LHC through the decays B → bZ, bh, tW. In models where the B quark also carries charge under a new gauge group, new decay channels may dominate. We focus on the case where the B is charged under a U(1)' and describe simple models where the dominant decay mode is B → bZ' → b(bb¯¯). With the inclusion of dark matter such models can explain the excess of gamma rays from the Galactic center. We develop a search strategy for this decay chain and estimate thatmore » with integrated luminosity of 300 fb –1 the LHC will have the potential to discover both the B and the Z' for B quarks with mass below ~ 1.6 TeV, for a broad range of Z' masses. Furthermore, a high-luminosity run can extend this reach to 2 TeV.« less

  7. Decays of excited baryons in DTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żenczykowski, P.

    1981-03-01

    Properties of the decays of excited strange baryons into ground state baryon and pseudoscalar meson are examined in the framework of the linear baryonic string model. The agreement between the predictions and the data is good. The single model's parameter ɛ, the deviation of which from 1 measures SU (3) breaking, is found to decrease with increasing internal orbital angular momentum of a baryon.

  8. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    SciTech Connect

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  9. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  10. Z Boson Decay into Light and Darkness.

    PubMed

    Fabbrichesi, M; Gabrielli, E; Mele, B

    2018-04-27

    We study the Z→γγ[over ¯] process in which the Z boson decays into a photon γ and a massless dark photon γ[over ¯], when the latter couples to standard-model fermions via dipole moments. This is a simple yet nontrivial example of how the Landau-Yang theorem-ruling out the decay of a massive spin-1 particle into two photons-is evaded if the final particles can be distinguished. The striking signature of this process is a resonant monochromatic single photon in the Z-boson center of mass together with missing momentum. LEP experimental bounds allow a branching ratio up to about 10^{-6} for such a decay. In a simplified model of the dark sector, the dark-photon dipole moments arise from one-loop exchange of heavy dark fermions and scalar messengers. The corresponding prediction for the rare Z→γγ[over ¯] decay width can be explored with the large samples of Z bosons foreseen at future colliders.

  11. Z Boson Decay into Light and Darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrichesi, M.; Gabrielli, E.; Mele, B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the Z →γ γ ¯ process in which the Z boson decays into a photon γ and a massless dark photon γ ¯, when the latter couples to standard-model fermions via dipole moments. This is a simple yet nontrivial example of how the Landau-Yang theorem—ruling out the decay of a massive spin-1 particle into two photons—is evaded if the final particles can be distinguished. The striking signature of this process is a resonant monochromatic single photon in the Z -boson center of mass together with missing momentum. LEP experimental bounds allow a branching ratio up to about 10-6 for such a decay. In a simplified model of the dark sector, the dark-photon dipole moments arise from one-loop exchange of heavy dark fermions and scalar messengers. The corresponding prediction for the rare Z →γ γ ¯ decay width can be explored with the large samples of Z bosons foreseen at future colliders.

  12. Resistance to Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. Infected soybean seeds can be symptomless, but...

  13. Evidence against decay in verbal working memory.

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    The article tests the assumption that forgetting in working memory for verbal materials is caused by time-based decay, using the complex-span paradigm. Participants encoded 6 letters for serial recall; each letter was preceded and followed by a processing period comprising 4 trials of difficult visual search. Processing duration, during which memory could decay, was manipulated via search set size. This manipulation increased retention interval by up to 100% without having any effect on recall accuracy. This result held with and without articulatory suppression. Two experiments using a dual-task paradigm showed that the visual search process required central attention. Thus, even when memory maintenance by central attention and by articulatory rehearsal was prevented, a large delay had no effect on memory performance, contrary to the decay notion. Most previous experiments that manipulated the retention interval and the opportunity for maintenance processes in complex span have confounded these variables with time pressure during processing periods. Three further experiments identified time pressure as the variable that affected recall. We conclude that time-based decay does not contribute to the capacity limit of verbal working memory. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic field decay in black widow pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Camile; de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Horvath, J. E.; Souza, Rodrigo A. de; Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    We study in this work the evolution of the magnetic field in `redback-black widow' pulsars. Evolutionary calculations of these `spider' systems suggest that first the accretion operates in the redback stage, and later the companion star ablates matter due to winds from the recycled pulsar. It is generally believed that mass accretion by the pulsar results in a rapid decay of the magnetic field when compared to the rate of an isolated neutron star. We study the evolution of the magnetic field in black widow pulsars by solving numerically the induction equation using the modified Crank-Nicolson method with intermittent episodes of mass accretion on to the neutron star. Our results show that the magnetic field does not fall below a minimum value (`bottom field') in spite of the long evolution time of the black widow systems, extending the previous conclusions for much younger low-mass X-ray binary systems. We find that in this scenario, the magnetic field decay is dominated by the accretion rate, and that the existence of a bottom field is likely related to the fact that the surface temperature of the pulsar does not decay as predicted by the current cooling models. We also observe that the impurity of the pulsar crust is not a dominant factor in the decay of magnetic field for the long evolution time of black widow systems.

  15. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  16. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  17. Discovering uncolored naturalness in exotic Higgs decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-12-01

    Solutions to the hierarchy problem usually require top partners. In standard SUSY or composite Higgs theories, the partners carry SM color and are becoming increasingly constrained by LHC searches. However, theories like Folded SUSY (FS), Twin Higgs (TH) and Quirky Little Higgs (QLH) introduce uncolored top partners, which can be SM singlets or carry electroweak charge. Their small production cross section left doubt as to whether the LHC can effectively probe such scenarios. Typically, these partners are charged under their own mirror color gauge group. In FS and QLH, the absence of light mirror matter allows glueballs to form at the bottom of the mirror spectrum. This is also the case in some TH realizations. The Higgs can decay to these mirror glueballs, with the glueballs decaying into SM particles with potentially observable lifetimes. We undertake the first detailed study of this glueball signature and quantitatively demonstrate the discovery potential of uncolored naturalness via exotic Higgs decays at the LHC and a potential future 100TeV collider. Our findings indicate that mirror glueballs are the smoking gun signature of natural FS and QLH type theories, in analogy to tree-level Higgs coupling shifts for the TH. We show that glueball masses in the ˜ 10-60 GeV mass range are theoretically preferred. Careful treatment of lifetime, mirror-hadronization and non-perturbative uncertainties is required to perform meaningful collider studies. We outline several new search strategies for exotic Higgs decays of the form h → XX → 4 f at the LHC, with X having lifetimes in the 10 μm to km range. We find that FS stops can be probed with masses up to 600 (1100) GeV at the LHC with 300 (3000) fb-1 of data, and TH top partners could be accessible with masses up to 900 (1500) GeV. This makes exotic Higgs decays the prime discovery channel for uncolored naturalness at the LHC.

  18. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1988-01-01

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  19. β decay studies of n-rich Cs isotopes with the ISOLDE Decay Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lică, R.; Benzoni, G.; Morales, A. I.; Borge, M. J. G.; Fraile, L. M.; Mach, H.; Madurga, M.; Sotty, C.; Vedia, V.; De Witte, H.; Benito, J.; Berry, T.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Ceruti, S.; Charviakova, V.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Costache, C.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Creswell, J.; Fernández-Martínez, G.; Fynbo, H.; Greenlees, P.; Homm, I.; Huyse, M.; Jolie, J.; Karayonchev, V.; Köster, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Lazarus, I.; Leoni, S.; Lund, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mihai, R.; Negret, A.; Orduz, A.; Patyk, Z.; Pascu, S.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Regis, J. M.; Rotaru, F.; Saed-Sami, N.; Sánchez-Tembleque, V.; Stanoiu, M.; Tengblad, O.; Thuerauf, M.; Turturica, A.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron-rich Ba isotopes are expected to exhibit octupolar correlations, reaching their maximum in isotopes around mass A = 146. The odd-A neutron-rich members of this isotopic chain show typical patterns related to non-axially symmetric shapes, which are however less marked compared to even-A ones, pointing to a major contribution from vibrations. In the present paper we present results from a recent study focused on 148-150Cs β-decay performed at the ISOLDE Decay Station equipped with fast-timing detectors. A detailed analysis of the measured decay half-lives and decay scheme of 149Ba is presented, giving a first insight in the structure of this neutron-rich nucleus.

  20. Life stages of wall-bounded decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Spandan, Vamsi; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    The decay of Taylor-Couette turbulence, i.e., the flow between two coaxial and independently rotating cylinders, is numerically studied by instantaneously stopping the forcing from an initially statistically stationary flow field at a Reynolds number of Re=3.5 ×104 . The effect of wall friction is analyzed by comparing three separate cases, in which the cylinders are either suddenly made no-slip or stress-free. Different life stages are observed during the decay. In the first stage, the decay is dominated by large-scale rolls. Counterintuitively, when these rolls fade away, if the flow inertia is small a redistribution of energy occurs and the energy of the azimuthal velocity behaves nonmonotonically, first decreasing by almost two orders of magnitude and then increasing during the redistribution. The second stage is dominated by non-normal transient growth of perturbations in the axial (spanwise) direction. Once this mechanism is exhausted, the flow enters the final life stage, viscous decay, which is dominated by wall friction. We show that this stage can be modeled by a one-dimensional heat equation, and that self-similar velocity profiles collapse onto the theoretical solution.

  1. Quasi-Periodic Pulsations During the Impulsive and Decay Phases of an X-Class Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of 20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of 55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from 40 s up to 70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  2. Atmospheric influences on the anomalous 2016 Antarctic sea ice decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth; Haumann, F. Alexander; Raphael, Marilyn N.

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to the Arctic, where total sea ice extent (SIE) has been decreasing for the last three decades, Antarctic SIE has shown a small, but significant, increase during the same time period. However, in 2016, an unusually early onset of the melt season was observed; the maximum Antarctic SIE was already reached as early as August rather than the end of September, and was followed by a rapid decrease. The decay was particularly strong in November, when Antarctic SIE exhibited a negative anomaly (compared to the 1979-2015 average) of approximately 2 million km2. ECMWF Interim reanalysis data showed that the early onset of the melt and the rapid decrease in sea ice area (SIA) and SIE were associated with atmospheric flow patterns related to a positive zonal wave number three (ZW3) index, i.e., synoptic situations leading to strong meridional flow and anomalously strong southward heat advection in the regions of strongest sea ice decline. A persistently positive ZW3 index from May to August suggests that SIE decrease was preconditioned by SIA decrease. In particular, in the first third of November northerly flow conditions in the Weddell Sea and the Western Pacific triggered accelerated sea ice decay, which was continued in the following weeks due to positive feedback effects, leading to the unusually low November SIE. In 2016, the monthly mean Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index reached its second lowest November value since the beginning of the satellite observations. A better spatial and temporal coverage of reliable ice thickness data is needed to assess the change in ice mass rather than ice area.

  3. Thermophoretically induced large-scale deformations around microscopic heat centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puljiz, Mate; Orlishausen, Michael; Köhler, Werner; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2016-05-01

    Selectively heating a microscopic colloidal particle embedded in a soft elastic matrix is a situation of high practical relevance. For instance, during hyperthermic cancer treatment, cell tissue surrounding heated magnetic colloidal particles is destroyed. Experiments on soft elastic polymeric matrices suggest a very long-ranged, non-decaying radial component of the thermophoretically induced displacement fields around the microscopic heat centers. We theoretically confirm this conjecture using a macroscopic hydrodynamic two-fluid description. Both thermophoretic and elastic effects are included in this theory. Indeed, we find that the elasticity of the environment can cause the experimentally observed large-scale radial displacements in the embedding matrix. Additional experiments confirm the central role of elasticity. Finally, a linearly decaying radial component of the displacement field in the experiments is attributed to the finite size of the experimental sample. Similar results are obtained from our theoretical analysis under modified boundary conditions.

  4. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  5. A fiber-compatible spectrally encoded imaging system using a 45° tilted fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqing; Wang, Chao; Yan, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate, for the first time to our best knowledge, the use of a 45° tilted fiber grating (TFG) as an infiber lateral diffraction element in an efficient and fiber-compatible spectrally encoded imaging (SEI) system. Under proper polarization control, the TFG has significantly enhanced diffraction efficiency (93.5%) due to strong tilted reflection. Our conceptually new fiber-topics-based design eliminates the need for bulky and lossy free-space diffraction gratings, significantly reduces the volume and cost of the imaging system, improves energy efficiency, and increases system stability. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we use the proposed system to perform an one dimensional (1D) line scan imaging of a customer-designed three-slot sample and the results show that the constructed image matches well with the actual sample. The angular dispersion of the 45° TFG is measured to be 0.054°/nm and the lateral resolution of the SEI system is measured to be 28 μm in our experiment.

  6. Changes of Cytokines during a Spaceflight Analog - a 45-Day Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shusong; Pang, Xuewen; Liu, Hongju; Li, Li; Sun, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hounan; Chen, Xiaoping; Ge, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is associated with deregulation in the immune system. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) at -6° is believed to be the most practical model for examining multi-system responses to microgravity in humans during spaceflight. In the present study, a 45-day HDBR was performed to investigate the alterations in human immune cell distributions and their functions in response to various stimuli. The effect of countermeasure, Rhodiola rosea (RR) treatment, was also examined. A significant decrease of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) productions by activated T cells, increase of IL-1β and IL-18 by activated B and myeloid cells were observed during HDBR. The upregulation of serum cortisol was correlated with the changes of IL-1 family cytokines. In addition, a significant increase of memory T and B cell and regulatory T cells (Treg) were also detected. The uptake of RR further decreased IFN-γ level and slowed down the upregulation of IL-1 family cytokines. These data suggest that for prolonged HDBR and spaceflight, the decreased protective T cell immunity and enhanced proinflammatory cytokines should be closely monitored. The treatment with RR may play an important role in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines but not in boosting protective T cell immunity. PMID:24143230

  7. Changes in the Diurnal Rhythms during a 45-Day Head-Down Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaodi; Zhang, Lin; Wan, Yufeng; Yu, Xinyang; Guo, Yiming; Chen, Xiaoping; Tan, Cheng; Huang, Tianle; Shen, Hanjie; Chen, Xianyun; Li, Hongying; Lv, Ke; Sun, Fei; Chen, Shanguang; Guo, Jinhu

    2012-01-01

    In spaceflight human circadian rhythms and sleep patterns are likely subject to change, which consequently disturbs human physiology, cognitive abilities and performance efficiency. However, the influence of microgravity on sleep and circadian clock as well as the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Placing volunteers in a prone position, whereby their heads rest at an angle of −6° below horizontal, mimics the microgravity environment in orbital flight. Such positioning is termed head-down bed rest (HDBR). In this work, we analysed the influence of a 45-day HDBR on physiological diurnal rhythms. We examined urinary electrolyte and hormone excretion, and the results show a dramatic elevation of cortisol levels during HDBR and recovery. Increased diuresis, melatonin and testosterone were observed at certain periods during HDBR. In addition, we investigated the changes in urination and defecation frequencies and found that the rhythmicity of urinary frequency during lights-off during and after HDBR was higher than control. The grouped defecation frequency data exhibits rhythmicity before and during HDBR but not after HDBR. Together, these data demonstrate that HDBR can alter a number of physiological processes associated with diurnal rhythms. PMID:23110150

  8. Diffusion in the Muscovite 40K Decay System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    The considerable potential of muscovite for thermochronological applications is beginning to be fully exploited following the belated publication of Ar kinetic data. Muscovite’s high potassium content, low solubility for excess 40Ar*, and ubiquitous presence in regionally metamorphosed terranes make it an important phase for 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometry, particularly in light of recognition that both age spectra and vacuum-step-heating-derived 39Ar Arrhenius plots reflect Ar release via the same volume diffusion mechanism. Thus instead of assuming a nominal closure temperature to estimate a single T-t datum, continuous and accurate thermal histories can be inferred in a similar fashion to that well-documented for K-feldspar using the multi-diffusion domain (MDD) model. The Arrhenius parameters for Ar diffusion in muscovite (E=64 kcal/mol, Do=4 cm2/s) correspond to an effective intragrain closure temperature range of ~500 to 300oC for ca. 100 μm grains cooling at ~10oC/Ma at 5 kbar. However, even greater exploitation of the 40K decay system remains possible as only one of every ten 40K atoms decay to 40Ar. The other 90% decay to 40Ca giving the 40K-40Ca branch, in principle, greater sensitivity for dating high K/Ca minerals such as muscovite. The advent of the ‘double-plus’ SIMS 40K++-40Ca++ dating method, which permits analysis of Ca isotopes at an MRP of ~4k rather than the ~25k required for full separation of 40K+ from 40Ca+, opens up the prospect of directly revealing 40K-40Ca closure profiles in muscovite (as opposed to their indirect inference from inversion of 40Ar/39Ar data through the MDD model) at a gain of enhanced precision and accuracy in thermal history reconstruction. We have used SIMS to observe K-Ca age variations in natural muscovites pressed into In. Translating this data into thermal history information, however, requires knowledge of the Arrhenius parameters for Ca tracer diffusion in muscovite. We are undertaking hydrothermal piston

  9. The theory of ionospheric focused heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Duncan, L. M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionospheric modification by high power radio waves and by chemical releases are combined in a theoretical study of ionospheric focused heating. The release of materials which promote electron-ion recombination creates a hole in the bottomside ionosphere. The ionospheric hole focuses high power radio waves from a ground-based transmitter to give a 20 dB or greater enhancement in power density. The intense radio beam excites atomic oxygen by collisions with accelerated electrons. Airglow from the excited oxygen provides a visible trace of the focused beam. The large increase in the intensity of the radio beam stimulates new wave-plasma interactions. Numerical simulations show that the threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability is exceeded. The interaction of the pump electromagnetic wave with the backward plasmon produces a scattered electromagnetic wave at 3/2 the pump frequency. The scattered wave provides a unique signature of the two-plasmon decay process for ground-based detection.

  10. Heated tool for autoclaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Vanucci, R. D.; Cavano, P. J.; Winters, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Components made of composite materials are heated in autoclaves by employing electrical resistance heating blankets, thus avoiding need to heat entire autoclave volume. Method provides not only significant energy savings compared to heating entire pressure vessel but offers time savings in accelerated heat-up and cool-down cycles.

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  12. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  13. Energy Corner: Heat Reclamation Rescues Wasted Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Heat reclamation systems added to pre-existing central heating systems provide maximum savings at minimum cost. The benefits of a particular appliance marketed under the brand name "Energizer" are discussed. (Author/MLF)

  14. Decay associated with borer wounds in living oaks

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Wood-borer wounds serve as entry courts for decay fungi in oak species in the central hardwood region. Thirteen species of fungi were isolated from decayed areas surrounding borer galleries. Polyporus compactus was the most frequently isolated fungus, accounting for about 1/3 of the total decay volume caused by identified fungi.

  15. Reversible Energy Transfer and Fluorescence Decay in Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shealy, David L.; Hoover, Richard B.; Gabardi, David R.

    1988-07-01

    The article deals with the influence of reversible excitation energy transfer on the fluorescence decay in systems with random distribution of molecules. On the basis of a hopping model, we have obtained an expression for the Laplace transform of the decay function and an expression for the average decay time. The case of dipole-dipole interaction is discussed in detail.

  16. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  17. Detection of active decay at groundline in utility poles

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo; Walter C. Shortle; Julian Ochrymowych

    1977-01-01

    Active wood decay at groundline in in-service utility poles can be detected by a skilled inspector using: 1. A knowledge of basic patterns of decay. 2. Recognition of obvious signs of decay. 3. Proper interpretation of information obtained from a pulsed-current meter-Shigometer®-used with various probes and probing techniques.

  18. On the exotic Higgs decays in effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Bélusca-Maïto, Hermès; Falkowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We discuss exotic Higgs decays in an effective field theory where the Standard Model is extended by dimension-6 operators. We review and update the status of two-body lepton- and quark-flavor-violating decays involving the Higgs boson. We also comment on the possibility of observing three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays in this context.

  19. Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; D. V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow

    We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  1. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  2. Hadronic charmless B decays at the SLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinertsen, Per Lasse

    Rare decays of beauty particles were studied in several two-body exclusive hadronic charmless modes using the 19.4 pb -1 Z-pole data collected with the SLD detector at SLAC from 1993 to 1998. These decays are mediated by both tree level b-->u and one-loop penguin b-->s,d transitions. Upper limits for the branching ratios are set for the investigated modes Bs, B0-->P+P- , B+-->VP+ and Bs, B0-->VV , where the pseudoscalar particle P+ is either p+ or K+ and the vector particle V is either r0,K*0 or f . Using an event selection algorithm consisting of a set of hard cuts combined with a set of discriminator functions, the efficiencies range between 24%, and 37% with near zero background.

  3. Evidence for the decay sigma+ --> pmu+ mu-.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Burnstein, R A; Chakravorty, A; Chen, Y C; Choong, W S; Clark, K; Dukes, E C; Durandet, C; Felix, J; Fu, Y; Gidal, G; Gustafson, H R; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; James, C; Jenkins, C M; Jones, T; Kaplan, D M; Lederman, L M; Leros, N; Longo, M J; Lopez, F; Lu, L C; Luebke, W; Luk, K B; Nelson, K S; Perroud, J-P; Rajaram, D; Rubin, H A; Volk, J; White, C G; White, S L; Zyla, P

    2005-01-21

    We report the first evidence for the decay Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) from data taken by the HyperCP (E871) experiment at Fermilab. Based on three observed events, the branching ratio is B(Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-))=[8.6(+6.6)(-5.4)(stat)+/-5.5(syst)]x10(-8). The narrow range of dimuon masses may indicate that the decay proceeds via a neutral intermediate state, Sigma(+)-->pP(0),P0-->mu(+)mu(-) with a P0 mass of 214.3+/-0.5 MeV/c(2) and branching ratio B(Sigma(+)-->pP(0),P0-->mu(+)mu(-))=[3.1(+2.4)(-1.9)(stat)+/-1.5(syst)]x10(-8).

  4. Radiative B decays with four generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Joanne L.

    1987-07-01

    We study the decay b-->sγ in the four-generation model including the effects of QCD corrections. We find the fourth-generation contributions to be quite significant, extending the range of allowed branching ratios, BR(b-->sγ), to lie both above and below the three-generation standard model value. The existence of a fourth family of quarks would make a prediction for the top-quark mass difficult to obtain from this process. The author would like to thank T. Rizzo and J. Trampetic for discussions on QCD corrections, G. Eilam for introducing the author to the subject of rare B decays, and the Center for Particle Theory for its hospitality while this work was completed.

  5. Seeking heavy Higgs bosons through cascade decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Fuks, Benjamin; Poulose, P.; Sahoo, Shibananda

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the LHC discovery prospects for a heavy Higgs boson decaying into the standard model Higgs boson and additional weak bosons. We consider a generic model-independent new physics configuration where this decay proceeds via a cascade involving other intermediate scalar bosons and focus on an LHC final-state signature comprised either of four b -jets and two charged leptons or of four charged leptons and two b -jets. We design two analyses of the corresponding signals, and demonstrate that a 5 σ discovery at the 14 TeV LHC is possible for various combinations of the parent and daughter Higgs-boson masses. We moreover find that the standard model backgrounds can be sufficiently rejected to guarantee the reconstruction of the parent Higgs boson mass. We apply our analyses to the Type-II two-Higgs-doublet model and identify the regions of the parameter space to which the LHC is sensitive.

  6. First Observation of a Baryonic Bc+ Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; LHCb Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    A baryonic decay of the Bc+ meson, Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+, is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the Bc+→J/ψπ+ decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+)/B(Bc+→J/ψπ+)=0.143-0.034+0.039(stat)±0.013(syst). The mass of the Bc+ meson is determined as M(Bc+)=6274.0±1.8(stat)±0.4(syst) MeV/c2, using the Bc+→J/ψpp ¯π+ channel.

  7. Nondestructive detection of decay in living trees

    Treesearch

    Bertil Larsson; Bengt Bengtsson; Mats Gustaffson

    2004-01-01

    We used a four-point resistivity method to detect wood decay in living trees. low-frequency alternating current was applied to the stem and the induced voltage measured between two points along the stem. The effective resistivity of the stem was estimated based on stem cross-sectional area. A comparison within a group of trees showed that trees with butt rot had an...

  8. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  9. Double beta decay: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2011-12-16

    After a brief introduction on the main features of Double Beta Decay (DBD) and on its origin, its importance is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations. The present experimental situation is reported with special reference to direct experiments and to the comparison of their results with theory. The expectations of the future experiments aiming to reach the sensitivity indicated by neutrino oscillations in the inverse hierarchy hypothesis are discussed.

  10. Slepton discovery in electroweak cascade decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Jonathan; Shepherd, William; Su, Shufang

    2012-05-01

    The LHC studies on the MSSM slepton sector have mostly been focused on direct slepton Drell-Yan pair production. In this paper, we analyze the case when the sleptons are lighter than heavy neutralinos and can appear in the on-shell decay of neutralino states. In particular, we have studied the χ_1^{± }χ_2^0 associated production, with the consequent decays of χ_1^{± } → {ν_{ℓ}}ℓ χ_1^0 and χ_2^0 → ℓ ℓ χ_1^0 via on-shell sleptons. The invariant mass of the lepton pairs, m ℓℓ , from the neutralino decay has a distinctive triangle shape with a sharp kinematic cutoff. We discuss the utilization of this triangle shape in m ℓℓ distribution to identify the slepton signal. We studied the trilepton plus missing E T signal and obtained the effective cross section, σ × BR × acceptance, that is needed for a 5 σ discovery as a function of the cutoff mass for the LHC with center of mass energy 14 TeV and 100 fb-1 integrated luminosity. Our results are model independent such that they could be applied to other models with similar decay topology. When applied to the MSSM under simple assumptions, it is found that with 100 fb-1 integrated luminosity, a discovery reach in the left-handed slepton mass of about 600 GeV could be reached, which extends far beyond the slepton mass reach in the usual Drell-Yan studies.

  11. Profit Maximization Models for Exponential Decay Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    assumptions could easily be analyzed in similar fashion. References [1] Bensoussan, A., Hurst , E.G. and Nislund, B., Management Applications of Modern...TVIPe OF r 04PORNT A i M0 CiH O .V9RAE PROFIT MAXIMIZATION .ODELS FOR EXPONENT IAL Technical Report DECAY PROCESSES August 1990 ~~~I. PtA’OR~idNG ONqG

  12. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  13. The changing incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia: a 45-year registry-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Karyanti, Mulya Rahma; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Kusriastuti, Rita; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Rovers, Maroeska M; Heesterbeek, Hans; Hoes, Arno W; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia

    2014-07-26

    Increases in human population size, dengue vector-density and human mobility cause rapid spread of dengue virus in Indonesia. We investigated the changes in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence in Indonesia over a 45-year period and determined age-specific trends in annual DHF incidence. Using an on-going nationwide dengue surveillance program starting in 1968, we evaluated all DHF cases and related deaths longitudinally up to 2013. Population demographics were used to calculate annual incidence and case fatality ratios (CFRs). Age-specific data on DHF available from 1993 onwards were used to assess trends in DHF age-distribution. Time-dependency of DHF incidence and CFRs was assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage trend test. The annual DHF incidence increased from 0.05/100,000 in 1968 to ~ 35-40/100,000 in 2013, with superimposed epidemics demonstrating a similar increasing trend with the highest epidemic occurring in 2010 (85.70/100,000; p < 0.01). The CFR declined from 41% in 1968 to 0.73% in 2013 (p < 0.01). Mean age of DHF cases increased during the observation period. Highest incidence of DHF was observed among children aged 5 to 14 years up to 1998, but declined thereafter (p < 0.01). In those aged 15 years or over, DHF incidence increased (p < 0.01) and surpassed that of 5 to 14 year olds from 1999 onwards. Incidence of DHF over the past 45 years in Indonesia increased rapidly with peak incidence shifting from young children to older age groups. The shifting age pattern should have consequences for targeted surveillance and prevention.

  14. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas

    2017-08-01

    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  15. Phase transitions and baryogenesis from decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuve, Brian; Tamarit, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    We study scenarios in which the baryon asymmetry is generated from the decay of a particle whose mass originates from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This is realized in many models, including low-scale leptogenesis and theories with classical scale invariance. Symmetry breaking in the early universe proceeds through a phase transition that gives the parent particle a time-dependent mass, which provides an additional departure from thermal equilibrium that could modify the efficiency of baryogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. We characterize the effects of various types of phase transitions and show that an enhancement in the baryon asymmetry from decays is possible if the phase transition is of the second order, although such models are typically fine-tuned. We also stress the role of new annihilation modes that deplete the parent particle abundance in models realizing such a phase transition, reducing the efficacy of baryogenesis. A proper treatment of baryogenesis in such models therefore requires the inclusion of the effects we study in this paper.

  16. Rare B Meson Decays With Omega Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; /Colorado U.

    2006-04-24

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are particularly interesting because of their importance in understanding the CP violation, which is essential to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe, and of their roles in testing the ''effective'' theory of B physics. The study has been done with the BABAR experiment, which is mainly designed for the study of CP violation in the decays of neutral B mesons, and secondarily for rare processes that become accessible with the high luminosity of the PEP-II B Factory. In a sample of 89 million produced B{bar B} pairs on the BABAR experiment, we observed themore » decays B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}K{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup +} for the first time, made more precise measurements for B{sup +} {yields} {omega}h{sup +} and reported tighter upper limits for B {yields} {omega}K* and B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{rho}{sup 0}.« less

  17. Nuclide radioactive decay data uncertainties library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabanova, D. S.; Zherdev, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the developing the library of uncertainties of radioactive decay data in the ABBN data library format are described. Different evaluations of uncertainties were compared and their effects on the results of calculations of residual energy release were determined using the test problems and experiment. Tables were generated in the ABBN format with the data obtained on the basis of libraries in ENDF-6 format. 3821 isotopes from the ENDF/B-7 data library, 3852 isotopes from the JEFF-3.11 data library and 1264 isotopes from the JENDL-4.0 data library were processed. It was revealed that the differences in the evaluations accepted in different decay data libraries are not so big, although they sometimes exceed the uncertainties assigned to the data in the ENDF/B-7 and JEFF-3.11 libraries, which as a rule, they agree with each other. On the basis of developed method it is supposed to create a library of data uncertainties for radioactive decay within the constant data system in FSUE RFNC-VNIIEF with its further connection with CRYSTAL module.

  18. Double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Suhonen, Jouni

    2011-12-16

    The two-neutrino (2{nu}2{beta}) and neutrinoless (0{nu}2{beta}) double beta decays of {sup 106}Cd are studied for the transitions to the ground state 0{sub gs}{sup +} and 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} excited states in {sup 106}Pd by using realistic many-body wave functions calculated in the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. Effective, G-matrix-derived nuclear forces are used in realistic single-particle model spaces. All the possible channels, {beta}{sup +}{beta}{sup +}, {beta}{sup +}EC, and ECEC, are discussed for both the 2{nu}2{beta} and 0{nu}2{beta} decays. The associated half-lives are computed and particular attention is devoted to the study of the detectability of the resonantmore » neutrinoless double electron capture (R0{nu}ECEC) process in {sup 106}Cd. The calculations of the present article constitute the thus far most complete and up-to-date investigation of the double-beta-decay properties of {sup 106}Cd.« less

  19. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  20. Soil organic matter dynamics under decaying wood in a subtropical wet forest: effect of tree species and decay stage.

    Treesearch

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; Chien-Lu Ping; Gary Michaelson

    2007-01-01

    Decaying wood is an important structural and functional component of forests: it contributes to generate habitat diversity, acts as either sink or source of nutrients, and plays a preponderant role in soil formation. Thus, decaying wood might likely have measurable effects on chemical properties of the underlying soil.We hypothesized that decaying wood would have a...

  1. Interpreting anomalous electron pairs as new particle decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczynski, Henryk

    1999-08-01

    In heavy particle decays found in cosmic ray interactions recorded in the JACEE emulsion chambers, multiple electron pairs were previously reported. These pairs apparently originated from conversions of photons emitted in the decays. It is difficult to explain the overall properties of these decays in terms of known heavy particle decay modes. A recently published compilation of low-energy nuclear data suggests existence of excess electron pairs with invariant mass about 9 MeV/c2 , which may be explained by postulating a new neutral boson decaying into the electron pair. The feasibility of explaining the JACEE electron pairs with this hypothesis is presented.

  2. Examining the possibility to observe neutron dark decay in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfützner, M.; Riisager, K.

    2018-04-01

    As proposed recently by Fornal and Grinstein, neutrons can undergo a dark matter decay mode which has not yet been observed. Such a decay could explain the existing discrepancy between two different methods of neutron lifetime measurements. If such neutron decay is possible, then it should occur also in nuclei with sufficiently low neutron binding energy. We examine a few nuclear candidates for the dark neutron decay and we consider the possibilities of their experimental identification. In more detail we discuss the case of 11Be which appears as the most promising nucleus for the observation of neutron dark decay.

  3. Weak light emission of soft tissues induced by heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Durando, Giovanni; Boschi, Federico

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to show that soft tissue interaction with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or direct heating leads to a weak light emission detectable using a small animal optical imaging system. Our results show that the luminescence signal is detectable after 30 min of heating, resembling the time scale of delayed luminescence. The imaging of a soft tissue after heating it using an HIFU field shows that the luminescence pattern closely matches the shape of the cone typical of the HIFU beam. We conclude that heating a soft tissue using two different sources leads to the emission of a weak luminescence signal from the heated region with a decay half-life of a few minutes (4 to 6 min). The origin of such light emission needs to be further investigated.

  4. Hot air heat gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Terry L.

    1989-10-01

    The invention relates generally to the art of self-contained heating devices and in particular to portable heating devices employing chemical reaction to produce heat. Currently, hand-held heat sources, capable of producing heat at a sufficiently high temperature to activate heat-shrink material, rely on either the combustion of flammable material or electrical power to provide energy for generating the required heat. An object of the present invention is to provide a portable device capable of providing sufficient heat to shrink heat-shrinkable tubing. A further object of the invention is to provide a non-flammable heat source suitable for use in the presence of explosive atmospheres. Still another object of the invention is to provide a portable hand-held device for generating heat which can be directed to a specific location on a work surface.

  5. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, E.L.; Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    A nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel is described in this disclosure. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  6. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor with metal liner

    DOEpatents

    Gluekler, Emil L.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment including a reactor vessel disposed within a cavity with capability for complete inherent decay heat removal in the earth and surrounded by a cast steel containment member which surrounds the vessel. The member has a thick basemat in contact with metal pilings. The basemat rests on a bed of porous particulate material, into which water is fed to produce steam which is vented to the atmosphere. There is a gap between the reactor vessel and the steel containment member. The containment member holds any sodium or core debris escaping from the reactor vessel if the core melts and breaches the vessel.

  7. Calculated secondary yields for proton broadband using DECAY TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sondgeroth, A.

    1995-02-01

    The calculations for the yields were done by Al Sondgeroth and Anthony Malensek. The authors used the DECAY deck called PBSEC{_}E.DAT from the CMS DECKS library. After obtaining the run modes and calibration modes from the liaison physicist, they made individual decay runs, using DECAY TURTLE from the CMS libraries and a production spectrum subroutine which was modified by Anthony, for each particle and decay mode for all particle types coming out of the target box. Results were weighted according to branching ratios for particles with more than one decay mode. The production spectra were produced assuming beryllium as themore » target. The optional deuterium target available to broadband will produce slightly higher yields. It should be noted that they did not include pion yields from klong decays because they could not simulate three body decays. Pions from klongs would add a very small fraction to the total yield.« less

  8. Thermal effects and sudden decay approximation in the curvaton scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, Naoya; Takesako, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2014-10-01

    We study the impact of a temperature-dependent curvaton decay rate on the primordial curvature perturbation generated in the curvaton scenario. Using the familiar sudden decay approximation, we obtain an analytical expression for the curvature perturbation after the decay of the curvaton. We then investigate numerically the evolution of the background and of the perturbations during the decay. We first show that the instantaneous transfer coefficient, related to the curvaton energy fraction at the decay, can be extended into a more general parameter, which depends on the net transfer of the curvaton energy into radiation energy or, equivalently, on the totalmore » entropy ratio after the complete curvaton decay. We then compute the curvature perturbation and compare this result with the sudden decay approximation prediction.« less

  9. Ground Motion Synthetics For Spontaneous Versus Prescribed Rupture On A 45(o) Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschämmer, E.; Olsen, K. B.

    We have compared prescribed (kinematic) and spontaneous dynamic rupture propaga- tion on a 45(o) dipping thrust fault buried up to 5 km in a half-space model, as well as ground motions on the free surface for frequencies less than 1 Hz. The computa- tions are carried out using a 3D finite-difference method with rate-and-state friction on a planar, 20 km by 20 km fault. We use a slip-weakening distance of 15 cm and a slip- velocity weakening distance of 9.2 cm/s, similar to those for the dynamic study for the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake by Nielsen and Olsen (2000) which generated satis- factory fits to selected strong motion data in the San Fernando Valley. The prescribed rupture propagation was designed to mimic that of the dynamic simulation at depth in order to isolate the dynamic free-surface effects. In this way, the results reflect the dy- namic (normal-stress) interaction with the free surface for various depths of burial of the fault. We find that the moment, peak slip and peak sliprate for the rupture breaking the surface are increased by up to 60%, 80%, and 10%, respectively, compared to the values for the scenario buried 5 km. The inclusion of these effects increases the peak displacements and velocities above the fault by factors up 3.4 and 2.9 including the increase in moment due to normal-stress effects at the free surface, and up to 2.1 and 2.0 when scaled to a Northridge-size event with surface rupture. Similar differences were found by Aagaard et al. (2001). Significant dynamic effects on the ground mo- tions include earlier arrival times caused by super-shear rupture velocities (break-out phases), in agreement with the dynamic finite-element simulations by Oglesby et al. (1998, 2000). The presence of shallow low-velocity layers tend to increase the rup- ture time and the sliprate. In particular, they promote earlier transitions to super-shear velocities and decrease the rupture velocity within the layers. Our results suggest that dynamic

  10. Isothermal decay studies of intermediate energy levels in quartz.

    PubMed

    Veronese, I; Giussani, A; Göksu, H Y; Martini, M

    2004-05-01

    The recent interest in the thermoluminescence of quartz extracted from unfired building materials, such as mortar and concrete for dose reconstruction applications, led to the requirement of an accurate determination of the lifetime of the intermediate glow peaks in this mineral. The prediction of the lifetimes of these peaks is helpful in establishing the likely time range within which retrospective measurements can be carried out. These peaks, corresponding to intermediate energy levels, occur in the glow curve in the temperature range 150-250 degrees C (heating rate 2 degrees C/s). Lifetimes of 720+/-70 days and 580+/-70 years (at a temperature of 15 degrees C) were derived for the two main peaks placed in the glow curve at approximately 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C, respectively, using the isothermal decay technique. These results as well as the estimated values of the trap parameters (thermal activation energy and frequency factor) have been compared with the data already available in the literature.

  11. Extraction of Aerosol-Deposited Yersinia pestis from Indoor Surfaces To Determine Bacterial Environmental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Ryan A.; Yeager, John J.; Leroux, Brian; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Dabisch, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health and decontamination decisions following an event that causes indoor contamination with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. The goals of this study were to develop methods for experimentally depositing bacteria onto indoor surfaces via aerosol, evaluate methods for sampling and enumerating the agent on surfaces, and use these methods to determine bacterial surface decay. A specialized aerosol deposition chamber was constructed, and methods were established for reproducible and uniform aerosol deposition of bacteria onto four coupon types. The deposition chamber facilitated the control of relative humidity (RH; 10 to 70%) following particle deposition to mimic the conditions of indoor environments, as RH is not controlled by standard heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Extraction and culture-based enumeration methods to quantify the viable bacteria on coupons were shown to be highly sensitive and reproducible. To demonstrate the usefulness of the system for decay studies, Yersinia pestis persistence as a function of surface type at 21°C and 40% RH was determined to be >40%/min for all surfaces. Based upon these results, at typical indoor temperature and RH, a 6-log reduction in titer would expected to be achieved within 1 h as the result of environmental decay on surfaces without active decontamination. The developed approach will facilitate future persistence and decontamination studies with a broad range of biological agents and surfaces, providing agent decay data to inform both assessments of risk to personnel entering a contaminated site and decontamination decisions following biological contamination of an indoor environment. IMPORTANCE Public health and decontamination decisions following contamination of an indoor environment with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. Previous studies on Y. pestis persistence have

  12. Extraction of Aerosol-Deposited Yersinia pestis from Indoor Surfaces To Determine Bacterial Environmental Decay.

    PubMed

    Gut, Ian M; Bartlett, Ryan A; Yeager, John J; Leroux, Brian; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Dabisch, Paul; Karaolis, David K R

    2016-05-01

    Public health and decontamination decisions following an event that causes indoor contamination with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. The goals of this study were to develop methods for experimentally depositing bacteria onto indoor surfaces via aerosol, evaluate methods for sampling and enumerating the agent on surfaces, and use these methods to determine bacterial surface decay. A specialized aerosol deposition chamber was constructed, and methods were established for reproducible and uniform aerosol deposition of bacteria onto four coupon types. The deposition chamber facilitated the control of relative humidity (RH; 10 to 70%) following particle deposition to mimic the conditions of indoor environments, as RH is not controlled by standard heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Extraction and culture-based enumeration methods to quantify the viable bacteria on coupons were shown to be highly sensitive and reproducible. To demonstrate the usefulness of the system for decay studies,Yersinia pestis persistence as a function of surface type at 21 °C and 40% RH was determined to be >40%/min for all surfaces. Based upon these results, at typical indoor temperature and RH, a 6-log reduction in titer would expected to be achieved within 1 h as the result of environmental decay on surfaces without active decontamination. The developed approach will facilitate future persistence and decontamination studies with a broad range of biological agents and surfaces, providing agent decay data to inform both assessments of risk to personnel entering a contaminated site and decontamination decisions following biological contamination of an indoor environment. Public health and decontamination decisions following contamination of an indoor environment with a biological agent require knowledge of the environmental persistence of the agent. Previous studies on Y. pestis persistence have utilized large liquid

  13. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  14. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  15. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  16. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  17. REACH. Heating Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Carter; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized units in the area of heating. The instructional units focus on electric heating systems, gas heating systems, and oil burning systems. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit…

  18. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  19. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R.

    1987-05-05

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  20. Migrant Characteristics of a "Turnaround" Area: 1965-70 Immigration to a 45-County Subarea of the Upper Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    Utilizing 1970 census data on a 45-county area in the northern Upper Great Lakes Region, the following questions were addressed: (1) In what ways do recent migrants to this nonmetropolitan region differ from those "nonmigrants" who resided in the region in both 1965 and 1970? (2) To what extent do the recent migrants from metropolitan…

  1. Analysis of Bromination of Ethylbenzene Using a 45 MHz NMR Spectrometer: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac-Lam, Meden F.

    2014-01-01

    A 45 MHz benchtop NMR spectrometer is used to identify the structures and determine the amount of 1-bromoethylbenzene and 1,1-dibromoethylbenzene produced from free-radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The experiment is designed for nonchemistry majors, specifically B.S. Biology students, in a predominantly undergraduate institution with…

  2. Effects of thinning on aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old eastern white pine plantation: A case study

    Treesearch

    W. Henry McNab

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground carbon sequestration by a 45-year-old plantation of eastern white pines was determined in response to thinning to three levels of residual basal area: (1) Control (no thinning), (2) light thinning to 120 feet2/acre and (3) heavy thinning to 80 feet2/acre. After 11 years carbon stocks were lowest on the heavily...

  3. Decay and the double-decay properties of edge bands of phosphorene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Duan, H.-J.; Wang, R.-Q.

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorene (a monolayer of black phosphorus) recently spurred much attention due to its potential for application. We notice there are two types of zigzag edge and two types of armchair edge for phosphorene lattice. We study the winding number of various types of edge of phosphorene ribbons and conclude that, besides on the typical zigzag edge, the flat zero-energy edge band can be found in the ribbon of another nontypical armchair edge. The localization of these edge bands is investigated analytically. We find every single edge state of the atypical armchair edge decays to the bulk at two different decay rates.

  4. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  5. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOEpatents

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  6. Heat Treating Apparatus

    DOEpatents

    De Saro, Robert; Bateman, Willis

    2002-09-10

    Apparatus for heat treating a heat treatable material including a housing having an upper opening for receiving a heat treatable material at a first temperature, a lower opening, and a chamber therebetween for heating the heat treatable material to a second temperature higher than the first temperature as the heat treatable material moves through the chamber from the upper to the lower opening. A gas supply assembly is operatively engaged to the housing at the lower opening, and includes a source of gas, a gas delivery assembly for delivering the gas through a plurality of pathways into the housing in countercurrent flow to movement of the heat treatable material, whereby the heat treatable material passes through the lower opening at the second temperature, and a control assembly for controlling conditions within the chamber to enable the heat treatable material to reach the second temperature and pass through the lower opening at the second temperature as a heated material.

  7. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  8. Leptonic Decays of the Charged B Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, Luke A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a search for the decay B + → ℓ +ν ( = τ, μ, or e) in (458.9±5.1)×10 6 Υ(4S) decays recorded with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. A sample of events with one reconstructed exclusive semi-leptonic B decay (B - → D 0ℓ -more » $$\\bar{v}$$X) is selected, and in the recoil a search for B + →ℓ +ν ℓ signal is performed. The τ is identified in the following channels: τ + → e +ν e$$\\bar{v}$$ τ , τ + → μ +ν μ$$\\bar{v}$$ τ , τ + → π +$$\\bar{v}$$ τ , and τ + → π +π 0$$\\bar{v}$$ τ . The analysis strategy and the statistical procedure is set up for branching fraction extraction or upper limit determination. We determine from the dataset a preliminary measurement of B(B + → τ +ν τ) = (1.8 ± 0.8 ± 0.1) × 10 -4, which excludes zero at 2.4σ, and f B = 255 ± 58 MeV. Combination with the hadronically tagged measurement yields B(B + → τ +ν τ) = (1.8 ± 0.6) × 10 -4. We also set preliminary limits on the branching fractions at B(B + → e +ν e) < 7.7 × 10 -6 (90% C.L.), B(B + → μ +ν μ) < 11 × 10 -6 (90% C.L.), and B(B + → τ +ν τ ) < 3.2 × 10 -4(90% C.L.).« less

  9. Thermal decay of Coulomb blockade oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrisov, Edvin G.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Sukhorukov, Eugene V.

    2017-10-01

    We study transport properties and the charge quantization phenomenon in a small metallic island connected to the leads through two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The linear conductance is calculated perturbatively with respect to weak tunneling and weak backscattering at QPCs as a function of the temperature T and gate voltage. The conductance shows Coulomb blockade (CB) oscillations as a function of the gate voltage that decay with the temperature as a result of thermally activated fluctuations of the charge in the island. The regimes of quantum T ≪EC and thermal T ≫EC fluctuations are considered, where EC is the charging energy of an isolated island. Our predictions for CB oscillations in the quantum regime coincide with previous findings by Furusaki and Matveev [Phys. Rev. B 52, 16676 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevB.52.16676]. In the thermal regime the visibility of Coulomb blockade oscillations decays with the temperature as √{T /EC }exp(-π2T /EC) , where the exponential dependence originates from the thermal averaging over the instant charge fluctuations, while the prefactor has a quantum origin. This dependence does not depend on the strength of couplings to the leads. The differential capacitance, calculated in the case of a single tunnel junction, shows the same exponential decay, however the prefactor is linear in the temperature. This difference can be attributed to the nonlocality of the quantum effects. Our results agree with the recent experiment [Nature (London) 536, 58 (2016), 10.1038/nature19072] in the whole range of the parameter T /EC .

  10. Decay of the de Sitter vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Mottola, Emil; Sanders, Dillon H.

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of the Bunch-Davies state of a massive scalar field in the expanding flat spatial sections of de Sitter space is determined by an analysis of the particle pair creation process in real time. The Feynman definition of particle and antiparticle Fourier mode solutions of the scalar wave equation and their adiabatic phase analytically continued to the complexified time domain show conclusively that the Bunch-Davies state is not the vacuum state at late times. The closely analogous creation of charged particle pairs in a uniform electric field is reviewed and Schwinger's result for the vacuum decay rate is recovered by this same real time analysis. The vacuum decay rate in each case is also calculated by switching the background field on adiabatically, allowing it to act for a very long time, and then adiabatically switching it off again. In both the uniform electric field and de Sitter cases, the particles created while the field is switched on are verified to be real, in the sense that they persist in the final asymptotic flat zero-field region. In the de Sitter case, there is an interesting residual dependence of the rate on how the de Sitter phase is ended, indicating a greater sensitivity to spatial boundary conditions. The electric current of the created particles in the E -field case and their energy density and pressure in the de Sitter case are also computed, and the magnitude of their backreaction effects on the background field estimated. Possible consequences of the Hubble scale instability of the de Sitter vacuum for cosmology, vacuum dark energy, and the cosmological "constant" problem are discussed.

  11. Siphons, Water Clocks, Cooling Coffee, and Leaking Capacitors: Classroom Activities and a Few Equations to Help Students Understand Radioactive Decay and Other Exponential Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Although an understanding of radiometric dating is central to the preparation of every geologist, many students struggle with the concepts and mathematics of radioactive decay. Physical demonstrations and hands-on experiments can be used to good effect in addressing this teaching conundrum. Water, heat, and electrons all move or flow in response…

  12. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOEpatents

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    factors, thermometry, and fever versus hyper- thernia. ihe review of heat illnesses includes heat "anps, heat edema, heat syncope, heat exhaustiom...clinical situations. For example, fever , the daily circadian rhythm of temperature variation, and the 0.50 C difference in rectal temperature following...thermometry is state of the art. Fever versus Hyperthermia Elevations of body temperature can occur as a result of several different mechanisms. One

  14. Modern Measurements of Uranium Decay Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons-Moss, T.; Faye, S. A.; Williams, R. W.; Wang, T. F.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.; Harrison, M.; Bandong, B. B.; Moody, K.; Knight, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely recognized that accurate and precise decay constants (λ) are critical to geochronology as highlighted by the EARTHTIME initiative, particularly the calibration benchmarks λ235U and λ238U. [1] Alpha counting experiments in 1971[2] measured λ235U and λ238U with ~0.1% precision, but have never been independently validated. We are embarking on new direct measurements of λ235U, λ238U, λ234Th, and λ234U using independent approaches for each nuclide. For the measurement of λ235U, highly enriched 235U samples will be chemically purified and analyzed for U concentration and isotopic composition by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Thin films will be electrodeposited from these solutions and the α activity will be measured in an α-γ coincidence counting apparatus, which allows reduced uncertainty in counting efficiency while achieving adequate counting statistics. For λ238U measurement we will measure ingrowth of 234Th in chemically purified, isotopically enriched 238U solutions, by quantitatively separating the Th and allowing complete decay to 234U. All of the measurements will be done using MC-ICP-MS aiming at 0.05% precision. This approach is expected to result in values of λ238U with less than 0.1% uncertainty, if combined with improved λ234Th measements. These will be achieved using direct decay measurements with an E-ΔE charged particle telescope in coincidence with a gamma detector. This system allows measurement of 234Th β-decay and simultaneous detection and identification of α particles emitted by the 234U daughter, thus observing λ234U at the same time. The high-precision λ234U obtained by the direct activity measurements can independently verify the commonly used values obtained by indirect methods.[3] An overarching goal of the project is to ensure the quality of results including metrological traceability in order to facilitate implementation across diverse disciplines. [1] T

  15. Search for weakly decaying b -flavored pentaquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Da Silva, C. L.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Durham, J. M.; Dutta, D.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Lopes, L.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hopchev, P. H.; Hu, W.; Huang, W.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Keizer, F.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Kress, F.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Liang, X.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Pereima, D.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pietrzyk, G.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Qin, J.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepulveda, E. S.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Weisser, C.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, M.; Xu, Q.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Investigations of the existence of pentaquark states containing a single b (anti)quark decaying weakly into four specific final states J /ψ K+π-p , J /ψ K-π-p , J /ψ K-π+p , and J /ψ ϕ (1020 )p are reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 in 7 and 8 TeV p p collisions acquired with the LHCb detector. Signals are not observed and upper limits are set on the product of the production cross section times branching fraction with respect to that of the Λb0.

  16. The decay of pitch memory during rehearsal.

    PubMed

    Kaernbach, Christian; Schlemmer, Kathrin

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigates the decay of pitch memory over time. In a delayed pitch comparison paradigm, participants had to memorize the pitch of a Shepard tone, with silent, overt, or without any rehearsal. During overt rehearsal, recordings of the rehearsing were effectuated. Performance was best for silent rehearsal and worst for overt rehearsal. The differences, although partially significant, were not marked. The voice pitch during overt rehearsal was compatible with a random walk model, providing a possible explanation of why rehearsal does not improve the retention of the pitch trace.

  17. Exponentially decaying interaction potential of cavity solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbardan, Shayesteh Rahmani; Rimoldi, Cristina; Kheradmand, Reza; Tissoni, Giovanna; Prati, Franco

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the interaction of two cavity solitons in an optically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser above threshold. We show that they experience an attractive force even when their distance is much larger than their diameter, and eventually they merge. Since the merging time depends exponentially on the initial distance, we suggest that the attraction could be associated with an exponentially decaying interaction potential, similarly to what is found for hydrophobic materials. We also show that the merging time is simply related to the characteristic times of the laser, photon lifetime, and carrier lifetime.

  18. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  19. Primordial heating of asteroidal parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1979-01-01

    Most meteorites show evidence of thermal processing either because of metamorphic changes or as a result of melting and differentiation. Proposed mechanisms for supplying this energy generally rely upon short-lived radioisotopes or electrical induction, though accretion is sometimes mentioned, and more exotic models have been discussed. Interest in isotopic heating has been heightened by the discovery of Al-26 in Allende inclusions and also by the proposal that a lunar core and dynamo resulted from the radioactive decay of superheavy elements during the early solar system. Electrical induction as a heat source can be scaled to a broad range of solar system conditions, but corroborative evidence for these conditions is inconclusive. The accretion mechanism is probably not viable for the asteroidal and meteorite parent bodies, because the high kinetic energy requirement is inconsistent with the formation of the objects and their regoliths in the presence of a weak gravitational field.

  20. A 45-year time series of Saharan dune mobility from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Decadal trends in the aeolian dust record of the Sahara affect the global climate system and the nutrient budget of the Atlantic Ocean. One proposed cause of these trends are changes in the frequency and intensity of dust storms, which have hitherto been hard to quantify. Because sand flux scales with the cube of wind speed, dune migration rates can be used as a proxy for storminess. Relative changes in the storminess of the Sahara can thus be monitored by tracking the migration rates of individual sand dunes over time. The Bodélé Depression of northern Chad was selected as a target area for this method, because it is the most important point-source of aeolian dust on the planet and features the largest and fastest dunes on Earth. A collection of co-registered Landsat, SPOT, and ASTER scenes, combined with declassified American spy satellite images was used to construct a 45 year record of dune migration in the Bodélé Depression. One unexpected outcome of the study was the observation of binary dune interactions in the imagery sequence, which reveals that when two barchan dunes collide, a transfer of mass occurs so that one dune appears to travel through the other unscathed, like a solitary wave. This confirms a controversial numerical model prediction and settles a decade-old debate in aeolian geomorphology. The COSI-Corr change detection method was used to measure the dune migration rates from 1984 until 1987, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010. An algorithm was developed to automatically warp the resulting displacement fields back to a common point in time. Thus, individual image pixels of a dune field were tracked over time, allowing the extraction of a time series from the co-registered satellite images without further human intervention. The automated analysis was extended further back into the past by comparison of the 1984 image with declassified American spy satellite (Corona) images from 1965 and 1970. Due to the presence of

  1. Segmented heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least amore » portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.« less

  2. Numerical calculation of the decay widths, the decay constants, and the decay energy spectra of the resonances of the delta-shell potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2017-06-01

    We express the resonant energies of the delta-shell potential in terms of the Lambert W function, and we calculate their decay widths and decay constants. The ensuing numerical results strengthen the interpretation of such decay widths and constants as a way to quantify the coupling between a resonance and the continuum. We calculate explicitly the decay energy spectrum of the resonances of the delta-shell potential, and we show numerically that the lineshape of such spectrum is not the same as, and can be very different from, the Breit-Wigner (Lorentzian) distribution. We argue that the standard Golden Rule cannot describe the interference of two resonances, and we show how to describe such interference by way of the decay energy spectrum of two resonant states.

  3. Decay constants and radiative decays of heavy mesons in light-front quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the magnetic dipole decays V{yields}P{gamma} of various heavy-flavored mesons such as (D,D*,D{sub s},D{sub s}*,{eta}{sub c},J/{psi}) and (B,B*,B{sub s},B{sub s}*,{eta}{sub b},{upsilon}) using the light-front quark model constrained by the variational principle for the QCD-motivated effective Hamiltonian. The momentum dependent form factors F{sub VP}(q{sup 2}) for V{yields}P{gamma}* decays are obtained in the q{sup +}=0 frame and then analytically continued to the timelike region by changing q{sub perpendicular} to iq{sub perpendicular} in the form factors. The coupling constant g{sub VP{gamma}} for real photon case is then obtained in the limit as q{sup 2}{yields}0, i.e. g{sub VP{gamma}}=F{sub VP}(q{sup 2}=0). The weak decaymore » constants of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons are also calculated. Our numerical results for the decay constants and radiative decay widths for the heavy-flavored mesons are overall in good agreement with the available experimental data as well as other theoretical model calculations.« less

  4. Inhibition of decay fungi using cotton cellulose hydrolysis as a model for wood decay

    Treesearch

    Frederick Green

    2000-01-01

    Environmental pressures to replace chromium and arsenic in fixed waterborne preservatives have been increasing. Potential inhibitors of brown-, white- and soft-rot fungi need to be evaluated as alternative preservatives by screening and testing in, in vitro model systems. This paper reports the inhibition of cellulose depolymerization and weight loss of selected decay...

  5. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base pairing of 3'-UTR sequences or by intermolecular base pairing of 3'-UTR sequences with a long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Because both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1; SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

  7. Nonuniversal Z' couplings in B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Hatanaka, Hisaki

    2006-04-01

    We study the impacts of the nonuniversal Z' model, providing flavor-changing neutral current at tree level, on the branching ratios (BRs), CP asymmetries (CPAs), and polarization fractions of B decays. We find that, for satisfying the current data, the new left- and right-handed couplings have to be included at the same time. The new introduced effective interactions not only could effectively explain the puzzle of small longitudinal polarization in B→K*ϕ decays, but also provide a solution to the small CPA of B±→π0K±. We also find that the favorable CPA of B±→π0K± is opposite in sign to the standard model; meanwhile, the CPA of Bd→π0K has to be smaller than -10%. In addition, by using the values of parameters which are constrained by B→πK, we find that the favorable ranges of BRs, CPAs, longitudinal polarizations, and perpendicular transverse polarizations for (B±→ρ±K*,Bd→ρ∓K*±) are (17.1±3.9,10.0±2.0)×10-6, (3±5,21±7)%, (0.66±0.10,0.44±0.08), and (0.14±0.10,0.25±0.09), respectively.

  8. Search for Neutrino Decay at SHALON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Masip, M.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2012-08-01

    The SHALON Cherenkov telescope has recorded over 2 × 106 extensive air showers during the past 17 years. The analysis of the signal at different zenith angles has included observations from the sub-horizontal direction Θ = 97°. This inclination defines an Earth skimming trajectory with 7 km of air and around 1000 km of rock in front of the telescope. During a period of 324 hours of observation, after a cut of shower-like events that may be caused by chaotic sky flashes or reflections on the snow of vertical showers, we have detected 5 air showers of TeV energies. We argue that these events may be caused by the decay of a long-lived penetrating particle entering the atmosphere from the ground and decaying in front of the telescope. We show that this particle can it not be a muon or a tau lepton. As a possible explanation, we discuss two scenarios with an unstable neutrino of mass m ≈ 0.5 GeV and cτ ≈ 30m. Remarkably, one of these models has been recently proposed to explain an excess of electron-like neutrino events at MiniBooNE.

  9. First observation of a baryonic Bc+ decay.

    PubMed

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Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, Rf; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani', S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-10-10

    A baryonic decay of the B(c)(+) meson, B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+), is observed for the first time, with a significance of 7.3 standard deviations, in pp collision data collected with the LHCb detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) taken at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. With the B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+) decay as the normalization channel, the ratio of branching fractions is measured to be B(B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+))/B(B(c)(+) → J/ψπ(+)) = 0.143(-0.034)(+0.039)(stat) ± 0.013(syst). The mass of the B(c)(+) meson is determined as M(B(c)(+) = 6274.0 ± 1.8(stat) ± 0.4(syst) MeV/c(2), using the B(c)(+) → J/ψppπ(+) channel.

  10. Do aftershock probabilities decay with time?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    So, do aftershock probabilities decay with time? Consider a thought experiment in which we are at the time of the mainshock and ask how many aftershocks will occur a day, week, month, year, or even a century from now. First we must decide how large a window to use around each point in time. Let's assume that, as we go further into the future, we are asking a less precise question. Perhaps a day from now means 1 day 10% of a day, a week from now means 1 week 10% of a week, and so on. If we ignore c because it is a small fraction of a day (e.g., Reasenberg and Jones, 1989, hereafter RJ89), and set p = 1 because it is usually close to 1 (its value in the original Omori law), then the rate of earthquakes (K=t) decays at 1=t. If the length of the windows being considered increases proportionally to t, then the number of earthquakes at any time from now is the same because the rate decrease is canceled by the increase in the window duration. Under these conditions we should never think "It's a bit late for this to be an aftershock."

  11. Phase transitions and baryogenesis from decays

    DOE PAGES

    Shuve, Brian; Tamarit, Carlos

    2017-10-18

    Here, we study scenarios in which the baryon asymmetry is generated from the decay of a particle whose mass originates from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This is realized in many models, including low-scale leptogenesis and theories with classical scale invariance. Symmetry breaking in the early universe proceeds through a phase transition that gives the parent particle a time-dependent mass, which provides an additional departure from thermal equilibrium that could modify the efficiency of baryogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. We characterize the effects of various types of phase transitions and show that an enhancement in the baryon asymmetry from decaysmore » is possible if the phase transition is of the second order, although such models are typically fine-tuned. We also stress the role of new annihilation modes that deplete the parent particle abundance in models realizing such a phase transition, reducing the efficacy of baryogenesis. A proper treatment of baryogenesis in such models therefore requires the inclusion of the effects we study in this paper.« less

  12. Recent work of decay spectroscopy at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Pär-Anders

    2014-09-01

    β- and isomer-decay spectroscopy are sensitive probes of nuclear structure, and are often the only techniques capable of providing data for exotic nuclei that are producted with very low rates. Decay properties of exotic nuclei are also essential to model astrophysical events responible for the evolution of the universe such as the rp- and r-process. The EURICA project (EUROBALL RIKEN Cluster Array) has been launched in 2012 with the goal of performing spectroscopy of very exotic nuclei. Since 2012, four experimental campaigns have been successfully completed using fragmentation of 124Xe beam and in-flight-fission of 238U beam, approaching for example the key nuclei 78Ni, 110Zr, 100Sn, 128Pd, and 138Sn. This contribution highlights the experiments performed, results obtained, and discusses the future perspective of the EURICA project. In collaboration with Shunji Nishimura, Hidetada Baba, RIKEN Nishina Center; Frank Browne, Brighton University; Pieter Doornenbal, RIKEN Nishina Center; Guillaume Gey, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble; Tadaaki Isobe and Giuseppe Lorusso, RIKEN Nishina Center; Daniel Lubos, Technische Universitat Munchen; Kevin Mochner, University of Cologne; Zena Patel and Simon Rice, University of Surrey; Hiroyoshi Sakurai, RIKEN Nishina Center; Laura Sinclair, University of York; Toshiyuki Sumikama, Tohoku University; Jan Taprogge, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Zsolt Vajta, MTA Atomki; Hiroshi Watanabe, Beihang University; Jin Wu, Peking University; and Zhengyu Xu, University of Tokyo.

  13. Weak decays of triply heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Ji

    2018-05-01

    After the experimental establishment of doubly heavy baryons, baryons with three quarks are the last missing pieces of the lowest-lying baryon multiplets in the quark model. In this work, we study semileptonic and nonleptonic weak decays of triply heavy baryons, Ωcc c ++, Ωcc b +, Ωcb b 0, and Ωbb b -. Decay amplitudes for various channels are parametrized in terms of a few SU(3) irreducible amplitudes. We point out that branching fractions for Cabibbo-allowed processes, Ωcc c ++→(Ξcc ++K¯0,Ξcc ++K-π+,Ωcc +π+,Ξc+D+,Ξc'D+,ΛcD+K¯0,Ξc+D0π+,Ξc0D+π+), may reach a few percent. We suggest our experimental colleagues to perform a search at hadron colliders and the electron and positron collisions in the future, which will presumably lead to discoveries of triply heavy baryons and complete the baryon multiplets. Using the expanded amplitudes, we derive a number of relations for the partial widths that can be examined in the future.

  14. α-decay systematics for superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, S. B.; Teruya, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this Brief Report we extend the α-decay half-life calculation to the superheavy emitter region to verify whether these nuclei satisfy the recently observed systematics [D. N. Poenaru , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.83.014601 83, 014601 (2011);C. Qi , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.80.044326 80, 044326 (2009)]. To establish the systematics, we have used the α-cluster potential description, which was originally developed to study α decay in connection with nuclear energy level structure [B. Buck , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.51.559 51, 559 (1995)]. The quantum-mechanical tunneling calculation has been employed to obtain the half-lives, showing that with this treatment the systematics are well reproduced in the region of heavy nuclei. Finally, the half-life calculation has been extended to the superheavy emitters to verify whether the systematics can still be observed.

  15. EUVE/XTE orbit decay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richon, K.; Hashmall, J.; Lambertson, M.; Phillips, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Explorer Platform (EP) program currently comprises two missions, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), each of which consists of a scientific payload mounted to the EP. The EP has no orbit maintenance capability. The EP with the EUVE payload will be launched first. At the end of the EUVE mission, the spacecraft will be serviced by the Space Transportation System (STS), and the EUVE instrument will be exchanged for the XTE. The XTE mission will continue until reentry or reservicing by the STS. Because the missions will be using the EP sequentially, the orbit requirements are unusually constrained by orbit decay rates. The initial altitude must be selected so that, by the end of the EUVE mission (2.5 years), the spacecraft will have decayed to an altitude within the STS capabilities. In addition, the payload exchange must occur at an altitude that ensures meeting the minimum XTE mission lifetime (3 years) because no STS reboost will be available. Studies were performed using the Goddard Mission Analysis System to estimate the effects of mass, cross-sectional area, and solar flux on the fulfillment of mission requirements. In addition to results from these studies, conclusions are presented as to the accuracy of the Marshall Space Flight Center solar flux predictions.

  16. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan

    2017-07-01

    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  17. High latitude artificial periodic irregularity observations with the upgraded EISCAT heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Kero, Antti; Rietveld, Michael T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a recently developed ionospheric modification experiment that produces artificial periodic irregularities in the ionosphere and uses them to make observations of the spatiotemporal behaviour of the irregularities. In addition, the method can be used to measure Faraday rotation and vertical velocities. We also introduce a novel experiment that allows monitoring the formation of the irregularities during heating, in addition to observing their decay after heating. The first measurements indicate, contrary to existing theory, that the amplitude of the radar echoes from the periodic irregularities grows faster than they decay. We focus on the API effects in the D- and E-region of the ionosphere.

  18. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  19. A search for lepton flavour violation in Z 0 decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrawy, M. Z.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Allport, P. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Armitage, J. C.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Ashton, P.; Azuelos, G.; Baines, J. T. M.; Ball, A. H.; Banks, J.; Barker, G. J.; Barlow, R. J.; Batley, J. R.; Beck, A.; Becker, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Binder, U.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Breuker, H.; Brown, R. M.; Brun, R.; Buijs, A.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrin, J. T. M.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Cohen, I.; Collins, W. J.; Conboy, J. E.; Couch, M.; Coupland, M.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Debu, P.; Deninno, M. M.; Dieckmann, A.; Dittmar, M.; Dixit, M. S.; Duchovni, E.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Dumas, D. J. P.; Elcombe, P. A.; Estarbrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Farthouat, P.; Fischer, H. M.; Fong, D. G.; French, M. T.; Fukunaga, C.; Gaidot, A.; Ganel, O.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Geddes, N. I.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gensler, S. W.; Gentit, F. X.; Giacomelli, G.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gillies, J. D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M. J.; Gorn, W.; Granite, D.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Hagedorn, H.; Hagemann, J.; Hansroul, M.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harrus, I.; Hart, J.; Hattersley, P. M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Heflin, E.; Hemingway, R. J.; Heuer, R. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hillier, S. J.; Ho, C.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hobson, P. R.; Hochman, D.; Holl, B.; Homer, R. J.; Hou, S. R.; Howarth, C. P.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Humbert, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ihssen, H.; Imrie, D. C.; Janissen, L.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jobes, M.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jovanovic, P.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kleinwort, C.; Klem, D. E.; Knop, G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kokott, T. P.; Köpke, L.; Kowalewski, R.; Kreutzmann, H.; Kroll, J.; Kuwano, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lamarche, F.; Larson, W. J.; Layter, J. G.; Le Du, P.; Leblanc, P.; Lee, A. M.; Lehto, M. H.; Lellouch, D.; Lennert, P.; Lessard, L.; Levinson, L.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Lorah, J. M.; Lorazo, B.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Ma, J.; Macbeth, A. A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellino, S.; Maringer, G.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; Maur, U.; McMahon, T. J.; McNutt, J. R.; Meijers, F.; Menszner, D.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Mikenberg, G.; Mildenberger, J.; Miller, D. J.; Milstene, C.; Minowa, M.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Moss, M. W.; Murphy, P. G.; Murray, W. J.; Nellen, B.; Nguyen, H. H.; Nozaki, M.; O'Dowd, A. J. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, B. P.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogg, M.; Oh, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pansart, J. P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pawley, S. J.; Pfister, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Plane, D. E.; Poli, B.; Pouladdej, A.; Prebys, E.; Pritchard, T. W.; Quast, G.; Raab, J.; Redmond, M. W.; Rees, D. L.; Regimbald, M.; Riles, K.; Roach, C. M.; Robins, S. A.; Rollnik, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossberg, S.; Rossi, A. M.; Routenburg, P.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Sanghera, S.; Sansum, R. A.; Sasaki, M.; Saunders, B. J.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Schappert, W.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schreiber, S.; Schwarz, J.; Shapira, A.; Shen, B. C.; Sherwood, P.; Simon, A.; Singh, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, T. J.; Snow, G. A.; Springer, R. W.; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Stier, H. E.; Stroehmer, R.; Strom, D.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Taras, P.; Thackray, N. J.; Tsukamoto, T.; Turner, M. F.; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G.; Van den plas, D.; VanDalen, G. J.; Van Kooten, R.; Vasseur, G.; Virtue, C. J.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Krogh, J.; Wagner, A.; Wahl, C.; Walker, J. P.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Weber, M.; Weisz, S.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; Weymann, M.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter, I.; Winterer, V.-H.; Wood, N. C.; Wotton, S.; Wuensch, B.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yaari, R.; Yang, Y.; Yekutieli, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zeuner, W.; Zorn, G. T.; OPAL Collaboration

    1991-01-01

    We have searched for lepton flavour violation in about 14000 Z 0 decays into collinear lepton pairs, recorded in an energy scan around the Z 0 resonance. Decays of the type Z0→ eτ, Z0→ μτ and Z0→ eμ have been considered. Observed candidates in the eτ and μτ modes are consistent with expected Z0→ τ+τ- backgrounds; no candidates are observed for the eμ mode. We obtain limits (at 95% confidence level) on the branching ratios for such Z 0 decays of 7.2×10 -5 for the eτ decay, 35×10 -5 for the μτ decay and 4.6×10 -5 for the eμ decay.

  20. Radiative decays of massive relic particles and the submillimeter background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, George B.; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of the decay photons of an unstable relic particle species with the microwave background radiation is considered. The radiative decays of these particles delay recombination and serve as an energy source for the resultant plasma. Nonrelativistic Compton scattering by these electrons couples the decay photons to the microwave background, producing submillimeter distortions. If the decay products close the universe, they must decay with a radiative branching ratio larger than 2.5 x 10 to the -5th in order to produce recently observed excess submillimeter background radiation. To be consistent with measurements of the UV background, their mass m is much greater than 114 keV and their decay redshift z is much greater than 5200.

  1. Radiative decay of massious neutrinos: Implications for physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos is calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results are related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data are used to place lower limits on tau. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models. It is considered that this may be an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks.

  2. Nuclear inertia and the decay modes of superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, Walter

    2013-10-01

    Superheavy nuclei produced up to now decay mainly by α emission and spontaneous fission. For atomic numbers larger than 121 cluster decay has a good chance to compete. While calculated α decay half-lives are in agreement with experimental data within one order of magnitude and cluster decay experiments are also very well accounted for, the discrepancy between theory and experiment can be as high as ten orders of magnitude for spontaneous fission. We analyze some ways of improving the accuracy: using a semiempirical formula for α decay and changing the parameters of analytical superasymmetric fission and of the universal curve for cluster decay. For spontaneous fission we act on nuclear dynamics based on potential barriers computed by the macroscopic-microscopic method and employing various nuclear inertia variation laws. Applications are illustrated for 284Cn and Z = 118-124 even-even parent nuclei. Communicated by Steffen Bass

  3. Chemical Consequences of Radioactive Decay and their Biological Implications.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Onofre T

    2017-11-10

    The chemical effects of radioactive decay arise from (1) transmutation, (2) formation of charged daughter nuclei, (3) recoil of the daughter nuclei, (4) electron "shakeoff" phenomenon and (5) vacancy cascade in decays via electron capture and internal conversion. This review aims to reiterate what has been known for a long time regarding the chemical consequences of radioactive decay and gives a historical perspective to the observations that led to their elucidation. The energetics of the recoil process in each decay mode is discussed in relation to the chemical bond between the decaying nucleus and the parent molecule. Special attention is given to the biological effects of the Auger process following decay by electron capture and internal conversion because of their possible utility in internal radiotherapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Quantum decay model with exact explicit analytical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er'El

    2009-01-01

    A simple decay model is introduced. The model comprises a point potential well, which experiences an abrupt change. Due to the temporal variation, the initial quantum state can either escape from the well or stay localized as a new bound state. The model allows for an exact analytical solution while having the necessary features of a decay process. The results show that the decay is never exponential, as classical dynamics predicts. Moreover, at short times the decay has a fractional power law, which differs from perturbation quantum method predictions. At long times the decay includes oscillations with an envelope that decays algebraically. This is a model where the final state can be either continuous or localized, and that has an exact analytical solution.

  5. The impact of the postharvest environment on the viability and virulence of decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Xie, Zhigang; Liu, Yiqing; You, Yuming; Zhang, Xiaojing; Sun, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenhua; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi

    2018-07-03

    Postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains by fungal pathogens causes significant economic losses. Infected produce presents a potential health risk since some decay fungi produce mycotoxins that are hazardous to human health. Infections are the result of the interplay between host resistance and pathogen virulence. Both of these processes, however, are significantly impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature, UV, oxidative stress, and water activity. In the present review, the impact of various physical postharvest treatments (e.g., heat and UV) on the viability and virulence of postharvest pathogens is reviewed and discussed. Oxidative injury, protein impairment, and cell wall degradation have all been proposed as the mechanisms by which these abiotic stresses reduce fungal viability and pathogenicity. The response of decay fungi to pH and the ability of pathogens to modulate the pH of the host environment also affect pathogenicity. The effects of the manipulation of the postharvest environment by ethylene, natural edible coatings, and controlled atmosphere storage on fungal viability are also discussed. Lastly, avenues of future research are proposed.

  6. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  7. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  8. Heat transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved heat transfer device particularly suited for use as an evaporator plate in a diffusion cloud chamber. The device is characterized by a pair of mutually spaced heat transfer plates, each being of a planar configuration, having a pair of opposed surfaces defining therebetween a heat pipe chamber. Within the heat pipe chamber, in contiguous relation with the pair of opposed surfaces, there is disposed a pair of heat pipe wicks supported in a mutually spaced relationship by a foraminous spacer of a planar configuration. A wick including a foraminous layer is contiguously related to the external surfaces of the heat transfer plates for uniformly wetting these surfaces.

  9. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-03-07

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor is described. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  10. Heat transfer system

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer system for a nuclear reactor. Heat transfer is accomplished within a sealed vapor chamber which is substantially evacuated prior to use. A heat transfer medium, which is liquid at the design operating temperatures, transfers heat from tubes interposed in the reactor primary loop to spaced tubes connected to a steam line for power generation purposes. Heat transfer is accomplished by a two-phase liquid-vapor-liquid process as used in heat pipes. Condensible gases are removed from the vapor chamber through a vertical extension in open communication with the chamber interior.

  11. Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium expansum1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. M.; Nuovo, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by P. expansum will contain patulin which may present a health hazard. The results also suggest that patulin may be important in the decay of apples by P. expansum. PMID:4726831

  12. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen, Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-09-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h(-1) and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (-70% for attached radon decay products and -80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h(-1) with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the thoron

  13. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, D.; Forsberg, U.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Golubev, P.; Fahlander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  14. Explicit solutions for exit-only radioactive decay chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Kernan, Warnick

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we extended Bateman's [Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 15, 423 (1910)] original work for solving radioactive decay chains and explicitly derived analytic solutions for generic exit-only radioactive decay problems under given initial conditions. Instead of using the conventional Laplace transform for solving Bateman's equations, we used a much simpler algebraic approach. Finally, we discuss methods of breaking down certain classes of large decay chains into collections of simpler chains for easy handling.

  15. Penguin and rare decays in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Akar, Simon

    2015-04-29

    We present recent results from the BABAR Collaboration on radiative decays. These include searches for new physics via measurements of several observables such as the time- dependent CP asymmetry in B 0 → K 0 Sπ – π +γ exclusive decays, as well as direct CP asymmetries and branching fractions in B → X sγ and B → X sℓ +ℓ – inclusive decays.

  16. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China

    Treesearch

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  17. Turbulent Heat-Transfer Coefficients in the Vicinity of Surface Protuberances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Richard J.

    1958-01-01

    Local turbulent heating rates were obtained in the vicinity of surface protuberances mounted on the cylinder section of a cone cylinder model at a Mach number of 3.12. Data were obtained at Reynolds number per foot of 4.5 and 6 million for an unswept cylinder, a 45 deg swept cylinder, a 45 deg elbow, and several 90 deg elbows. The unswept cylinder and the 90 deg elbows increased the local turbulent heating rates in the vicinity of the surface protuberances. The data of the 45 deg swept cylinder and the 45 deg elbow resulted in heating rates lower than those observed without surface protuberances. In general, sweeping a surface protuberance resulted in heating rates comparable or lower than those measured without surface protuberances.

  18. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey

    1997-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  19. Computation of large-scale statistics in decaying isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed large-eddy simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence to test the prediction of self-similar decay of the energy spectrum and to compute the decay exponents of the kinetic energy. In general, good agreement between the simulation results and the assumption of self-similarity were obtained. However, the statistics of the simulations were insufficient to compute the value of gamma which corrects the decay exponent when the spectrum follows a k(exp 4) wave number behavior near k = 0. To obtain good statistics, it was found necessary to average over a large ensemble of turbulent flows.

  20. Phenomenology of Ξb→Ξcτ ν decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Rupak

    2018-04-01

    Deviations from the standard model prediction have been reported in various semileptonic B decays mediated via b →c charged-current interactions. In this context, we analyze corresponding semileptonic baryon decays Ξb→Ξcτ ν using the helicity formalism. We report numerical results on various observables such as the decay rate, ratio of branching ratios, lepton-side forward-backward asymmetry, longitudinal polarization fraction of the charged lepton, and the convexity parameter for this decay mode using results from the relativistic quark model. We also provide an estimate of the new physics effect on these observables under various new physics scenarios.

  1. Flavor-changing Z decays: A window to ultraheavy quarks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, V.; Weiler, T.; Laermann, E.; Schmitt, I.; Zerwas, P. M.

    1983-02-01

    We study flavor-changing Z decays into quarks, Z-->Q+q¯, in the standard SU(2)×U(1) theory with sequential generations. Such decays occur in higher-order electroweak interactions, with a probability growing as the fourth power of the mass of the heaviest (virtual) quark mediating the transition. With the possible exception of Z-->bs¯, these decay modes are generally very rare in the three-generation scheme. However, with four generations Z-->b'b¯ is observable if the t' mass is a few hundred GeV. Such decay modes could thus provide a glimpse of the ultraheavy-quark spectrum.

  2. Reduction of precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yukio

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal that the precursor decay anomaly in single crystal lithium fluoride is reduced by Sano's decay curve [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7616 (1999)], which is much smaller in slope than Asay's decay curve [J. R. Asay, G. R. Fowles, G. E. Duvall, M. H. Miles, and R. F. Tinder, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2132 (1972)]. To this end, strain, particle, velocity, and stress in a precursor and near the leading edge of the follower changing with time along Sano's decay curve are first analyzed quantitatively. The analysis verified the existence of degenerate contraction waves I and II and a subrarefaction wave R', and the decay process [Y. Sano, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3746 (1995)] caused in sequence by evolving followers C, I, II, R', Rb. Next, inequalities relating decay rates qualitatively to plastic strain rates at the leading edge of the follower, which are derived using the properties of the followers, are incorporated into the analysis. Calculation results showed that the plastic strain rates were reduced by low decay rates. This indicates that the precursor decay anomaly might be greatly reduced by Sano's decay curve.

  3. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    DOE PAGES

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; ...

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction ofmore » the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.« less

  4. Searches for Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Silke; /SLAC

    2012-04-25

    Measurements of the branching fractions of purely leptonic decays of B-mesons translate into constraints in the plane of the charged Higgs mass versus tan {beta} which are relatively insensitive to the particular theoretical model. Using the full BABAR dataset of 450 million B-decays we search for these decays. No significant signal is found in the decays into electrons or muons and we set upper limits on the branching fractions of the order of a 10{sup -6} at 90% confidence level. We measure the branching fraction of B {yields} {tau}{mu} to be (1.7 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -4}.

  5. The A=96 system in ββ decay

    SciTech Connect

    Alanssari, M.

    2015-10-28

    Properties of the single and double beta decays of {sup 96}Zr are discussed. It is argued that the single beta decay can provide important information to the neutrinoless variant of β β decay, as it provides a test of theories aimed at calculating the nuclear matrix elements (NME) for both decays. An experimental extraction of the NME for the single β decay requires a measurement of the decay Q-value and half-life. It is shown that the present Q-value of the {sup 96}Zr single β decay is insufficiently well known and requires a re-measurement, preferentially using high-precision ion traps. We alsomore » describe the geochemical method to determine the total half-life of {sup 96}Zr, from which to set a limit on the single β -decay half-life at a level of ≈15 × 10{sup 19}yr. Further, the geochemical analysis will allow setting a limit on a rather exotic quadruple β decay of {sup 96}Zr.« less

  6. Decays of J/psi (3100) to baryon final states

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, M.W.

    We present results for the decays of psi(3100) into baryon and hyperon final states. The sample studied here consists of 1.3 million produced psi decays. The decays into nonstrange baryons agree well with currently established results, but with better statistics. In addition, significant resonance formation in multibody final states is observed. The decay psi ..-->.. anti pp..gamma.., the first direct photon decay of the psi involving baryons in the final state, is presented and the theoretical implications of the decays are briefly explored. Several new decays of the psi involving strange baryons are explored, including the first observations of threemore » body final states involving hyperons. The I-spin symmetry of the strong decay psi ..-->.. baryons has clearly been observed. The reduced matrix elements for psi ..-->.. B anti B are presented for final states of different SU(3) content. The B/sub 8/ anti B/sub 8/ results are in excellent agreement with the psi being an SU(3) singlet as are the results for psi ..-->.. B/sub 10/ anti B/sub 10/. We present the first evidence for the SU(3) violating decays of the type psi ..-->.. B/sub 8/ anti B/sub 10/ + c.c.. Angular distributions for psi ..-->.. B/sub 8/ anti B/sub 8/ are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Statistics are limited, but the data tends to prefer other than a 1 + Cos/sup 2/theta distribution.« less

  7. Universal Distribution of Litter Decay Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, D. C.; Rothman, D. H.

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of litter is the result of many physical, chemical and biological processes. The high variability of these processes likely accounts for the progressive slowdown of decay with litter age. This age dependence is commonly thought to result from the superposition of processes with different decay rates k. Here we assume an underlying continuous yet unknown distribution p(k) of decay rates [1]. To seek its form, we analyze the mass-time history of 70 LIDET [2] litter data sets obtained under widely varying conditions. We construct a regularized inversion procedure to find the best fitting distribution p(k) with the least degrees of freedom. We find that the resulting p(k) is universally consistent with a lognormal distribution, i.e.~a Gaussian distribution of log k, characterized by a dataset-dependent mean and variance of log k. This result is supported by a recurring observation that microbial populations on leaves are log-normally distributed [3]. Simple biological processes cause the frequent appearance of the log-normal distribution in ecology [4]. Environmental factors, such as soil nitrate, soil aggregate size, soil hydraulic conductivity, total soil nitrogen, soil denitrification, soil respiration have been all observed to be log-normally distributed [5]. Litter degradation rates depend on many coupled, multiplicative factors, which provides a fundamental basis for the lognormal distribution. Using this insight, we systematically estimated the mean and variance of log k for 512 data sets from the LIDET study. We find the mean strongly correlates with temperature and precipitation, while the variance appears to be uncorrelated with main environmental factors and is thus likely more correlated with chemical composition and/or ecology. Results indicate the possibility that the distribution in rates reflects, at least in part, the distribution of microbial niches. [1] B. P. Boudreau, B.~R. Ruddick, American Journal of Science,291, 507, (1991). [2] M

  8. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  9. Thulium heat source IR D Project 91-031

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Newman, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the Thulium Heat Source study is to determine the performance capability and evaluate the safety and environmental aspects of a thulium-170 heat source. Thulium-170 has several attractive features, including the fact that it decays to a stable, chemically innocuous isotope in a relatively short time. A longer-range goal is to attract government funding for the development, fabrication, and demonstration testing in an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) of one or more thulium isotope power (TIP) prototype systems. The approach is to study parametrically the performance of thulium-170 heat source designs in the power range of 5-50 kW{sub th}.more » At least three heat source designs will be characterized in this power range to assess their performance, mass, and volume. The authors will determine shielding requirements, and consider the safety and environmental aspects of their use.« less

  10. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  11. Rare small intestinal volvulus from entrapment in hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions in a 45-year-old lady

    PubMed Central

    Olaoye, Iyiade Olatunde; Adesina, Micheal Dapo

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal volvulus is rare in adults and rarely caused by string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Similar adhesions were described in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. We report a 45-year-old lady with small intestinal volvulus from entrapment of a loop in string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Her plain radiographs showed a significant shadow of the trapped loop. PMID:28003317

  12. Rare small intestinal volvulus from entrapment in hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions in a 45-year-old lady.

    PubMed

    Olaoye, Iyiade Olatunde; Adesina, Micheal Dapo

    2016-12-20

    Small intestinal volvulus is rare in adults and rarely caused by string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Similar adhesions were described in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. We report a 45-year-old lady with small intestinal volvulus from entrapment of a loop in string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Her plain radiographs showed a significant shadow of the trapped loop. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Be Prepared Safe Citizen Day Organize Important Medical Information ER Checklists Preparing for Emergencies Be ready to ... anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. ...

  14. Monogroove liquid heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard F. (Inventor); Edelstein, Fred (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid supply control is disclosed for a heat transfer system which transports heat by liquid-vapor phase change of a working fluid. An assembly (10) of monogroove heat pipe legs (15) can be operated automatically as either heat acquisition devices or heat discharge sources. The liquid channels (27) of the heat pipe legs (15) are connected to a reservoir (35) which is filled and drained by respective filling and draining valves (30, 32). Information from liquid level sensors (50, 51) on the reservoir (35) is combined (60) with temperature information (55) from the liquid heat exchanger (12) and temperature information (56) from the assembly vapor conduit (42) to regulate filling and draining of the reservoir (35), so that the reservoir (35) in turn serves the liquid supply/drain needs of the heat pipe legs (15), on demand, by passive capillary action (20, 28).

  15. Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.

    2017-12-01

    Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low

  16. Optical detection of radon decay in air

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    An optical radon detection method is presented. Radon decay is directly measured by observing the secondary radiolumines cence light that alpha particles excite in air, and the selectivity of coincident photon detection is further enhanced with online pulse-shape analysis. The sensitivity of a demonstration device was 6.5 cps/Bq/l and the minimum detectable concentration was 12 Bq/m3 with a 1 h integration time. The presented technique paves the way for optical approaches in rapid radon detec tion, and it can be applied beyond radon to the analysis of any alpha-active sample which can be placed in the measurement chamber. PMID:26867800

  17. Radiative corrections to the η(') Dalitz decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husek, Tomáš; Kampf, Karol; Novotný, Jiří; Leupold, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    We provide the complete set of radiative corrections to the Dalitz decays η(')→ℓ+ℓ-γ beyond the soft-photon approximation, i.e., over the whole range of the Dalitz plot and with no restrictions on the energy of a radiative photon. The corrections inevitably depend on the η(')→ γ*γ(*) transition form factors. For the singly virtual transition form factor appearing, e.g., in the bremsstrahlung correction, recent dispersive calculations are used. For the one-photon-irreducible contribution at the one-loop level (for the doubly virtual form factor), we use a vector-meson-dominance-inspired model while taking into account the η -η' mixing.

  18. Total decay and transition rates from LQCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Maxwell T.; Meyer, Harvey B.; Robaina, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We present a new technique for extracting total transition rates into final states with any number of hadrons from lattice QCD. The method involves constructing a finite-volume Euclidean four-point function whose corresponding infinite-volume spectral function gives access to the decay and transition rates into all allowed final states. The inverse problem of calculating the spectral function is solved via the Backus-Gilbert method, which automatically includes a smoothing procedure. This smoothing is in fact required so that an infinite-volume limit of the spectral function exists. Using a numerical toy example we find that reasonable precision can be achieved with realistic lattice data. In addition, we discuss possible extensions of our approach and, as an example application, prospects for applying the formalism to study the onset of deep-inelastic scattering. More details are given in the published version of this work, Ref. [1].

  19. Photocounting distributions for exponentially decaying sources.

    PubMed

    Teich, M C; Card, H C

    1979-05-01

    Exact photocounting distributions are obtained for a pulse of light whose intensity is exponentially decaying in time, when the underlying photon statistics are Poisson. It is assumed that the starting time for the sampling interval (which is of arbitrary duration) is uniformly distributed. The probability of registering n counts in the fixed time T is given in terms of the incomplete gamma function for n >/= 1 and in terms of the exponential integral for n = 0. Simple closed-form expressions are obtained for the count mean and variance. The results are expected to be of interest in certain studies involving spontaneous emission, radiation damage in solids, and nuclear counting. They will also be useful in neurobiology and psychophysics, since habituation and sensitization processes may sometimes be characterized by the same stochastic model.

  20. Hot Electrons from Two-Plasmon Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. A.; Dubois, D. F.

    2000-10-01

    We solve, self-consistently, the relativistic quasilinear diffusion equation and Zakharov's model equations of Langmuir wave (LW) and ion acoustic wave (IAW) turbulence, in two dimensions, for saturated states of the Two-Plasmon Decay instability. Parameters are those of the shorter gradient scale-length (50 microns) high temperature (4 keV) inhomogeneous plasmas anticipated at LLE’s Omega laser facility. We calculate the fraction of incident laser power absorbed in hot electron production as a function of laser intensity for a plane-wave laser field propagating parallel to the background density gradient. Two distinct regimes are identified: In the strong-turbulent regime, hot electron bursts occur intermittently in time, well correlated with collapse in the LW and IAW fields. A significant fraction of the incident laser power ( ~10%) is absorbed by hot electrons during a single burst. In the weak or convective regime, relatively constant rates of hot electron production are observed at much reduced intensities.

  1. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  2. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  3. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  4. Surface Evolution from Orbital Decay on Phobos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, Terry; Asphaug, Erik; Spitale, Joseph; Hemingway, Douglas; Rhoden, Alyssa; Henning, Wade; Bills, Bruce; Kattenhorn, Simon; Walker, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Phobos, the innermost satellite of Mars, displays an extensive system of grooves that are mostly symmetric about its sub-Mars point. Phobos is steadily spiraling inward due to the tides it raises, and will suffer tidal disruption before colliding with Mars. We calculate the surface stress field of the de-orbiting satellite and show that the first signs of tidal disruption are already present on its surface. Most of Phobos’ prominent grooves have an excellent correlation with computed stress orientations. The model predicts an interior that has very low strength on the tidal evolution timescale, overlain by a ~10-100 m exterior shell that has elastic properties similar to lunar regolith.Shortly after the Viking spacecraft obtained the first geomorphic images of Phobos, it was proposed that stresses from orbital decay cause grooves. But, assuming a homogeneous Phobos, it proved impossible to account for the build-up of failure stress in the exterior regardless of the value assumed for Phobos’ rigidity. Hence, the tidal model languished. Here, we revisit the tidal origin of surface fractures with a more detailed treatment that shows the production of significant stress in a surface layer, with a very strong correlation to the geometry of grooves.Our model results applied to surface observations imply that Phobos has a rubble pile interior that is nearly strengthless. A lunar-like cohesive regolith outer layer overlays the rubble pile interior. This outer layer behaves elastically and can experience significant tidal stress at levels able to drive tensile failure. Fissures can develop as the global body deforms due to increasing tides related to orbital decay. Phobos may have an active and evolving surface; an exciting target for further exploration. The interior predictions of this model can be evaluated by future detailed studies performed by an orbiter or lander.

  5. Two-photon decay in gold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.

    2006-07-15

    We have measured the energy differential transition probabilities for the two-photon decay of K vacancies in gold atoms (nuclear charge Z=79). This is the heaviest atom for which this information has been obtained, and so is most sensitive to relativistic effects. The experiment determined the shape of the continuum radiation for the transitions 2s{yields}1s, 3s{yields}1s, 3d{yields}1s, and (4s+4d){yields}1s at an emission pair opening angle {theta}={pi}/2. Our results for 3d{yields}1s and (4s+4d){yields}1s extend to energies above and below the region of the intermediate state resonances. No relativistic calculations exist for Au, so we compare with calculations by Mu and Crasemann andmore » Tong et al. for Ag (Z=47) and Xe (Z=54). For equal-energy, back-to-back two-photon decay, the calculations show an increase in transition probability with Z for the 2s{yields}1s and 3d{yields}1s transitions. In contrast, our data, at Z=79, corrected for the angular distribution, give a smaller transition probability than the lower-Z experimental results of Ilakovac et al. and Mokler et al. for Ag and Xe. The shapes of the two-photon continua in our data are in general agreement with theory except that we find anomalously high values for the differential two-photon transition probability for the 3s{yields}1s transition near y=0.35, where y is the fraction of the transition energy carried by the lower-energy photon.« less

  6. A comprehensive study of Interatomic Coulombic Decay in argon dimers: Extracting R-dependent absolute decay rates from the experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Rist, J.; Miteva, T.; Gaire, B.; ...

    2016-09-15

    In this paper we present a comprehensive and detailed study of Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD) occurring after irradiating argon dimers with XUV-synchrotron radiation. A manifold of different decay channels is observed and the corresponding initial and final states are assigned. Additionally, the effect of nuclear dynamics on the ICD electron spectrum is examined for one specific decay channel. The internuclear distance-dependent width Γ(R) of the decay is obtained from the measured kinetic energy release distribution of the ions employing a classical nuclear dynamics model.

  7. Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-06

    ENGINEERS FROM AMES RESEARCH CENTER AND MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER REMOVE AVCOAT SEGMENTS FROM THE SURFACE OF THE ORION HEAT SHIELD, THE PROTECTIVE SHELL DESIGNED TO HELP THE NEXT GENERATION CREW MODULE WITHSTAND THE HEAT OF ATMOSPHERIC REENTRY. THE HEAT SHIELD FLEW TO SPACE DURING THE EFT-1 FULL SCALL FLIGHT TEST OF ORION IN DECEMBER 2014

  8. Heat Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ball Metal's design of ducting and controls for series of roof top heat exchangers was inspired by Tech Briefs. Heat exchangers are installed on eight press and coating lines used to decorate sheet metal. The heat recovery system provides an estimated energy savings of more than $250,000 per year.

  9. HEAT TRANSFER MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Wislicenus, G.F.

    1961-07-11

    A heat exchanger is adapted to unifomly cool a spherical surface. Equations for the design of a spherical heat exchanger hav~g tubes with a uniform center-to-center spining are given. The heat exchanger is illustrated in connection with a liquid-fueled reactor.

  10. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  11. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J [Walnut Creek, CA; Scheibner, Karl F [Tracy, CA; Ault, Earl R [Livermore, CA

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  12. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  13. Microwave processing heats up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  14. A new heat flux model for the Antarctic Peninsula incorporating spatially variable upper crustal radiogenic heat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton-Johnson, A.; Halpin, J. A.; Whittaker, J. M.; Graham, F. S.; Watson, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    A new method for modeling heat flux shows that the upper crust contributes up to 70% of the Antarctic Peninsula's subglacial heat flux and that heat flux values are more variable at smaller spatial resolutions than geophysical methods can resolve. Results indicate a higher heat flux on the east and south of the Peninsula (mean 81 mW m-2) where silicic rocks predominate, than on the west and north (mean 67 mW m-2) where volcanic arc and quartzose sediments are dominant. While the data supports the contribution of heat-producing element-enriched granitic rocks to high heat flux values, sedimentary rocks can be of comparative importance dependent on their provenance and petrography. Models of subglacial heat flux must utilize a heterogeneous upper crust with variable radioactive heat production if they are to accurately predict basal conditions of the ice sheet. Our new methodology and data set facilitate improved numerical model simulations of ice sheet dynamics.Plain Language SummaryAs the climate changes, the Antarctic ice sheet represents the single largest potential source of sea level rise. However, one key parameter controlling how the ice sheet flows remains poorly constrained: the effect of <span class="hlt">heat</span> derived from the Earth's geology on the base of the ice sheet (known as subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux). Although this may not seem like a lot of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, under slow-flowing ice, this "<span class="hlt">heat</span> flux" can control how well the ice sheet can flow over the rocks and even lead to melting of the ice at its base. Current models for Antarctica's <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux use geophysics to determine how thin the crust is and consequently how easily <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the Earth's mantle can warm the surface. We show here that <span class="hlt">heat</span> produced by radioactive <span class="hlt">decay</span> within the Earth's crust can have an even greater and much more variable contribution to the subglacial <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux than estimated by these previous models. We present a new methodology allowing this crustal <span class="hlt">heat</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376651"><span>Modeling transient <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer in nuclear waste repositories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der</p> <p>2009-09-30</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">heat</span> of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste <span class="hlt">heat</span> may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> generated from the waste canister and analyzes the <span class="hlt">heat</span> distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling <span class="hlt">heat</span> flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the <span class="hlt">decay</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81..370R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81..370R"><span>Beta <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which <span class="hlt">decays</span> to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta <span class="hlt">decay</span> is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, <span class="hlt">decay</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta <span class="hlt">decay</span> of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The <span class="hlt">decay</span> scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6562578','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6562578"><span>A corrosive resistant <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Richlen, S.L.</p> <p>1987-08-10</p> <p>A corrosive and erosive resistant <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger which recovers <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a contaminated <span class="hlt">heat</span> stream. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger wall. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> stream is transferred by radiation to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger wall. <span class="hlt">Heat</span> is removed from the outer <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger wall by a <span class="hlt">heat</span> recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NW.....98.1009V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NW.....98.1009V"><span>Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone <span class="hlt">decay</span> in ants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was <span class="hlt">heated</span> during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone <span class="hlt">decay</span> dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/272554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/272554"><span>Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal <span class="hlt">decay</span> <span class="hlt">heat</span> of spent research reactor fuel assemblies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>As part of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, aremore » not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5867030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5867030"><span>Analysis of loss of <span class="hlt">decay-heat</span>-removal sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harrington, R.M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report Loss of DHR Sequences at Browns Ferry Unit One - Accident Sequence Analysis (NUREG/CR-2973). The Loss of DHR investigation is the third in a series of accident studies concerning the BWR 4 - MK I containment plant design. These studies, sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program, have been conducted at ORNL with the full cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The purpose of the SASA studies is to predetermine the probable course of postulated severe accidents so as to establish the timing andmore » the sequence of events. The SASA studies also produce recommendations concerning the implementation of better system design and better emergency operating instructions and operator training. The ORNL studies also include a detailed, best-estimate calculation of the release and transport of radioactive fission products following postulated severe accidents.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/863661','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/863661"><span>Chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Greiner, Leonard</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system is disclosed for use in <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the <span class="hlt">heat</span> storage capacity of the chemical <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump is utilized to <span class="hlt">heat</span> the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home <span class="hlt">heating</span> from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump part of the system <span class="hlt">heats</span> or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily <span class="hlt">heat</span> and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar <span class="hlt">heating</span> during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for <span class="hlt">heating</span> the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/865075','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/865075"><span>Absorption <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An improvement in an absorption <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any <span class="hlt">heat</span> is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before <span class="hlt">heat</span> is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchange than a conventional system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730003240','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730003240"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipe investigations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marshburn, J. P.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads, and the third is for low <span class="hlt">heat</span> loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the <span class="hlt">heat</span> input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920002282&hterms=asphalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dasphalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920002282&hterms=asphalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dasphalt"><span>Urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Hongsuk H.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of urban <span class="hlt">heat</span> island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban <span class="hlt">heating</span> is attributable to a large <span class="hlt">heat</span> flux from the rapidly <span class="hlt">heating</span> surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal <span class="hlt">heating</span> begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16486686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16486686"><span>Search for exclusive multibody non- <span class="hlt">decays</span> at the resonance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weaver, K M; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J</p> <p>2006-01-27</p> <p>Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present searches for 25 charmless <span class="hlt">decay</span> modes of the psi(3770), mostly multibody final states. No evidence for charmless <span class="hlt">decays</span> is found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21672','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21672"><span>Nondestructive evaluation of incipient <span class="hlt">decay</span> in hardwood logs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Crystal Pilon; Brian K. Brashaw</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Decay</span> can cause significant damage to high-value hardwood timber. New nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are urgently needed to effectively detect incipient <span class="hlt">decay</span> in hardwood timber at the earliest possible stage. Currently, the primary means of inspecting timber relies on visual assessment criteria. When visual inspections are used exclusively, they provide...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24576962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24576962"><span>[Tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> and its complication prognosis in smokers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> prevention and treatment in smokers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhRvD..41..895D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhRvD..41..895D"><span>Penguin-mediated exclusive hadronic weak B <span class="hlt">decays</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deshpande, N. G.; Trampetic, J.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>We estimate a number of exclusive two-body charmless <span class="hlt">decays</span> of B+ and B- mesons. Some of these are mediated predominantly through one-loop gluon exchange, while others have a comparable or larger contribution from the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed tree diagrams. The rates for several <span class="hlt">decays</span> are in an observable range and should test the standard model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21611994-meson-production-decays-wasa-cosy','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21611994-meson-production-decays-wasa-cosy"><span>Meson Production and <span class="hlt">Decays</span> with WASA at COSY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schadmand, Susan</p> <p>2011-10-21</p> <p>The WASA-at-COSY physics program focuses on light meson <span class="hlt">decays</span> where rare <span class="hlt">decays</span> are used to scrutinize symmetries and symmetry breaking. The structure of hadrons is probed with transition form factors and hadron spectroscopy while hadron dynamics is studied via reaction dynamics and few body reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED367516.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED367516.pdf"><span>Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth <span class="hlt">Decay</span>. A SERVE Research Brief.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.</p> <p></p> <p>This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27849','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/27849"><span>Current Research on Wood <span class="hlt">Decay</span> in the USDA Forest Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Harold H. Burdsall Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Forest Service's research on <span class="hlt">decay</span> fungi and <span class="hlt">decay</span> caused by fungi is done mainly in two research work units at the Forest Products Laboratory. One unit, the Center for Forest Mycology Research, performs biosystematic research on root-rot and products-rot fungi in the genera Armillaria, Phellinus, and Phlebia and maintains the culture collection supporting...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352587','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352587"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.</p> <p></p> <p>For this research, we study the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their <span class="hlt">decay</span>. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) <span class="hlt">decay</span> with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle <span class="hlt">decay</span> in the whole crossovermore » region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of quasiparticle excitations. Finally, we account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite <span class="hlt">decay</span>: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1352587-decay-bogoliubov-excitations-one-dimensional-bose-gases','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1352587-decay-bogoliubov-excitations-one-dimensional-bose-gases"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.</p> <p>2016-07-11</p> <p>For this research, we study the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their <span class="hlt">decay</span>. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) <span class="hlt">decay</span> with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle <span class="hlt">decay</span> in the whole crossovermore » region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of quasiparticle excitations. Finally, we account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite <span class="hlt">decay</span>: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMSP11A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMSP11A..01C"><span>Statistical Study of Rapid Penumbral <span class="hlt">Decay</span> Associated with Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, W.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>We present results of statistical study of rapid penumbral <span class="hlt">decay</span> associated with flares. In total, we investigated 402 events from 05/09/98 to 07/17/04, including 40 X-class, 173 M-class and 189 C-class flares. We show strong evidence that penumbral segments <span class="hlt">decayed</span> rapidly and permanently right after many flares. The rapid changes, which can be identified in the time profiles of white-light(WL) mean intensity are permanent, not transient, thus are not due to flare emissions. Our study shows that penumbral <span class="hlt">decay</span> is more likely to be detected when associated with large solar flares. The larger the flare magnitude, the stronger the penumbral <span class="hlt">decay</span> is. For X-class flares, almost 50% events show distinct <span class="hlt">decay</span>. But for M- and C-class flares, this percentage drops to 16% and 10%, respectively. For all the events that clear <span class="hlt">decay</span> can be observed, we find that the locations of penumbral <span class="hlt">decay</span> are associated with flare emissions and are connected by prominent TRACE post-flare loops. To explain these observations, we propose a reconnection picture in that the penumbral fields change from a highly inclined to a more vertical configuration, leading to penumbral <span class="hlt">decay</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&id=EJ926580','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&id=EJ926580"><span>The Importance of Tooth <span class="hlt">Decay</span> Prevention in Children under Three</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-92.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol1-sec35-92.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.92 - <span class="hlt">Decay</span>-in-storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Decay</span>-in-storage. 35.92 Section 35.92 Energy NUCLEAR...-storage. (a) A licensee may hold byproduct material with a physical half-life of less than or equal to 120 days for <span class="hlt">decay</span>-in-storage before disposal without regard to its radioactivity if it— (1) Monitors...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-92.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol1-sec35-92.pdf"><span>10 CFR 35.92 - <span class="hlt">Decay</span>-in-storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Decay</span>-in-storage. 35.92 Section 35.92 Energy NUCLEAR...-storage. (a) A licensee may hold byproduct material with a physical half-life of less than or equal to 120 days for <span class="hlt">decay</span>-in-storage before disposal without regard to its radioactivity if it— (1) Monitors...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911160"><span>Coleoptera Associated with <span class="hlt">Decaying</span> Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with <span class="hlt">decaying</span> wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. <span class="hlt">Decaying</span> wood was sampled and classified into four stages of <span class="hlt">decay</span>, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and <span class="hlt">decay</span> was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. <span class="hlt">Decay</span> wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in <span class="hlt">decaying</span> Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of <span class="hlt">decay</span> of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.806...70F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.806...70F"><span>Search for the β <span class="hlt">decay</span> of 96Zr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finch, S. W.; Tornow, W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>96Zr and 48Ca are unique among double-β <span class="hlt">decay</span> candidate nuclides in that they may also undergo single-β <span class="hlt">decay</span>. In the case of 96Zr, the single-β <span class="hlt">decay</span> mode is dominated by the fourth-forbidden β <span class="hlt">decay</span> with a 119 keV Q value. A search was conducted for the β <span class="hlt">decay</span> of 96Zr by observing the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the daughter 96Nb nucleus. Two coaxial high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to detect the γ-ray cascade produced by the daughter nucleus as it de-excited to the ground state. The experiment was carried out at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility and produced 685.7 days of data with a 17.91 g enriched sample. No counts were seen above background, producing a limit of T1/2 > 2.4 ×1019 year. This is the first experimental search that is able to discern between the β <span class="hlt">decay</span> and the double-β <span class="hlt">decay</span> to an excited state of 96Zr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12914','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12914"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> under basementless houses prevented by soil covers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jesse D. Diller</p> <p>1954-01-01</p> <p>Sills and joists of basementless houses on wet sites are subject to <span class="hlt">decay</span>. Moisture vapor rising from the soil will condense on wood during cold weather (fig. 1). If the wood stays wet, fungi attack it and ultimately cause <span class="hlt">decay</span> and possibly structural failure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.152..156M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.152..156M"><span>Correlation of gravestone <span class="hlt">decay</span> and air quality 1960-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mooers, H. D.; Carlson, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Inkpen, R. J.; Loeffler, S.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Evaluation of spatial and temporal variability in surface recession of lead-lettered Carrara marble gravestones provides a quantitative measure of acid flux to the stone surfaces and is closely related to local land use and air quality. Correlation of stone <span class="hlt">decay</span>, land use, and air quality for the period after 1960 when reliable estimates of atmospheric pollution are available is evaluated. Gravestone <span class="hlt">decay</span> and SO2 measurements are interpolated spatially using deterministic and geostatistical techniques. A general lack of spatial correlation was identified and therefore a land-use-based technique for correlation of stone <span class="hlt">decay</span> and air quality is employed. Decadally averaged stone <span class="hlt">decay</span> is highly correlated with land use averaged spatially over an optimum radius of ≈7 km even though air quality, determined by records from the UK monitoring network, is not highly correlated with gravestone <span class="hlt">decay</span>. The relationships among stone <span class="hlt">decay</span>, air-quality, and land use is complicated by the relatively low spatial density of both gravestone <span class="hlt">decay</span> and air quality data and the fact that air quality data is available only as annual averages and therefore seasonal dependence cannot be evaluated. However, acid deposition calculated from gravestone <span class="hlt">decay</span> suggests that the deposition efficiency of SO2 has increased appreciably since 1980 indicating an increase in the SO2 oxidation process possibly related to reactions with ammonia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800003853','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800003853"><span>Orbit <span class="hlt">decay</span> analysis of STS upper stage boosters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>An orbit <span class="hlt">decay</span> analysis of the space transportation system upper stage boosters is presented. An overview of the computer trajectory programs, DSTROB, algorithm is presented. Atmospheric drag and perturbation models are described. The development of launch windows, such that the transfer orbit will <span class="hlt">decay</span> within two years, is discussed. A study of the lifetimes of geosynchronous transfer orbits is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21035960-decay-properties-charm-beauty-open-flavour-mesons','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21035960-decay-properties-charm-beauty-open-flavour-mesons"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> properties of charm and beauty open flavour mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kumar Rai, Ajay; Vinodkumar, P. C.</p> <p></p> <p>The masses of S and P states, pseudoscalar and vector <span class="hlt">decay</span> constants, leptonic, semileptonic <span class="hlt">decay</span> widths of charm (D) and beauty (B) open flavour mesons have been computed in the framework of Coulomb and power potential of the form V(r) = -({alpha}{sub c}/r)+Ar{sup v}. The results are compared with other theoretical as well as experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhLB..114..179T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhLB..114..179T"><span>Weak meson <span class="hlt">decays</span> and the 1/Nc expansion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadić, Dubravko; Trampetić, Josip</p> <p>1982-07-01</p> <p>In the QCD corrected weak hamiltonian, the leading terms in the large-Nc limit give a reasonable description of D--> Kπ <span class="hlt">decays</span> and good values of K --> ππ <span class="hlt">decay</span> amplitudes. Alexander von Humboldt Fellow of Max-Planck Institut für Physik und Astrophysik, Munich, Fed. Rep. Germany.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55905','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55905"><span>Improvements in <span class="hlt">decay</span> resistance based on moisture exclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Moisture content has an effect on the biological <span class="hlt">decay</span> of wood. The literature states that serious <span class="hlt">decay</span> occurs when the moisture content of wood is above the fiber saturation point (FSP), which is the measurement of the moisture content of wood when the cell walls are saturated and the cell cavities free from water (average 30%). We can chemically modify wood...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-644.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1065-644.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1065-644.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1065-644.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-644.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1065-644.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1065-644.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1065-644.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1065-644.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1065-644.pdf"><span>40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-<span class="hlt">decay</span> leak rate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37853','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/37853"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Examination of trees for the presence and extent of <span class="hlt">decay</span> should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the <span class="hlt">decay</span> improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940015895','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940015895"><span>Flexible <span class="hlt">heating</span> head for induction <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor)</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>An induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively <span class="hlt">heated</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993nasa.reptY....F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993nasa.reptY....F"><span>Flexible <span class="hlt">heating</span> head for induction <span class="hlt">heating</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>An induction <span class="hlt">heating</span> head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively <span class="hlt">heated</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864486','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864486"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pump apparatus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluids to the different groups. As <span class="hlt">heat</span> is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that <span class="hlt">heat</span> is continuously available for space <span class="hlt">heating</span>. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer fluid for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of <span class="hlt">heat</span>, including a source of low-grade <span class="hlt">heat</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/873599','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/873599"><span>Active microchannel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The present invention is an active microchannel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger with an active <span class="hlt">heat</span> source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) <span class="hlt">heat</span> from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a <span class="hlt">heat</span> source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012160','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012160"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> tube device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The present invention discloses a <span class="hlt">heat</span> tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer <span class="hlt">heat</span> to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the <span class="hlt">heat</span> tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the <span class="hlt">heat</span> transfer from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020076086','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020076086"><span>Miniature <span class="hlt">Heat</span> Pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "<span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU <span class="hlt">heat</span> from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1182..292J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1182..292J"><span>Investigation of Periodic Nuclear <span class="hlt">Decay</span> Data with Spectral Analysis Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P.; Buncher, J.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, T.; Hoft, A.; Horan, T.; Jenkins, J.; Kerford, J.; Lee, R.; Mattes, J.; Morris, D.; Mudry, R.; Newport, J.; Petrelli, M.; Silver, M.; Stewart, C.; Terry, B.; Willenberg, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear <span class="hlt">decay</span> experiments displaying unexplained periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data was from 56Mn <span class="hlt">decay</span> reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, 32Si <span class="hlt">decay</span> reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and 226Ra <span class="hlt">decay</span> reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt in Germany. All three data sets possess the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additionally a spectral comparison of the local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and the plasma speed and latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) was performed. Following analysis of these six possible causal factors, their reciprocals, and their linear combinations, a possible link between nuclear <span class="hlt">decay</span> rate fluctuations and the linear combination of the HCS latitude and 1/R motivates searching for a possible mechanism with such properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10453E..28B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10453E..28B"><span>Infrared light sensor applied to early detection of tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benjumea, Eberto; Espitia, José; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, Cesar</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The approach dentistry to dental care is gradually shifting to a model focused on early detection and oral-disease prevention; one of the most important methods of prevention of tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> is opportune diagnosis of <span class="hlt">decay</span> and reconstruction. The present study aimed to introduce a procedure for early diagnosis of tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> and to compare result of experiment of this method with other common treatments. In this setup, a laser emitting infrared light is injected in core of one bifurcated fiber-optic and conduced to tooth surface and with the same bifurcated fiber the radiation reflected for the same tooth is collected and them conduced to surface of sensor that measures thermal and light frequencies to detect early signs of <span class="hlt">decay</span> below a tooth surface, where demineralization is difficult to spot with x-ray technology. This device will can be used to diagnose tooth <span class="hlt">decay</span> without any chemicals and rays such as high power lasers or X-rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11305016G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11305016G"><span>Mesonic <span class="hlt">Decay</span> of Charm Hypernuclei Λc+</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Fontoura, Carlos E.; Krein, Gastão</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Λc+ hypernuclei are expected to have binding energies and other properties similar to those of strange hypernuclei in view of the similarity between the quark structures of the strange and charmed hyperons, namely Λ(uds) and Λc+(udc). One striking difference however occurs in their mesonic <span class="hlt">decays</span>, as there is almost no Pauli blocking in the nucleonic <span class="hlt">decay</span> of a charm hypernucleus because the final-state nucleons leave the nucleus at high energies. The nuclear medium nevertheless affects the mesonic <span class="hlt">decays</span> of charm hypernucleus because the nuclear mean fields modify the masses of the charm hyperon. In the present communication we present results of a first investigation of the effects of finite baryon density on different weak mesonic <span class="hlt">decay</span> channels of the Λc+ baryon. We found a non-negligible reduction of the <span class="hlt">decay</span> widths as compared to their vacuum values.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..96i4005X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvD..96i4005X"><span>Strong and radiative <span class="hlt">decays</span> of the doubly charmed baryons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Li-Ye; Wang, Kai-Lei; Lü, Qi-Fang; Zhong, Xian-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Lin</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>We have systematically studied the strong and radiative <span class="hlt">decays</span> of the low-lying 1 P -wave doubly charmed baryons. Some interesting observations are: (i) The states Ξcc * and Ωcc * with JP=3 /2+ have a fairly large <span class="hlt">decay</span> rate into the Ξc cγ and Ωc cγ channels with a width ˜15 and ˜7 keV , respectively. (ii) The lowest lying excited doubly charmed baryons are dominated by the 1 P ρ mode excitations, which should be quite narrow states. They <span class="hlt">decay</span> into the ground state with JP=1 /2+ through the radiative transitions with a significant ratio. (iii) The total <span class="hlt">decay</span> widths of the first orbital excitations of λ mode (1 Pλ states with JP=1 /2-, 3 /2-, 5 /2-) are about Γ ˜100 MeV , and the ratio between the radiative and hadronic <span class="hlt">decay</span> widths is about O (10-3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FrP.....5...57S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FrP.....5...57S"><span>The lambda mechanism of the 0nbb-<span class="hlt">decay</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Šimkovic, Fedor; Štefánik, Dušan; Dvornický, Rastislav</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The lambda mechanism (WL-WR exchange) of the neutrinoless double beta <span class="hlt">decay</span> (0nbb-<span class="hlt">decay</span>), which has origin in left-right symmetric model with right-handed gauge boson at TeV scale, is investigated. The revisited formalism of the 0nbb-<span class="hlt">decay</span>, which includes higher order terms of nucleon current, is exploited. The corresponding nuclear matrix elements are calculated within quasiparticle random phase approximation with partial restoration of the isospin symmetry for nuclei of experimental interest. A possibility to distinguish between the conventional light neutrino mass (WL-WL exchange) and lambda mechanisms by observation of the 0nbb-<span class="hlt">decay</span> in several nuclei is discussed. A qualitative comparison of effective lepton number violating couplings associated with these two mechanisms is performed. By making viable assumption about the seesaw type mixing of light and heavy neutrinos it is concluded that there is a dominance of the conventional light neutrino mass mechanism in the <span class="hlt">decay</span> rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97a5021J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvD..97a5021J"><span>Charming new physics in rare B <span class="hlt">decays</span> and mixing?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jäger, Sebastian; Leslie, Kirsten; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>We conduct a systematic study of the impact of new physics in quark-level b →c c ¯ s transitions on B physics, in particular rare B <span class="hlt">decays</span> and B -meson lifetime observables. We find viable scenarios where a sizable effect in rare semileptonic B <span class="hlt">decays</span> can be generated, compatible with experimental indications and with a possible dependence on the dilepton invariant mass, while being consistent with constraints from radiative B <span class="hlt">decay</span> and the measured Bs width difference. We show how, if the effect is generated at the weak scale or beyond, strong renormalization-group effects can enhance the impact on semileptonic <span class="hlt">decays</span> while leaving radiative B <span class="hlt">decay</span> largely unaffected. A good complementarity of the different B -physics observables implies that precise measurements of lifetime observables at LHCb may be able to confirm, refine, or rule out this scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5867..215T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5867..215T"><span>An Improved Recovery Algorithm for <span class="hlt">Decayed</span> AES Key Schedule Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsow, Alex</p> <p></p> <p>A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from <span class="hlt">decayed</span> memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% <span class="hlt">decay</span>, well over twice the <span class="hlt">decay</span> capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% <span class="hlt">decay</span>. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images <span class="hlt">decayed</span> up to 60%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPPP..258..102P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NPPP..258..102P"><span>Test of SU(3) Symmetry in Hyperon Semileptonic <span class="hlt">Decays</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pham, T. N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Existing analyzes of baryon semileptonic <span class="hlt">decays</span> indicate the presence of a small SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic <span class="hlt">decays</span>, but to provide evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking, one would need a relation similar to the Gell-Mann-Okubo (GMO) baryon mass formula which is satisfied to a few percents, showing evidence for a small SU(3) symmetry breaking effect in the GMO mass formula. In this talk, I would like to present a similar GMO relation obtained in a recent work for hyperon semileptonic <span class="hlt">decay</span> axial vector current matrix elements. Using these generalized GMO relations for the measured axial vector current to vector current form factor ratios, it is shown that SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic <span class="hlt">decays</span> is of 5-11% and confirms the validity of the Cabibbo model for hyperon semi-leptonic <span class="hlt">decays</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JAP....67.5178S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JAP....67.5178S"><span>Remanent-magnetization <span class="hlt">decay</span> in CoCr films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skorjanec, J.; Cottles, V.; Close, J.; Iverson, P.; Edwards, J.; Dahlberg, E. Dan</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the remanent magnetization of several thin films of CoCr has been studied using the extraordinary Hall effect as a probe of the component of the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the films. Consistent with previous measurements of CoCr, the remanent magnetization <span class="hlt">decays</span> quasilogarithmically with time after the removal of a saturating magnetic field. In the present work the effect of a magnetically soft keeper layer on the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the magnetization has been investigated. It is found that the keeper layer does not affect the remanent magnetization nor does it decrease the <span class="hlt">decay</span> rate of the perpendicular magnetization. This result indicates that the soft keeper layer is not effective at screening the demagnetization field on a length scale relevant to the <span class="hlt">decay</span>-producing fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AIPC.1953n0029S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AIPC.1953n0029S"><span>Alpha-<span class="hlt">decay</span> chains of superheavy nuclei 292-296118</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, U. K.; Kumawat, M.; Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Jain, S. K.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>We have employed relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach for the study of even-even superheavy nuclei with Z = 118 which is the last and recent observed element in the periodic chart so far. Our study includes binding energies, Qα values, alpha-<span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives and spontaneous <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives along with comparison of available experimental data and the results of FRDM calculations. We find an excellent match with the only known <span class="hlt">decay</span> chain of 294118 for Z = 118 so far and predict <span class="hlt">decay</span> chain of 292118 and 296118 in consistency with known experimental <span class="hlt">decay</span> chains and FRDM results. These results may provide a very helpful insight to conduct experiments for realizing the presence of nuclei with Z = 118.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890003244','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890003244"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pipe cooling system with sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Silverstein, Calvin C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe cooling system which employs a sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic <span class="hlt">heat</span> is transported via a <span class="hlt">heat</span> pipe from the stagnation region to the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink material. The use of a sensible <span class="hlt">heat</span> sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission <span class="hlt">heat</span> load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJA...53..189S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJA...53..189S"><span><span class="hlt">Decay</span> properties of 256-339Ds superheavy nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santhosh, K. P.; Nithya, C.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">decay</span> properties of 84 isotopes of darmstadtium superheavy nuclei ( Z = 110) have been studied using various theoretical models. The proton emission half-lives, the alpha <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives, the spontaneous fission half-lives and the cluster <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives of all the isotopes are evaluated. The one-proton emission half-lives and the alpha <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives are predicted using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). The calculated alpha half-lives are compared with the available experimental results as well as with the predictions of other theoretical models. The predicted half-lives matches well with the experimental results. The one-proton half-lives are also compared with the predictions using other formalisms. The shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh et al. has been employed for calculating the spontaneous fission half-lives. A theoretical comparison of spontaneous fission half-lives with four different formalisms is performed. By comparing the one-proton emission half-lives, the alpha <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives and the spontaneous fission half-lives <span class="hlt">decay</span> modes are predicted for all the isotopes of Ds. It is seen that the isotopes within the range 256 ≤ A ≤ 263 and 279 ≤ A ≤ 339 <span class="hlt">decay</span> through spontaneous fission and the isotopes 264 ≤ A ≤ 278 exhibit alpha <span class="hlt">decay</span>. Cluster <span class="hlt">decay</span> half-lives are calculated using different models including the Coulomb and proximity potential (CPPM), for determining the magicities in the superheavy region. The effect of magicity at N = 184 and N = 202 were confirmed from the plot of log_{10}T_{1/2} versus neutron number of the daughter nuclei for the emission of different clusters. We hope that the systematic and detailed study of all the possible <span class="hlt">decay</span> modes of 256-339Ds using various theoretical models will be helpful in the experimental identification of the isotopes of the element in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.506 - <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. The manufactured home <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.506 - <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. The manufactured home <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.506 - <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. The manufactured home <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.506 - <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. The manufactured home <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title24-vol5-sec3280-506.pdf"><span>24 CFR 3280.506 - <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 <span class="hlt">Heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain. The manufactured home <span class="hlt">heat</span> loss/<span class="hlt">heat</span> gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26008','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26008"><span>Early detection and progression of <span class="hlt">decay</span> in L-joints and lap-joints in a moderate <span class="hlt">decay</span> hazard zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Carol A. Clausen; Terry L. Highley; Daniel L. Lindner</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Accelerated test methods are needed to evaluate the initiation and progression of <span class="hlt">decay</span> in wood exposed aboveground. The relationship between test conditions and initiation of <span class="hlt">decay</span>, however, is poorly understood. Southern pine and maple L-joints and lap-joints were exposed aboveground in a configuration that encouraged water entrapment at the Valley View Experimental...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvE..97a0103Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhRvE..97a0103Z"><span>Fourier <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction as a strong kinetic effect in one-dimensional hard-core gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Wen-ge</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>For a one-dimensional (1D) momentum conserving system, intensive studies have shown that generally its <span class="hlt">heat</span> current autocorrelation function (HCAF) tends to <span class="hlt">decay</span> in a power-law manner and results in the breakdown of the Fourier <span class="hlt">heat</span> conduction law in the thermodynamic limit. This has been recognized to be a dominant hydrodynamic effect. Here we show that, instead, the kinetic effect can be dominant in some cases and leads to the Fourier law for finite-size systems. Usually the HCAF undergoes a fast <span class="hlt">decaying</span> kinetic stage followed by a long slowly <span class="hlt">decaying</span> hydrodynamic tail. In a finite range of the system size, we find that whether the system follows the Fourier law depends on whether the kinetic stage dominates. Our Rapid Communication is illustrated by the 1D hard-core gas models with which the HCAF is derived analytically and verified numerically by molecular dynamics simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018A%26A...609A..31J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018A%26A...609A..31J"><span>Harvesting the <span class="hlt">decay</span> energy of 26Al to drive lightning discharge in protoplanetary discs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johansen, Anders; Okuzumi, Satoshi</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Chondrules in primitive meteorites likely formed by recrystallisation of dust aggregates that were flash-<span class="hlt">heated</span> to nearly complete melting. Chondrules may represent the building blocks of rocky planetesimals and protoplanets in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, but the source of ubiquitous thermal processing of their dust aggregate precursors remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that escape of positrons released in the <span class="hlt">decay</span> of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al leads to a large-scale charging of dense pebble structures, resulting in neutralisation by lightning discharge and flash-<span class="hlt">heating</span> of dust and pebbles. This charging mechanism is similar to a nuclear battery where a radioactive source charges a capacitor. We show that the nuclear battery effect operates in circumplanetesimal pebble discs. The extremely high pebble densities in such discs are consistent with conditions during chondrule <span class="hlt">heating</span> inferred from the high abundance of sodium within chondrules. The sedimented mid-plane layer of the protoplanetary disc may also be prone to charging by the emission of positrons, if the mass density of small dust there is at least an order of magnitude above the gas density. Our results imply that the <span class="hlt">decay</span> energy of 26Al can be harvested to drive intense lightning activity in protoplanetary discs. The total energy stored in positron emission is comparable to the energy needed to melt all solids in the protoplanetary disc. The efficiency of transferring the positron energy to the electric field nevertheless depends on the relatively unknown distribution and scale-dependence of pebble density gradients in circumplanetesimal pebble discs and in the protoplanetary disc mid-plane layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29400862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29400862"><span>Single-shot transient absorption spectroscopy with <span class="hlt">a</span> <span class="hlt">45</span>  ps pump-probe time delay range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kelly S; Wong, Cathy Y</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>We report a single-shot transient absorption apparatus that successfully uses a tilted pump pulse to spatially encode <span class="hlt">a</span> <span class="hlt">45</span> ps pump-probe time delay. The time delay range is significantly improved over other reported instruments by using a spatial light modulator to flatten the intensity of the excitation field at the sample position. The full time delay range of the instrument is demonstrated by measuring a long-lived dye. A signal-to-noise ratio of >35 is attained in 8 s. This advance will enable the measurement of excited state dynamics of systems that are not at structural equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/875286','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/875286"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An air <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, and with the indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/862951','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/862951"><span><span class="hlt">Heat</span> pump system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An air <span class="hlt">heating</span> and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers, and with the indoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor <span class="hlt">heat</span> exchangers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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