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Sample records for a-533-824 polyethylene terephthalate

  1. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  2. Waste product profile: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-02-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks are the primary product packaged in PET. Salad dressing, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products also use PET bottles. PET is also used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, ovenable trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early `70s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, it is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The primary market for recycled PET is the fiber industry, which uses PET for carpet fiber, sweaters and other clothing, and for other uses. Recycled PET can also be used for food and beverage containers. Export markets, particularly Asian countries, are becoming increasingly important.

  3. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2009-12-18

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  4. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene. 870.3470 Section 870.3470 Food and Drugs... polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene. (a) Identification. An intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a...

  5. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene. 870.3470 Section 870.3470 Food and Drugs... polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene. (a) Identification. An intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a...

  6. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... Procedure (19 CFR 207.2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on September 1, 2010 (75...

  7. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film... whether revocation of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to...

  8. Investigation of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changjun; Tong, Na; Song, Lixin; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1750 cm-1, while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1750 cm-1 and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated.

  9. [Characteristics of Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Chang-jun; Song, Li-xun; Zhang, Chong-hui; Zhang, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1 750 cm(-1), while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1 750 cm(-1) and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated. The research results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy show that the variations of the Raman spectra of PET fibers are closely related to. the chemical bonds and molecular structures of PET fibers. The surface of the PET treated with sodium hydroxide is rougher than that untreated, the surface roughness of the PET treated with sulfuric acid is reduced as compared to that untreated, while the surface roughness of the PET treated with copper sulphate is increased. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy are consistent with those by Atomic Force Microscopy, indicating that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy is expected to be a promising characterization technology for polymer characteristics. PMID:27228752

  10. Confinement-induced vitrification in polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Balta Calleja, F. J.; Flores, A.; Di Marco, G.; Pieruccini, M.

    2007-06-01

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis performed on cold-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cold crystallized (annealed) in the temperature interval 100-140 deg. C, reveals the presence of marginally glassy domains above the annealing temperature T{sub a}. This suggests that the thermodynamic force driving crystallization causes the structural arrest of some noncrystalline domains. The latter thus need a temperature higher than T{sub a} to completely defreeze. Differential scanning calorimetry supports this point of view. Analogous investigations on unoriented PET, cold crystallized in the same conditions, do not show the same peculiarities; thus, chain orientation is relevant to vitrification. This phenomenology is first cast in the language of thermodynamics by introducing an excess chemical potential {delta}{mu} describing the presence of structural constraints in the amorphous domains and the effect of chain orientation. For a first test of this picture, the orientation contribution to {delta}{mu} is calculated by means of the Gaussian chain model (this implicitly assumes that {delta}{mu} is related to the density fluctuations). The resulting expression is then used to discuss the structural differences between cold-drawn and unoriented PET samples reported in the literature.

  11. [Characteristics of Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Chang-jun; Song, Li-xun; Zhang, Chong-hui; Zhang, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1 750 cm(-1), while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1 750 cm(-1) and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated. The research results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy show that the variations of the Raman spectra of PET fibers are closely related to. the chemical bonds and molecular structures of PET fibers. The surface of the PET treated with sodium hydroxide is rougher than that untreated, the surface roughness of the PET treated with sulfuric acid is reduced as compared to that untreated, while the surface roughness of the PET treated with copper sulphate is increased. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy are consistent with those by Atomic Force Microscopy, indicating that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy is expected to be a promising characterization technology for polymer characteristics.

  12. Photophysics of poly(ethylene terephthalate): Ultraviolet absorption and emission

    SciTech Connect

    LaFemina, J.P. ); Arjavalingam, G. )

    1991-01-24

    Polarized and unpolarized emission spectra for poly(ethylene terephthalate) are presented, and a new phosphorescence peak at 564 nm is reported. The spectroscopically parameterized CNDO/S3 model is used to provide a detailed description of the absorption and monomeric emission. Moreover, preliminary computations on an idealized terephthalate dimer indicate that the 368-nm fluorescence and the newly reported phosphorescence emission may be attributable to an associated ground-state dimer.

  13. 78 FR 2369 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial Rescission of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial... (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January... Polyester Ltd. (Garware), Polyplex Corporation Ltd. (Polyplex), SRF Limited (SRF), and Jindal Poly...

  14. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ...\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, the People's Republic of China and... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United...

  15. 75 FR 49902 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ...: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) from Taiwan, 67 FR 46566 (July 1, 2002). On July 1... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary... ] administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip...

  16. 75 FR 40784 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Thailand, 73 FR 24565, 24567 (May 5, 2008) (unchanged in... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET...

  17. 75 FR 10758 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Order: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET Film) from India, 67 FR 44179 (July 1, 2002... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of...) orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET Film) from India. The...

  18. 75 FR 65450 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for the period July 1, 2009 through December 31, 2009. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip...

  19. 76 FR 75870 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ..., 76 FR 45227 (July 28, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, ] and strip from Korea on July 28, 2011.\\1\\ This review covers...

  20. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) from Taiwan, 67 FR 44174 (July 1, 2002) (Investigation Final... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET...

  1. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Film from the People's Republic of China (PRC), for which the scope is essentially identical to the... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results... terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  2. 75 FR 79336 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of...) initiated a new shipper review under the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet... Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and Countervailing Duty...

  3. 77 FR 73010 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR...- treated, or primed polyethylene terephthalate film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded...

  4. 76 FR 40325 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Thailand, 73 FR 24565, 24567 (May 5, 2008) (unchanged in the Final... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film,...

  5. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from India for the period January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2007. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Preliminary Results...

  6. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results... of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  7. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. PMID:26965627

  8. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol.

  9. Ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Pellis, Alessandro; Gamerith, Caroline; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Ortner, Andreas; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-10-01

    The application of ultrasound was found to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). After a short activation phase up to 6.6times increase in the amount of released products was found. PET powder with lower crystallinity of 8% was hydrolyzed faster when compared to PET with 28% crystallinity. Ultrasound activation was found to be around three times more effective on powders vs. films most likely due to a larger surface area accessible to the enzyme. PMID:27481467

  10. 76 FR 18519 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Amended Final... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is July 1,...

  11. 76 FR 76943 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results... terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1\\ This review covers one producer/exporter of subject merchandise... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  12. 76 FR 47558 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) from India, 67 FR 44179 (July 1, 2002). On July 1, 2010, the... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From India, 67 FR 34905 (May 16, 2002) (PET Film Final... Countervailing Duty Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India, 70...

  13. A novel preparation of milk protein/polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Zheng, D. D.; Zhong, L.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, -NH2 groups were introduced to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers by nitration and reduction method, and then milk protein was grafted on the nitrated and reduced PET (NR PET) fibers by sucrose glycidyl ether crosslinking agent. FTIR suggested the milk protein was successfully grafted on PET fiber surface. SEM images showed a layer of substance covered on the PET fiber surface. DSC demonstrated an excellent thermal stability of milk protein/PET fiber. The moisture regain was improved by milk protein/PET fiber. Moreover, the crease recovery angle and stiffness were retained by the milk protein/PET fabric.

  14. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India, 67 FR 44179 (July 1, 2002). On April 2, 2012, the... 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 78 FR 19647 (April 2... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India:...

  15. 76 FR 58244 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in...) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period July 1, 2010...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609, 38610 (July 1, 2010). The Department received...

  16. 78 FR 9668 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results... polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan.\\1\\ This review covers two respondents, Shinkong..., Shinkong), and Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Ltd. (Nan Ya), producers and exporters of PET Film from...

  17. 76 FR 18156 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January 1, 2009, through... Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 53274 (August 31, 2010). The Department...

  18. 76 FR 39855 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request an Administrative Review, 75 FR...

  19. 75 FR 81570 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... semiannual new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from India in response to a request from SRF Limited (SRF). The...

  20. 78 FR 2365 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 39216, 39217 (July 2, 2012). \\2\\ Petitioners are DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi..., 77 FR 52688 (August 30, 2012). \\6\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip from... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India:...

  1. 75 FR 49900 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... FR 56573 (November 2, 2009). On November 30, 2009, DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film... Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 24560 (May 5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil:...

  2. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... FR 67079 (November 1, 2010). On November 30, 2010, DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film... Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil:...

  3. 78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India, 67 FR... Second Antidumping Duty Sunset Reviews 78 FR 45512 (July 29, 2013) (``PET Film Extension Notice''). \\5... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and...

  4. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results... order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1\\ This review covers three respondents, Jindal Poly Films Ltd (Jindal), Polyplex Corporation Ltd. (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF),...

  5. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results...) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the period July 1, 2009, through December...

  6. 77 FR 14501 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of...) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period July 1, 2010... Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011). The Department initiated the review...

  7. 75 FR 81574 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Countervailing Duty Order: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET Film) from India, 67 FR 44179... Countervailing Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 69400 (November 12, 2010); Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet..., and Strip from India, 70 FR 46483, 46485 (August 10, 2005) (PET Film Preliminary Results of...

  8. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results...) issued the preliminary results of the administrative review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd. (Ester), covering the period of review (POR)...

  9. 75 FR 75172 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 6, 2008, through October 31... covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See Polyethylene...

  10. 78 FR 48651 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan; Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2011, through June 30,...

  11. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time... antidumping duty (AD) orders on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India and Taiwan, pursuant to...'') Review, 78 FR 19647 (April 2, 2013). Within the deadline specified in 19 CFR 351.218(d)(1)(i),...

  12. 77 FR 3730 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the antidumping duty (AD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR...

  13. 76 FR 39855 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from... Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request an Administrative Review, 75...

  14. 77 FR 76456 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Partial Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Partial... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2011, through June 30... review with respect to Nan Ya and Shinkong.\\3\\ On September 26, 2012, DuPont Teijin Films, one of...

  15. 78 FR 42105 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission... countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET'' film) from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  16. 77 FR 1668 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip... FR 38609, 38610 (July 1, 2011). The Department received a timely request from Petitioners \\1\\ for...

  17. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results...) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the period January 1, 2009, through...

  18. 77 FR 46687 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Review, 73 FR 71601 (November 25, 2008); see also Certain Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and... Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Review, 73 FR...: Final Modification, 77 FR 8101 (February 14, 2012). \\52\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet,...

  19. 77 FR 9892 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary Intent to Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January 1, 2010, through...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609, 38610 (July 1, 2011). The Department received...

  20. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... film, sheet and strip (PET film) from India for the period of review (POR) January 1, 2011, through... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip, whether extruded or coextruded. Excluded are metallized...

  1. 78 FR 48143 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from India. The period of review (POR) is July 1, 2011, through June 30,...

  2. 76 FR 47540 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ..., Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan, 67 FR 44174 (July 1, 2002), as corrected in 67 FR 46566 (July... Taiwan, 66 FR 31888 (June 13, 2001). \\30\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan:...

  3. 76 FR 58248 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In... (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609, 38610 (July 1,...

  4. 77 FR 19634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission of... an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film... Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609, 38610 (July 1, 2011). The Department received a timely request...

  5. 76 FR 47546 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Strip from India, 67 FR 44175 (July 1, 2002) (PET Film India Order). On July 1, 2010, the Department... Duty Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From India, 67 FR... Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India, 66 FR 65893 (December 21, 2001),...

  6. 78 FR 60311 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab Emirates... order on polyethylene terephthalate (``PET'') film, sheet, and strip from Brazil, China, and the United..., China, and the United Arab Emirates (73 FR 66595). The Commission is conducting reviews to...

  7. 75 FR 14423 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Extension of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from Taiwan for the period July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009... Revocation in Part, 74 FR 42873 (August 25, 2009). This review covers two producers and/or exporters of...

  8. 77 FR 20357 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). \\4\\ See id.; see also Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This...

  9. 75 FR 70901 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

  10. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... also Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, the People's Republic of China and... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This...

  11. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates. This review... preliminary results, the following events have taken place. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet,...

  12. Dimensionally stable PET fibers for tire reinforcement. [Polyethylene terephthalate (POLYESTERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rim, P.B.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    High-modulus, high-tenacity polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers have gained wide acceptance in reinforcement for rubber products such as tires and hoses; in geotextiles, and in ropes and cordage. Accordingly, a great deal of fundamental research has been conducted on how the processing and resulting morphology of these thermoplastic fibers affect their physical properties. The translation of these starting fiber properties to those in the final end-use product has received much less attention. This article compares the structure-property relationships of recently-developed PET yarns possessing high dimensional stability (i.e., high modulus and low shrinkage) with conventional PET tire yarn. Interest in these materials is stimulated by their ability to improve tire uniformity and, for some tire manufacturers, eliminate the need for post-cure inflation during tire manufacturing. Where possible, cause and effect relationships will be developed.

  13. 76 FR 72676 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 1, 2009 through October 31... duty order covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See...

  14. 76 FR 57715 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea, 56 FR 25669 (June 5, 1991). On September 1... film from the Republic of Korea. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 53664... reasonably foreseeable time. See Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea, 76 FR 54791 (September...

  15. 78 FR 78333 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China'' from Christian Marsh, Deputy... Insulating Material Co., Ltd 31.77 DuPont Teijin Films China Ltd., DuPont Hongji Films Foshan 31.77 Co., Ltd... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's...

  16. 76 FR 18155 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. See... Administrative Review, 75 FR 53274 (August 31, 2010). The Department initiated the review with respect to...

  17. 78 FR 50029 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary... response to requests from respondent Terphane Ltda. and from DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film... terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from Brazil. The administrative review covers Terphane Ltda....

  18. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ..., sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China; A-570-924; Request for New Shipper... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's...

  19. Histological characteristics and ultrastructure of polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shao-Bin; Yang, Rong-Hua; Zuo, Zhong-Nan; Dong, Qi-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were the remnant of LARS ligament used for repairing posterior cruciate ligament obtained from operation. We want to study histological characteristics and ultrastructure of polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament in rabbits. Therefore, we replaced the original ACL with polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament which was covering with the remnant of ACL in 9 rabbits (L-LARS group), while just only polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament were transplanted in 3 rabbits (LARS group) with the remnant of ACL. Compared with group LARS, inflammatory cell reaction and foreign body reaction were more significant in group L-LARS. Moreover, electron microscopy investigation showed the tissue near LARS fibers was highly cellular with a matrix of thin collagen fibrils (50-100 nm) in group L-LARS. These above findings suggest the polyethylene terephthalate LARS ligament possess the high biocompatibility, which contributes to the polyethylene terephthalate LARS covered with recipient connective tissues. PMID:25356104

  20. Low-pressure microwave plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Deilmann, Michael; Halfmann, Helmut; Bibinov, Nikita; Wunderlich, Joachim; Awakowicz, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A low-pressure microwave plasma reactor was developed for sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. In contrast to the established method using aseptic filling machines based on toxic sterilants, here a microwave plasma is ignited inside a bottle by using a gas mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. To that effect, a reactor setup was developed based on a Plasmaline antenna allowing for plasma ignition inside three-dimensional packages. A treatment time below 5 s is provided for a reduction of 10(5) and 10(4) CFU of Bacillus atrophaeus and Aspergillus niger, respectively, verified by means of a count reduction test. The sterilization results obtained by means of this challenge test are in accordance with requirements for aseptic packaging machines as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the German Engineering Federation. The plasma sterilization process developed here for aseptic filling of beverages is a dry process that avoids residues and the use of maximum allowable concentrations of established sterilants, e.g., hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics through Bayesian decision.

    PubMed

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed.

  2. Robust Identification of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastics through Bayesian Decision

    PubMed Central

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed. PMID

  3. Solar Disinfection of Viruses in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Carratalà, Anna; Dionisio Calado, Alex; Mattle, Michael J.; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is a simple, efficient point-of-use technique for the inactivation of many bacterial pathogens. In contrast, the efficiency of SODIS against viruses is not well known. In this work, we studied the inactivation of bacteriophages (MS2 and ϕX174) and human viruses (echovirus 11 and adenovirus type 2) by SODIS. We conducted experiments in PET bottles exposed to (simulated) sunlight at different temperatures (15, 22, 26, and 40°C) and in water sources of diverse compositions and origins (India and Switzerland). Good inactivation of MS2 (>6-log inactivation after exposure to a total fluence of 1.34 kJ/cm2) was achieved in Swiss tap water at 22°C, while less-efficient inactivation was observed in Indian waters and for echovirus (1.5-log inactivation at the same fluence). The DNA viruses studied, ϕX174 and adenovirus, were resistant to SODIS, and the inactivation observed was equivalent to that occurring in the dark. High temperatures enhanced MS2 inactivation substantially; at 40°C, 3-log inactivation was achieved in Swiss tap water after exposure to a fluence of only 0.18 kJ/cm2. Overall, our findings demonstrate that SODIS may reduce the load of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as echoviruses, particularly at high temperatures and in photoreactive matrices. In contrast, complementary measures may be needed to ensure efficient inactivation during SODIS of DNA viruses resistant to oxidation. PMID:26497451

  4. Solar Disinfection of Viruses in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles.

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Anna; Dionisio Calado, Alex; Mattle, Michael J; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2015-10-23

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is a simple, efficient point-of-use technique for the inactivation of many bacterial pathogens. In contrast, the efficiency of SODIS against viruses is not well known. In this work, we studied the inactivation of bacteriophages (MS2 and ϕX174) and human viruses (echovirus 11 and adenovirus type 2) by SODIS. We conducted experiments in PET bottles exposed to (simulated) sunlight at different temperatures (15, 22, 26, and 40°C) and in water sources of diverse compositions and origins (India and Switzerland). Good inactivation of MS2 (>6-log inactivation after exposure to a total fluence of 1.34 kJ/cm(2)) was achieved in Swiss tap water at 22°C, while less-efficient inactivation was observed in Indian waters and for echovirus (1.5-log inactivation at the same fluence). The DNA viruses studied, ϕX174 and adenovirus, were resistant to SODIS, and the inactivation observed was equivalent to that occurring in the dark. High temperatures enhanced MS2 inactivation substantially; at 40°C, 3-log inactivation was achieved in Swiss tap water after exposure to a fluence of only 0.18 kJ/cm(2). Overall, our findings demonstrate that SODIS may reduce the load of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as echoviruses, particularly at high temperatures and in photoreactive matrices. In contrast, complementary measures may be needed to ensure efficient inactivation during SODIS of DNA viruses resistant to oxidation.

  5. Solar Disinfection of Viruses in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles.

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Anna; Dionisio Calado, Alex; Mattle, Michael J; Meierhofer, Regula; Luzi, Samuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles is a simple, efficient point-of-use technique for the inactivation of many bacterial pathogens. In contrast, the efficiency of SODIS against viruses is not well known. In this work, we studied the inactivation of bacteriophages (MS2 and ϕX174) and human viruses (echovirus 11 and adenovirus type 2) by SODIS. We conducted experiments in PET bottles exposed to (simulated) sunlight at different temperatures (15, 22, 26, and 40°C) and in water sources of diverse compositions and origins (India and Switzerland). Good inactivation of MS2 (>6-log inactivation after exposure to a total fluence of 1.34 kJ/cm(2)) was achieved in Swiss tap water at 22°C, while less-efficient inactivation was observed in Indian waters and for echovirus (1.5-log inactivation at the same fluence). The DNA viruses studied, ϕX174 and adenovirus, were resistant to SODIS, and the inactivation observed was equivalent to that occurring in the dark. High temperatures enhanced MS2 inactivation substantially; at 40°C, 3-log inactivation was achieved in Swiss tap water after exposure to a fluence of only 0.18 kJ/cm(2). Overall, our findings demonstrate that SODIS may reduce the load of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, such as echoviruses, particularly at high temperatures and in photoreactive matrices. In contrast, complementary measures may be needed to ensure efficient inactivation during SODIS of DNA viruses resistant to oxidation. PMID:26497451

  6. 76 FR 12937 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... under the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for...

  7. 76 FR 12938 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ..., 75 FR 81574 (December 28, 2010) (Preliminary Results). The final results of review are currently due... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... under the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India...

  8. 78 FR 9363 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... Shaoxing Xiangyu Green Packing Co., Ltd. \\2\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR...

  9. Enhancing the Dyeability of Polypropylene Fibers by Melt Blending with Polyethylene Terephthalate

    PubMed Central

    Moradian, Siamak; Ameri, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Attempts were made to modify polypropylene fibers by melt blending with polyethylene terephthalate in order to enhance the dyeability of the resultant fiber. Five blends of polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/compatibilizer were prepared and subsequently spun into fibers. Three disperse dyes were used to dye such modified fibers at boiling and 130°C. The dyeing performance of the blend fibers, as well as the morphological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, of the corresponding blends was characterized by means of spectrophotometry, polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile testing. PMID:24288485

  10. 75 FR 69400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10758 (March 9, 2010). This new shipper review covers one producer and... Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 52717 (August 27, 2010). The Department... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension...

  11. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  12. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. PMID:27540159

  13. 76 FR 42113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due... the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Accordingly, the deadline for... of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic...

  14. 21 CFR 878.5000 - Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture. 878.5000 Section 878.5000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 878.5000 - Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture. 878.5000 Section 878.5000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  16. 21 CFR 878.5000 - Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture. 878.5000 Section 878.5000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... thread prepared from fibers of high molecular weight, long-chain, linear polyesters having...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5000 - Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture. 878.5000 Section 878.5000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... thread prepared from fibers of high molecular weight, long-chain, linear polyesters having...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5000 - Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonabsorbable poly(ethylene terephthalate) surgical suture. 878.5000 Section 878.5000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... thread prepared from fibers of high molecular weight, long-chain, linear polyesters having...

  19. 76 FR 9753 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Order on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China: Industry... Free Sheet Paper from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 30758, 30760 (June 4, 2007), unchanged in... of China, 72 FR 60632 (October 25, 2007). Surrogate Country In the Preliminary Results,...

  20. 76 FR 76365 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This review covers the respondent, JBF RAK LLC (JBF), a producer and exporter of PET Film from the UAE. The Department...

  1. 77 FR 73428 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY: Import...

  2. 75 FR 78968 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This review covers respondents, JBF RAK LLC (JBF), and FLEX Middle East FZE (FLEX), producers and exporters of PET Film from the...

  3. 77 FR 31833 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Notice of... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: In response to a request from DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, petitioners),...

  4. 77 FR 14493 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... of China: Final Results of the 2009-2010 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of the Antidumping... results in the 2009-2010 antidumping duty administrative review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet...'') is November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. We have determined that sales have been made...

  5. Evaluating Performance and Stability of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and Cellulose Polymer as Soilless Mix Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., concerns over the long-term sustainability of peat, perlite, and other media components have led to searches for alternative materials. FiberFill, a synthetic fiber made of recyclable polyethylene terephthalate, and Tencel, a cellulose fiber, are new materials with potential as substra...

  6. Supercritical methanol for polyethylene terephthalate depolymerization: Observation using simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Genta, Minoru; Iwaya, Tomoko; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2007-07-01

    To apply PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol to commercial recycling, the benefits of supercritical methanol usage in PET depolymerization was investigated from the viewpoint of the reaction rate and energy demands. PET was depolymerized in a batch reactor at 573 K in supercritical methanol under 14.7 MPa and in vapor methanol under 0.98 MPa in our previous work. The main products of both reactions were the PET monomers of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG). The rate of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was faster than that of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol. This indicates supercritical fluid is beneficial in reducing reaction time without the use of a catalyst. We depicted the simple process flow of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol and in vapor methanol, and by simulation evaluated the total heat demand of each process. In this simulation, bis-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET) was used as a model component of PET. The total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was 2.35 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. That of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol was 2.84 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. The smaller total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol clearly reveals the advantage of using supercritical fluid in terms of energy savings.

  7. Use of polyethylene terephthalate for temporal recompression of intense femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S. Yu; Ginzburg, V. N.; Gacheva, E. I.; Silin, D. E.; Kochetkov, A. A.; Mamaev, Yu A.; Shaykin, A. A.; Khazanov, E. A.; Mourou, G. A.

    2015-02-01

    The linear characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate, such as index of refraction, spectral transmittance and transverse distribution of phase and polarization distortions, have been measured. Spectrum broadening of laser pulses (intensity over 1.3 ТW cm-2) after propagation through a 0.7 mm thick sample has been demonstrated in experiment. Taking into consideration almost unlimited aperture, submillimeter thickness and the low cost of polyethylene terephthalate, the obtained results demonstrate that it is a prospective material to be used for spectrum broadening and subsequent time compression of petawatt laser pulses to single cycle regime (Mourou et al 2014 Single cycle thin film compressor opening the door to zeptosecond-exawatt physics Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223 1181-8).

  8. Localized translational motions in semicrystalline poly(ethylene terephthalate) studied by incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; García-Gutiérrez, Mari Cruz; Puente-Orench, Inés; Campo, Javier; Nogales, Aurora

    2013-03-01

    One of the simplest ways to confine polymeric materials is by self-assembling during the crystallization process. The remaining amorphous phase is then constrained by the lamellar crystals. In this manuscript, we aim to shed additional light in the understanding of the amorphous chains dynamics of semicrystalline polymers above the Tg by using incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering QENS in a nanoscopic time scale (10(-9)-10(-10)s) on poly(ethylene terephthalate). The observed dynamics is satisfactorily described by a theoretical model that considers that the proton mobility follows a random jump-diffusion in a restricted environment. We demonstrate that the combination of macroscopic with nanoscopic dynamic tools allows a complete description of the confined dynamics on a paradigmatic semicrystalline polymer like poly(ethylene terephthalate).

  9. Response to Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-08-19

    Yang et al suggest that the use of low-crystallinity poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) exaggerates our results. However, the primary focus of our study was identifying an organism capable of the biological degradation and assimilation of PET, regardless of its crystallinity. We provide additional PET depolymerization data that further support several other lines of data showing PET assimilation by growing cells of Ideonella sakaiensis. PMID:27540160

  10. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-11-15

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: > LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. > Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. > Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. > Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  11. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface modification by deep UV (172 nm) irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengmao Zhua; Michael J. Kelley

    2004-09-01

    The prospects of obtaining desired surface-mediated characteristics while retaining bulk-mediated physical properties and avoiding potential environmental issues with wet chemical technology lends considerable appeal to photochemical approaches. We investigated the response of poly(ethylene terephthalate) to 172 nm UV from a xenon excimer lamp in the absence of oxygen, using XPS, ToF/SIMS, and AFM. The main effects are increasing loss of a C=O moiety and carboxylic acid production without effect on topography up to a total fluence of 16 J/cm2. Above this level no further change in surface chemistry was evident, but surfaces became rougher, suggesting the onset of etching.

  12. Scratch resistance anisotropy in biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, H.-Y.; Walzak, M. J.; McIntyre, N. S.

    2006-12-01

    Using a diamond-tipped stylus, scratch tests were conducted on biaxially oriented polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) films in the two draw directions, i.e., the machine-direction (MD) and the transverse-direction (TD) along which the draw ratios are different. Atomic force microscopy study of those scratches revealed a significant anisotropy in the scratch resistance between the MD and TD for both of the polymer films. We confirmed that the scratch resistance of polymer strands is closely related to the draw ratios, which determine the mechanical strength and optical clarity of biaxially oriented polymer films.

  13. Safety of polyethylene terephthalate food containers evaluated by HPLC, migration test, and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Park, H J; Lee, Y J; Kim, M R; Kim, K M

    2008-08-01

    A comparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of monomers, terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) food containers was conducted. Monomer linearities and sensitivities were calibrated between established and novel HPLC analyses. Safety of PET containers was evaluated with newly established detection methods for TPA, IPA, and DMT. Migration of the 3 monomers into food simulants (water, 4% acetic acid, 20% alcohol, and n-heptane) from 56 PET containers collected from open markets was monitored. Migrated monomers were not detected over 0.1 ppm of detection limit. The corresponding estimated daily intake was measured to confirm the safety of these publicly available PET containers and to permit comparison to the specific migration limit of the European Union. The estimated daily intake of 3 monomers migrating from PET was 0.0384 mg/kg each. This represented only 0.6% of the European Union's specific migration limit, confirming the safety of the examined containers. PMID:19241591

  14. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour.

  15. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate films treated by ammonia low-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhiwen; Ren, Li; Feng, Wenjiang; Zhai, Zhichen; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-07-01

    In order to study the surface characterization and protein adhesion behavior of polyethylene terephthalate film, low temperature ammonia plasma was used to modify the film. Effects of plasma conditions of the surface structures and properties were investigated. Results indicated that surface hydrophilicity of polyethylene terephthalate was significantly improved by ammonia plasma treatment. Ammonia plasma played the role more important than air treatment in the process of modification. Furthermore, by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra some new bonds such as sbnd Ndbnd O and Nsbnd H which could result in the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity were successfully grafted on the film surface. Atom force microscope experiments indicated that more protein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces than hydrophilic ones, and the blobs arranged in a straight line at etching surface by plasma. Modified membrane after ammonia plasma treatment had a good cell affinity and could be effective in promoting the adhesion and growth of cells on the material surface. Timeliness experiments showed that the plasma treatment gave the material a certain performance only in a short period of time and the hydrophobicity recovered after 12 days.

  16. 78 FR 14266 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice of Correction to the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 78 FR 9668 (February 11, 2013) (Final Results). \\2\\ Id. 78 FR at 9668. This correction is published in accordance with sections 751(h) and 777(i... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice...

  17. 77 FR 18206 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan... Department) initiated the administrative review regarding the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan... Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 53404 (August 26, 2011)....

  18. 76 FR 13128 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan... Department) initiated the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan... Duty Administrative Reviews and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 53274 (August...

  19. Enhanced cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate by covalent fusion to hydrophobins.

    PubMed

    Ribitsch, Doris; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Przylucka, Agnieszka; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Marold, Annemarie; Gamerith, Caroline; Tscheließnig, Rupert; Jungbauer, Alois; Rennhofer, Harald; Lichtenegger, Helga; Amenitsch, Heinz; Bonazza, Klaus; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2015-06-01

    Cutinases have shown potential for hydrolysis of the recalcitrant synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We have shown previously that the rate of this hydrolysis can be enhanced by the addition of hydrophobins, small fungal proteins that can alter the physicochemical properties of surfaces. Here we have investigated whether the PET-hydrolyzing activity of a bacterial cutinase from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) would be further enhanced by fusion to one of three Trichoderma hydrophobins, i.e., the class II hydrophobins HFB4 and HFB7 and the pseudo-class I hydrophobin HFB9b. The fusion enzymes exhibited decreased kcat values on soluble substrates (p-nitrophenyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl butyrate) and strongly decreased the hydrophilicity of glass but caused only small changes in the hydrophobicity of PET. When the enzyme was fused to HFB4 or HFB7, the hydrolysis of PET was enhanced >16-fold over the level with the free enzyme, while a mixture of the enzyme and the hydrophobins led only to a 4-fold increase at most. Fusion with the non-class II hydrophobin HFB9b did not increase the rate of hydrolysis over that of the enzyme-hydrophobin mixture, but HFB9b performed best when PET was preincubated with the hydrophobins before enzyme treatment. The pattern of hydrolysis by the fusion enzymes differed from that of Thc_Cut1 as the concentration of the product mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate relative to that of the main product, terephthalic acid, increased. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed an increased scattering contrast of the fusion proteins over that of the free proteins, suggesting a change in conformation or enhanced protein aggregation. Our data show that the level of hydrolysis of PET by cutinase can be significantly increased by fusion to hydrophobins. The data further suggest that this likely involves binding of the hydrophobins to the cutinase and changes in the conformation of its active center.

  20. Metal-oxide-doped silica nanoparticles for the catalytic glycolysis of polyethylene terephthalate.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Lee, Kyoung G; Imtiaz, Qasim; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Han, Myungwan; Cho, Bong Gyoo; Kim, Do Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was depolymerized to monomer bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) using excess ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of metal oxides that were impregnated on different forms of silica support [silica nanoparticles (SNPs) or silica microparticles (SMPs)] as glycolysis catalysts. The reactions were carried out at 300 degrees C and 1.1 MPa at an EG-to-PET molar ratio of 11:1 and a catalyst-to-PET-weight ratio of 1.0% for 40-80 min. Among the four prepared catalysts (Mn3O4/SNPs, ZnO/SNPs, Mn3O4/SMPs, and ZnO/SMPs), the Mn3O4/SNPs nanocomposite had the highest monomer yield (> 90%). This high yield may be explained by the high surface area, amorphous and porous structure, and existence of numerous active sites on the nanocomposite catalyst. The BHET yield increased with time and reached the highest level where equilibrium was established between BHET and its dimer. The catalysts were characterized by their SEM, TEM, and BET surface areas, and via XRD, whereas the monomer BHET was characterized by HPLC and FT-IR. The glycolysis with the Mn3O4/SNPs nanocomposite as the glycolysis catalyst produced a maximum BHET in a short reaction time.

  1. Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ceming; Wang, Lin; Xue, Jianming

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental investigations of electroosmotic (EO) pumping using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track-etched membrane at a low applied voltage. An EO pump based on PET track-etched membrane has been designed and fabricated. Pumping performance of the device is experimentally studied in terms of flow rate as a function of applied voltage and KCl aqueous concentration. The PET track-etched membrane EO pump can generate flow rates on the order of 10 μl min-1 cm-2 at several applied volts. The measured flow rate tends to decrease with increasing KCl aqueous concentration. In addition, we study the EO flow in cylindrical nanopore with use of a continuum model, composed of Nernst Planck equations, Poisson equation and Navier Stokes equations.

  2. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, A.; Asano, M.; Yamaki, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2005-04-01

    The pre-treatment effect of γ-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films bombarded with swift heavy ions was investigated by electric conductometry and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The Xe-ion bombarded PET films were etched for 6 h in 0.2 M NaOH aqueous solution at 70 °C to prepare track-etched membranes. As γ-irradiation doses increased in the range of 0-160 kGy, the surface pore diameter obtained by SEM observation decreased while that obtained by conductometry became large. This inconsistent result between the two methods was due to an increase in the crosslinked region in the latent tracks caused by γ-irradiation.

  3. The biomedical properties of polyethylene terephthalate surface modified by silver ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Jianxin; Shen, Liru; Ling, Ren; Xu, Zejin; Zhao, Ansha; Leng, Yongxiang; Huang, Nan

    2007-04-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is modified by Ag ion implantation with a fluence 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that silver has been successfully implanted into the surface of PET. The PET samples modified by silver ion implantation have significantly bactericidal property. The capacity of the staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) adhered on the Ag+ implanted PET surface is 5.3 × 106 CFU/ml, but the capacity of the SE adhered on the untreated PET film is 2.23 × 107 CFU/ml. The thromboembolic property is evaluated by in vitro platelet adhesion test, and there is not statistically difference between the untreated PET and the Ag+ implanted PET for the number of adhered and activated platelets. The PET implanted by silver ion has not acute toxicity to endothelial cell (EC) which was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test.

  4. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bulk film analysis using C 60+, Au 3+, and Au + primary ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlan, X. A.; Gilmore, I. S.; Henderson, A.; Lockyer, N. P.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    The damage characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been studied under bombardment by C 60+, Au 3+ and Au + primary ions. The observed damage cross-sections for the three ion beams are not dramatically different. The secondary ion yields however were significantly enhanced by the polyatomic primary ions where the secondary ion yield of the [M + H] + is on average 5× higher for C 60+ than Au 3+ and 8× higher for Au 3+ than Au +. Damage accumulates under Au + and Au 3+ bombardment while C 60+ bombardment shows a lack of damage accumulation throughout the depth profile of the PET thick film up to an ion dose of ˜1 × 10 15 ions cm -2. These properties of C 60+ bombardment suggest that the primary ion will be a useful molecular depth profiling tool.

  5. Bendable ZnO thin film surface acoustic wave devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xingli; Guo, Hongwei; Chen, Jinkai; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Xu, Yang E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Luo, Jikui E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk

    2014-05-26

    Bendable surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were fabricated using high quality c-axis orientation ZnO films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates at 120 °C. Dual resonance modes, namely, the zero order pseudo asymmetric (A{sub 0}) and symmetric (S{sub 0}) Lamb wave modes, have been obtained from the SAW devices. The SAW devices perform well even after repeated flexion up to 2500 με for 100 times, demonstrating its suitability for flexible electronics application. The SAW devices are also highly sensitive to compressive and tensile strains, exhibiting excellent anti-strain deterioration property, thus, they are particularly suitable for sensing large strains.

  6. Polyethylene terephthalate/poly (vinylidene fluoride) composite separator for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dezhi; Huang, Shaohua; Xu, Zhiqin; Xiao, Zhiming; Shi, Chuan; Zhao, Jinbao; Zhu, Rui; Sun, Daoheng; Lin, Liwei

    2015-07-01

    Electrospun nanofiber membranes have been proved to enhance performances of Li-ion batteries, but their poor mechanical strength hinders their industrial application. This paper combines meltblown polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven and electrospun poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane together to improve the mechanical property via hot-pressing, wherein a dried 3 wt% PVDF solution coating on PET nonwoven is used as a binder. The hot-pressing temperature is optimized to be 145 °C and the composite PET/PVDF separator exhibits an excellent mechanical property, whose transverse and longitudinal tensile strength could reach 13.70 and 34.85 MPa respectively. Compared with a commercial PP separator, the hot-pressed PET/PVDF membrane separator shows better wettability, higher thermal shrinkage and improved electrochemical performance as well.

  7. Polyethylene terephthalate/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composite separator for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dezhi; Huang, Shaohua; Xu, Zhiqin; Xiao, Zhiming; Shi, Chuan; Zhao, Jinbao; Zhu, Rui; Sun, Daoheng; Lin, Liwei

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun nanofiber membranes have been proved to enhance the performance of a Li-ion battery (LIB), but their poor mechanical strength hinders their industrial application. This paper combines a meltblown polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven and a electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane together to improve the mechanical property via hot-pressing, wherein a dried 3 wt% PVDF solution coating on PET nonwoven is used as a binder. The experiment results indicate that the hot-pressing PET/PVDF separator exhibits an excellent mechanical property, whose transverse and longitudinal tensile strength could reach 13.70 MPa and 34.85 MPa respectively. Compared with a commercial PP separator, the hot-pressing PET/PVDF membrane separator shows better wettability, higher thermal shrinkage and excellent discharge capacity as well.

  8. Surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers induced by radio frequency air plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Claudia; Barni, Ruggero; Selli, Elena; Mazzone, Giovanni; Massafra, Maria Rosaria; Marcandalli, Bruno; Poletti, Giulio

    2003-04-01

    The surface chemical and physical modifications of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers induced by radiofrequency air plasma treatments were correlated with the characteristics of the discharge parameters and the chemical composition of the plasma itself, to identify the plasma-induced surface processes prevailing under different operating conditions. Treated polymer surfaces were characterized by water droplet absorption time measurements and XPS analysis, as a function of the aging time in different media, and by AFM analysis. They exhibited a remarkable increase in hydrophilicity, accompanied by extensive etching and by the implantation of both oxygen- and nitrogen-containing polar groups. Etching was mainly a consequence of ion bombardment, yielding low molecular weight, water soluble oxidation products, while surface chemical modifications were mainly due to the action of neutral species on the plasma-activated polymer surface.

  9. Heating rate effect on char yield from cotton, poly(ethylene terephthalate) and blend fabrics.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Jenny; Camino, Giovanni; Malucelli, Giulio

    2013-02-15

    Thermal behaviour of polymers is generally assessed by relatively low heating rate, such as in thermogravimetry (typically at 10 °C/min), which leads to progressive decomposition of chemical bonds with increasing dissociation energy under thermodynamic control. However, polymer materials may be accidentally exposed to high heating rates such as in a fire, when their thermal decomposition, occurring through competing paths, becomes kinetically controlled and may lead to heating rate dependence of their degradation mechanisms and products. In the present paper, thermogravimetry at 100, 200 and 300 °C/min heating rates has been carried out on cotton, poly(ethylene terephthalate) and their blend fabrics, which decompose with partial charring. The obtained results show that the char, produced by thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation of such polymer materials, is affected by the heating rate essentially in terms of thermal stability and yield, depending on the type of polymer and the absence or presence of air oxygen.

  10. Enhanced Cutinase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Polyethylene Terephthalate by Covalent Fusion to Hydrophobins

    PubMed Central

    Ribitsch, Doris; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Przylucka, Agnieszka; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Marold, Annemarie; Gamerith, Caroline; Tscheließnig, Rupert; Jungbauer, Alois; Rennhofer, Harald; Lichtenegger, Helga; Amenitsch, Heinz; Bonazza, Klaus; Kubicek, Christian P.; Guebitz, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    Cutinases have shown potential for hydrolysis of the recalcitrant synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We have shown previously that the rate of this hydrolysis can be enhanced by the addition of hydrophobins, small fungal proteins that can alter the physicochemical properties of surfaces. Here we have investigated whether the PET-hydrolyzing activity of a bacterial cutinase from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) would be further enhanced by fusion to one of three Trichoderma hydrophobins, i.e., the class II hydrophobins HFB4 and HFB7 and the pseudo-class I hydrophobin HFB9b. The fusion enzymes exhibited decreased kcat values on soluble substrates (p-nitrophenyl acetate and p-nitrophenyl butyrate) and strongly decreased the hydrophilicity of glass but caused only small changes in the hydrophobicity of PET. When the enzyme was fused to HFB4 or HFB7, the hydrolysis of PET was enhanced >16-fold over the level with the free enzyme, while a mixture of the enzyme and the hydrophobins led only to a 4-fold increase at most. Fusion with the non-class II hydrophobin HFB9b did not increase the rate of hydrolysis over that of the enzyme-hydrophobin mixture, but HFB9b performed best when PET was preincubated with the hydrophobins before enzyme treatment. The pattern of hydrolysis by the fusion enzymes differed from that of Thc_Cut1 as the concentration of the product mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate relative to that of the main product, terephthalic acid, increased. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed an increased scattering contrast of the fusion proteins over that of the free proteins, suggesting a change in conformation or enhanced protein aggregation. Our data show that the level of hydrolysis of PET by cutinase can be significantly increased by fusion to hydrophobins. The data further suggest that this likely involves binding of the hydrophobins to the cutinase and changes in the conformation of its active center. PMID:25795674

  11. Plasma nano-modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric for pigment adhesion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pransilp, Porntepin; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics were modified by treating with radio frequency (RF) plasma of different gases, including argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), under varied power (50-150 watt) and time period (0.5-20 min). Observations indicated that plasma has affected the morphology and roughness of PET fiber surface in the nano-scale level. After plasma treatment, test patterns were printed by inkjet printer directly onto the sample surface. The enhancement of color printing performance on PET fabric by plasma treatment was evaluated by color spectroscopy. The surface nano-modified PET fabrics by Ar, N2, O2, and SF6 plasmas all exhibited enhanced color yield. AFM, SEM, FTIR-ATR and XPS results suggested that the improved pigment color yield was neither clearly contributed by the wettability of the fabrics nor the polar group induced onto the fiber surfaces but rather mainly by the alteration of surface roughness. PMID:22524006

  12. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  13. In situ synthesis of TiO2/polyethylene terephthalate hybrid nanocomposites at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xinyan; Ding, Enyong; Xue, Feng

    2012-06-01

    TiO2 nanoflowers were in situ grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabric by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solution in the presence of nanocrystal cellulose grafted PET fabric (NCC-g-PET) at a low temperature of 70 °C. Nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) pre-grafted on PET fabric acted as hydrophilic substrate and morphology inducing agent to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of TiO2. Detailed information on the synthetic process was presented. The resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, EDS, ATR-IR, Raman microscopy, XRD and TG analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of orange methyl under solar light. Characteristic results indicate that rutile TiO2 nanoflowers have grown abundantly on PET non-woven fabric, and the established hydrogen bonding strengthens the interfacial interaction between the inorganic particles and the polymeric substrates. The methyl orange decoloration test under natural solar light demonstrates that this TiO2/PET hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent self-cleaning performance which is expected to have a good potential for commercialization.

  14. Bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate nanocone arrays with underwater superoleophobicity and anti-bioadhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendong; Liu, Xueyao; Fangteng, Jiaozi; Wang, Shuli; Fang, Liping; Shen, Huaizhong; Xiang, Siyuan; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2014-11-21

    This paper presents a facile method to fabricate bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocone arrays via colloidal lithography. The aspect ratio (AR) of the nanocones can be finely modulated ranging from 1 to 6 by regulating the etching time. The samples with the AR value of 6 can present underwater superoleophobicity with the underwater oil contact angle (OCA) of 171.8°. The as-prepared PET nanocone arrays perform anti-bioadhesion behavior, which inhibits the formation of the actin cytoskeleton when it used as the substrate for cell culture. Moreover, the oil wettability is temperature controlled after modifying the PET nanocone arrays with PNIPAAm film, and the oil wettability of the functionalized nanocone arrays can be transformed from the superoleophobic state with OCA about 151° to the oleophilic state with OCA about 25° reversibly. Due to the high-throughput, parallel fabrication and cost-efficiency of this method, it will be favourable for researchers to introduce oleophobic properties to various substrate and device surfaces. Due to the superoleophobicity and simple functionalizing properties, the PET nanocone arrays are very promising surfaces for anti-adhesion, self-cleaning and have potential applications in material, medical, and biological fields. PMID:25303770

  15. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry.

  16. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4-5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated.

  17. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases. PMID:26464114

  18. Study of the Migration of Stabilizer and Plasticizer from Polyethylene Terephthalate into Food Simulants.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the determination and migration of stabilizers and plasticizers from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Two methods [ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane or methanol and total dissolution with phenol/tetrachloroethane (m:m/1:1)] for pre-concentration of additives in PET material were performed. The diffusion of these additives from PET was evaluated by immersing in deionized water, acetic acid 3% (w/v), ethanol 20% (v/v), ethanol 50% (v/v) and isooctane at 20, 40, 55 and 70°C, respectively. The amount of additives in PET and food simulants was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The optimized HPLC method showed high correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9993), good precision, accuracy and reproducibility. Experimental diffusion coefficients (DP) were calculated according to a mathematical model based on Fick's second law, and the DP values of considered compounds ranged from 9.8 × 10(-15) to 1.4 × 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) The experimental DP values were also compared with that predicted by currently used diffusion models. In addition, the effect of temperature on the diffusion rate was assessed. The effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius-type model with active energies ranged from 40.4 to 113.8 kJ mol(-1) for the target compounds. PMID:26941413

  19. Scanning-probe-microscopy of polyethylene terephthalate surface treatment by argon ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Beltran, Francisco; Sanchez, Isaac C.; España-Sánchez, Beatriz L.; Mota-Morales, Josué D.; Carrillo, Salvador; Enríquez-Flores, C. I.; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne; Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The effect of argon (Ar+) ion beam treatment on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples was studied by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the changes in surface topography were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) sheds light of adhesion force between treated polymer films and a Pt/Cr probe under dry conditions, obtaining the contact potential difference of material. As a result of Ar+ ion bombardment, important surface chemical changes were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements such as chains scission and incorporation of nitrogen species. Ion beam treatment increases the surface roughness from 0.49 ± 0.1 nm to 7.2 ± 0.1 nm and modify the surface potential of PET samples, decreasing the adhesive forces from 12.041 ± 2.1 nN to 5.782 ± 0.06 nN, and producing a slight increase in the electronic work function (Φe) from 5.1 V (untreated) to 5.2 V (treated). Ar+ ion beam treatment allows to potentially changing the surface properties of PET, modifying surface adhesion, improving surface chemical changes, wetting properties and surface potential of polymers.

  20. Hemocompatible Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polymer Modified via Reactive Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvelbar, Uroš; Junkar, Ita; Modic, Martina

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication of micro- and nanostructure poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) polymer surfaces used for as synthetic vascular grafts and their hemocompatible response to plasma-treated surfaces. The surface modification of PET polymer was performed using radio frequency (RF) weakly ionized and highly dissociated oxygen or nitrogen plasma. The surface of the PET polymer was modified to enable the improved proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition to biological experiments performed in vitro by assessing the number of attached cells by tetrazolium compound (MTS)-based cell proliferation assay, we also analyzed the chemical modification of plasma-treated surfaces by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the changes in morphology and surface roughness were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Our results indicate that surface treatment with both oxygen and nitrogen plasma improved the proliferation of endothelial cells, which increased with treatment time by 15 to 30%. This phenomenon was explained by the creation of new functional groups and the modification of surface morphology, which promotes the adhesion of endothelial cells.

  1. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors based on laser reduced graphene oxide supported on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Engy; Mori, Shinsuke; Abdel-Moniem, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    A controlled high powered CO2 laser system is used to reduce and pattern graphene oxide (GO) film supported onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The laser reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film is characterized and evaluated electrochemically in the absence and presence of an overlying anodicaly deposited thin film of pseuodcapactive MnO2 as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using aqueous electrolyte. The laser treatment of the GO film leads to an overlapped structure of defective multi-layer rGO sheets with an electrical conductivity of 273 S m-1. The rGO and MnO2/rGO electrodes exhibit specific capacitance in the range of 82-107 and 172-368 Fg-1 at applied current range of 0.1-1.0 mA cm-2 and retain 98 and 95% of their initial capacitances after 2000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. Also, the rGO is assigned as an electrode material for flexible conventionally stacked and interdigitated in-plane supercapacitor structures using gel electrolyte. Three electrode architectures of 2, 4, and 6 sub-electrodes are studied for the interdigital in-plane design. The device with interdigital 6 sub-electrodes architecture I-PS(6) delivers power density of 537.1 Wcm-3 and an energy density of 0.45 mWh cm-3.

  2. Plasma nano-modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric for pigment adhesion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pransilp, Porntepin; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics were modified by treating with radio frequency (RF) plasma of different gases, including argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), under varied power (50-150 watt) and time period (0.5-20 min). Observations indicated that plasma has affected the morphology and roughness of PET fiber surface in the nano-scale level. After plasma treatment, test patterns were printed by inkjet printer directly onto the sample surface. The enhancement of color printing performance on PET fabric by plasma treatment was evaluated by color spectroscopy. The surface nano-modified PET fabrics by Ar, N2, O2, and SF6 plasmas all exhibited enhanced color yield. AFM, SEM, FTIR-ATR and XPS results suggested that the improved pigment color yield was neither clearly contributed by the wettability of the fabrics nor the polar group induced onto the fiber surfaces but rather mainly by the alteration of surface roughness.

  3. Surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric via photo-chemical reaction of dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Nasser H.; Bahners, Thomas; Wego, Andreas; Gutmann, Jochen S.; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2012-10-01

    Photo-chemical reactions and surface modifications of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics with the monomer dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide (DMAPMA) and benzophenone (BP) as photo-initiator using a broad-band UV lamp source were investigated. The tertiary amino groups of the grafted poly(DMAPMA) chains were subsequently quaternized with alkyl bromides of different chain lengths to establish antibacterial activity. The surface composition, structure and morphology of modified PET fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To evaluate the amount of quaternary and tertiary ammonium groups on the modified surface, PET was dyed with an acid dye which binds to the ammonium groups. Therefore, the color depth is a direct indicator of the amount of ammonium groups. The resulting antibacterial activity of the modified PET fabrics was tested with Escherichia coli. The results of all experiments show that a photochemical modification of PET is possible using DMAPMA, benzophenone and UV light. Also, the quaternization of tertiary amino groups as well as the increase in antibacterial activity of the modified PET by the established quaternary ammonium groups were successful.

  4. Measuring of the surface characteristic parameters of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric irradiated by UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guoxing; Liang, Shaohua

    2005-01-01

    According to the optical transmission model of laser irradiated Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric, the method of measuring the surface characteristic parameters, both the equivalent optical thickness and the gain of dye strength, is presented in detail. The PET fabrics untreated and irradiated by UV laser (308 nm, mJ/cm2, 10 pulses) are used in our experiment. They are dyed respectively by three disperse dyes (Ciba Terasil Red G 150%, Ciba Terasil Blue BG-02 200% and Ciba Terasil Navy GRL-C 200%) with various concentrations. The spectral reflectance distributions of the untreated and irradiated PET fabrics dyed are carried out with the color measuring and matching system (Datacolor, SF600plus). The experimental data indicated that the dye strength of disperse dye in the UV laser irradiated PET fabric was greater than that in the untreated, that the gain of dye strength is relative to dyestuff, and that the calculated reflectance of UV laser irradiated PET fabric is accordant well to the measured. The results show that the optical transmission model of laser irradiated PET fabric is reasonable and available.

  5. Optical model of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric irradiated by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guoxing

    2005-01-01

    The Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber is so sleek that its surface has high reflectance. Therefore it is difficulty to dye the PET fiber dark color by using the disperse dyes. In order to solve this problem, the laser processing technology is applied to change the surface dyeing property of the PET fiber. How to quantify the treated layer thickness of laser irradiated PET fabric and how to foretell its spectrum reflectivity distribution are two problems that needs the solution urgently. In this paper, both the simplified structure model and optical transmission model of PET fabric irradiated by laser are developed, the reflectance formula for laser irradiated PET fabric is derived. The characteristic parameters, both the equivalent optical thickness and the gain of dye strength, are introduced, which represented surface performance of laser irradiated PET fabric. When the equivalent optical thickness of the treated layer and the unit k/s ratio of the dyestuff are measured, the spectrum reflectivity distribution of the laser irradiated PET fabric for given concentrations of the various colorants can be calculated, thereby its tristimulus values can be obtained.

  6. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors based on laser reduced graphene oxide supported on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Engy; Mori, Shinsuke; Abdel-Moniem, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    A controlled high powered CO2 laser system is used to reduce and pattern graphene oxide (GO) film supported onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The laser reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film is characterized and evaluated electrochemically in the absence and presence of an overlying anodicaly deposited thin film of pseuodcapactive MnO2 as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using aqueous electrolyte. The laser treatment of the GO film leads to an overlapped structure of defective multi-layer rGO sheets with an electrical conductivity of 273 S m-1. The rGO and MnO2/rGO electrodes exhibit specific capacitance in the range of 82-107 and 172-368 Fg-1 at applied current range of 0.1-1.0 mA cm-2 and retain 98 and 95% of their initial capacitances after 2000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. Also, the rGO is assigned as an electrode material for flexible conventionally stacked and interdigitated in-plane supercapacitor structures using gel electrolyte. Three electrode architectures of 2, 4, and 6 sub-electrodes are studied for the interdigital in-plane design. The device with interdigital 6 sub-electrodes architecture I-PS(6) delivers power density of 537.1 Wcm-3 and an energy density of 0.45 mWh cm-3.

  7. Durable grafting of silkworm pupa protein onto the surface of polyethylene terephthalate fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Dandan; Zhang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Guangxian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, reactive -NH2 groups (8.36×10(-6)mol/g fabric) were introduced to the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics by a nitration and reduction method, and epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein (SPP) by reaction with epoxy chloropropane. PET-SPP composite fabrics were then prepared by reaction of these two precursors. The results showed that the SPP was firmly grafted onto the PET fabric surface and that the hydrophilicity of the fabric was markedly improved by the grafting of SPP. SEM images revealed a layer of substance covering the surface of the PET fibers, and XPS investigation showed that the nitrogen content of the PET-SPP fabric was higher than that of the original PET fabric (2.32% vs 0%). ATR-FTIR adsorption bands at 1653 and 1543cm(-1) suggested the successful grafting of SPP onto the PET fabric surface. The DSC and TG of the PET fibers demonstrated that the thermal stability of the original PET fibers was maintained well by the SPP-grafted PET fibers. The breaking strength, bending rigidity, air permeability, and crease recovery angle of the original PET fabric were also retained by the SPP-grafted PET fabric.

  8. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  9. Physical ageing of polyethylene terephthalate under natural sunlight: correlation study between crystallinity and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljoumaa, Khaled; Abboudi, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Semi-crystalline polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was aged under the effect of natural UV exposure and outdoor temperature during 670 days. The variation in the mechanical and thermal properties beside to the morphology was tracked by applying different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, in addition to tensile strength and hardness measurements. It has been confirmed that the ageing process is the results of physical trend only. The aged PET showed a decrease in both tensile strength and strain with an increase in the degree of crystallinity of aged PET samples during the whole period. These changes in crystallinity were examined by various analysis methods: density, calorimetric and infrared spectroscopy. New peaks in FTIR analysis at 1115 and 1090 cm-1 were characterized and proved that this technique is considered to be an easy tool to track the change in the surface crystallinity of aged PET samples directly. The results of this study showed that an augmentation in the degree of crystallinity of outdoor aged PET samples from 18 to 36 %, accompanied with a decrease in tensile strength from 167.9 to 133.7 MPa. Moreover, a good exponential correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and the mechanical properties of the aged PET.

  10. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2015-10-14

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases.

  11. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    PubMed

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material. PMID:25080154

  12. [Interlaboratory study on migration test of antimony and germanium for food-contact polyethylene terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ryo; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Takashi; Abe, Yutaka; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kawasaki, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Sonobe, Hironori; Takasaka, Noriko; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hikida, Akinori; Miura, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate a migration test method of antimony (Sb) and germanium (Ge), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food- contact polyethylene terephthalate. Eighteen laboratories participated, and quantified Sb and Ge in three test solutions as blind duplicates using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or induced coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis revealed that the trueness, repeatability and reproducibility were 98-107%, 1.7-7.5% and 2.0-18.8% by using GF-AAS and ICP-OES. The performance of these methods is sufficient for testing the specifications. The performance parameters of ICP-MS were 99-106%, 0.7-2.2% and 2.2-10.5%, respectively. ICP-MS is available as an alternative measuring method. However, in some laboratories, the quantitative values of Sb were higher than the addition levels. We found that Sb in working solutions is absorbed on glass vessels. Careful control of concentration in working solutions is required for Sb analysis.

  13. Solvent-Induced Crystallization in Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) during Mass Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao

    2001-03-01

    The solvent transport in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and related phase transformation were investigated. The data of mass sorption were analyzed according to Harmon¡¦s model for Case I (Fickian), Case II (swelling) and anomalous transport. This transport process in PET is accompanied by the induced crystallization of the original amorphous state. The transformation was studied by wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), density gradient column, and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR). During this process, the matrix is under a compressive strain that causes different kinetic path of crystallization as compared to that by thermal annealing. This state of strain will assist the development of the solvent-induced crystallization. It also can be explained in terms of the principle of Le Chatelier if the local equilibrium is assumed. The model regarding the crystallization was proposed in terms of the study of long period L, the crystal thickness lc and the thickness of amorphous layer la, obtained from the linear correlation function and interface distribution function.

  14. Study of the Migration of Stabilizer and Plasticizer from Polyethylene Terephthalate into Food Simulants.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the determination and migration of stabilizers and plasticizers from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Two methods [ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane or methanol and total dissolution with phenol/tetrachloroethane (m:m/1:1)] for pre-concentration of additives in PET material were performed. The diffusion of these additives from PET was evaluated by immersing in deionized water, acetic acid 3% (w/v), ethanol 20% (v/v), ethanol 50% (v/v) and isooctane at 20, 40, 55 and 70°C, respectively. The amount of additives in PET and food simulants was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The optimized HPLC method showed high correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9993), good precision, accuracy and reproducibility. Experimental diffusion coefficients (DP) were calculated according to a mathematical model based on Fick's second law, and the DP values of considered compounds ranged from 9.8 × 10(-15) to 1.4 × 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) The experimental DP values were also compared with that predicted by currently used diffusion models. In addition, the effect of temperature on the diffusion rate was assessed. The effect of temperature on the diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius-type model with active energies ranged from 40.4 to 113.8 kJ mol(-1) for the target compounds.

  15. Fabrication of two dimensional polyethylene terephthalate nanofluidic chip using hot embossing and thermal bonding technique

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhifu; Zou, Helin; Chen, Li; Xu, Shenbo

    2014-01-01

    We present in this paper a method for obtaining a low cost and high replication precision 2D (two dimensional) nanofluidic chip with a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) sheet, which uses hot embossing and a thermal bonding technique. The hot embossing process parameters were optimized by both experiments and the finite element method to improve the replication precision of the 2D nanochannels. With the optimized process parameters, 174.67 ± 4.51 nm wide and 179.00 ± 4.00 nm deep nanochannels were successfully replicated into the PET sheet with high replication precision of 98.4%. O2 plasma treatment was carried out before the bonding process to decrease the dimension loss and improve the bonding strength of the 2D nanofluidic chip. The bonding parameters were optimized by bonding rate of the nanofluidic chip. The experiment results show that the bonding strength of the 2D PET nanofluidic chip is 0.664 MPa, and the total dimension loss of 2D nanochannels is 4.34 ± 7.03 nm and 18.33 ± 9.52 nm, in width and depth, respectively. The fluorescence images demonstrate that there is no blocking or leakage over the entire micro- and nanochannels. With this fabrication technology, low cost polymer nanochannels can be fabricated, which allows for commercial manufacturing of nano-components. PMID:25553203

  16. Enhanced UV-assisted vertical etching of polyethylene terephthalate for fabrication of microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, A.; Pajouhi, H.; Tamaddon, A. H.; Sadeghi, A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.; Khadem-Hoseiny, B.

    2009-07-01

    The improved ultraviolet (UV)-assisted vertical etching of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for manufacturing microsystem components is reported. The PET vertical etching is achieved by using a dimethylformamide solution assisted by ultraviolet illumination onto a patterned PET substrate. The process is carried out in low temperature solutions for the benefits of low shrinkage and deformation of PET, yet having high aspect ratio structures and relatively high rates of etching. Furthermore, mask engineering is done for selecting an appropriate mask in order to have crack-free structures. This UV-assisted vertical etching of PET is suitable for the formation of plastic micro-parts as well as metal micro-parts with the aid of electrodeposition. Using this technique, a micromanipulator tool and an electrodeposition setup, all plastic and metallic microsystems can be easily manufactured and assembled. As an example prototype, we have successfully fabricated and assembled an all-plastic microturbine. This microturbine can be used in hydraulic or fluidic applications in microsystems.

  17. Atmospheric pressure synthesis of photoluminescent hybrid materials by sequential organometallic vapor infiltration into polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Akyildiz, Halil I.; Mousa, Moataz Bellah M.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2015-01-28

    Exposing a polymer to sequential organometallic vapor infiltration (SVI) under low pressure conditions can significantly modify the polymer's chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. We demonstrate that SVI of trimethylaluminum into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can also proceed readily at atmospheric pressure, and at 60 °C the extent of reaction determined by mass uptake is independent of pressure between 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr. At 120 °C, however, the mass gain is 50% larger at 2.5 Torr relative to that at 760 Torr, indicating that the precursor diffusion in the chamber and fiber matrix decreases at higher source pressure. Mass gain decreases, in general, as the SVI process temperature increases both at 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr attributed to the faster reaction kinetics forming a barrier layer, which prevents further diffusion of the reactive species. The resulting PET/Al-O{sub x} product shows high photoluminescence compared to untreated fibers. A physical mask on the polymer during infiltration at 760 Torr is replicated in the underlying polymer, producing an image in the polymer that is visible under UV illumination. Because of the reduced precursor diffusivity during exposure at 760 Torr, the image shows improved resolution compared to SVI performed under typical 2.5 Torr conditions.

  18. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    PubMed

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material.

  19. Flotation separation of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate plastics combined with surface modification for recycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chongqing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jiangang; Zhang, Lingling; Luo, Chengcheng; Liu, Younian

    2015-11-01

    Surface modification with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution was developed for separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastics. The floatability of PVC decreases with increasing of KMnO4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate, while that of PET is unaffected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirms that mechanism of surface modification may be due to oxidization reactions occurred on PVC surface. The optimum conditions are KMnO4 concentration 1.25 mM/L, treatment time 50 min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300 r/min, frother concentration 17.5 g/L and flotation time 1 min. PVC and PET with different particle sizes were separated efficiently through two-stage flotation. Additionally, after ultrasonic assisted surface modification, separation of PVC and PET with different mass ratios was obtained efficiently through one-stage flotation. The purity and the recovery of the obtained products after flotation separation are up to 99.30% and 99.73%, respectively. A flotation process was designed for flotation separation of PVC and PET plastics combined with surface modification. This study provides technical insights into physical separation of plastic wastes for recycling industry. PMID:26253330

  20. Flexible piezoelectric pressure sensors using oriented aluminum nitride thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Morito; Morofuji, Yukari; Kamohara, Toshihiro; Nishikubo, Keiko; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Fukuda, Osamu; Ueno, Naohiro

    2006-12-01

    We have investigated the high sensitive piezoelectric response of c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. The AlN films were deposited using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering method at temperatures close to room temperature. The c axes of the AlN films were perpendicularly oriented to the PET film surfaces. The sensor consisting of the AlN and PET films is flexible like PET films and the electrical charge is linearly proportional to the stress within a wide range from 0to8.5MPa. The sensor can respond to the frequencies from 0.3 to over 100Hz and measures a clear human pulse wave form by holding the sensor between thumb and middle finger. The resolution of the pulse wave form is comparable to a sphygmomanometer at stress levels of 10kPa. We think that the origin of the high performance of the sensor is the deflection effect, the thin thickness and high elastic modulus of the AlN layer, and the thin thickness and low elastic modulus of the PET film.

  1. Oxygen-rich coating promotes binding of proteins and endothelialization of polyethylene terephthalate polymers.

    PubMed

    Jaganjac, Morana; Vesel, Alenka; Milkovic, Lidija; Recek, Nina; Kolar, Metod; Zarkovic, Neven; Latiff, Aishah; Kleinschek, Karin-Stana; Mozetic, Miran

    2014-07-01

    The formation of endothelial cell monolayer on prosthetic implants has not sufficiently explored. The main reasons leading to the development of thrombosis and/or intimal hyperplasia is the lack of endothelialization. In the present work, we have studied the influence of oxygen and fluorine plasma treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymers on human microvascular endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. We characterized the polymer surface, wettability, and oxidation potential upon plasma treatment. Moreover, binding of serum and media compounds on PET surface was monitored by Quartz crystal microbalance method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Cell adhesion and morphology was assessed by light and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of plasma treatment on induction of cellular oxidative stress and cell proliferation was evaluated. The results obtained showed that treatment with oxygen plasma decreased the oxidation potential of the PET surface and revealed the highest affinity for binding of serum components. Accordingly, the cells reflected the best adhesion and morphological properties on oxygen-treated PET polymers. Moreover, treatment with oxygen plasma did not induce intracellular reactive oxygen species production while it stimulated endothelial cell proliferation by 25% suggesting the possible use of oxygen plasma treatment to enhance endothelialization of synthetic vascular grafts.

  2. Polyethylene terephthalate recycling for food-contact applications: testing, safety and technologies: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Forrest L

    2002-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the composition of five different types of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) feedstreams to ascertain the relative amounts of food containers and non-food containers. Deposit post-consumer PET feedstreams contained approximately 100% food containers, whereas curbside feedstreams contained from 0.04 to 6% non-food containers. Analysis of the PET containers from the different type feedstreams after the containers were subjected to a commercial PET wash system and after processing with a proprietary decontamination technology was accomplished to determine the levels of compounds in the post-consumer PET after the various stages of processing. Comprehensive thermal desorption/GC/MS, purge and trap GC/MS purge and trap GC quantitation, PET dissolution and extraction GC analysis and PET dissolution HPLC analysis established the types and concentrations of compounds that absorb in the PET from the various types of postconsumer feedstreams. A total of 121 compounds were identified in the five different feedstreams. The concentration of absorbed compounds remaining in the deposit material and the non-food applications material after the commercial wash was 28 and 39mgkg(-1) respectively. Analysis of the feedstreams after subjecting the material to a proprietary decontamination process demonstrated the ability of removing all the absorbed compounds to a level below the level of the threshold of regulation. The safety of sourcing of post-consumer PET from food use applications verses non-food use applications of PET has been established. PMID:11962700

  3. [Interlaboratory study on migration test of antimony and germanium for food-contact polyethylene terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ryo; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Takashi; Abe, Yutaka; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kawasaki, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Sonobe, Hironori; Takasaka, Noriko; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hikida, Akinori; Miura, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate a migration test method of antimony (Sb) and germanium (Ge), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food- contact polyethylene terephthalate. Eighteen laboratories participated, and quantified Sb and Ge in three test solutions as blind duplicates using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) or induced coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis revealed that the trueness, repeatability and reproducibility were 98-107%, 1.7-7.5% and 2.0-18.8% by using GF-AAS and ICP-OES. The performance of these methods is sufficient for testing the specifications. The performance parameters of ICP-MS were 99-106%, 0.7-2.2% and 2.2-10.5%, respectively. ICP-MS is available as an alternative measuring method. However, in some laboratories, the quantitative values of Sb were higher than the addition levels. We found that Sb in working solutions is absorbed on glass vessels. Careful control of concentration in working solutions is required for Sb analysis. PMID:25925077

  4. Bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate nanocone arrays with underwater superoleophobicity and anti-bioadhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendong; Liu, Xueyao; Fangteng, Jiaozi; Wang, Shuli; Fang, Liping; Shen, Huaizhong; Xiang, Siyuan; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2014-11-21

    This paper presents a facile method to fabricate bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocone arrays via colloidal lithography. The aspect ratio (AR) of the nanocones can be finely modulated ranging from 1 to 6 by regulating the etching time. The samples with the AR value of 6 can present underwater superoleophobicity with the underwater oil contact angle (OCA) of 171.8°. The as-prepared PET nanocone arrays perform anti-bioadhesion behavior, which inhibits the formation of the actin cytoskeleton when it used as the substrate for cell culture. Moreover, the oil wettability is temperature controlled after modifying the PET nanocone arrays with PNIPAAm film, and the oil wettability of the functionalized nanocone arrays can be transformed from the superoleophobic state with OCA about 151° to the oleophilic state with OCA about 25° reversibly. Due to the high-throughput, parallel fabrication and cost-efficiency of this method, it will be favourable for researchers to introduce oleophobic properties to various substrate and device surfaces. Due to the superoleophobicity and simple functionalizing properties, the PET nanocone arrays are very promising surfaces for anti-adhesion, self-cleaning and have potential applications in material, medical, and biological fields.

  5. Durable grafting of silkworm pupa protein onto the surface of polyethylene terephthalate fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Zheng, Dandan; Zhang, Fengxiu; Zhang, Guangxian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, reactive -NH2 groups (8.36×10(-6)mol/g fabric) were introduced to the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics by a nitration and reduction method, and epoxy groups were introduced to silkworm pupa protein (SPP) by reaction with epoxy chloropropane. PET-SPP composite fabrics were then prepared by reaction of these two precursors. The results showed that the SPP was firmly grafted onto the PET fabric surface and that the hydrophilicity of the fabric was markedly improved by the grafting of SPP. SEM images revealed a layer of substance covering the surface of the PET fibers, and XPS investigation showed that the nitrogen content of the PET-SPP fabric was higher than that of the original PET fabric (2.32% vs 0%). ATR-FTIR adsorption bands at 1653 and 1543cm(-1) suggested the successful grafting of SPP onto the PET fabric surface. The DSC and TG of the PET fibers demonstrated that the thermal stability of the original PET fibers was maintained well by the SPP-grafted PET fibers. The breaking strength, bending rigidity, air permeability, and crease recovery angle of the original PET fabric were also retained by the SPP-grafted PET fabric. PMID:27612829

  6. Up-cycling of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to the biodegradable plastic PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate).

    PubMed

    Kenny, Shane T; Runic, Jasmina Nikodinovic; Kaminsky, Walter; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Keely, Chris M; Blau, Werner; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-10-15

    The conversion of the petrochemical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to a biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyal-kanoate (PHA) is described here. PET was pyrolised at 450 degrees C resulting in the production of a solid, liquid, and gaseous fraction. The liquid and gaseous fractions were burnt for energy recovery, whereas the solid fraction terephthalic acid (TA) was used as the feedstock for bacterial production of PHA. Strains previously reported to grow on TA were unable to accumulate PHA. We therefore isolated bacteria from soil exposed to PET granules at a PET bottle processing plant From the 32 strains isolated, three strains capable of accumulation of medium chain length PHA (mclPHA) from TA as a sole source of carbon and energy were selected for further study. These isolates were identified using 16S rDNA techniques as P. putida (GO16), P. putida (GO19), and P. frederiksbergensis (GO23). P. putida GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA composed predominantly of a 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer while P. frederiksbergensis GO23 accumulates 3-hydroxydecanoic acid as the predominant monomer with increased amounts of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid compared to the other two strains. PHA was detected in all three strains when nitrogen depleted below detectable levels in the growth medium. Strains GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA at a maximal rate of approximately 8.4 mg PHA/l/h for 12 h before the rate of PHA accumulation decreased dramatically. Strain GO23 accumulates PHA at a lower maximal rate of 4.4 mg PHA/l/h but there was no slow down in the rate of PHA accumulation over time. Each of the PHA polymers is a thermoplastic with the onset of thermal degradation occurring around 308 degrees C with the complete degradation occurring by 370 degrees C. The molecular weight ranged from 74 to 123 kDa. X-ray diffraction indicated crystallinity of the order of 18-31%. Thermal analysis shows a low glass transition (-53 degrees C) with a broad melting

  7. Biological and Tribological Assessment of Poly(Ethylene Oxide Terephthalate)/Poly(Butylene Terephthalate), Polycaprolactone, and Poly (L\\DL) Lactic Acid Plotted Scaffolds for Skeletal Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Wilhelmus J; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Rouwkema, Jeroen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; van der Heide, Emile; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufactured scaffolds are fabricated from three commonly used biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (L\\DL) lactic acid (P(L\\DL)LA), and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT). Scaffolds are compared biologically and tribologically. Cell-seeded PEOT/PBT scaffolds cultured in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation media show statistical significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAG)/DNA ratios, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA scaffolds, respectively. The tribological performance is assessed by determining the friction coefficients of the scaffolds at different loads and sliding velocities. With increasing load or decreasing sliding velocity, the friction coefficient value decreases. PEOT/PBT show to have the lowest friction coefficient value, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA. The influence of the scaffold architecture is further determined with PEOT/PBT. Reducing of the fiber spacing results in a lower friction coefficient value. The best and the worst performing scaffold architecture are chosen to investigate the effect of cell culture on the friction coefficient. Matrix deposition is low in the cell-seeded scaffolds and the effect is, therefore, undetermined. Taken together, our studies show that PEOT/PBT scaffolds support better skeletal differentiation of seeded stromal cells and lower friction coefficient compared to PCL and P(L/DL)A scaffolds.

  8. Biological and Tribological Assessment of Poly(Ethylene Oxide Terephthalate)/Poly(Butylene Terephthalate), Polycaprolactone, and Poly (L\\DL) Lactic Acid Plotted Scaffolds for Skeletal Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hendrikson, Wilhelmus J; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Rouwkema, Jeroen; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; van der Heide, Emile; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufactured scaffolds are fabricated from three commonly used biomaterials, polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (L\\DL) lactic acid (P(L\\DL)LA), and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT). Scaffolds are compared biologically and tribologically. Cell-seeded PEOT/PBT scaffolds cultured in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation media show statistical significantly higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAG)/DNA ratios, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA scaffolds, respectively. The tribological performance is assessed by determining the friction coefficients of the scaffolds at different loads and sliding velocities. With increasing load or decreasing sliding velocity, the friction coefficient value decreases. PEOT/PBT show to have the lowest friction coefficient value, followed by PCL and P(L\\DL)LA. The influence of the scaffold architecture is further determined with PEOT/PBT. Reducing of the fiber spacing results in a lower friction coefficient value. The best and the worst performing scaffold architecture are chosen to investigate the effect of cell culture on the friction coefficient. Matrix deposition is low in the cell-seeded scaffolds and the effect is, therefore, undetermined. Taken together, our studies show that PEOT/PBT scaffolds support better skeletal differentiation of seeded stromal cells and lower friction coefficient compared to PCL and P(L/DL)A scaffolds. PMID:26775915

  9. Bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate nanocone arrays with underwater superoleophobicity and anti-bioadhesion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wendong; Liu, Xueyao; Fangteng, Jiaozi; Wang, Shuli; Fang, Liping; Shen, Huaizhong; Xiang, Siyuan; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a facile method to fabricate bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocone arrays via colloidal lithography. The aspect ratio (AR) of the nanocones can be finely modulated ranging from 1 to 6 by regulating the etching time. The samples with the AR value of 6 can present underwater superoleophobicity with the underwater oil contact angle (OCA) of 171.8°. The as-prepared PET nanocone arrays perform anti-bioadhesion behavior, which inhibits the formation of the actin cytoskeleton when it used as the substrate for cell culture. Moreover, the oil wettability is temperature controlled after modifying the PET nanocone arrays with PNIPAAm film, and the oil wettability of the functionalized nanocone arrays can be transformed from the superoleophobic state with OCA about 151° to the oleophilic state with OCA about 25° reversibly. Due to the high-throughput, parallel fabrication and cost-efficiency of this method, it will be favourable for researchers to introduce oleophobic properties to various substrate and device surfaces. Due to the superoleophobicity and simple functionalizing properties, the PET nanocone arrays are very promising surfaces for anti-adhesion, self-cleaning and have potential applications in material, medical, and biological fields.This paper presents a facile method to fabricate bioinspired polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocone arrays via colloidal lithography. The aspect ratio (AR) of the nanocones can be finely modulated ranging from 1 to 6 by regulating the etching time. The samples with the AR value of 6 can present underwater superoleophobicity with the underwater oil contact angle (OCA) of 171.8°. The as-prepared PET nanocone arrays perform anti-bioadhesion behavior, which inhibits the formation of the actin cytoskeleton when it used as the substrate for cell culture. Moreover, the oil wettability is temperature controlled after modifying the PET nanocone arrays with PNIPAAm film, and the oil wettability of the

  10. Phosphate-ion-adsorption capability of granulated boehmite fabricated using organic binder (polyethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Ueda, Ayaka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a method for producing granulated boehmite (BE) by using an organic binder and measured its phosphate-ion-adsorption capacity. BE was granulated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and its structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The properties of granulated BE such as specific surface area, mean pore diameter, pore volume, amount of hydroxyl groups, and solution pH were also investigated. Furthermore, adsorption isotherm; effects of contact time, temperature, and solution pH on phosphate-ion adsorption; and recovery of phosphate ions (using sodium hydroxide solution) were evaluated. BE granulated by PET (BE-PET30S) could be successfully used for phosphate-ion removal by adsorption. The specific surface area and amount of hydroxyl groups of BE-PET30S were found to be 119.8 m²/g and 1.4 mmol/g, respectively. Granulated BEs reached equilibrium adsorption capacities within 24 h. The phosphate-ion-adsorption rate data were fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (r=0.981-0.998). The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to both the Freundlich (0.987-0.989) and Langmuir (0.905-0.944) equations. Based on the thermodynamic study, it was found that the phosphate-ion adsorption by granulated BEs is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The phosphate ions adsorbed onto BE-PET30S could be easily recovered by using a sodium hydroxide solution (1-1000 mmol/L) and their recovery percentage was found to be between 63.3% and 94.0%. The results obtained from this study could be useful for recovering phosphate ions and preventing problems related to water pollution.

  11. Influence of laser irradiation on the optical and structural properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayathunga, V. N.; Lawrence, C. A.; Blackburn, R. S.; Bandara, M. P. U.; Lewis, E. L. V.; El-Dessouky, H. M.; Cheung, V.

    2007-10-01

    Laser irradiation has been previously investigated for achieving uniform heating of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibres in the hot-drawing stage of the production process, so as to obtain better fibre mechanical properties. The optical properties and dye uptake of PET fibres also depend on the polymer chain orientation and crystallinity within the fibre structure. This paper reports an investigation of a concept whereby laser irradiation and interferometry could be used to modify and trace a small change in the optical properties of a PET monofilament fibre, but the corresponding change in the dye uptake would not be detected visually. A copper vapour laser (550-580 nm wavelengths) was used to expose consecutive 4 mm lengths along a running length of monofilament to 39.8 W cm -2, at a pulse rate of 9.89 kHz in order to modify, in a controlled way, the polymer crystallinity and orientation. A 3D finite element simulation, based on uncoupled heat-transfer analysis, indicated that rapid heating and cooling could be obtained with the laser to give the small changes required. Irradiated and untreated samples were analysed by interferometry and a 0.16% change was detected in the birefringence profiles, corresponding to a small reduction in the degree of orientation and crystallinity of the irradiated samples. Density measurements and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) analysis confirmed the change in crystallinity. Tests conducted for dye adsorption and tensile strength showed a small increase in the former and only a very small decrease in the latter. It was concluded that these changes in property provide the opportunity for a laser-irradiated PET monofilament fibre to be used as a subtle tracer element in brand labels for textile garments as an anti-counterfeit measure.

  12. Ideonella sakaiensis sp. nov., isolated from a microbial consortium that degrades poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Takehana, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Oda, Kohei

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designed strain 201-F6T, was isolated from a microbial consortium that degrades poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) collected in Sakai city, Japan, and was characterized on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The cells were motile with a polar flagellum. The strain contained cytochrome oxidase and catalase. It grew within the pH range 5.5-9.0 (optimally at pH 7-7.5) and at 15-42 ºC (optimally at 30-37 ºC). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone with eight isoprene units (Q-8). C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo, C18 :1ω7c and C12 : 0 2-OH were the predominant cellular fatty acids. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 70.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 201-F6T was affiliated to the genus Ideonella, and was closely related to Ideonella dechloratans LMG 28178T (97.7 %) and Ideonella azotifigens JCM 15503T (96.6 %). Strain 201-F6T could be clearly distinguished from the related species of the genus Ideonella by its physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as by its phylogenetic position and DNA-DNA relatedness. Therefore, the strain represents a novel species of the genus Ideonella, for which the name Ideonella sakaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 201-F6T=NBRC 110686T=TISTR 2288T) is proposed. PMID:27045688

  13. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  14. Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow.

  15. Comparative assessment of genotoxicity of mineral water packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Zani, Claudia; Zerbini, Ilaria; Guzzella, Licia; Scaglia, Mauro; Berna, Vanda; Donato, Francesco; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2010-03-01

    The potential migration of genotoxic compounds into mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles was evaluated by an integrated chemical/biological approach using short-term toxicity/genotoxicity tests and chemical analysis. Six commercial brands of still and carbonated mineral water bottled in PET and in glass were stored at 40 degrees C for 10 days in a stove according to the standard EEC total migration test (82/711/EEC), or at room temperature in the dark. After treatment, the samples were analysed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to detect volatile and non-volatile compounds, the Microtox test to evaluate potential toxicity of the samples, and three mutagenicity tests -Tradescantia and Allium cepa micronucleus tests and the Comet assay on human leukocytes - to detect their genotoxic activity. GC/MS analysis did not detect phthalates or acetaldehyde in the water samples. The Microtox test found no toxic effects. Mutagenicity tests detected genotoxic properties of some samples in both PET and glass bottles. Statistical analyses showed a positive association between mineral content and mutagenicity (micronuclei in A. cepa and DNA damage in human leukocytes). No clear effect of treatment and PET bottle was found. These results suggest the absence of toxic compounds migrating from PET regardless of time and conditions of storage. In conclusion, bottle material and stove treatment were not associated with the genotoxic properties of the water; the genotoxic effects detected in bottled water may be related to the characteristics of the water (minerals and CO(2) content).

  16. Diffusion behaviour of the acetaldehyde scavenger 2-aminobenzamide in polyethylene terephthalate for beverage bottles.

    PubMed

    Franz, Roland; Gmeiner, Margit; Gruner, Anita; Kemmer, Diana; Welle, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are widely used as packaging material for natural mineral water. However, trace levels of acetaldehyde can migrate into natural mineral water during the shelf life and might influence the taste of the PET bottled water. 2-Aminobenzamide is widely used during PET bottle production as a scavenging agent for acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration kinetics of 2-aminobenzamide into natural mineral water as well as into 20% ethanol. From the migration kinetics, the diffusion coefficients of 2-aminobenzamide in PET at 23 and 40°C were determined to be 4.2 × 10(-)(16) and 4.2 × 10(-)(15) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. The diffusion coefficient for 20% ethanol at 40°C was determined to be 7.7 × 10(-)(15) cm(2) s(-1), which indicates that 20% ethanol is causing swelling of the PET polymer. From a comparison of migration values between 23 and 40°C, acceleration factors of 9.7 when using water as contact medium and 18.1 for 20% ethanol as simulant can be derived for definition of appropriate accelerated test conditions at 40°C. The European Union regulatory acceleration test based on 80 kJ mol(-1) as conservative activation energy overestimates the experimentally determined acceleration rates by a factor of 1.6 and 3.1, respectively. PMID:26666986

  17. Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

    2005-08-01

    One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy. PMID:16200982

  18. Decontamination efficiency of a new post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycling concept.

    PubMed

    Welle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the cleaning efficiency of a new recycling concept for post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The so-called Flake To Resin (FTR) recycling process produces PET pellets or preforms from conventionally recycled PET flakes for the application in new PET packaging in direct food contact. The investigated process can be considered as 'super-clean' recycling process and was developed to introduce conventional recycled post-consumer (PCR) PET flakes up to an amount of 50% into the pellet and preform production. Within the study the cleaning efficiency of the investigated FTR process was determined by a challenge test. The experimental results obtained from three challenge tests with different input concentrations of the surrogates and different amounts of post-consumer PET flakes show that all applied surrogates are very efficiently removed by the investigated recycling process. The cleaning efficiencies for all surrogates are above 99.9%. In the final product of the process no surrogates could be determined above the detection limits (0.5 mg kg(-1)) even if the initial concentrations were in the percentage range. From a migrational point the final product, which are either PET pellets or preforms, was similar to virgin PET. Only the PET typical substances acetaldehyde and ethylene glycol had slightly higher concentrations than found in a conventional PET virgin sample used as reference. The generally accepted migration limit of 10 microg kg(-1) for the surrogates in the final products of the challenge tests is established for all kinds of foodstuffs.

  19. Diffusion behaviour of the acetaldehyde scavenger 2-aminobenzamide in polyethylene terephthalate for beverage bottles

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Roland; Gmeiner, Margit; Gruner, Anita; Kemmer, Diana; Welle, Frank

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are widely used as packaging material for natural mineral water. However, trace levels of acetaldehyde can migrate into natural mineral water during the shelf life and might influence the taste of the PET bottled water. 2-Aminobenzamide is widely used during PET bottle production as a scavenging agent for acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration kinetics of 2-aminobenzamide into natural mineral water as well as into 20% ethanol. From the migration kinetics, the diffusion coefficients of 2-aminobenzamide in PET at 23 and 40°C were determined to be 4.2 × 10− 16 and 4.2 × 10− 15 cm2 s–1, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for 20% ethanol at 40°C was determined to be 7.7 × 10− 15 cm2 s–1, which indicates that 20% ethanol is causing swelling of the PET polymer. From a comparison of migration values between 23 and 40°C, acceleration factors of 9.7 when using water as contact medium and 18.1 for 20% ethanol as simulant can be derived for definition of appropriate accelerated test conditions at 40°C. The European Union regulatory acceleration test based on 80 kJ mol–1 as conservative activation energy overestimates the experimentally determined acceleration rates by a factor of 1.6 and 3.1, respectively. PMID:26666986

  20. Decontamination efficiency of a new post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycling concept.

    PubMed

    Welle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the cleaning efficiency of a new recycling concept for post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The so-called Flake To Resin (FTR) recycling process produces PET pellets or preforms from conventionally recycled PET flakes for the application in new PET packaging in direct food contact. The investigated process can be considered as 'super-clean' recycling process and was developed to introduce conventional recycled post-consumer (PCR) PET flakes up to an amount of 50% into the pellet and preform production. Within the study the cleaning efficiency of the investigated FTR process was determined by a challenge test. The experimental results obtained from three challenge tests with different input concentrations of the surrogates and different amounts of post-consumer PET flakes show that all applied surrogates are very efficiently removed by the investigated recycling process. The cleaning efficiencies for all surrogates are above 99.9%. In the final product of the process no surrogates could be determined above the detection limits (0.5 mg kg(-1)) even if the initial concentrations were in the percentage range. From a migrational point the final product, which are either PET pellets or preforms, was similar to virgin PET. Only the PET typical substances acetaldehyde and ethylene glycol had slightly higher concentrations than found in a conventional PET virgin sample used as reference. The generally accepted migration limit of 10 microg kg(-1) for the surrogates in the final products of the challenge tests is established for all kinds of foodstuffs. PMID:17906995

  1. Properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes with a polymer layer obtained by plasma polymerization of pyrrole vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, L.; Dmitriev, S.; Lizunov, N.; Satulu, V.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The structure and the charge transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membrane modified by pyrrole plasma were studied. It was found that polymer deposition on the surface of a track membrane via plasma polymerization of pyrrole results in the creation of composite nanomembranes that, in the case of the formation of a semipermeable layer, possess asymmetric conductivity in electrolyte solutions - a rectification effect similar to that of a p-n junction in semiconductors. It is caused by presence in the membranes of two layers with different functional groups and also by the pore geometry. Such membranes can be used to create chemical and biochemical sensors.

  2. Roles of inorganic oxide nanoparticles on extraction efficiency of electrospun polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposite as an unbreakable fiber coating.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Roostaie, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the roles of inorganic oxide nanoparticles on the extraction efficiency of polyethylene terephthalate-based nanocomposites were extensively studied. Four fiber coatings based on polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites containing different types of nanoparticles along with a pristine polyethylene terephthalate polymer were conveniently electrospun on stainless steel wires. The applicability of new fiber coatings were examined by headspace-solid phase microextraction of some environmentally important volatile organic compound such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), as model compounds, from aqueous samples. Subsequently, the extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography by thermal desorption. Parameters affecting the morphology and capability of the prepared nanocomposites including the type of nanoparticles and their doping levels along with the coating time were optimized. Four types of nanoparticles including Fe3O4, SiO2, CoO and NiO were examined as the doping agents and among them the presence of SiO2 in the prepared nanocomposite was prominent. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the SiO2-polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposite were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy indicating that the nanofibers diameters were lower than 300 nm. In addition, important parameters influencing the extraction and desorption process such as temperature and extraction time, ionic strength and desorption conditions were optimized. Eventually, the developed method was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, the relative standard deviation values for a double distilled water spiked with the selected volatile organic compounds at 50 ng L(-1) were 2-7% (n=3) while the limits of detection were between 0.7 and 0.9 ng L(-1). The method was linear in the concentration range of 10 to 1,000 ng L(-1) (R(2)>0.9992). Finally, the developed method was applied to the analysis of

  3. Elastic and inelastic transmission of electrons through insulating polyethylene terephthalate nanocapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keerthisinghe, D.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Stolterfoht, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of electrons with incident energies of 300, 500, and 800 eV through insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocapillaries for small tilt angles near 0° was studied. The exiting electrons showed elastic and inelastic behaviors with the inelasticity increasing with the tilt angle. This paper is an extension of our earlier work for electrons on PET reported by Das et al. [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042716 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.042716], but the present study goes further by investigating the transmission for very small tilt angles near 0° with the small step sizes revealing distinct regions of behavior. The work performed here was conducted for two samples with different capillary diameters and pore densities: sample 1 with 100-nm diameter capillaries in a foil of 12-µm thickness and a pore density of 5 ×108/cm2 , and sample 2 with 200-nm diameter capillaries with the same foil thickness and a pore density of 5 ×107/cm2 . Two distinct regions of transmission depending on the sample tilt angle for both samples corresponding to direct and guided electrons as well as the transition region between them were observed. The angular centers and widths of the transmission for each angle investigated were found and are discussed in terms of the tilt angle variation in the foil. For the widths, comparison with the inherent angular width of the electron spectrometer is made. Energy loss of electrons was studied from the centroids of the energy spectra with these energies corresponding to the peak centers of the angular profiles. The broadness of the energy distributions due to inelasticity was investigated from the full width at half maxima (in eV) of the spectra. The results for both samples agreed well despite the differences in capillary diameters and pore densities. The results are in partial agreement with the previous work performed for PET nanocapillaries by Das et al. [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042716 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.042716], but differences are

  4. FTIR analysis of polyethylene terephthalate irradiated by MeV He+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebara, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Chami, A. C.

    2012-03-01

    The degradation induced by MeV He+ ions onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is investigated as a function of fluence and electronic stopping power (dE/dx)e. Stack samples of four 3.6 μm PET films are irradiated by 3.5 MeV He+ under vacuum and room temperature at fluence ranging from 1013 to 1.5 × 1015 He+ cm-2. The entrance energies range from 3.5 MeV for the front film to 0.573 MeV for the rear one at the beginning of the irradiation and the corresponding mean (dE/dx)e lie for pristine PET between 158 and 264 keV/μm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis is undertaken. The different stack films present similar damages with magnitude increase as the fluence goes up. Moreover, higher is the electronic stopping power (dE/dx)e more important is the damage. The evolution of the normalized integrated absorbance A(ϕ)/A0 of the internal reference 1410 cm-1 band as a function of the fluence ϕ presents a complex behavior characterized by a two-exponential decay associated to low and high fluence range. The analysis reveals clearly that the A(ϕ)/A0 of the characteristic benzene ring 1577 cm-1 band remains steady till fluence around 3 × 1014 He+ cm-2 and then decreases smoothly as fluence increases. The band appearing at 1610 cm-1, assigned to mono substituted benzene, presents an integrated absorbance A(ϕ) which rises progressively and levels off beyond a critical fluence around 4 × 1014 He+ cm-2. The cross section of the creation of the monosubstituted benzene lies between 3 × 10-15 and 6 × 10-15 cm2 for (dE/dx)e = 158 and 264 keV/μm, respectively. Drastic loss of crystallinity is induced by the MeV He+ ion irradiation in the polymer. The amorphization is monitored by the evolution of the specific bands of the trans and gauche ethylene glycol residue conformations. A sudden drop in the integrated absorbance of the 1340 cm-1 band which characterizes the trans conformation is observed at fluence around 2 × 1014 He+ cm-2. On the other hand, a

  5. Water permeability of polyethylene terephthalate track membranes modified in plasma of dimethylaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Lyubov; Dmitriev, Serguei; Gilman, Alla; Drachev, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The surface properties and hydrodynamic characteristics of composite membranes consisting of a porous substrate, on which a polymer layer from a direct current discharge in a mixture of air and vapours of dimethylaniline was deposited, have been investigated. As a substrate, we used poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membrane (PET TM) of the thickness of 10 μ m and the effective pore diameter of 0.215 μ m (pore density is 2\\cdot 10^8 cm-2). The performed researches show that when treating the membranes in plasma, two competing processes are observed: deposition of the polymer layer on a membrane surface, that testifies increase of the mass of sample, and etching of a polymeric matrix which causes growth of effective pore diameter. The last process is stipulated by presence of oxygen in the gas mixture. Decreasing the degree of overweight of the sample at increasing the treatment time leads us to a supposition that a dominating process in this case becomes the process of gas-discharge etching. In all cases, if treating PET TM, a drop of the water contact angle occurs, i.e. hydrophilization of the membrane surface takes place that is connected first of all with a grafting of polymer layer containing polar functional groups. The research in the hydrodynamic characteristics of the initial PET TM and the membranes modified in plasma at neutral and subacid pH value of filtrate leads to a linear dependence of their permeability upon the quantity of applied pressure. It is connected with a viscous character of the flow, that is, when the diameter of the pores of the membrane is much more than the size of the water molecules. This fact shows that the macromolecules of the deposited polymer layer in this case have a compact conformation, which does not hinder the water molecules infiltration. At a lower pH value of the filtrate, the picture cardinally changes. For modified in plasma membranes a diversion from the linear relation is observed. This means that in this case

  6. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  7. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  8. Site-selective adsorption of protein induced by a metal pattern on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) surface.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiali; Wu, Zhongkui; Li, Shaoying; Tang, Hongxiao; Mei, Qilin

    2013-11-01

    A novel technique for inducing site-selective adsorption of protein through constructing metal patterns on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces is presented. The substrates were first modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation through a photomask to introduce regions with different functional groups. Then the designed metal patterns were constructed on the surfaces of VUV-treated substrates. The surface rearrangement was effectively prevented by constructing silver patterns on poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces, thus significantly improving the stability and selectivity of protein adsorption on the surfaces. Moreover, the protein-repulsive layer further reinforced the effect. Finally, protein patterns were successfully obtained. As confirmed by fluorescence microscope, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and static water contact angle measurement, the protein patterns possess both excellent selectivity and high fidelity. Feature size of the protein patterns surrounded by a protein-repulsive layer was exactly the same as that of the photomask. And the grain sizes of silver particles were approximately 50 nm. This work could potentially be used in various fields such as biomedicine, bioelectronic components, and tissue repair and replacement, where selective adsorption of protein is desired.

  9. Improvement of barrier properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/organoclay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, Maryam

    The presence of nanoclays in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as an impermeable phase and for increasing the tortuous path of permeates can result in outstanding property improvements in terms of decreasing gas permeability. PET nanocomposites can be prepared by in-situ or melt-mixing methods. The latter approach is more economical, practical and environmental friendly due to the absence of monomers and/or organic solvents. The microstructure of polymer nanocomposites substantially plays an important role in the determining macroscopic properties of final products. To achieve significant performance enhancements, good dispersion of the nanoclay in the matrix and thermodynamic compatibility between the nanoclay and the polymer are required. In this work, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nanocomposites were prepared by water-assisted melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. In order to facilitate the diffusion of PET molecules into clay galleries, steam was fed into the extruder. Subsequently, the molecular weight (M W) reduction of the PET matrix, due to hydrolysis by water, was compensated by solid-state polymerization (SSP). Effects of feeding rate, compatibility between PET and nanoclay (Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Nanomer I.28E) and SSP on the microstructure of the nanocomposites were studied. The results revealed more delamination of organoclay platelets in PET-C30B nanocomposites processed at low feeding rate compared to those processed at high feeding rate. The presence of water resulted in a larger number of single and double layers of C30B nanoparticles as well as an increased aspect ratio of clay particles in PET nanocomposites. The effect of water on the microstructure of PET nanocomposites was strongly dependent on the nanoclay modifier. Processing with water had negative effects on the PET-I28E nanocomposites, because of its lower compatibility. Studies on the structure of PET after SSP by rheological measurements, Nuclear magnetic resonance

  10. Rheological characterization of degradation and polycondensation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) melt in air and in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Matthias; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2013-04-01

    Three different poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) samples based on dimethyl terephthalate or terephthalic acid, were studied in terms of alterations and mutations caused by thermal exposure during rheological characterization. Thermal stability and frequency sweep experiments were performed in the melt state at a temperature of 280°C, and the influence of the atmosphere (air or nitrogen) as well as the effect of sample preparation (pellets molten directly between the plates of the rheometer vs. samples cut from compression molded sheets) were studied. Thermal stability tests reveal a fundamentally different behavior of the storage (G') and the loss (G″) modulus for measurements in air compared to measurements in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Samples measured in air show a decrease of both moduli due to thermal degradation, while an unexpected strong increase was observed in nitrogen due to polycondensation. The loading time of the samples caused already a significant change of the rheological properties, which could be reconstructed by extrapolation to zero loading time. Frequency sweep test were significantly affected by the rapid changes of the molecular structure. Frequency sweeps were conducted bidirectional, i.e. by first increasing the angular frequency from 0.05 rad.s-1 to 500 rad.s-1, which was then followed by a decrease from 500 rad.s-1 to 0.05 rad.s-1, and vice versa. These tests confirm the effects of the atmosphere applied, air or nitrogen, causing degradation and condensation, respectively. However, besides these dominating alterations, i.e. reduction of the molecular weight due to chain scission in air and increase of the molecular weight due to condensation reactions in nitrogen, also the opposite effects were detected. This indicates clearly the formation of a bimodal molecular weight distribution whose existence was supported by the rheological characterization of compression molded plates, which were found to show more degradation but also

  11. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminova, Anna; Vandrovcová, Marta; Shelemin, Artem; Kylián, Ondřej; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Bačáková, Lucie; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  12. Indium tin oxide films deposited by thermionic-enhanced DC magnetron sputtering on unheated polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Y.F.; Peng, W.C.; Lo, Y.H.; He, J.L.

    2009-08-05

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates via thermionic enhanced DC magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperatures. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are methodically investigated. The results show that compared with traditional sputtering, the films deposited with thermionic emission exhibit higher crystallinity, and their optical and electrical properties are also improved. Indium tin oxide films deposited by utilizing thermionic emission exhibit an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, while films made without thermionic emission present an average visible transmittance of 74% and an electrical resistivity of 1.7 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm.

  13. The effect of local fluence on the micropatterning of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils through proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, C. T.; Stori, E. M.; Boufleur, L. A.; Papaléo, R. M.; Dias, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of ion fluence on the development of microstructures produced by 2.2 MeV H+ impinging on 12-μm-thick poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET, Mylar®) foils. Several lines of 1 × 100 pixels corresponding to approximately 2.5 × 101.5 µm2 were patterned on PET foils using different ion fluences (from 1012 to 1017 H+/cm2) and etching times (from 1 to 60 min). We observe the presence of three different behaviors according to the ion fluence. Long etching times are necessary to open the structure in the low fluence regime, while moderate fluences require shorter etching times. In the high fluence regime, a more complex scenario emerges where short etching times lead to structures either fully or partially developed.

  14. Ion guiding accompanied by formation of neutrals in polyethylene terephthalate polymer nanocapillaries: Further insight into a self-organizing process

    SciTech Connect

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Bereczky, R. J.; Tokesi, K.; Koever, A.; Palinkas, J.; Stolterfoht, N.

    2010-12-15

    A relatively large yield of neutralized atoms was observed when 3 keV Ar{sup 7+} ions were guided trough polyethylene terephthalate nanocapillaries. Time and deposited-charge dependence of the angular distribution of both the guided ions and the neutrals was measured simultaneously using a two-dimensional multichannel plate detector. The yield of neutrals increased significantly faster than that of guided ions and saturated typically at a few percent level. In accordance with earlier observations, both the yield and the mean emission angle of the guided ions exhibited strong oscillations. For the atoms, the equilibrium was achieved not only faster, but also without significant oscillations in yield and angular position. A phase analysis of these time dependencies provides insight into the dynamic features of the self-organizing mechanisms, which leads to ion guiding in insulating nanocapillaries.

  15. Wear-resistant and antismudge superoleophobic coating on polyethylene terephthalate substrate using SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxin; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-14

    It is of interest to create superoleophobic surfaces that exhibit high oil contact angle, low contact angle hysteresis, high wear resistance, antismudge properties, and optical transparency for industrial applications. In the superoleophobic surfaces developed to date, the mechanical durability data is lacking. By dip-coating polyethylene terephthalate substrate with hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and methylphenyl silicone resin, followed by O2 plasma treatment and vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, a durable superoleophobic surface was fabricated. The degree of superoleophobicity was found to be dependent on the particle-to-binder ratio. The coatings were found to exhibit wear resistance on microscale and macroscale, antismudge properties, and transparency.

  16. Design and synthesis of comonomers to enhance the optical, physical, and thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Daniel Martin

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the world's most important commodity plastics. The largest volume applications of PET include textile fiber, tire cord, and packaging materials. There are many opportunities for improving the properties of PET that are associated with its various applications. We address three of the major application driven issues in PET: Increasing the optical brightness, increasing the crystallization rate, and enhancing the optical clarity through inhibition of crystallization. Each of the projects is summarized below. A new class of monomeric fused aromatic fluorescent brightening agents based on pyrene and anthracene have been designed and synthesized. The monomers: dimethyl 1,6-pyrene dicarboxylate, dimethyl 1,8-pyrenedicarboxylate, dimethyl 2,7-pyrenedicarboxylate, 1,9-bis(2-carboxybenzoyl)pyrene dimethyl ester, dimethyl 2,6-anthracenedicarboxylate, dimethyl 2,7-anthracenedicarboxylate and dimethyl 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylate were copolymerized with poly(ethylene terephthalate) and their optical properties were assessed. All of the polymers gave blue fluorescence with the copolymer containing dimethyl 1,6-pyrenedicarboxylate being the brightest. The synthesis of 2,7-substituted pyrene derivatives needed for the optical brightening project and for the crystallization rate enhancement project posed unique challenges. Optimized synthetic procedures for these compounds were developed. Pyrenes derivatized in the 2- and 7-positions were prepared by reduction of pyrene to 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene followed by electrophilic aromatic substitution and re-aromatization. An optimized procedure is presented for hydrogenation of pyrene to provide 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyene in high yield, which facilitates a convenient synthesis of dimethyl 2,7-pyrenedicarboxylate.

  17. Chitosan/poly (vinyl pyrollidone) coatings improve the antibacterial properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bai-liang; Wang, Jin-lei; Li, Dan-dan; Ren, Ke-feng; Ji, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan/poly (vinyl pyrollidone) (CHI/PVP) coatings were prepared to improve the antibacterial properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by a simple dip-coating method. The binding capability of CHI/PVP coatings was enhanced by successively pretreatment of PET by polyetherimide and polyacrylic acid and crosslinking. Measurements of water contact angle and atomic force microscope revealed that the coatings created a highly hydrophilic surface with low roughness. Adherences of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) on PET with CHI/PVP coating were significantly reduced. Bactericidal activity of CHI/PVP coatings was good against E. coli and S. aureus and the adding of PVP obviously increased its antiadhesion property. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, cell morphology and activity evaluation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that CHI/PVP coatings had good biocompatibility.

  18. Surface treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate and its toughening effect on poly(ethylene terephthalate)/elastomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2013-09-01

    To improve the compatibility between ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate random terpolymer (E-MA-GMA) elastomer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), thereby enhance the toughening effect of E-MA-GMA on PET, γ-radiation-induced graft copolymerization technique was used to graft methyl acrylate (MA) monomer onto PET. The produced PET-g-PMA copolymer can be used as a self-compatibilizer in PET/E-MA-GMA blend since the copolymer contains the same segments, respectively, with PET and E-MA-GMA. The impact strength of PET/E-MA-GMA blend increased nearly by 30% in the presence of less than 0.1 wt% PET-g-PMA compared with that of the neat PET/elastomer blend, without loss of the tensile strength of the blends. This work proposed a potential application of radiation-induced grafting copolymerization technique on the in-situ compatibilization of PET/elastomer blends so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  19. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  20. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine ( L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  1. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Biao; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  2. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of a biomimetic nanoscale calcium phosphate coating on a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHEN; LI, HONG; GUO, CHANGAN; CHEN, SHIYI

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament was coated with an organic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled template of chitosan and hyaluronic acid, and then incubated in a calcium phosphate (CaP) solution to prepare a biomimetic CaP coating. The surface characterization of the ligament was examined using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effects of CaP coatings on the osteogenic activity of MC3T3 E1 mouse osteoblastic cells were investigated by evaluating their attachment, proliferation and the relative expression levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results revealed that the organic LBL template on the PET artificial ligament was effective for CaP apatite formation. Following incubation for 72 h, numerous nanoscale CaP apatites were deposited on the PET ligament fibers. In addition, the results of the in vitro culture of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells demonstrated that the CaP coating had a good biocompatibility for cell proliferation and adhesion, and the CaP-coated group had a significantly higher alkaline phosphatase activity compared with the uncoated control group after seven days of cell culture. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the biomimetic nanoscale CaP-coated PET artificial ligaments have potential in bone-tissue engineering. PMID:27347053

  3. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs. PMID:24324927

  4. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  5. Biotin-functionalized poly(ethylene terephthalate) capillary-channeled polymer fibers as HPLC stationary phase for affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Native poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been used as the stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of proteins via reversed-phase and ion-exchange processes. Functionalization can be used to bring about greater selectivity through surface modification. PET fibers were treated with ethylenediamine to generate primary amine groups on the fiber surface, enabling subsequent covalent attachment of ligands. The ninhydrin test for primary amines revealed surface densities of 13.9-60.0 μmol m(-2) for PET fibers exposed for periods of 3-12 min. Here, 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid was linked to the EDA-treated PET fiber surface as a hydrophilic spacer, and then D-biotin was attached on the end of the spacer as an affinity ligand. The streptavidin binding capacity and binding homogeneity were studied on the biotin-functionalized PET C-CP fiber microbore column. The selectivity of the biotin surface functionalization was assessed by spiking lysate with Texas Red-labeled streptavidin and enhanced green fluorescent protein. Greater than 99% selectivity was realized. This ligand-coupling strategy from standard solid-phase peptide synthesis used in stationary phase functionalization creates great potential for PET C-CP fiber-packed HPLC columns to perform a variety of chromatographic separations. PMID:25410640

  6. Surface engineering of electrospun polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanofibers towards development of a new material for blood vessel engineering.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zuwei; Kotaki, Masaya; Yong, Thomas; He, Wei; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2005-05-01

    Non-woven polyethylene terephthalate nanofiber mats (PET NFM) were prepared by electrospinning technology and were surface modified to mimic the fibrous proteins in native extracellular matrix towards constructing a biocompatible surface for endothelial cells (ECs). The electrospun PET NFM was first treated in formaldehyde to yield hydroxyl groups on the surface, followed by the grafting polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) initiated by Ce(IV). Finally, the PMAA-grafted PET NFM was grafted with gelatin using water-soluble carbodiimide as coupling agent. Plane PET film was also surface modified and characterized for basic understanding of the surface modification process. The grafting of PMAA and gelatin on PET surface was confirmed by XPS spectroscopy and quantitatively analyzed by colorimetric methods. ECs were cultured on the original and gelatin-modified PET NFM and the cell morphology, proliferation and viability were studied. Three characteristic surface makers expressed by ECs were studied using immuno-florescent microscopy. The gelatin grafting method can obviously improve the spreading and proliferation of the ECs on the PET NFM, and moreover, can preserve the EC's phenotype. PMID:15585255

  7. Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cells on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by O-carboxymethylchitosan surface immobilization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Feng; Fang, Ning

    2008-08-01

    Specifying the chemical environment of cells is a well-established method of controlling cellular behaviors. In this study, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was selected as a typical biomaterial to detect the effects of chemical modifications on material surface in controlling cell behaviors. Natural biopolymer chitosan and its biocompatible derivative, O-carboxymethylchitosan (OCMCS) were surface immobilized on PET, respectively, via argon plasma followed by graft copolymerization with acrylic acid (AAc), which was exploited to covalently couple PET with chitosan (CS) and OCMCS molecules. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) displayed a surface-dependent cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization. The cells spread with a more pronounced elongated spindle shape, smaller cell area, and lower cell shape index (CSI) on OCMCS-modified PET surface than on PET, or the PAA and chitosan-immobilized PET surfaces after 24 h of culture. Cell-culture viability after 5 days showed that all the modified materials possessed good cell proliferation. Our results suggest that cell adhesion, morphology, and growth can be mediated not only by varying the functional groups, electric charge, and wettability of PET surface but also by the specific biological recognition elicited from the biomaterials. These findings strongly support the concept that the microenvironment significantly influences cell behavior, highlighting the importance of environmental material biochemistry in cell-based tissue engineering schemes. PMID:17975820

  8. Nd:YVO4 laser direct ablation of indium tin oxide films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Kwon, Sang Jik; Han, Jae-Hee; Cho, Eou Sik

    2013-09-01

    A Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd:YVO4, lambda = 1064 nm) laser was applied to obtain the indium tin oxide (ITO) patterns on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a direct etching method. After the ITO films were deposited on a soda-lime glass and PET substrate, laser ablations were carried out on the ITO films for various conditions and the laser ablated results on the ITO films were investigated and analyzed considering the effects of substrates on the laser etching. The laser ablated widths on ITO deposited on glass were found to be much narrower than those on ITO deposited on PET substrate, especially, at a higher scanning speed of laser beam such as 1000 mm/s and 2000 mm/s. As the thermal conductivity of glass substrate is about 7.5 times higher than that of PET, more thermal energy would be spread and transferred to lateral direction in the ITO film in case of PET substrate. PMID:24205645

  9. Radiation grafting of glycidyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene onto polyethylene terephthalate fabrics for improving anti-dripping performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Guoliang; Peng, Jing; Li, Jiuqiang; Shi, Meiwu; Zhai, Maolin

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of anti-dripping polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was successfully prepared by simultaneous gamma radiation-induced grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) onto the surface of PET fabrics. The grafting yield (GY) and anti-dripping effect were optimized by changing the total absorbed dose, dose rate, concentration and the feed ratio of GMA and DVB. The grafting yield increased with the increase of absorbed dose and GMA monomer concentration, and decreased with the dose rate. It is confirmed that PET fabrics had been modified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength and elongation at break of modified PET fabrics were improved compared with original PET fabrics. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of modified PET fabrics with the GY of 23-25% was 21.5, which was similar to that of unmodified PET fabrics. However, the anti-dripping performance of PET fabrics was improved remarkably after radiation modification due to the crosslinking of the sidechains grafted on the PET surface. This anti-dripping fabric may be promising for fire protective clothing.

  10. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius. PMID:23240194

  11. Organometallic exposure dependence on organic–inorganic hybrid material formation in polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide 6 polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Akyildiz, Halil I.; Jur, Jesse S.

    2015-03-15

    The effect of exposure conditions and surface area on hybrid material formation during sequential vapor infiltrations of trimethylaluminum (TMA) into polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers is investigated. Mass gain of the fabric samples after infiltration was examined to elucidate the reaction extent with increasing number of sequential TMA single exposures, defined as the times for a TMA dose and a hold period. An interdependent relationship between dosing time and holding time on the hybrid material formation is observed for TMA exposure PET, exhibited as a linear trend between the mass gain and total exposure (dose time × hold time × number of sequential exposures). Deviation from this linear relationship is only observed under very long dose or hold times. In comparison, amount of hybrid material formed during sequential exposures to PA6 fibers is found to be highly dependent on amount of TMA dosed. Increasing the surface area of the fiber by altering its cross-sectional dimension is shown to have little on the reaction behavior but does allow for improved diffusion of the TMA into the fiber. This work allows for the projection of exposure parameters necessary for future high-throughput hybrid modifications to polymer materials.

  12. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here. PMID:12028650

  13. Two-wavelength Raman study of poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces modified by helium plasma-based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Mohai, M.; Bertóti, I.; Szépvölgyi, J.; Tóth, S.; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2012-12-01

    The surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was modified by helium plasma-based ion implantation (He PBII). The untreated and surface modified samples were characterised with optical absorption spectroscopy and two-wavelength micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with 488 nm and 785 nm light sources, allowing to examine the chemical bonding configuration of the surface layers on different depths and by selective enhancement of vibrations of different structural units. Upon treatment, simultaneously with the development of the broad D and G bands, a gradual decrease of the peaks corresponding to the Cdbnd C stretching and Cdbnd O stretching modes were observed with both excitations. Downshifting and broadening were detected for the Cdbnd C peak with both excitations and also for the Cdbnd O peak with the 488 nm excitation due to formation of condensed aromatic rings. Oppositely, upshifting was found with 785 nm excitation for the Cdbnd O peak and especially for its broad shoulder newly developed at the high wavenumber side. The latter feature was assigned to Cdbnd O groups attached to polymer chains without conjugation and the bands behaviour was interpreted by breaking of the Cdbnd C bonds of the polymer, leading to the formation of a crosslinked, disordered and stressed structure with still intact Cdbnd O groups, due to the increased nuclear damage at the end of the ion track.

  14. Antimicrobial nano-silver non-woven polyethylene terephthalate fabric via an atmospheric pressure plasma deposition process

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaolong; Yu Nikiforov, Anton; Coenye, Tom; Cools, Pieter; Aziz, Gaelle; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    An antimicrobial nano-silver non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric has been prepared in a three step process. The fabrics were first pretreated by depositing a layer of organosilicon thin film using an atmospheric pressure plasma system, then silver nano-particles (AgNPs) were incorporated into the fabrics by a dipping-dry process, and finally the nano-particles were covered by a second organosilicon layer of 10-50 nm, which acts as a barrier layer. Different surface characterization techniques like SEM and XPS have been implemented to study the morphology and the chemical composition of the nano-silver fabrics. Based on these techniques, a uniform immobilization of AgNPs in the PET matrix has been observed. The antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics has also been tested using P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. It reveals that the thickness of the barrier layer has a strong effect on the bacterial reduction of the fabrics. The durability and stability of the AgNPs on the fabrics has also been investigated in a washing process. By doing so, it is confirmed that the barrier layer can effectively prevent the release of AgNPs and that the thickness of the barrier layer is an important parameter to control the silver ions release. PMID:25951432

  15. Plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene films assembled with chitosan and various preservatives for antimicrobial food packaging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jieqiong; Yang, Lingxiao; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Yuntao; Ye, Ting; Li, Yan; Deng, Hongbing; Li, Bin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene (PET/PP) films were treated via atmospheric pressure plasma, assembled with chitosan and various preservatives and applied for antimicrobial food packaging. Surface properties of these obtained films were studied by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (ATM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The above results showed that the surface hydrophilicity and roughness of the films increased after the plasma treatment. Besides, chitosan and the preservatives were successfully assembled onto the surface of the films. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the films against three kinds of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) were investigated and the results indicated that the inhibition ratios against B. subtilis and E. coli reached almost 100% while the inhibition ratios against S. aureus were lower than 85%. Moreover, the accumulative release profiles of the antimicrobial substances migrating from the assembled films into the release solutions revealed that their release speed increased with the increment of temperature and acidity, but decreased with enhancing the ionic strength regulated by sodium chloride or with lowering the ionic mobility regulated by sucrose.

  16. Chemical modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and immobilization of the selected enzymes on the modified film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irena, Gancarz; Jolanta, Bryjak; Karolina, Zynek

    2009-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was modified by reaction with hydrazine (HD), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) and 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP). The maximal amount of amine functionalities introduced in the chosen conditions on the surface was found as 0.07, 3.35, 0.76 and 1.99 nmol cm -2 for HD, EDA, 1,2-DAP and 1,3-DAP respectively. During the modification process etching of the sample and an increase of stiffness takes place. FTIR-ATR spectra prove that the surface chemistry after modification in amine solution is very complex. The lack of clear correlation between the surface tension and surface concentration of amine functionalities seems to confirm that. For immobilization purpose invertase, laccase and tyrosinase were used. The amount of covalently attached proteins at first increases with the increase of surface concentration of amine groups but after reaching a certain level of amine groups, decrease of the immobilization level was observed. All enzymes tested showed highest activity for a moderate level of aminolysis and this activity had the highest values for EDA-modified PET.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy Of Stressed Samples Of Oriented Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fina, Leslie J.; Bower, D. I.; Ward, I. M.

    1989-12-01

    Measurements of the shift and change of shape of the 1616 cm-1 Raman scattering peak of two moderately oriented samples of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) under tensile loads of up to 0.2 GPa are reported, together with the corresponding strains. To obtain reproducible results, load cycling procedures were adopted similar to those established for the study of viscoelastic behaviour. The Raman scattering was observed with polarized incident and scattered light, with the polarization directions either both parallel or both perpendicular to the draw direction in the samples. The results showed that for both samples the Raman shift was linearly related to the applied stress below the yield point. Up to the yield point very little change of line width was observed, but above the yield point the width increased significantly. Differences in both widths and shifts were observed for the two polarization directions at the same stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the usual assumptions that the shift of the line gives a measure of the average stress in those chains which predominantly contribute to the peak and that the width and shape of the line give information about the spread of stresses. It is concluded that the technique can give useful information about the molecular stress distribution in thick samples of moderately oriented PET under load, including information about the different stress distributions on chains at different angles to the draw direction.

  18. On the Diels-Alder approach to solely biomass-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET): conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrolein into p-xylene.

    PubMed

    Shiramizu, Mika; Toste, F Dean

    2011-10-24

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a polymeric material with high global demand. Conventionally, PET is produced from fossil-fuel-based materials. Herein, we explored the feasibility of a sustainable method for PET production by using solely bio-renewable resources. Specifically, 2,5-dimethylfuran (derived from lignocellulosic biomass through 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) and acrolein (produced from glycerol, a side product of biodiesel production) were converted into the key intermediate p-xylene (a precursor of terephthalic acid). This synthesis consists of a sequential Diels-Alder reaction, oxidation, dehydration, and decarboxylation. In particular, the pivotal first step, the Diels-Alder reaction, was studied in detail to provide useful kinetic and thermodynamic data. Although it was found that this reaction requires low temperature to proceed efficiently, which presents a limitation on economic feasibility on an industrial scale, the concept was realized and bio-derived p-xylene was obtained in 34% overall yield over four steps. PMID:21922576

  19. Effect of Tris, MOPS, and phosphate buffers on the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate films by polyester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus Regis; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    The enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) occurs at mild reaction conditions and may find applications in environmentally friendly plastic waste recycling processes. The hydrolytic activity of the homologous polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC) from a compost metagenome and TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 against PET films was strongly influenced by the reaction medium buffers tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and sodium phosphate. LCC showed the highest initial hydrolysis rate of PET films in 0.2 m Tris, while the rate of TfCut2 was 2.1-fold lower at this buffer concentration. At a Tris concentration of 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by more than 90% and of TfCut2 by about 80%. In 0.2 m MOPS or sodium phosphate buffer, no significant differences in the maximum initial hydrolysis rates of PET films by both enzymes were detected. When the concentration of MOPS was increased to 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by about 90%. The activity of TfCut2 remained low compared to the increasing hydrolysis rates observed at higher concentrations of sodium phosphate buffer. In contrast, the activity of LCC did not change at different concentrations of this buffer. An inhibition study suggested a competitive inhibition of TfCut2 and LCC by Tris and MOPS. Molecular docking showed that Tris and MOPS interfered with the binding of the polymeric substrate in a groove located at the protein surface. A comparison of the K i values and the average binding energies indicated MOPS as the stronger inhibitor of the both enzymes. PMID:27642555

  20. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Pre-Treatment on Alkaline Etching of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabrics and Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Elabid Amel, E.; Guo, Ying; Shi, Jianjun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Dyeing of PET materials by traditional methods presents several problems. Plasma technology has received enormous attention as a solution for the environmental problems related with textile surface modifications, and there has been a rapid development and commercialization of plasma technology over the past decade. In this work, the synergistic effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching and deep coloring of dyeing properties on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics and films was investigated. The topographical changes of the PET surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, which revealed a smooth surface morphology of the untreated sample whereas a high surface roughness for the plasma and/or alkaline treated samples. The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching of the structure and properties of PET were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the main objective of performing DSC was to investigate the effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the Tg and Tm. Using a tensile strength tester YG065H and following a standard procedure the maximum force and elongation at maximum force of PET materials was investigated. Oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatment was found to increase the PET fabric weight loss rate. The color strength of PET fabrics was increased by various plasma pre-treatment times. The penetration of plasma and alkaline reactive species deep into the PET structure results in better dyeability and leaves a significant effect on the K/S values of the plasma pre-treated PET. It indicated that plasma pre-treatment has a great synergistic effect with the alkaline treatment of PET.

  2. Polyethylenimine modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) capillary channeled-polymer fibers for anion exchange chromatography of proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liuwei; Jin, Yi; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    Native poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers have been previously studied as stationary phases for reversed phase and affinity protein separations. In this study, surface modified PET C-CP fibers were evaluated for the anion exchange separation of proteins. The native PET C-CP fibers were aminated using polyethylenimine (PEI) followed by a 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BUDGE) cross-linking step. Subsequent PEI/BUDGE treatments can be employed to further develop the polyamine layer on the fiber surfaces. The PEI densities of the modified fibers were quantified through the ninhydrin reaction, yielding values of 0.43-0.89μmolg(-1). The surface modification impact on column permeability was found to be 0.66×10(-11) to 1.33×10(-11)m(2), depending on the modification time and conditions. The dynamic binding capacities of the modified fiber media were determined to be 1.99-8.54mgmL(-1) bed volume, at linear velocities of 88-438cmmin(-1) using bovine serum albumin as the model protein. It was found that increasing the mobile phase linear velocity (up to 438cmmin(-1)) had no effect on the separation quality for a synthetic protein mixture, reflecting the lack of van Deemter C-term effects for the C-CP fiber phase. The low-cost, easy modification method and the capability of fast protein separation illustrate great potential in the use of PEI/BUDGE-modified PET C-CP fibers for high-throughput protein separation and downstream processing. PMID:26253835

  3. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations. PMID:25985711

  4. Improving the low temperature dyeability of polyethylene terephthalate fabric with dispersive dyes by atmospheric pressure plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabid, Amel E. A.; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Jianjun; Guo, Ying; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber and textile is one of the largest synthetic polymer commodity in the world. The great energy consumption and pollution caused by the high temperature and pressure dyeing of PET fibers and fabrics with disperse dyes has been caused concern these years. In this study, an atmospheric pressure plasma with fine and uniform filament discharge operated at 20 kHz has been used to improve the low temperature dyeability of PET fabric at 95 °C with three cation disperse dyes: Red 73, Blue 183 and Yellow 211. The dyes uptake percentage of the treated PET fabrics was observed to increase as twice as much of untreated fabric. The color strength rate was increased more than 20%. The reducing of the water contact angle and the raising of the capillary height of treated PET fabric strip indicate its hydrophilicity improvement. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results display nano to micro size of etching pits appeared uniformly on the fiber surface of the treated PET. Simultaneously, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of the oxygen content in the surface caused by the introduction of polar groups such as Cdbnd O and COOH. The rough surface with improved polar oxygen groups showed hydrophilicity and affinity to C.I. dispersive dyes and is believed to be caused by the strong and very fine filament discharge appearing randomly at one place at an instant but evenly at many places at a longer period. This increases the diffusion and absorption of the C.I. disperse dyes on the PET fiber surface, which improve its low temperature dyeability.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of radiation damage to polyethylene terephthalate by soft X-rays and high-energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Botton, Gianluigi A; West, Marcia M; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2009-02-19

    The chemical changes and absolute rates in radiation damage to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) caused by soft X-rays and energetic electrons have been measured using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Electron beam damage at two different dose rates and a range of doses was performed in an 80 keV transmission electron microscope (TEM). The STXM beam was used to create damage patterns with systematically varied doses of monochromatic soft X-rays on an adjacent piece of the same PET sample. NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s and O 1s edges was used to study the chemistry of the radiation damage and to determine quantitative critical doses for PET damage by both types of radiation. The spectral changes were similar for damage by electrons and X-rays, indicating the radiation chemistry is dominated by secondary processes, not the primary event. The critical dose for chemical changes determined from C 1s spectral features is 4.2(6) x 10(8) Gy and was the same for soft X-rays and electrons within measurement uncertainties. The critical dose for specific damage processes (as defined by changes in several different, bond-specific spectral features) was found to be similar in the C 1s region and was comparable between C 1s and O 1s edges for electron beam damage. There were statistically different critical doses for soft X-ray damage as probed by changes in O 1s spectral features related to carbonyl and ester bonds.

  6. Activated carbons from coal/pitch and polyethylene terephthalate blends for the removal of phenols from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ewa Lorenc-Grabowska; Grazyna Gryglewicz; Jacek Machnikowski

    2009-05-15

    Blends of two bituminous coals and a coal-tar pitch (CTP) with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were evaluated as precursors of activated carbons (ACs). The intensity of the interactions between the raw materials, coal/CTP and PET during copyrolysis was closely observed by means of thermogravimetric analysis. In addition, the homogeneity of the carbon matrix of the chars produced at 800{sup o}C in a horizontal oven was studied by polarized light optical microscopy. Activated carbons were prepared from single components and their blends (1:1 w/w) by subjecting them to carbonization up to 800{sup o}C in a horizontal oven and then activation with steam at 800{sup o}C to 50% burnoff. The porous structure of the ACs was determined by sorption of N{sub 2} at 77 K and of CO{sub 2} at 273 K. The PET-containing blends produced microporous activated carbons with a maximum BET surface area of nearly 1100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and a maximum micropore size distribution of 0.6-0.8 nm in the case of the AC from the CTP/PET blend. The addition of PET to a bituminous coal was compared with the preoxidation of coal P in air as a way to reduce thermoplasticity and to promote the development of the porous structure. The modification of bituminous coals by PET appeared to be more effective than conventional coal preoxidation treatment. The resultant ACs were tested by measuring their effectiveness in removing phenols from an aqueous solution. The adsorption of p-chlorophenol (PCP) by the ACs prepared from the PET-containing blends was slightly higher than for the commercial activated carbon. The ability to adsorb PCP was found to be related to the volume of the super-micropores.

  7. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    PubMed

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. PMID:23862761

  8. Effect of Tris, MOPS, and phosphate buffers on the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate films by polyester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus Regis; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    The enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) occurs at mild reaction conditions and may find applications in environmentally friendly plastic waste recycling processes. The hydrolytic activity of the homologous polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC) from a compost metagenome and TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 against PET films was strongly influenced by the reaction medium buffers tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and sodium phosphate. LCC showed the highest initial hydrolysis rate of PET films in 0.2 m Tris, while the rate of TfCut2 was 2.1-fold lower at this buffer concentration. At a Tris concentration of 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by more than 90% and of TfCut2 by about 80%. In 0.2 m MOPS or sodium phosphate buffer, no significant differences in the maximum initial hydrolysis rates of PET films by both enzymes were detected. When the concentration of MOPS was increased to 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by about 90%. The activity of TfCut2 remained low compared to the increasing hydrolysis rates observed at higher concentrations of sodium phosphate buffer. In contrast, the activity of LCC did not change at different concentrations of this buffer. An inhibition study suggested a competitive inhibition of TfCut2 and LCC by Tris and MOPS. Molecular docking showed that Tris and MOPS interfered with the binding of the polymeric substrate in a groove located at the protein surface. A comparison of the K i values and the average binding energies indicated MOPS as the stronger inhibitor of the both enzymes.

  9. Combustion of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate and cellulose in a laboratory scale thermal destruction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Missoum, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Keating, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Results of combustion tests are presented from the laboratory scale thermal destruction facility on samples containing varying composition of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mixed with non-plastic material (cellulose). The equivalence ratio was varied from 0.5 to 2.0. Data provides the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the chemical composition of the surrogate solid waste on the emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HC and O{sub 2}. Thermal destruction behavior of the surrogate waste is qualitatively observed to be enhanced with progressive increase in temperature which results in maximum volume reduction and low NO{sub x} emissions for these combustion tests. The numerical calculations using equilibrium conditions show similar trends to those obtained experimentally. The measured CO emissions were lower than the calculated ones but the CO{sub 2} and HC emissions were higher than the calculated values. In all tests the measured O{sub 2} concentrations were higher than the calculated ones and the NO{sub x} concentrations were lower at higher equivalence ratios. Analysis and interpretation of the data reveal that the composition of the waste as well as the conditions under which the thermal destruction process takes place, i.e., temperature, equivalence ratio and process type have significant influence on the emissions. These results show significant effect of controlled combustion on the amount and nature of species formed. This information can assist in developing strategies in the design and operation of thermal destruction systems.

  10. Characteristics of radio frequency-sputtered ZnS on the flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dongjun; Choi, Moon-Suk; Chung, Chulwon; Heo, Seung Chan; Kim, Dohyung; Choi, Changhwan

    2013-12-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film was deposited on the flexible polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) polymer substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system. ZnS film has a critical thickness range affecting crystal structure where it shows preferred orientation with intensity peak of X-ray diffractometer at 28.4 degrees for ZnS thinner than 200 nm while hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc-blend (101) are co-existed for film thicker than 200 nm. Optical band gap energy (Eg) decreases with increasing RF-powers, resulting from increase in film thickness. Eg of ZnS films on PET is 3.68-3.86 eV, which is lower than that of ZnS on the rigid substrate by 0.27-0.28 eV. This is attributed to amount of incorporated oxygen to ZnS material as well as residual strain and disorder of grain boundary. Transmittance of ZnS on PET degrades due to surface defects and complex internal structure. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals out that ZnS film does not have a unity of Zn to S ratio, but it is close to stoichiometric composition with increasing thickness. PMID:24266145

  11. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0mg/L and <0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine.

  12. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. PMID:27192700

  13. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  14. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles.

    PubMed

    Greifenstein, Michael; White, Duvel W; Stubner, Alex; Hout, Joseph; Whelton, Andrew J

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0mg/L and <0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. PMID:23624011

  15. Safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes used to produce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) intended for food contact applications.

    PubMed

    Barthélémy, E; Spyropoulos, D; Milana, M-R; Pfaff, K; Gontard, N; Lampi, E; Castle, L

    2014-01-01

    The development of a scheme for the safety evaluation of mechanical recycling processes for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is described. The starting point is the adoption of a threshold of toxicological concern such that migration from the recycled PET should not give rise to a dietary exposure exceeding 0.0025 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), the exposure threshold value for chemicals with structural alerts raising concern for potential genotoxicity, below which the risk to human health would be negligible. It is practically impossible to test every batch of incoming recovered PET and every production batch of recycled PET for all the different chemical contaminants that could theoretically arise. Consequently, the principle of the safety evaluation is to measure the cleaning efficiency of a recycling process by using a challenge test with surrogate contaminants. This cleaning efficiency is then applied to reduce a reference contamination level for post-consumer PET, conservatively set at 3 mg kg(-1) PET for a contaminant resulting from possible misuse by consumers. The resulting residual concentration of each contaminant in recycled PET is used in conservative migration models to calculate migration levels, which are then used along with food consumption data to give estimates of potential dietary exposure. The default scenario, when the recycled PET is intended for general use, is that of an infant weighing 5 kg and consuming every day powdered infant formula reconstituted with 0.75 L of water coming from water bottles manufactured with 100% recycled PET. According to this scenario, it can be derived that the highest concentration of a substance in water that would ensure that the dietary exposure of 0.0025 µg kg(-1) bw day(-1) is not exceeded, is 0.017 μg kg(-1) food. The maximum residual content that would comply with this migration limit depends on molecular weight and is in the range 0.09-0.32 mg kg(-1) PET for the typical surrogate contaminants.

  16. Enhancement of osseointegration of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament by coating of silk fibroin and depositing of hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jia; Wan, Fang; Yang, Jianjun; Hao, Wei; Wang, Yaxian; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Application of artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is one of the research focuses of sports medicine but the biological tendon–bone healing still remains a problem. The preliminary study of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface could effectively induce the osteoblast differentiation, but the tendon–bone healing was still not stable. As a green synthesis process, the biomimetic mineralization can simulate the natural bone growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods HAP crystals were grown under the guide of silk fibroin (SF) PET surface by biomimetic route. Several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were utilized for proving the introduction of both SF and HAP. The viability and osseointegration of bone marrow stromal cells on the surface of three kinds of ligament, including PET group (non-coating group), PET+SF group (SF-coating group), and PET+SF+HAP group (combined HAP- and SF-coating group), were analyzed by CCK-8 assays and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) detection. Seventy-two mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Among them, 36 rabbits were sacrificed for mechanical testing, and histological examination for the others. Results The SF and SF+HAP were successfully coated on the surface of PET fiber. The CCK-8 assay showed that the cell proliferation on PET+SF+HAP group was better than the other two groups from 24 to 120 hours. After 14 days of culture, the cells in the PET+SF+HAP group delivered higher levels of ALP than the other two groups. After 3 days of culture, the expression level of integrin β1 in the PET+SF+HAP group and PET+SF group were higher than in the PET group. The mean load to failure and the stiffness value of the PET+SF+HAP group were both higher than the other two groups. Hematoxylin and

  17. One-step sonochemical synthesis of a graphene oxide-manganese oxide nanocomposite for catalytic glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Park, Gle; Bartolome, Leian; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of a graphene oxide (GO)-manganese oxide nanocomposite (GO-Mn(3)O(4)) was conducted without further modification of GO or employing secondary materials. With the GO nanoplate as a support, potassium permanganate oxidizes the carbon atoms in the GO support and gets reduced to Mn(3)O(4). An intensive ultrasound method could reduce the number of reaction steps and temperature, enhance the reaction rate and furthermore achieve a Mn(3)O(4) phase. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coverage and crystallinity of Mn(3)O(4) were controlled by changing the ratio of permanganate to GO dispersion. The synthesized nanocomposite was used as a catalyst for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) depolymerization into its monomer, bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET). The highest monomer yield of 96.4% was obtained with the nanocomposite containing the lowest amount of Mn(3)O(4), while PET glycolysis with the Mn(3)O(4) without GO yielded 82.7% BHET.

  18. One-step sonochemical synthesis of a graphene oxide-manganese oxide nanocomposite for catalytic glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Park, Gle; Bartolome, Leian; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of a graphene oxide (GO)-manganese oxide nanocomposite (GO-Mn(3)O(4)) was conducted without further modification of GO or employing secondary materials. With the GO nanoplate as a support, potassium permanganate oxidizes the carbon atoms in the GO support and gets reduced to Mn(3)O(4). An intensive ultrasound method could reduce the number of reaction steps and temperature, enhance the reaction rate and furthermore achieve a Mn(3)O(4) phase. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coverage and crystallinity of Mn(3)O(4) were controlled by changing the ratio of permanganate to GO dispersion. The synthesized nanocomposite was used as a catalyst for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) depolymerization into its monomer, bis(2-hydroxylethyl) terephthalate (BHET). The highest monomer yield of 96.4% was obtained with the nanocomposite containing the lowest amount of Mn(3)O(4), while PET glycolysis with the Mn(3)O(4) without GO yielded 82.7% BHET. PMID:22592889

  19. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-15

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  20. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  1. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 106 was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  2. Time resolved WAXS study of the role of mesophase in oriented crysstallisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate) copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahendrasingam, A.; Blundell, D. J.; Martin, C.; Urban, Volker S; Narayanan, T.; Fuller, W.

    2005-03-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate) copolymers containing up to 18 mol% isophalate have been drawn at 90 C at a deformation rate of {approx}15 s{sup -1} while recording two dimensional wide angle X-ray scattering patterns. All polymers, including homopolymer controls, show the development of an oriented smectic mesophase during the last stages of deformation. After the end of deformation, the mesophase decays and is replaced by oriented triclinic crystals which increase according to first order transformation kinetics. The characteristic meridional spacing of the smectic mesophase reduces systematically with increasing isophthalate comonomer and indicates that the comonomer participates in the smectic structure. Unlike isotropic crystallisation from the melt, the crystallinity and crystallisation rate show little variation with comonomer content. This is attributed to the fact that both monomers participate in the intermediate smectic mesophase.

  3. The effect of exposure to the elements on the forensic characterization by infrared spectroscopy of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Guzzini, Giuseppe; Marigo, Antonio

    2005-07-01

    Validation of a recently proposed differentiation method for single poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers, based on integration of IR absorption bands, is presented. IR microscopy in the transmission mode, differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy were employed. The reliability of the technique has been extended to the cases in which the fibers being compared have experienced long exposure to the elements, as may happen if these items are recovered from open-air crime scenes. The effect of immersion in water and irradiation by the sun for a three-month period have been considered. The fibers remained morphologically and structurally unaltered. The significance of comparisons between fibers kept in different environments is thus enhanced, because the detrimental effect of the elements can be ruled out. This further validation of the proposed technique contributes to render the data presented by the forensic scientist less vulnerable to context effect and bias.

  4. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes.

  5. Effects of ph ON Ni Coating on Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) Substrate by Printing Prime in Combination with Palladium Activating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junjun; Sun, Zhiping; Huang, Hongzhi; Liu, Qi; Gao, Min; Li, Mengyu; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Zhenming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the primer-printed and then self-assembled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were plated when the bath pH increased from 7 to 11. The effects of bath pH on the structural and electrical properties of electroless nickel plating were investigated systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the crystallographic structures of Ni-plated PET (NPP) sheets were face centered cubic, the preferential orientation of the coatings changes from (200) plane to (111) plane, the growth rate of plated nickel coating increased from 3.71μm/min to 8.13μm/min, the average Ni crystal size was increased from 0.23μm to 0.92μm, the average EMI-SE of NPP sheets was increased from 37.2dB to 38.6dB and the surface electrical resistivity of NPP sheets was decreased from 6235ohm ṡ cm to 0.03ohm ṡ cm with the increase of bath pH. The changes in structural and electrical properties were most possibly due to the fact that the thickness of coating increased.

  6. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes. PMID:27058762

  7. Increase in cell adhesiveness on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric by sintered hydroxyapatite nanocrystal coating in the development of an artificial blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Furuzono, Tsutomu; Masuda, Miwa; Okada, Masahiro; Yasuda, Shoji; Kadono, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Miyatake, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Nano-scaled sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals were covalently linked onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric substrate chemically modified by graft polymerization with gamma-methacryloxypropyl triethoxysilane (MPTS) for development of an artificial blood vessel. The weight gain of graft polymerization with poly(MPTS) on PET in benzyl alcohol containing H2O2 as an initiator increased as increasing the reaction time and finally reached a plateau value of about 3.5 wt%. The surface characterization of surface modification with poly(MPTS)-grafting was conducted by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. HAp nanocrystals of approximately 50 nm in diameter, monodispersed in pure ethanol, were coupled with alkoxysilyl groups of the poly(MPTS)-grafted PET substrate. The HAp nanocrystals were uniformly and strongly coated on the surface of the PET fabrics, although HAp particles adsorbed physically on the original PET without poly(MPTS) grafting were almost removed by ultrasonic wave treatment. More human umbilical vein endothelial cells adhered to the HAp/PET composite fabric compared with original PET after only 4 hours of initial incubation, and the same was observed on the collagen-coated PET. The coating of sintered HAp nanocrystals imparted bioactivity to the polyester substrate, which is a widely used biomedical polymer, without a coating of adhesion proteins derived from animals, such as collagen or gelatin. A prototype of an artificial blood vessel was finally fabricated by use of HAp/PET composite.

  8. A disulfide bridge in the calcium binding site of a polyester hydrolase increases its thermal stability and activity against polyethylene terephthalate.

    PubMed

    Then, Johannes; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Gerdts, André; Schmidt, Juliane; Barth, Markus; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Elevated reaction temperatures are crucial for the efficient enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). A disulfide bridge was introduced to the polyester hydrolase TfCut2 to substitute its calcium binding site. The melting point of the resulting variant increased to 94.7 °C (wild-type TfCut2: 69.8 °C) and its half-inactivation temperature to 84.6 °C (TfCut2: 67.3 °C). The variant D204C-E253C-D174R obtained by introducing further mutations at vicinal residues showed a temperature optimum between 75 and 80 °C compared to 65 and 70 °C of the wild-type enzyme. The variant caused a weight loss of PET films of 25.0 ± 0.8% (TfCut2: 0.3 ± 0.1%) at 70 °C after a reaction time of 48 h. The results demonstrate that a highly efficient and calcium-independent thermostable polyester hydrolase can be obtained by replacing its calcium binding site with a disulfide bridge. PMID:27419048

  9. Indium-free Cu/fluorine doped ZnO composite transparent conductive electrodes with stretchable and flexible performance on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Gong, Haibo; Yang, Xiaopeng; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zi, Min; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2015-03-01

    Material-abundant ZnO and metal thin film have been proposed as potential alternatives for the most widely commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent and conductive electrode. Yet the deterioration of optical transparency and conductivity for these materials makes them difficult to compete with ITO. In this work, a double-layer structured film-composed of FZO and Cu film is presented at room temperature, which combines the high transparency of FZO and high conductivity of Cu film. We first studied the effect of oxygen pressure on the transparency and conductivity of free-standing FZO layer deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by PLD method. Also the structural, electrical, and optical properties of bilayers electrode dependence on the Cu layer thickness were optimized in detail. As the Cu layer thickness increases, the resistivity decreases. The lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-5 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 1.11 × 1022 cm-3 and mobility of 8.52 cm2 V-1 s-1 was obtained at the optimum Cu (12 nm) layer thickness. We find that FZO layer have anti-reflection effect for Cu/FZO (250 nm) bilayer in the wavelength range of 650-1000 nm compared with single Cu layer. And we firstly study the stretchable performance for Cu film-based composite electrodes with stretching ratio changing from 0 to 5%. Furthermore, we study excellent mechanical flexibility and stability of composite electrodes by bending test.

  10. Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying-Ying; Zheng, Jian-Lun; Ren, Jing-Hua; Luo, Jun; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2014-09-01

    We investigated effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water bottles in China. After 1-week storage, Sb release increased from 1.88-8.32 ng/L at 4 °C, to 2.10-18.4 ng/L at 25 °C and to 20.3-2604 ng/L at 70 °C. The corresponding releases for BPA were less at 0.26-18.7, 0.62-22.6, and 2.89-38.9 ng/L. Both Sb and BPA release increased with storage duration up to 4-week, but their releasing rates decreased with storage time, indicating that Sb and BPA release from PET bottles may become stable under long term storage. Human health risk was evaluated based on the worst case, i.e., storage at 70 °C for 4-week. Chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by BPA release was below USEPA regulation, Sb release in one brand exceeded USEPA regulated CDI (400 ng/kg bw/d) with values of 409 and 1430 ng/kg bw/d for adult and children.

  11. The effect of polystyrene sodium sulfonate grafting on polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments on in vitro mineralisation and in vivo bone tissue integration

    PubMed Central

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Viateau, Véronique; Guérard, Sandra; Anagnostou, Fani; Manassero, Mathieu; Castner, David G.; Migonney, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of polystyrene sodium sulfonate (PolyNaSS) grafting onto the osseointegration of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament (Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System, LARS™) used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). The performance of grafted and non-grafted ligaments was assessed in vitro by culturing human osteoblasts under osteogenic induction and this demonstrated that the surface modification was capable of up-regulating the secretion of ALP and induced higher level of mineralisation as measured 6 weeks post-seeding by Micro-Computed Tomography. Grafted and non-grafted LARS™ were subsequently implanted in an ovine model for ACL reconstruction and the ligament-to-bone interface was evaluated by histology and biomechanical testing 3 and 12 months post-implantation. The grafted ligaments exhibited more frequent direct ligament-to-bone contact and bone formation in the core of the ligament at the later time point than the nongrafted specimens, the grafting also significantly reduced the fibrous encapsulation of the ligament 12 months post-implantation. However, this improved osseo-integration was not translated into a significant increase in the biomechanical pull-out loads. These results provide evidences that PolyNaSS grafting improved the osseo-integration of the artificial ligament within the bone tunnels. This might positively influence the outcome of the surgical reconstructions, as higher ligament stability is believed to limit micro-movement and therefore permits earlier and enhanced healing. PMID:23790438

  12. Two Novel Class II Hydrophobins from Trichoderma spp. Stimulate Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) when Expressed as Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Rammer, Liliana; Ribitsch, Doris; Przylucka, Agnieszka; Marold, Annemarie; Greimel, Katrin J.; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Guebitz, Georg M.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) can be functionalized and/or recycled via hydrolysis by microbial cutinases. The rate of hydrolysis is however low. Here, we tested whether hydrophobins (HFBs), small secreted fungal proteins containing eight positionally conserved cysteine residues, are able to enhance the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of PET. Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma have the most proliferated arsenal of class II hydrophobin-encoding genes among fungi. To this end, we studied two novel class II HFBs (HFB4 and HFB7) of Trichoderma. HFB4 and HFB7, produced in Escherichia coli as fusions to the C terminus of glutathione S-transferase, exhibited subtle structural differences reflected in hydrophobicity plots that correlated with unequal hydrophobicity and hydrophily, respectively, of particular amino acid residues. Both proteins exhibited a dosage-dependent stimulation effect on PET hydrolysis by cutinase from Humicola insolens, with HFB4 displaying an adsorption isotherm-like behavior, whereas HFB7 was active only at very low concentrations and was inhibitory at higher concentrations. We conclude that class II HFBs can stimulate the activity of cutinases on PET, but individual HFBs can display different properties. The present findings suggest that hydrophobins can be used in the enzymatic hydrolysis of aromatic-aliphatic polyesters such as PET. PMID:23645195

  13. A preliminary Ames fluctuation assay assessment of the genotoxicity of drinking water that has been solar disinfected in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles.

    PubMed

    Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2010-12-01

    Though microbially safe, concerns have been raised about the genotoxic/mutagenic quality of solar-disinfected drinking water, which might be compromised as a result of photodegradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles used as SODIS reactors. This study assessed genotoxic risk associated with the possible release of genotoxic compounds into water from PET bottles during SODIS, using the Ames fluctuation test. Negative genotoxicity results were obtained for water samples that had been in PET bottles and exposed to normal SODIS conditions (strong natural sunlight) over 6 months. Under SODIS conditions, bottles were exposed to 6 h of sunlight, followed by overnight room temperature storage. They were then emptied and refilled the following day and exposed to sunlight again. Genotoxicity was detected after 2 months in water stored in PET bottles and exposed continuously (without refilling) to sunlight for a period ranging from 1 to 6 months. However, similar genotoxicity results were also observed for the dark control (without refill) samples at the same time-point and in no other samples after that time; therefore it is unlikely that this genotoxicity event is related to solar exposure.

  14. Disposal of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: comparison of five disposal alternatives in the small island state of Mauritius using a life cycle assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-01-01

    Used polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) dumped indiscriminately onto bare lands and water bodies constitute an eyesore. This problem is viewed as a serious impediment to the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius. Currently, over 100 million PET bottles are generated annually and the only fully operational disposal route is through the sole sanitary landfill. There is no formal segregation of waste and therefore used PET bottles are disposed of commingled with domestic waste. Despite a satisfactory waste collection system, a considerable amount of used PET bottles unfortunately end up in water bodies and on bare lands. An appreciable amount of PET bottles is now being collected separately for flake production prior to export to South Africa. This paper investigated the environmental impact of five waste management scenarios (100% landfill; 100% incineration with energy recovery; 50% incineration and 50% landfill; 34% flake production and 66% landfill; 100% flake production) for used PET bottles in Mauritius. Comparison of the five scenarios was based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology described in ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. SimaPro 7.1 software was used to analyse the data. Comparison of the five scenarios showed that the highest environmental impacts occurred when 100% of used PET bottles were sent to the landfill. The comparison also indicated that there were least impacts on the environment when all used PET bottles were incinerated with energy recovery. PMID:22629630

  15. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm × 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85°C and 110 °C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  16. A new approach of synthesis and morphological control of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-g-polyacrylonitrile composite film with a porous surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongfei; Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Mozhen; Wu, Qichao; Zhou, Xiao; Ge, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-g-polyacrylonitrile (PET-g-PAN) composite film with a porous surface was fabricated via gamma-ray-radiation-induced graft polymerization on PET film in an aqueous solution system. The original PET film was first irradiated by gamma ray in the aqueous solution of acrylic acid. Next, the graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was induced by gamma ray on the surface of the above modified PET film in an aqueous solution of AN. The prepared PET-g-PAN composite film has a smaller static water contact angle than the original PET film. The SEM and AFM images show that the grafted PAN layer on the surface of PET-g-PAN composite film is composed of closely-arranged spherical PAN microspheres with an average diameter of 30 nm. The gaps between the PAN microspheres form fine pores (less than 30 nm) on the surface. The gas barrier property of the PET-g-PAN composite film is much better than that of the original PET film. This work provides a facile and green method to prepare PET-g-PAN composite film with a controllable porous surface morphology by taking advantage of the radiation-induced graft polymerization technique in an aqueous solution system.

  17. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm(-1), 1623 cm(-1) and 1520 cm(-1) suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. PMID:23827589

  18. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    PubMed

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress. PMID:11962719

  19. Effects of Defects in SiO2 Thin Films Prepared on Polyethylene Terephthalate by High-Temperature E-beam Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin‑Woo; Kang, Hee‑Jin; Kim, Jong‑Hwan; Seo, Dae‑Shik

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we characterized silicon oxide (SiO2) thin film prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by electron-beam (e-beam) deposition for transparent barrier application. As the chamber temperature is increased from 30 to 110 °C, the roughness increases while water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreases. Under these conditions, WVTR of PET can be reduced from a level of 0.57 g/m2/day (bare subtrate) to 0.05 g/m2/day after application of a 200-nm-thick SiO2 coating at 110 °C. A more efficient way to improve permeation of PET was carried out by using a double sided coating of a 5-μm-thick parylene film. It was found that WVTR for PET substrates can be reduced to a level of -0.2 g/m2/day. The double-sided parylene coating on PET could contribute in lowering the stress of oxide film, which greatly improves the WVTR data. These results indicate that the SiO2/parylene/PET barrier coatings have a high potential for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications.

  20. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  1. An XPS study on the chemical bond structure at the interface between SiO{sub x}N{sub y} and N doped polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Wanyu; Li Li; Zhang Lina; Chai Weiping; Ju Dongying; Peng Shou

    2013-03-14

    The super-thin silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films were deposited onto the N doped polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. Varying the N doping parameters, the different chemical bond structures were obtained at the interface between the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} film and the PET surface. X-ray photoelectron spectra results showed that at the initial stage of SiO{sub x}N{sub y} film growth, the C=N bonds could be broken and C-N-Si crosslink bonds could be formed at the interface of SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/PET, which C=N bonds could be formed onto the PET surface during the N doping process. At these positions, the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} film could be crosslinked well onto the PET surface. Meanwhile, the doped N could crosslink the [SiO{sub 4}] and [SiN{sub 4}] tetrahedrons, which could easily form the dense layer structure at the initial stage of SiO{sub x}N{sub y} film growth, instead of the ring and/or chain structures of [SiO{sub 4}] tetrahedrons crosslinked by O. Finally, from the point of applying SiO{sub x}N{sub y}/PET complex as the substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the crosslink model and physicochemical mechanism happened at the interface of complex.

  2. Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin to improve the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Han, Fei; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Tianwu; Zhi, Yunlong; Jiang, Jia; Lin, Chao; Chen, Shiyi; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System has recently been widely used as the primary graft of choice in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. But the biological graft-bone healing still remains a problem. Previous studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) stimulates bone formation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether surface coating with collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere could enhance the surface biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments to accelerate graft-to-bone healing. The in vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells on the collagen-coated PET scaffolds (COL/PET) and simvastatin/collagen-coated PET scaffolds (SIM/COL/PET) proliferated vigorously. Compared with the PET group and the COL/PET group, SIM could induce bone marrow stromal cells' osteoblastic differentiation, high alkaline phosphatase activity, more mineralization deposition, and more expression of osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in the SIM/COL/PET group. In vivo, rabbits received ACL reconstruction with different scaffolds. Histological analysis demonstrated that graft-bone healing was significantly greater with angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the SIM/COL/PET group than the other groups. In addition, biomechanical testing at the eighth week demonstrated a significant increase in the ultimate failure load and stiffness in the SIM/COL/PET group. The low dose of SIM-sustained release from SIM/COL/PET promoted the graft-bone healing via its effect on both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. This study suggested that collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere coating on the surface of PET artificial ligaments could be potentially applied for ACL reconstruction. PMID:26869789

  3. Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin to improve the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Han, Fei; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Tianwu; Zhi, Yunlong; Jiang, Jia; Lin, Chao; Chen, Shiyi; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System has recently been widely used as the primary graft of choice in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. But the biological graft–bone healing still remains a problem. Previous studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) stimulates bone formation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether surface coating with collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere could enhance the surface biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments to accelerate graft-to-bone healing. The in vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells on the collagen-coated PET scaffolds (COL/PET) and simvastatin/collagen-coated PET scaffolds (SIM/COL/PET) proliferated vigorously. Compared with the PET group and the COL/PET group, SIM could induce bone marrow stromal cells’ osteoblastic differentiation, high alkaline phosphatase activity, more mineralization deposition, and more expression of osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in the SIM/COL/PET group. In vivo, rabbits received ACL reconstruction with different scaffolds. Histological analysis demonstrated that graft–bone healing was significantly greater with angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the SIM/COL/PET group than the other groups. In addition, biomechanical testing at the eighth week demonstrated a significant increase in the ultimate failure load and stiffness in the SIM/COL/PET group. The low dose of SIM-sustained release from SIM/COL/PET promoted the graft–bone healing via its effect on both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. This study suggested that collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere coating on the surface of PET artificial ligaments could be potentially applied for ACL reconstruction. PMID:26869789

  4. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications.

  5. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed. PMID:26258902

  6. Local delivery of controlled-release simvastatin to improve the biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Han, Fei; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Tianwu; Zhi, Yunlong; Jiang, Jia; Lin, Chao; Chen, Shiyi; Zhao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System has recently been widely used as the primary graft of choice in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. But the biological graft-bone healing still remains a problem. Previous studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) stimulates bone formation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether surface coating with collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere could enhance the surface biocompatibility of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligaments to accelerate graft-to-bone healing. The in vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells on the collagen-coated PET scaffolds (COL/PET) and simvastatin/collagen-coated PET scaffolds (SIM/COL/PET) proliferated vigorously. Compared with the PET group and the COL/PET group, SIM could induce bone marrow stromal cells' osteoblastic differentiation, high alkaline phosphatase activity, more mineralization deposition, and more expression of osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in the SIM/COL/PET group. In vivo, rabbits received ACL reconstruction with different scaffolds. Histological analysis demonstrated that graft-bone healing was significantly greater with angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the SIM/COL/PET group than the other groups. In addition, biomechanical testing at the eighth week demonstrated a significant increase in the ultimate failure load and stiffness in the SIM/COL/PET group. The low dose of SIM-sustained release from SIM/COL/PET promoted the graft-bone healing via its effect on both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. This study suggested that collagen containing low-dose SIM microsphere coating on the surface of PET artificial ligaments could be potentially applied for ACL reconstruction.

  7. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications. PMID:27163929

  8. Long-term bone tissue reaction to polyethylene oxide/polybutylene terephthalate copolymer (Polyactive) in metacarpophalangeal joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Waris, Eero; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Lehtimäki, Mauri; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Törmälä, Pertti; Kellomäki, Minna; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2008-06-01

    The poly-L/D-lactide 96/4 joint scaffolds are used to engineer fibrous tissue joints in situ for the reconstruction of metacarpophalangeal joints. In this experimental study, a supplementary elastomeric stem made of Polyactive 1000PEO70PBT30 (a segmented block copolymer of polyethylene oxide and polybutylene terephtalate with 70/30 PEO/PBT ratio) was used to anchor the joint scaffold in the arthroplasty space. Eleven resected fifth metacarpophalangeal joints of minipig were reconstructed and evaluated radiologically and histologically for 3 years. Plain joint scaffold and Swanson silicone implant arthroplasties (11 of each) in metacarpophalangeal joints of minipig served as controls. Altogether fore limbs of eighteen minipigs were operated for the study. Deleterious tissue reaction with dramatic signs of osteolysis and inflammatory foreign-body reaction was observed around the Polyactive stems. The mean maximum diameter of the osteolytic stem cavity was statistically wider when compared to the mean maximum diameter of Swanson implant group during the first postoperative year. Numerous osteoclasts were found at the margins of the osteolytic areas. No direct bone contact could be seen. At 1 year osteoblastic regeneration and formation of new trabecular bone followed. Finally the foreign-body reaction settled, but the adjoining bones were at this stage highly sclerotic and composed of coarse trabeculae. In contrary to previous in vivo studies suggesting biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and capability to bond to bone, Polyactive 1000PEO70PBT30 stem in this setting caused massive osteolytic lesions and foreign-body reactions. PMID:18336902

  9. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  10. Fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate by applying low-temperature layer transfer of a single-crystalline silicon layer by meniscus force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Shogo; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2013-12-01

    A low-temperature local-layer technique for transferring a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) film by using a meniscus force was proposed, and an n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. It was demonstrated that it is possible to transfer and form c-Si films in the required shape at the required position on PET substrates at extremely low temperatures by utilizing a meniscus force. The proposed technique for layer transfer was applied for fabricating high-performance c-Si MOSFETs on a PET substrate. The fabricated MOSFET showed a high on/off ratio of more than 108 and a high field-effect mobility of 609 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  11. Fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate by applying low-temperature layer transfer of a single-crystalline silicon layer by meniscus force

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Shogo; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2013-12-02

    A low-temperature local-layer technique for transferring a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) film by using a meniscus force was proposed, and an n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. It was demonstrated that it is possible to transfer and form c-Si films in the required shape at the required position on PET substrates at extremely low temperatures by utilizing a meniscus force. The proposed technique for layer transfer was applied for fabricating high-performance c-Si MOSFETs on a PET substrate. The fabricated MOSFET showed a high on/off ratio of more than 10{sup 8} and a high field-effect mobility of 609 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  12. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1995-01-01

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons.

  13. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1995-11-07

    A process is described for pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons. 83 figs.

  14. Unusual Formation of Precursors for Crystallization of Ultra-High Performance Polypropylene and Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Fibers by Utilization of Ecologically Friendly Horizontal Isothermal Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Huseyin

    structural development and the production of ultra-high performance as-spun and drawn polypropylene (PP) filaments were investigated. Two different commercial fiber forming PP polymers were used with the melt flow rate of 4.1 and 36 g/10 min. The results demonstrate surprisingly different precursor morphologies for each type of polymer at their optimum process condition. Interestingly, the all treated fibers demonstrated the similar fiber performance having tenacity of about 7 g/d and modulus of 75 g/d for as-spun fibers. After fiber drawing with DR of 1.49, tenacity greater than 12 g/d and modulus higher than 190 g/d were observed. The mean value for the modulus after the drawing process for the high melt flow rate is about 196 g/d. The theoretical modulus of PP is 35--42 GPa17, 275-330 g/d, which demonstrates the hIB fiber's modulus performance is approaching its theoretical maximum values. A key aspect of the third section of this study was to obtain ultra-high performance poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers (PET) by utilizing a low molecular weight polymer via hIB method. The resulted fibers showed the efficient polymer chain orientation and the highly crystalline and ordered structures. The highest tenacity of more than 8 and 10 g/d were observed for the as-spun and drawn fibers, respectively, after only 1.28 draw ratios. The significant effect of the temperature of hIB spinning system on the fibrillar structure and the precursor's formation of the as-spun fibers was demonstrated. The melting temperature increased 8.51 °C from 254.05 to 262.56 °C when untreated and treated fibers are compared. The most important contribution of this study is that all these various types of polymer precursors for crystallization with different molecular weights after the baths treatments were highly oriented, yet non-crystallized or just showed the initial stages of crystallization. By a subsequent hot drawing process with the low draw ratio (DR< 1.5), the treated fibers showed a well

  15. Evaporation-induced self-assembled silica colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structural evolution of poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwoven composite separators for high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ran; Won, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Sang-Young

    2012-10-01

    A facile approach to the fabrication of nanoporous structure-tuned nonwoven composite separators is demonstrated for application in high-safety/high-rate lithium-ion batteries. This strategy is based on the construction of silica (SiO2) colloidal particle-assisted nanoporous structure in a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven substrate. The nanoparticle arrangement arising from evaporation-induced self-assembly of SiO2 colloidal particles allows the evolution of the unusual nanoporous structure, i.e. well-connected interstitial voids formed between close-packed SiO2 particles adhered by styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) binders. Meanwhile, the PET nonwoven serves as a mechanical support that contributes to suppressing thermal shrinkage of the nonwoven composite separator. The aforementioned structural novelty of the nonwoven composite separator plays a key role in providing the separator with advantageous characteristics (specifically, good electrolyte wettability, high ionic conductivity, and benign compatibility with electrodes), which leads to the better cell performance than a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator.

  16. Thresholds of Etchable Track Formation and Chemical Damage Parameters in Poly(ethylene terephthalate), Bisphenol A polycarbonate, and Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate) Films at the Stopping Powers Ranging from 10 to 12,000 keV/µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya; Mori, Yutaka; Morimoto, Akira; Kanasaki, Masato; Oda, Keiji; Kodaira, Satoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Tojo, Sachiko; Honda, Yoshihide; Barillon, Rémi

    2012-05-01

    The damage structure of latent tracks in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been examined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements. Results are compared with those from previous studies on bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) and poly(allyl diglycol carbonate) (PADC). These polymers are exposed to protons and heavy ions (He, C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe, Kr, and Xe) in air with energies less than 6 MeV/n, as well as gamma rays from an intense Co-60 source. Chemical damage parameters, namely, damage density, which is the number of losses of considered functional groups per unit length of tracks, radial size of the track core, in which the considered chemical groups are lost, and radiation chemical yields (G values) for each group are evaluated as a function of the stopping power. It has been confirmed that latent tracks will be etchable when the radial track core size is larger than the distance between two adjacent breaking points of polymer chains. The predominant breaking points are the C-O bonds in ether, ester, and carbonate ester bonds.

  17. The use of layer by layer self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid and cationized gelatin to improve the biocompatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate) artificial ligaments for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shurong; Jiang, Jia; Tao, Hongyue; Xu, Jialing; Sun, Jianguo; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-11-01

    In this study layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and cationized gelatin (CG) were used to modify polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament grafts. Changes in the surface properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and contact angle and biomechanical measurements. The cell compatibility of this HA-CG coating was investigated in vitro on PET films seeded with human foreskin dermal fibroblasts over 7days. The results of our in vitro studies demonstrated that the HA-CG coating significantly enhanced cell adhesion, facilitated cell growth, and suppressed the expression of inflammation-related genes relative to a pure PET graft. Furthermore, rabbit and porcine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of this LBL coating in vivo. The animal experiment results proved that this LBL coating significantly inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted new ligament tissue regeneration among the graft fibers. In addition, the formation of type I collagen in the HA-CG coating group was much higher than in the control group. Based on these results we conclude that PET grafts coated with HA-CG have considerable potential as substitutes for ligament reconstruction.

  18. Effect of Ar Ion Beam Pre-Treatment of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate on the Mechanical and Electrical Stability of Flexible InSnO Films Grown by Roll-to-Roll Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of Ar ion beam irradiation on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate as surface pre-treatment method in the roll-to-roll (R2R) sputtering system and its contribution to the electrical durability of flexible InSnO (ITO) electrode upon that the flexible PET substrate under repeated mechanical stresses. It was found that the Ar ion beam irradiation of the flexible PET surface could improve an adhesion between R2R sputter-grown ITO film and the PET substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the Ar ion beam irradiation lead to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups when the working pressure, Ar ion beam power, and exposure time increases. Repetitive bending stresses for the flexible ITO/PET film which fabricated through the surface pre-treatment by Ar ion beam irradiation showed more stable electrical durability than those of ITO films on the wet-cleaned PET substrate due to enhanced interfacial adhesion between the ITO film and PET surface. This suggests that the Ar ion beam pre-treatment before sputtering of ITO film in R2R sputtering system is an effective technique to improve the adhesion between ITO film and PET substrate.

  19. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure.

  20. Radiation damage and recovery properties of common plastics PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate) and PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) using a 137Cs gamma ray source up to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, J.; Tiras, E.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Winn, D.

    2016-08-01

    Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene teraphthalate (PET) are cheap and common polyester plastics used throughout the world in the manufacturing of bottled drinks, containers for foodstuffs, and fibers used in clothing. These plastics are also known organic scintillators with very good scintillation properties. As particle physics experiments increase in energy and particle flux density, so does radiation exposure to detector materials. It is therefore important that scintillators be tested for radiation tolerance at these generally unheard of doses. We tested samples of PEN and PET using laser stimulated emission on separate tiles exposed to 1 Mrad and 10 Mrad gamma rays with a 137Cs source. PEN exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 71.4% and 46.7% of the light of an undamaged tile, respectively, and maximally recover to 85.9% and 79.5% after 5 and 9 days, respectively. PET exposed to 1.4 Mrad and 14 Mrad emit 35.0% and 12.2% light, respectively, and maximally recover to 93.5% and 80.0% after 22 and 60 days, respectively.

  1. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl terephthalate ( DMT ) ; CASRN 120 - 61 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  2. Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  3. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  4. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon. PMID:25648201

  5. Toxicological review and oral risk assessment of terephthalic acid (TPA) and its esters: A category approach.

    PubMed

    Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J; Bhat, Virunya S

    2012-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate, a copolymer of terephthalic acid (TPA) or dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) with ethylene glycol, has food, beverage, and drinking water contact applications. Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT) is a plasticizer in food and drinking water contact materials. Oral reference doses (RfDs) and total allowable concentrations (TACs) in drinking water were derived for TPA, DMT, and DEHT. Category RfD and TAC levels were also established for nine C(1)-C(8) terephthalate esters. The mode of action of TPA, and of DMT, which is metabolized to TPA, involves urinary acidosis, altered electrolyte elimination and hypercalciuria, urinary supersaturation with calcium terephthalate or calcium hydrogen terephthalate, and crystallization into bladder calculi. Weanling rats were more sensitive to calculus formation than dams. Calculi-induced irritation led to bladder hyperplasia and tumors in rats fed 1000 mg/kg-day TPA. The lack of effects at 142 mg/kg-day supports a threshold for urine saturation with calcium terephthalate, a key event for calculus formation. Chronic dietary DMT exposure in rodents caused kidney inflammation, but not calculi. Chronic dietary DEHT exposure caused general toxicity unrelated to calculi, although urine pH was reduced suggesting the TPA metabolite was biologically-active, but of insufficient concentration to induce calculi. Respective oral reference doses of 0.5, 0.5, and 0.2 mg/kg-day and total allowable drinking water concentrations of 3, 3, and 1 mg/L were derived for TPA, DMT, and DEHT. An oral RfD of 0.2 mg/kg-day for the terephthalate category chemicals corresponded to a drinking water TAC of 1 mg/L.

  6. Preparation and dyeing of super hydrophilic polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, D. D.; Zhou, J. F.; Xu, F.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the dyeing properties of PET fabrics modified with sulfuric acid was investigated using disperse red E-4B and disperse blue 2BLNG-L at high temperature and high pressure. The results revealed that the sulfuric acid modification improved the K/S value of dyeing PET fabrics, and the modified PET fabric could be dyed uniformly. The a, b, C, L and H of modified PET fabric were almost the same as that of original PET fabric. The water contact angles were still 0o after 10s, indicating that the hydrophilic property of modified PET fabrics still kept excellent. The wash fastness of dyed PET fabrics after modification was generally good.

  7. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethylene furanoate).

    PubMed

    Pellis, Alessandro; Haernvall, Karolina; Pichler, Christian M; Ghazaryan, Gagik; Breinbauer, Rolf; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-10-10

    The urgency of producing new environmentally-friendly polyesters strongly enhanced the development of bio-based poly(ethylene furanoate) (PEF) as an alternative to plastics like poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) for applications that include food packaging, personal and home care containers and thermoforming equipment. In this study, PEF powders of various molecular weights (6, 10 and 40kDa) were synthetized and their susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated for the first time. According to LC/TOF-MS analysis, cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica liberated both 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and oligomers of up to DP4. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PEF with higher molecular weights but was active on all tested substrates. Mild enzymatic hydrolysis of PEF has a potential both for surface functionalization and monomers recycling. PMID:26854948

  9. Analyzing Morphology and Thermal History of Polybutylene Terephthalate by THz Time-domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietzke, Steffen; Reuter, Marco; Nestle, Nikolaus; Klimov, Evgueni; Zadok, Uri; Fischer, Bernd M.; Koch, Martin

    2011-07-01

    We have measured the frequency-dependent dielectric function of semi-crystalline polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) in the terahertz region between 100 GHz and approximately 2.8 THz. A characteristic band is observed around 2.38 THz. The intensity of this band is a good indicator of the degree of crystallinity of the different samples. A potential assignment of this band is proposed, based on the comparison with spectroscopic data of the structurally very similar polyethylene terephtalate (PET). Furthermore, the frequency-dependent index of refraction of PBT reveals more insight about the morphology and different thermal history of the samples under investigation.

  10. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. ...

  11. The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Kleerebezem, R.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1999-03-01

    The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1,4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.

  12. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1998-10-13

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  13. Production of Diethyl Terephthalate from Biomass-Derived Muconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui; Lu, Fang; Chen, Jiazhi; Yu, Weiqiang; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We report a cascade synthetic route to directly obtain diethyl terephthalate, a replacement for terephthalic acid, from biomass-derived muconic acid, ethanol, and ethylene. The process involves two steps: First, a substituted cyclohexene system is built through esterification and Diels-Alder reaction; then, a dehydrogenation reaction provides diethyl terephthalate. The key esterification reaction leads to improved solubility and modulates the electronic properties of muconic acid, thus promoting the Diels-Alder reaction with ethylene. With silicotungstic acid as the catalyst, nearly 100% conversion of muconic acid was achieved, and the cycloadducts were formed with more than 99.0% selectivity. The palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reaction preferentially occurs under neutral or mildly basic conditions. The total yield of diethyl terephthalate reached 80.6% based on the amount of muconic acid used in the two-step synthetic process. PMID:26592149

  14. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  15. Laser transmission welding of Clearweld-coated polyethylene glycol terephthalate by incremental scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, A. H.; Weng, Z. K.; Xia, H. B.

    2016-06-01

    Transmission laser welding using Incremental Scanning Technique(TWIST) mode and conventional contour welding mode were adopted to investigate laser transmission welding of 0.5 mm thick PET plate. A 1064 nm fiber laser was used to weld PET at the (TWIST) mode, and an 808 nm diode laser was applied to conduct the conventional contour welding. The Clearweld coating was used as laser absorbing material. The influences of laser parameters (i.e. defocusing distance, distance between two circles) on the quality of weld seams were analyzed by optical microscopy. Moreover, geometry and shear strength of the weld zone were tested to optimize laser parameters. Additionally, the water vapor permeability (WVP) of weld seams was measured to test hermetical capacity. Results show that the shear strength and hermetic capacity of weld seam by TWIST mode are at the same level in comparison with that of the conventional contour welding.

  16. 75 FR 49893 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ..., Wooden Pallets, Plastic Cap, Labels, Plastic Packing Band, Stretch Wrap Film, Plastic Bag, Paper Plate... Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, ``Petitioners''), in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b)(1), for an... Emirates, 73 FR 66595 (November 10, 2008) (``Orders''). \\2\\ See Initiation of Antidumping...

  17. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...., Industrial Phosphoric Acid from Israel: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 59 FR... Korea, 56 FR 25669 (June 5, 1991). On September 26, 1997, the Department published the notice of final... Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 62 FR 50557 (September 26, 1997) (Antidumping...

  18. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  19. 75 FR 80457 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10758 (March 9, 2010). This new shipper review covers one producer and... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 52717 (August 27, 2010) (First Extension). On October 18, 2010, the... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75 FR 65450 (October 25, 2010) (Second Extension). Extension of...

  20. Migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate used in mineral water bottles.

    PubMed

    Carneado, S; Hernández-Nataren, E; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A

    2015-01-01

    The influence of storage time and temperature on Sb migration from PET bottles into mineral water was studied in short-term tests lasting up to 15 days and long-term studies lasting up to 220 days. Samples purchased were stored in three different coloured bottles: clear (CL), light blue (LB) and dark blue (DB). Sb migration was assayed by HG-AFS for total determination and HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. Migration studies showed that waters stored at 4 and 20 °C were not subject to Sb migration. At 40 °C there was a significant increase in Sb concentration, although the maximum limit established by the European Union (5.0 μgL(-)(1)) was not exceeded, whereas at 60 °C samples were subject to considerable Sb migration after 30 days of storage. In this case, the maximum limit established by the European Union was exceeded and both Sb (V) and Sb (III) were detected.

  1. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device placed in the heart that is used to repair septal defects, for patch grafting, to repair...

  2. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... device placed in the heart that is used to repair septal defects, for patch grafting, to repair...

  3. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...-2011, 77 FR 73428 (December 10, 2012), and accompanying Decision Memorandum (``Preliminary Results..., Green Packing, DuPont Group, and Wanhua et al.\\6\\ \\2\\ See id., 77 FR at 73429. \\3\\ In the Preliminary... Emirates, 73 FR 66595 (November 10, 2008). Changes Since the Preliminary Results Based on the...

  4. 76 FR 61085 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565 (December 28, 2010). On July 18, 2011, the Department extended the time... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 42113 (July 18, 2011). The preliminary results of this review... the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). The Department will extend...

  5. 76 FR 68140 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... economy cases). \\41\\ See Initiation Notice, 75 FR at 81566. Use of Facts Available and Adverse Facts... Vietnam, 69 FR 42672, 42682 (July 16, 2004), unchanged in Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 69 FR...

  6. Oxygen transport through polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with plasma-polymerized acetylene at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemlinger, Erik; Pedrow, Patrick; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel; Sablani, Shyam

    2011-10-01

    Moser et al. have shown that oxygen transport through polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is reduced by a factor of up to 120 when, at reduced pressure, hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with thickness less than 100 nm is applied to the PET substrate. Our work includes using atmospheric pressure cold plasma to grow a plasma-polymerized acetylene film on PET substrate and measuring reductions in oxygen transport. The reactor utilizes corona discharges and is operated at 60 Hz with a maximum voltage of 10 kV RMS. Corona streamers emanate from an array of needles with an average radius of curvature of 50 μm. The reactor utilizes a cylindrical reaction chamber with a vertical orientation such that argon carrier gas and acetylene precursor gas are introduced at the top then pass through the cold plasma activation zone and then through a grounded stainless steel mesh. Acetylene radicals are incident on the PET substrate and form plasma-polymerized acetylene film. Moser et al. have shown that oxygen transport through polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is reduced by a factor of up to 120 when, at reduced pressure, hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with thickness less than 100 nm is applied to the PET substrate. Our work includes using atmospheric pressure cold plasma to grow a plasma-polymerized acetylene film on PET substrate and measuring reductions in oxygen transport. The reactor utilizes corona discharges and is operated at 60 Hz with a maximum voltage of 10 kV RMS. Corona streamers emanate from an array of needles with an average radius of curvature of 50 μm. The reactor utilizes a cylindrical reaction chamber with a vertical orientation such that argon carrier gas and acetylene precursor gas are introduced at the top then pass through the cold plasma activation zone and then through a grounded stainless steel mesh. Acetylene radicals are incident on the PET substrate and form plasma-polymerized acetylene film. E.M. Moser, R. Urech, E. Hack, H. Künzli, E. Müller, Thin Solid Films, 317, 1998, pp. 388-392.

  7. Picosecond UV laser induced scribing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for the enhancement of their flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Gi; Kim, Changhwan; Lee, Yong Joong; Kim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Ho

    2016-08-01

    Flexible devices has received a great attention due to their high portability, lightness, and ease of shape reconfiguration. To achieve high flexibility, controlling the mechanical properties of the substrate materials is of importance. In this paper, we controlled the local flexibility of PET films via UV laser scribing. The bending test of the films revealed that their bending curvatures, the associated mechanical damages, and the required bending forces could be successfully tuned by controlling the number and the depth of the scribed lines. Our simple strategy of using laser scribing will find its usefulness in flexible device applications where high flexibility and mechanical stability are required.

  8. 75 FR 52717 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10758 (March 9, 2010). This new shipper review covers one producer and..., As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results Section... SRF's supplemental questionnaire response in its examination of the bona fides of SRF's...

  9. 77 FR 46704 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Film) from Taiwan, 67 FR 44174 (July 1, 2002), as corrected in 67 FR 46566 (July 15, 2002). \\2\\ See... Administrative Review, 76 FR 38609, 38610 (July 1, 2011). \\3\\ Petitioners are DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi... Administrative Review, 76 FR 47540, 47541 (August 5, 2011) (``PET Film Prelim 09- 10'') unchanged in...

  10. Biodegradable poly(terephthalate-co-phosphate)s: synthesis, characterization and drug-release properties

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hai-Quan; Shipanova-Kadiyala, Irina; Zhao, Zhong; Dang, Wenbin; Brown, Angela; Leong, Kam W.

    2008-01-01

    To develop biodegradable polymers with favorable physicochemical and biological properties, we have synthesized a series of poly(terephthalate-co-phosphate)s using a two-step polycondensation. The diol 1,4-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate was first reacted with ethylphosphorodichloridate (EOP), and then chain-extended with terephthaloyl chloride (TC). Incorporation of phosphate into the poly(ethylene terephthalate) backbone rendered the co-polymers soluble in chloroform and biodegradable, lowered the Tg, decreased the crystallinity and increased the hydrophilicity. With an EOP/TC molar feed ratio of 80 : 20, the polymer exhibited good film-forming property, yielding at 86.6 ± 1.6% elongation with an elastic modulus of 13.76 ± 2.66 MPa. This polymer showed a favorable toxicity profile in vitro and good tissue biocompatibility in the muscular tissue of mice. In vitro the polymer lost 21% of mass in 21 days, but only 20% for up to 4 months in vivo. It showed no deterioration of properties after sterilization by γ -irradiation at 2.5 Mrad on solid CO2. Release of FITC-BSA from the microspheres was diffusion-controlled and exceeded 80% completion in two days. Release of the hydrophobic cyclosporine-A from microspheres was however much more sustained and near zero-ordered, discharging 60% in 70 days. A limited structure–property relationship has been established for this co-polymer series. The co-polymers became more hydrolytically labile as the phosphate component (EOP) was increased and the side chains were switched from the ethoxy to the methoxy structure. Converting the methoxy group to a sodium salt further increased the degradation rate significantly. The chain rigidity as reflected in the Tg values of the co-polymers decreased according to the following diol structure in the backbone: ethylene glycol > 2-methylpropylene diol > 2,2-dimethylpropylene diol. The wide range of physicochemical properties obtainable from this co-polymer series should help the

  11. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Joshua J.; Davis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  12. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed. PMID:24912153

  13. Synthesis of terephthalic acid via Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and oxidized variants of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Joshua J; Davis, Mark E

    2014-06-10

    Terephthalic acid (PTA), a monomer in the synthesis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), is obtained by the oxidation of petroleum-derived p-xylene. There is significant interest in the synthesis of renewable, biomass-derived PTA. Here, routes to PTA starting from oxidized products of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) that can be produced from biomass are reported. These routes involve Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and avoid the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Oxidized derivatives of HMF are reacted with ethylene over solid Lewis acid catalysts that do not contain strong Brønsted acids to synthesize intermediates of PTA and its equally important diester, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). The partially oxidized HMF, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furoic acid (HMFA), is reacted with high pressure ethylene over a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework tin (Sn-Beta) to produce the Diels-Alder dehydration product, 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (HMBA), with 31% selectivity at 61% HMFA conversion after 6 h at 190 °C. If HMFA is protected with methanol to form methyl 5-(methoxymethyl)furan-2-carboxylate (MMFC), MMFC can react with ethylene in the presence of Sn-Beta for 2 h to produce methyl 4-(methoxymethyl)benzenecarboxylate (MMBC) with 46% selectivity at 28% MMFC conversion or in the presence of a pure-silica molecular sieve containing framework zirconium (Zr-Beta) for 6 h to produce MMBC with 81% selectivity at 26% MMFC conversion. HMBA and MMBC can then be oxidized to produce PTA and DMT, respectively. When Lewis acid containing mesoporous silica (MCM-41) and amorphous silica, or Brønsted acid containing zeolites (Al-Beta), are used as catalysts, a significant decrease in selectivity/yield of the Diels-Alder dehydration product is observed.

  14. High-rate treatment of terephthalate in anaerobic hybrid reactors.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, R; Ivalo, M; Hulshoff Pol, L W; Lettinga, G

    1999-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of terephthalate as sole substrate was studied in three anaerobic upflow reactors. Initially, the reactors were operated as upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors and seeded with suspended methanogenic biomass obtained from a full-scale down-flow fixed film reactor, treating wastewater generated during production of purified terephthalic acid. The reactors were operated at 30, 37, and 55 degrees C. The terephthalate removal capacities remained low in all three reactors (<4 mmolxL-1xday-1, or 1 g of chemical oxygen demand (COD)xL-1xday-1) due to limitations in biomass retention. Batch experiments with biomass from the UASB reactors revealed that, within the mesophilic temperature range, optimal terephthalate degradation is obtained at 37 degrees C. No thermophilic terephthalate-degrading culture could be obtained in either continuous or batch cultures. To enhance biomass retention, the reactors were modified to anaerobic hybrid reactors by introduction of two types of reticulated polyurethane (PUR) foam particles. The hybrid reactors were operated at 37 degrees C and seeded with a mixture of biomass from the UASB reactors operated at 30 and 37 degrees C. After a lag period of approximately 80 days, the terephthalate conversion capacity of the hybrid reactors increased exponentially at a specific rate of approximately 0.06 day-1, and high removal rates were obtained (40-70 mmolxL-1xday-1, or 10-17 g of CODxL-1xday-1) at hydraulic retention times between 5 and 8 h. These high removal capacities could be attributed to enhanced biomass retention by the development of biofilms on the PUR carrier material as well as the formation of granular biomass. Biomass balances over the hybrid reactors suggested that either bacterial decay or selective wash-out of the terephthalate fermenting biomass played an important role in the capacity limitations of the systems. The presented results suggest that terephthalate can be degraded at high volumetric

  15. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 × 1010 to 3 × 1012 ion/cm2. The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  16. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-06-05

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10{sup 10} to 3 x 10{sup 12} ion/cm{sup 2}. The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  17. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  18. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate). 177.1660 Section 177.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate). 177.1660 Section 177.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly (tetramethylene terephthalate). 177.1660 Section 177.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and...

  2. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  3. Diffraction filters based on polyimide and poly(ethylene naphthalate) track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.; Apel, P. Yu.; Blonskaya, I. V.; Orelovitch, O. L.

    2006-09-01

    The problem of optical filters for soft x rays and extreme ultraviolet that provide a high degree of blocking ultraviolet and visible background radiations is considered. The subject of discussion is the filter based on a track membrane, a polymer film with micrometer and submicrometer pores, rather than the standard thin-film system. It is proposed that the membranes be made of poly(ethylene naphthalate) or polyimide, the UV absorption edge of which lies near the boundary of the visible range. The properties of poly(ethylene naphthalate) and polyimide membranes are contrasted with those of conventional porous poly(ethylene terephthalate) films, which are obtained by ion track etching. The spectral characteristics of poly(ethylene naphthalate) and polyimide films, as well as the formation of “track” pores when the specimens are successively treated by fast ions and chemicals, are studied. The basic parameters of the resulting porous structures are examined, and treatment conditions under which desired optical properties of the membranes are achieved are found. Filters based on poly(ethylene naphthalate) and polyimide track membranes may be applied in x-ray astronomy as constituents of detectors incorporated into solar telescopes and in experiments with the laboratory plasma.

  4. A Sustainable Route to a Terephthalic Acid Precursor.

    PubMed

    Banella, Maria Barbara; Gioia, Claudio; Vannini, Micaela; Colonna, Martino; Celli, Annamaria; Gandini, Alessandro

    2016-05-10

    A new synthetic pathway for the production of p-toluic acid has been developed starting from reagents derived from renewable resources. A Diels-Alder reaction between sorbic and acrylic acids is followed by a combined dehydrogenation/ decarboxylation process, providing p-toluic acid in high yields. This route permits to use milder conditions compared to other Diels-Alder approaches reported in the literature, and therefore can contribute to a more sustainable terephthalic acid production.

  5. A Sustainable Route to a Terephthalic Acid Precursor.

    PubMed

    Banella, Maria Barbara; Gioia, Claudio; Vannini, Micaela; Colonna, Martino; Celli, Annamaria; Gandini, Alessandro

    2016-05-10

    A new synthetic pathway for the production of p-toluic acid has been developed starting from reagents derived from renewable resources. A Diels-Alder reaction between sorbic and acrylic acids is followed by a combined dehydrogenation/ decarboxylation process, providing p-toluic acid in high yields. This route permits to use milder conditions compared to other Diels-Alder approaches reported in the literature, and therefore can contribute to a more sustainable terephthalic acid production. PMID:27072163

  6. Polyethylene Glycol Propionaldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Joe M.; Sedaghat-Herati, Mohammad R.; Karr, Laurel J.

    1992-01-01

    New class of compounds derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG's) namely, PEG-propionaldehydes, offers two important advantages over other classes of PEG aldehyde derivatives: compounds exhibit selective chemical reactivity toward amino groups and are stable in aqueous environment. PEG's and derivatives used to couple variety of other molecules, such as, to tether protein molecules to surfaces. Biotechnical and biomedical applications include partitioning of two phases in aqueous media; immobilization of such proteins as enzymes, antibodies, and antigens; modification of drugs; and preparation of protein-rejecting surfaces. In addition, surfaces coated with PEG's and derivatives used to control wetting and electroosmosis. Another potential application, coupling to aminated surfaces.

  7. Synthesis of poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) polyester using monomers derived from renewable resources: thermal behavior comparison with PET and PEN.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2014-05-01

    Poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is a new alipharomatic polyester that can be prepared from monomers derived from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. For this reason it has gained high interest recently. In the present work it was synthesized from the dimethylester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol by applying the two-stage melt polycondensation method. The thermal behavior of PEF was studied in comparison to its terephthalate and naphthalate homologues poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which were also synthesized following the same procedure. The equilibrium melting point of PEF was found to be 265 °C while the heat of fusion for the pure crystalline PEF was estimated to be about 137 J g(-1). The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using various models. PET showed faster crystallization rates than PEN and this in turn showed faster crystallization than PEF, under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The spherulitic morphology of PEF during isothermal crystallization was investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A large nucleation density and a small spherulite size were observed for PEF even at low supercoolings, in contrast to PET or PEN. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that PEF is thermally stable up to 325 °C and the temperature for the maximum degradation rate was 438 °C. These values were a little lower than those for PET or PEN.

  8. Radiation processing of polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, A.; Biggs, J. W.; Meeks, L. A.

    This paper covers two areas (a) the use of high energy radiation for the synthesis and improvement of polymer properties and (b) the formulation of radiation curable compounds for automotive/appliance wire applications and high voltage insulation. The first part discusses the use of gamma radiation for the bulk polymerization of ethylene and the properties of the polymer produced. The use of low dose radiation to increase polymer molecular weight and modify polydispersity is also described together with its projected operational cost. An update is provided of the cost savings that can be realized when using radiation crosslinked heavy duty film, which expands its applications, compared with noncrosslinked materials. The second section of the paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of radiation vs. peroxide curing of wire and cable compounds. The formulation of a radiation curable, automotive/appliance wire compound is discussed together with the interactions between the various ingredients; i.e., base resin, antioxidants, flame retardant filler, coupling agents, processing aids and radiation to achieve the desired product. In addition, the general property requirements of a radiation curable polyethylene for high voltage insulation are discussed; these include crosslinking efficiency, thermal stability, wet tree resistance and satisfactory dielectric properties. Preliminary data generated in the development of a 230KV radiation crosslinked polyethylene insulation are included.

  9. [The effect of terephthalic acid and film made from polyterephthalic acid esters on water soluble vitamins].

    PubMed

    Steiner, I

    1990-12-01

    Terephthalic acid is used for the production of polyterephthalic acid esters for foils that are applied for cooking, roasting, and baking; it is able to migrate as a monomer into foodstuffs. The effect of sodium terephthalate on vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and ascorbic acid at different conditions (variation of time and temperature); effects of a foil made of polyterephthalic acid esters was also tested. Thiamin and riboflavin are stabilized by sodium terephthalate while pyridoxine is decomposed faster, especially at higher temperatures. The tests of thiamin and riboflavin in the foils show similar results, whereas the losses of pyridoxine were not so high compared with the tests where sodium terephthalate had been added. Ascorbic acid is protected, too, by sodium terephthalate, except with long heating periods at a temperature of 220 degrees C.

  10. Biodegradation of dimethyl terephthalate by Pasteurella multocida Sa follows an alternative biochemical pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaxi; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2006-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida Sa, a bacterial strain isolated from mangrove sediment by enrichment technique, was capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMT). Biodegradation of DMT was shown to take place as a series of sequential steps involving the hydrolysis of two ester linkages between the carboxyl groups of the terephthalate and the methyl side-chain initially to produce mono-methyl terephthalate (MMT) and then terephthalic acid (TA), respectively. However, with ethanol as the carrying solvent, there was a formation of one metabolite previously not observed. The two metabolites were characterized by high performance-liquid chromatography-electron ionization mass spectrometry as MMT and mono-ethyl terephthalate (MET), suggesting the existence of an alternative biochemical pathway in the degradation of DMT by P. multocida Sa. Since the presence of MMT and ethanol in culture inoculated with P. multocida Sa was prerequisites for the formation of MET, biologically mediated trans-esterification was proposed as a mechanism for the novel biochemical process observed.

  11. Preparation of hydroxylated polyethylene surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zand, A; Walter, N; Bahu, M; Ketterer, S; Sanders, M; Sikorski, Y; Cunningham, R; Beholz, L

    2008-01-01

    The surfaces of high-density or ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylenes were hydroxylated using a two-step process. The wetting and wear properties of the untreated (virgin) and surface hydroxylated polyethylenes were compared. The introduction of hydroxyl groups provided an increase in surface hydrophilicity resulting in reduced wear. Hydrophilicity was analyzed by optical analysis of water contact angle. Wear was determined by weight loss under conditions of a reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus with the panels immersed in water or calf serum. These results suggest that hydroxylation of polyethylene friction-bearing orthopedic surfaces may lead to a longer joint life. PMID:18318959

  12. Interaction between polyethylene films and bromhexine HCl in solid dosage form. V. Effect of packaging materials on the sorption of bromhexine HCl.

    PubMed

    Kukita, T; Furuuchi, S; Nemoto, M; Yoshida, T

    1992-11-01

    A prevention method of the sorption of bromhexine HCl to plastic materials used in packaging was investigated. Four kinds of plastic packaging materials were used: Polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Three polyethylenes having different densities were used. No effect of PE density on the sorption of bromhexine HCl from granules was observed. The effects of different kinds of plastics on the sorption of bromhexine HCl from solution and granules were studied. The sorption of bromhexine HCl to PAN, which had a high relative dielectric constant, was the most depressed among the four plastics. The sorption of meclizine HCl to PAN from the solution was also lowest, the same as bromhexine HCl. PMID:1477930

  13. Molecular and biochemical analysis of phthalate and terephthalate degradation by Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki Young; Kim, Dockyu; Sul, Woo Jun; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Eungbin

    2005-11-15

    Alkylbenzene-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to utilize phthalate and terephthalate as growth substrates. The genes encoding the transformation of phthalate and terephthalate to protocatechuate are organized as two separate operons, located 6.7kb away from each other. Interestingly, both the phthalate and terephthalate operons are induced in response to terephthalate while expression of the terephthalate genes is undetectable in phthalate-grown cells. In addition to two known plasmids (380-kb pDK1 and 330-kb pDK2), a third megaplasmid (750-kb pDK3) was newly identified in DK17. The phthalate and terephthalate operons are duplicated and are present on both pDK2 and pDK3. RT-PCR experiments, coupled with sequence analysis, suggest that phthalate and terephthalate degradation in DK17 proceeds through oxygenation at carbons 3 and 4 and at carbons 1 and 2 to form 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxyphthalate and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxyterephthalate, respectively. The 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate pathway was further corroborated through colorometric tests. Apparently, the two dihydrodiol metabolites are subsequently dehydrogenated and decarboxylated to form protocatechuate, which is further degraded by a protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase as confirmed by a ring-cleavage enzyme assay. PMID:16181748

  14. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film. PMID:23858925

  15. Effect of SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers on transparent conducting oxide-poly(ethylene terephthalate) superstrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y T; Kang, D P; Kang, D J; Chung, I D

    2013-05-01

    SiO2-acryl nanohybrid coating layers were produced by hybridizing acrylic resin and surface-modified colloidal silica (CS) nanoparticles. First, CS nanoparticles were modified with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) by a sol-gel process. The surface-modified CS nanoparticles were then solvent-exchanged to be homogeneous in acrylic resin. The Hybrid materials were mixed in variation with the amount of surface-modified CS nanoparticles, coated with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), then finally cured by UV light to obtain a hybrid coating layer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), particle size analysis (using a Zetasizer), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to determine the morphology of the hybrid thin-films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UVNis) spectroscopies, and pencil hardness were used to obtain the details of chemical structures, optical properties, and hardness, respectively. The hybrid thin films had shown to be enhanced properties compared to their urethane acrylate prepolymer (UAP) coating film.

  16. Grafting of dermatan sulfate on polyethylene terephtalate to enhance biointegration.

    PubMed

    Dhahri, Manel; Abed, Aicha; Lajimi, Ramzi Hadj; Mansour, Mohamed Ben; Gueguen, Virginie; Abdesselem, Saber Ben; Chaubet, Frederic; Letourneur, Didier; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Maaroufi, Raoui M

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to achieve the immobilization of dermatan sulfate (DS) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces and to evaluate its biocompatibility. DS obtained from the skin of Scyliorhinus canicula shark was immobilized via carbodiimide on knitted PET fabrics, modified with carboxyl groups. PET-DS characterization was performed by SEM, ATR-FTIR and contact angle measurements. Biocompatibility was evaluated by investigating plasma protein adsorption and endothelial cell proliferation, as well as by subcutaneous implantations in rats. The results indicated that DS immobilization on PET was achieved at ~8 μg/cm². ATR-FTIR evidenced the presence of sulfate groups on the PET surface. In turn, contact angle measurements indicated an increase in the surface wettability. DS immobilization increased albumin adsorption on the PET surface, whereas it decreased that of fibrinogen. In vitro cell culture revealed that endothelial cell proliferation was also enhanced on PET-DS. Histological results after 15 days of subcutaneous implantation showed a better integration of PET-DS samples in comparison to those of nonmodified PET. In summary, DS was successfully grafted onto the surface of PET, providing it new physicochemical characteristics and biological properties for PET, thus enhancing its biointegration. PMID:21548062

  17. 75 FR 40776 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... United States: FLEX Middle East FZE (FLEX) and, JBF RAK LLC (JBF). Extension of Time Limit for the... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 74 FR...

  18. Nano-scale temperature dependent visco-elastic properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using atomic force microscope (AFM).

    PubMed

    Grant, Colin A; Alfouzan, Abdulrahman; Gough, Tim; Twigg, Peter C; Coates, Phil D

    2013-01-01

    Visco-elastic behaviour at the nano-level of a commonly used polymer (PET) is characterised using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at a range of temperatures. The modulus, indentation creep and relaxation time of the PET film (thickness=100 μm) is highly sensitive to temperature over an experimental temperature range of 22-175°C. The analysis showed a 40-fold increase in the amount of indentation creep on raising the temperature from 22°C to 100°C, with the most rapid rise occurring above the glass-to-rubber transition temperature (T(g)=77.1°C). At higher temperatures, close to the crystallisation temperature (T(c)=134.7°C), the indentation creep reduced to levels similar to those at temperatures below T(g). The calculated relaxation time showed a similar temperature dependence, rising from 0.6s below T(g) to 1.2s between T(g) and T(c) and falling back to 0.6s above T(c). Whereas, the recorded modulus of the thick polymer film decreases above T(g), subsequently increasing near T(c). These visco-elastic parameters are obtained via mechanical modelling of the creep curves and are correlated to the thermal phase changes that occur in PET, as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PMID:22750040

  19. 76 FR 1135 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ..., 75 FR 53664 (September 1, 2010) (Notice of Initiation). The Department received a notice of intent to...; Notice of Final Court Decision and Amended Final Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 62 FR... expedited (120-day) sunset review pursuant to 19 CFR 351.218(e)(1)(ii)(C)(2). As a result of this...

  20. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed. PMID:22196043

  1. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    PubMed

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

  2. 76 FR 45508 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Arab Emirates (UAE) for the period November 01, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 81565... Emirates: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

  3. 78 FR 52500 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 9753... Final Results of Administrative Review Pursuant to Court Decision, 78 FR 9363 (February 8, 2013). \\4... Than Fair Value, 73 FR 55039, 55041 (September 24, 2008). Timken Notice In its decision in Timken,...

  4. Thermal stability of polyethylene terephthalate food contact materials: formation of volatiles from retain samples and implications for recycling.

    PubMed

    Freire, M T; Castle, L; Reyes, F G; Damant, A P

    1998-01-01

    PET packaging materials have been tested for volatile content after exposure to high temperatures. Samples included laminates, bottles, and roasting bags, and were heated at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 230 degrees C for 50 min, according to sample type. Volatiles released from the material were trapped on Tenax, identified by GC-MS and assessed against a 10 micrograms/kg migration threshold limit. Few volatiles were found for samples composed only of PET. Volatiles from laminates varied according to the sample structure, but the main substances identified were not related to PET, but probably came from printing inks and adhesives. It is concluded that the migration potential of PET in high temperature applications is very low and that the formation of volatiles during use is unlikely to cause any special problems in polymer recovery in recycling schemes, provided that other packaging residues are removed effectively. PMID:9764218

  5. 78 FR 19524 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Department of Commerce issued a countervailing duty order on imports of PET film from India (67 FR 44179) and antidumping duty orders on imports of PET film from India (67 FR 44175) and Taiwan (67 FR 44174). Following... continuation of the countervailing duty order on imports of PET film from India (73 FR 26080) and...

  6. DNA purification using dynamic solid-phase extraction on a rotationally-driven polyethylene-terephthalate microdevice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K R; Borba, J C; Meija, M; Mills, D L; Haverstick, D M; Olson, K E; Aranda, R; Garner, G T; Carrilho, E; Landers, J P

    2016-09-21

    We report the development of a disposable polyester toner centrifugal device for semi-automated, dynamic solid phase DNA extraction (dSPE) from whole blood samples. The integration of a novel adhesive and hydrophobic valving with a simple and low cost microfabrication method allowed for sequential addition of reagents without the need for external equipment for fluid flow control. The spin-dSPE method yielded an average extraction efficiency of ∼45% from 0.6 μL of whole blood. The device performed single sample extractions or accommodate up to four samples for simultaneous DNA extraction, with PCR-readiness DNA confirmed by effective amplification of a β-globin gene. The purity of the DNA was challenged by a multiplex amplification with 16 targeted amplification sites. Successful multiplexed amplification could routinely be obtained using the purified DNA collected post an on-chip extraction, with the results comparable to those obtained with commercial DNA extraction methods. This proof-of-principle work represents a significant step towards a fully-automated low cost DNA extraction device. PMID:27590539

  7. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene conforming to the density, maximum n-hexane... table in § 177.1520(c). Such oxidized polyethylene has a minimum number average molecular weight of...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... oxidation of polyethylene conforming to the density, maximum n-hexane extractable fraction, and maximum... oxidized polyethylene has a minimum number average molecular weight of 1,200, as determined by...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene conforming to the density, maximum n-hexane... table in § 177.1520(c). Such oxidized polyethylene has a minimum number average molecular weight of...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1615 Polyethylene, fluorinated. Fluorinated polyethylene, identified in paragraph (a) of this section, may be safely used as food-contact articles...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resin produced by the mild air oxidation of polyethylene conforming to the density, maximum n-hexane... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1620 Polyethylene, oxidized....

  13. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated... this section. (a) For the purpose of this section, chlorinated polyethylene consists of basic...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, chlorinated. 177.1610 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1610 Polyethylene, chlorinated. Chlorinated... this section. (a) For the purpose of this section, chlorinated polyethylene consists of basic...

  15. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite.

  16. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite. PMID:26341637

  17. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  18. Radiolysis effects on polyethylene terephtalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Ciuprina, Florin

    2005-07-01

    The effects of high energy exposure of polyethylene terephtalate, the main electrical insulator for the conduction bars in alternative current generators, is presented. For comparison γ-irradiation was performed in distilled water and air at various doses, up to about 200 kGy. The dependencies of current on time for radiation processed PET sheets allow to depict the variation in the resistivity values as a measure of chemical changes in polyethylene terephtalate macromolecules. The comparison between the evolution of currents in irradiated specimens and spectral analysis bring about a light on the accumulation of radiolysis product in PET matrix. The high energy exposure of PET in air causes an increase of final value of current, while similar experiments in water produces a contrary effect. Some considerations of degradation mechanism are presented.

  19. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    DOEpatents

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  20. Single electron states in polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; MacKernan, D.; Cubero, D. E-mail: n.quirke@imperial.ac.uk; Coker, D. F.; Quirke, N. E-mail: n.quirke@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-04-21

    We report computer simulations of an excess electron in various structural motifs of polyethylene at room temperature, including lamellar and interfacial regions between amorphous and lamellae, as well as nanometre-sized voids. Electronic properties such as density of states, mobility edges, and mobilities are computed on the different phases using a block Lanczos algorithm. Our results suggest that the electronic density of states for a heterogeneous material can be approximated by summing the single phase density of states weighted by their corresponding volume fractions. Additionally, a quantitative connection between the localized states of the excess electron and the local atomic structure is presented.

  1. Single lamella nanoparticles of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Weber, C H M; Chiche, A; Krausch, G; Rosenfeldt, S; Ballauff, M; Harnau, L; Göttker-Schnetmann, I; Tong, Q; Mecking, S

    2007-07-01

    We present a complete analysis of the structure of polyethylene (PE) nanoparticles synthesized and stabilized in water under very mild conditions (15 degrees C, 40 atm) by a nickel-catalyzed polymerization in aqueous solution. Combining cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) with X-ray scattering, we demonstrate that this new synthetic route leads to a stable dispersion of individual PE nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. Most of the semicrystalline particles have a hexagonal shape (lateral size 25 nm, thickness 9 nm) and exhibit the habit of a truncated lozenge. The combination of cryo-TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrates that the particles consist of a single crystalline lamella sandwiched between two thin amorphous polymer layers ("nanohamburgers"). Hence, these nanocrystals that comprise only ca. 14 chains present the smallest single crystals of PE ever reported. The very small thickness of the crystalline lamella (6.3 nm) is related to the extreme undercooling (more than 100 degrees C) that is due to the low temperature at which the polymerization takes place. This strong undercooling cannot be achieved by any other method so far. Dispersions of polyethylene nanocrystals may have a high potential for a further understanding of polymer crystallization as well as for materials science as, e.g., for the fabrication of extremely thin crystalline layers.

  2. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetra-methyl-ene tere-phtha-late).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly (tetra-methyl-ene tere-phtha-late). 177.1660 Section 177.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1660 - Poly (tetra-methylene tereph-thalate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly (tetra-methylene tereph-thalate). 177.1660 Section 177.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...

  4. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wazed; Sultana, Parveen; Joshi, Mangala; Rajendran, Subbiyan

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out.

  5. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester.

    PubMed

    Ali, Wazed; Sultana, Parveen; Joshi, Mangala; Rajendran, Subbiyan

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. PMID:27127070

  6. Reuse of polyethylene waste in road construction.

    PubMed

    Raju, S S S V Gopala; Murali, M; Rengaraju, V R

    2007-01-01

    The cost of construction of flexible pavements depends on thickness of the pavement layers. The thickness of pavement mainly depends on the strength of the subgrade. By suitable improvement to the strength of the subgrade, considerable saving in the scarce resources and economy can be achieved. Because of their lightweight, easy handling, non-breakable and corrosion free nature, polyethylene have surpassed all other materials in utility. But polyethylene waste has been a matter of concern to environmentalists as it is non-biodegradable. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the improvement of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of soils stabilized with waste polyethylene bags. This alternative material is mixed in different proportions to the gravel and clay to determine the improvement ofCBR value. Use of the waste polyethylene bags observed to have a significant impact on the strength and economy in pavement construction, when these are available locally in large quantities.

  7. Reuse of polyethylene waste in road construction.

    PubMed

    Raju, S S S V Gopala; Murali, M; Rengaraju, V R

    2007-01-01

    The cost of construction of flexible pavements depends on thickness of the pavement layers. The thickness of pavement mainly depends on the strength of the subgrade. By suitable improvement to the strength of the subgrade, considerable saving in the scarce resources and economy can be achieved. Because of their lightweight, easy handling, non-breakable and corrosion free nature, polyethylene have surpassed all other materials in utility. But polyethylene waste has been a matter of concern to environmentalists as it is non-biodegradable. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the improvement of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of soils stabilized with waste polyethylene bags. This alternative material is mixed in different proportions to the gravel and clay to determine the improvement ofCBR value. Use of the waste polyethylene bags observed to have a significant impact on the strength and economy in pavement construction, when these are available locally in large quantities. PMID:18472564

  8. 21 CFR 177.1610 - Polyethylene, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chlorinated polyethylene contains a maximum of 60 percent by weight of total chlorine, as determined by ASTM 1method D1303-55 (Reapproved 1979), “Standard Test Method for Total Chlorine in Vinyl Chloride...

  9. Porous heterometallic Cd(II)-Ca(II)-terephthalate: Synthesis, structure, luminescent and gas adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Dong, Yanli; Ren, Hailiang

    2016-03-01

    A new heterometallic poly(dihydrate-one and a half terephthalate-cadmium calcium) coordination polymer, namely [CdCa(pdc)1.5(H2O)2]n (1, H2pdc = terephthalic acid), has been successfully obtained by the solvothermal reactions of H2pdc, Cd(NO3)2·4H2O and Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 features a 3D porous framework based on 1D chain subunits. Moreover, compound 1 is luminescent and exhibits high adsorption capacities for H2, CH4 and CO2 at room temperature.

  10. Maxillofacial prostheses of chlorinated polyethylene.

    PubMed

    May, P D

    1978-05-01

    There is clearly a need for maxillofacial prosthetic materials with improved properties. The chlorinated polyethylenes are thermoplastic elastomers which have particularly promising properties, and were used by us to prepare improved maxillofacial prostheses. Suitable CPE resins were compounded with other polymers and with pigments on a heated rubber mill to form thin sheets in a variety of shades. These were heated at 190 degrees C for 10 min and placed between heated linotype mold halves. The prosthesis was formed in a hand press. Sometimes heating and pressing were repeated. After cooling in water, the prosthesis was removed and hand-shaded with oil-soluble dyes. Physical properties were evaluated using standard techniques; skin irritation studies were conducted by 14-day insult patch tests on rabbits. Clinical evaluations were conducted on human volunteers. Parallel evaluations were conducted on commerically available materials for comparison. The CPE was superior to all of the three commerical materials in most properties, and comparable to the better of the three in the remaining properties. On balance, CPE was significantly superior. Early results indicate that the materials and techniques required are easily handled in the dental lab and that the final prosthesis has excellent aesthetic and patient acceptability. PMID:670262

  11. Polyethylene Wear in Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rajit; Elmallah, Randa D K; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Kurtz, Steven M; Mont, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear and osteolysis are common causes for late revisions of knee arthroplasties. Several implant and surgical factors have been implicated in contributing to the development of wear, such as type of bearing surface used, inaccurate articular geometry, and poor knee kinematics. In addition, patient-related factors, such as younger age and higher activity levels, may also contribute to wear. Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the effect of these variables on wear rates following knee arthroplasty. Recently, technological advancements have been aimed at reducing the incidence of wear by improving the PE manufacturing process, creating implants that minimize contact stresses, and refining our surgical techniques. Furthermore, the development of newer highly cross-linked PEs (HXLPEs) and the introduction of additives, such as vitamin E, to the PEs may improve overall implant survivorship. As a result, with the advent of newer implant and PE designs, wear is no longer the most common cause of early failure, though it remains an important factor in limiting long-term implant survivorship. However, there are a few clinical studies evaluating the long-term outcomes of newer HXLPEs and implant designs, with further evaluations necessary to determine the best implant-PE combination for improved knee arthroplasty survivorship. PMID:26030263

  12. Morphology of polyethylene ski base materials.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jörg; Wallner, Gernot M; Pieber, Alois

    2010-03-01

    We used high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for a comprehensive analysis of carbon black-filled polyethylene ski base grades at processing stages from the raw material to the structured ski base. Based on Raman mapping, we assessed the applicability of an advanced evaluation procedure for amorphous, disordered, and crystalline phase fractions of polyethylene for polyethylene extrusion and sinter grades. For sinter grades, a sufficient segregation between carbon black and polyethylene was confirmed, allowing for a comprehensive Raman spectroscopic morphological analysis. Significant morphological changes in polyethylene due to processing from the raw material to the semi-finished film and to the structured ski base were identified. Throughout the processing chain, we observed a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in the amorphous phase fraction. Although the raw material and the sintered semi-finished film exhibited a different but uniform polyethylene morphology, the morphological changes due to structuring of the ski base are limited to the top surface layer. The highest amorphous phase fractions were detected in the surface of the structured ski bases.

  13. Protein adsorption and cell adhesion on nanoscale bioactive coatings formed from poly(ethylene glycol) and albumin microgels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Evan A.; Nichols, Michael D.; Cordova, Lee H.; George, Brandon J.; Jun, Young-Shin; Elbert, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    Late-term thrombosis on drug-eluting stents is an emerging problem that might be addressed using extremely thin, biologically-active hydrogel coatings. We report a dip-coating strategy to covalently link poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to substrates, producing coatings with <≈100 nm thickness. Gelation of PEG-octavinylsulfone with amines in either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or PEG-octaamine was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS), revealing the presence of microgels before macrogelation. NMR also revealed extremely high end group conversions prior to macrogelation, consistent with the formation of highly crosslinked microgels and deviation from Flory-Stockmayer theory. Before macrogelation, the reacting solutions were diluted and incubated with nucleophile-functionalized surfaces. Using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we identified a highly hydrated, protein-resistant layer with a thickness of approximately 75 nm. Atomic force microscopy in buffered water revealed the presence of coalesced spheres of various sizes but with diameters less than about 100 nm. Microgel-coated glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) exhibited reduced protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Cellular interactions with the surface could be controlled by using different proteins to cap unreacted vinylsulfone groups within the coating. PMID:18771802

  14. Data on synthesis of oligomeric and polymeric poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) model substrates for the investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Perz, Veronika; Bleymaier, Klaus; Sinkel, Carsten; Kueper, Ulf; Bonnekessel, Melanie; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-06-01

    The aliphatic-aromatic copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT), also known as ecoflex, contains adipic acid, 1,4-butanediol and terephthalic acid and is proven to be compostable [1], [2], [3]). We describe here data for the synthesis and analysis of poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate variants with different adipic acid:terephatalic acid ratios and 6 oligomeric PBAT model substrates. Data for the synthesis of the following oligomeric model substrates are described: mono(4-hydroxybutyl) terephthalate (BTa), bis(4-(hexanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (HaBTaBHa), bis(4-(decanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (DaBTaBDa), bis(4-(tetradecanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (TdaBTaBTda), bis(4-hydroxyhexyl) terephthalate (HTaH) and bis(4-(benzoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (BaBTaBBa). Polymeric PBAT variants were synthesized with adipic acid:terephatalic acid ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. These polymeric and oligomeric substances were used as ecoflex model substrates in enzymatic hydrolysis experiments in the article "Substrate specificities of cutinases on aliphatic-aromatic polyesters and on their model substrates" [4]. PMID:26981550

  15. Data on synthesis of oligomeric and polymeric poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) model substrates for the investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Perz, Veronika; Bleymaier, Klaus; Sinkel, Carsten; Kueper, Ulf; Bonnekessel, Melanie; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    The aliphatic-aromatic copolyester poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate) (PBAT), also known as ecoflex, contains adipic acid, 1,4-butanediol and terephthalic acid and is proven to be compostable [1], [2], [3]). We describe here data for the synthesis and analysis of poly(butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate variants with different adipic acid:terephatalic acid ratios and 6 oligomeric PBAT model substrates. Data for the synthesis of the following oligomeric model substrates are described: mono(4-hydroxybutyl) terephthalate (BTa), bis(4-(hexanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (HaBTaBHa), bis(4-(decanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (DaBTaBDa), bis(4-(tetradecanoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (TdaBTaBTda), bis(4-hydroxyhexyl) terephthalate (HTaH) and bis(4-(benzoyloxy)butyl) terephthalate (BaBTaBBa). Polymeric PBAT variants were synthesized with adipic acid:terephatalic acid ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. These polymeric and oligomeric substances were used as ecoflex model substrates in enzymatic hydrolysis experiments in the article “Substrate specificities of cutinases on aliphatic-aromatic polyesters and on their model substrates” [4]. PMID:26981550

  16. Development of biodegradable and injectable macromers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and diacid monomers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinku; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2009-09-15

    Novel biodegradable injectable poly(ethylene glycol)-(PEG) based macromers were synthesized by reacting low-molecular weight PEG (MW: 200) and dicarboxylic acids such as sebacic acid or terephthalic acid. Chemical structures of the resulting polymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy characterizations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that these polymers were completely amorphous above room temperature. After photopolymerization, dynamic elastic shear modulus of the crosslinked polymers was up to 1.5 MPa and compressive modulus was up to 2.2 MPa depending on the polymer composition. The in vitro degradation study showed that mass losses of these polymers were gradually decreased over 23 weeks of period in simulated body fluid. By incorporating up to 30 wt % of 2-hydroxyethyl methylmethacrylate (HEMA) into the crosslinking network, the dynamic elastic modulus and compressive modulus was significantly increased up to 7.2 and 3.2 MPa, respectively. HEMA incorporation also accelerated the degradation as indicated by substantially higher mass loss of up to 27% after 20 weeks of incubation. Cytocompatability studies using osteoblasts and neural cells revealed that cell metabolic activity on these polymers with or without HEMA was close to the control tissue culture polystyrene. The PEG-based macromers developed in this study may be useful as scaffolds or cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18655146

  17. Development of Biodegradable and Injectable Macromers Based on Poly(Ethylene Glycol) and Diacid Monomers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinku; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun

    2010-01-01

    Novel biodegradable injectable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based macromers were synthesized by reacting low molecular weight PEG (MW: 200) and dicarboxylic acids such as sebacic acid or terephthalic acid. Chemical structures of the resulting polymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy characterizations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that these polymers were completely amorphous above room temperature. After photopolymerization, dynamic elastic shear modulus of the crosslinked polymers was up to 1.5 MPa and compressive modulus was up to 2.2 MPa depending on the polymer composition. The in vitro degradation study showed that mass losses of these polymers were gradually decreased over 23 weeks of period in simulated body fluid. By incorporating up to 30 wt% of 2-hydroxyethyl methylmethacrylate (HEMA) into the crosslinking network, the dynamic elastic modulus and compressive modulus was significantly increased up to 7.2 MPa and 3.2 MPa, respectively. HEMA incorporation also accelerated degradation as indicated by significantly higher mass loss of up to 27% after 20 weeks of incubation. Cytocompatability studies using osteoblasts and neural cells revealed that cell metabolic activity on these polymers with or without HEMA was close to the control tissue culture polystyrene. The PEG based macromers developed in this study may be useful as scaffolds or cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. PMID:18655146

  18. Stretched polyethylene films probed by single molecules.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Alexander C; Hofmann, Clemens; Groenen, Edgar J J

    2011-06-01

    Stretched films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) doped with 2.3,8.9-dibenzanthanthrene (DBATT) were studied using polarization-selective single-molecule spectroscopy at 1.8 K. By measuring the in-plane component of the electronic transition-dipole moments of individual chromophores, the alignment of dopant molecules is determined without averaging. The distributions of chromophore orientations reveal the presence of two fractions of dopant molecules: those oriented along the stretching direction and randomly oriented molecules. With increasing drawing ratio of the polyethylene films, the ratio of oriented to randomly oriented guest molecules increases, whereas the extent of chromophore orientation, that is, the width of the orientation distribution, remains the same. The results are consistent with the interpretation that oriented chromophores reside on the surfaces of polyethylene crystals, instead of in the amorphous polyethylene regions. Guest molecules in stretched polyethylene are oriented due to the alignment of the crystallites on which they are adsorbed. As such, the shape and width of the distributions of chromophore orientations are determined by the interaction of guest molecules with the crystal surfaces.

  19. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  20. Recent advances in polyethylene separator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weighall, M. J.

    The well known technical and production benefits of polyethylene separator materials over other separator materials have prompted a dramatic increase in polyethylene separator usage in recent years. Separator trends in the United States from 1980 to 1996, and in Europe from 1987 to 1992, are shown. The manufacturing process for polyethylene separators is outlined, with particular emphasis on the latest advances in manufacturing technology. These improvements have resulted in a higher quality product, and also benefit the environment because of the sophisticated oil extraction and solvent recovery system. The product quality improvements resulting from the latest manufacturing technology include consistent conformance to dimensional specifications, low electrical resistance, close control of residual oil content, virtual elimination of pinholes, and good running properties on the battery manufacturers' plate enveloping machines. The material can also be manufactured with a very thin backweb to reduce electrical resistance still further.

  1. Ear reconstruction with porous polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Stelter, Klaus; Naumann, Andreas; Hempel, John Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using porous polyethylene as the framework material for ear reconstruction. In comparison to the use of rib cartilage, porous polyethylene - first described by Berghaus in 1982 - provides better definition and projection as well as congruency with the opposite side. Hospitalization time is significantly shorter. There are less surgical interventions than with traditional microtia operations that use rib cartilage, and the patient is spared the additional procedure needed to remove the rib cartilage, with all the associated complications as well as the resulting thorax scar. Also, reconstruction can take place at an earlier age, which is advantageous for those concerned. Using porous polyethylene as the frame material, a temporoparietal flap and full-thickness skin cover, we have been able to achieve very convincing results over recent years.

  2. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalb, P. D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    The results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene are discussed. Waste streams included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment.

  3. Tensile Deformation of Polyethylenes: Crystallinity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crist, Buckley; Metaxas, Costas

    2004-03-01

    The crystalline fraction of polyethylene can be reduced by increasing the cooling rate, the molecular weight or the fraction of comonomer. All three methods have been used in this study of tensile deformation which shows that true stress - true strain behavior depends systematically on morphology. The dependence of uniaxial yield stress on crystal thickness is well understood in terms of dislocation nucleation. Post yield flow is dominated by the strain hardening rate that is larger in polyethylenes of lower crystallinity. Noncrystalline polymer evidently reduces the plastic compliance while providing for elastic (reversible) strains. These observations are examined in terms of old and new theories for deformation of semicrystalline polymers.

  4. Alumina-on-Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yup Lee; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    The long-term durability of polyethylene lining total hip arthroplasty (THA) mainly depends on periprosthetic osteolysis due to wear particles, especially in young active patients. In hip simulator study, reports revealed significant wear reduction of the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation of THA compared with metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. However, medium to long-term clinical studies of THA using the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene are few and the reported wear rate of this articulation is variable. We reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of ceramicon- polyethylene articulation in THA, hip simulator study and retrieval study for polyethylene wear, in vivo clinical results of THA using alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in the literature, and new trial alumina ceramic-onhighly cross linked polyethylene bearing surfaces. PMID:20224739

  5. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  6. Surface-mediated nucleation in the solid-state polymorph transformation of terephthalic acid.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Gregg T; Peters, Baron; Starbuck, Cindy; Variankaval, Narayan; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2007-04-18

    A molecular mechanism for nucleation for the solid-state polymorph transformation of terephthalic acid is presented. New methods recently developed in our group, aimless shooting and likelihood maximization, are employed to construct a model for the reaction coordinate for the two system sizes studied. The reaction coordinate approximation is validated using the committor probability analysis. The transformation proceeds via a localized, elongated nucleus along the crystal edge formed by fluctuations in the supramolecular synthons, suggesting a nucleation and growth mechanism in the macroscopic system. PMID:17385859

  7. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  8. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., papaya, peas (in pods), pineapple, plantain, pumpkin, rutabaga, squash (acorn), sweetpotatoes,...

  9. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., grapefruit, lemons, limes, mango, muskmelons, onions, oranges, papaya, peas (in pods), pineapple,...

  10. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR..., mango, muskmelons, onions, oranges, papaya, peas (in pods), pineapple, plantain, pumpkin,...

  11. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., grapefruit, lemons, limes, mango, muskmelons, onions, oranges, papaya, peas (in pods), pineapple,...

  12. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxidized polyethylene. 172.260 Section 172.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., grapefruit, lemons, limes, mango, muskmelons, onions, oranges, papaya, peas (in pods), pineapple,...

  13. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  14. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  15. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  16. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  17. 21 CFR 573.780 - Polyethylene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene. 573.780 Section 573.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  18. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  19. 21 CFR 177.1620 - Polyethylene, oxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...,200, as determined by high temperature vapor pressure osmometry, contains a maximum of 5 percent by... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene, oxidized. 177.1620 Section 177.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1615 - Polyethylene, fluorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene, fluorinated. 177.1615 Section 177.1615 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600..., carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...) For the purpose of this section, carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins consist of basic...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600..., carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...) For the purpose of this section, carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins consist of basic...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3760 - Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. 178.3760... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3760 Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate containing not more than 0.1 percent by weight of ethylene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3760 - Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. 178.3760... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3760 Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate. Polyethylene glycol (400) monolaurate containing not more than 0.1 percent by weight of ethylene...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6493 - Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amidoamine modified polyethylene... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6493 Amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical... as an amidoamine modified polyethylene glycol (PMN P-99-0645) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  8. Radiation-crosslinked polyethylene for wire and cable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Uda, Ikujiro; Tada, Shotaro

    Polyethylene is used as an insulation material for wires and cables because of its excellent electrical properties. Polyethylene is also a typical irradiated crosslinked polymer. The characteristics of irradiated polyethylene, the effects of density, molecular weight and so on, were studied.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified... paragraph (b) of this section are not applicable to carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins used in...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  11. Macrophage phagocytosis of polyethylene particulate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Voronov, I; Santerre, J P; Hinek, A; Callahan, J W; Sandhu, J; Boynton, E L

    1998-01-01

    In this study, an in vitro model has been developed to examine the interactions of macrophages with ultrahigh molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles. Polyethylene particles are the major constituent of the material debris formed as a result of orthopedic implant wear. However, the study of polyethylene particle interactions with cells has been limited. UHMWPE (18-20 microns) and HDPE (4-10 microns) were suspended in soluble collagen type I and subsequently solidified on glass coverslips. The particle chemistry was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mouse cell line macrophages (IC-21) were established on the collagen-particle substrata and maintained for up to 24 h. The response of the cells to the particles was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM), as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and compared to cells on control collagen surfaces without particles. Histological analysis of the samples revealed that the macrophages surrounded larger particles (18-20 microns) and the cells appeared to be attached to the surface of the particles, and the smaller particles (4-10 microns) had been phagocytosed within 2 h. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6), lysosomal enzymes (beta-galactosidase and hexosaminidase), and prostaglandin E2 were released into the medium, and IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, PGE2, beta-galactosidase, and hexosaminidase levels were significantly increased over collagen control values. The results demonstrate active phagochemotaxis by macrophages for wear particulates and validate this model as a means of studying the specific in vitro interactions of polyethylene with cells. PMID:9429095

  12. Application of Universal Stress Proteins in Probing the Dynamics of Potent Degraders in Complex Terephthalate Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Andreas N.; Isokpehi, Raphael D.

    2013-01-01

    The culture-independent strategies to study microbial diversity and function have led to a revolution in environmental genomics, enabling fundamental questions about the distribution of microbes and their influence on bioremediation to be addressed. In this research we used the expression of universal stress proteins as a probe to determine the changes in degrading microbial population from a highly toxic terephthalate wastewater to a less toxic activated sludge bioreactor. The impact of relative toxicities was significantly elaborated at the levels of genus and species. The results indicated that 23 similar prokaryotic phyla were represented in both metagenomes irrespective of their relative abundance. Furthermore, the following bacteria taxa Micromonosporaceae, Streptomyces, Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus halodurans, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garvieae, Brucellaceae, Ralstonia solanacearum, Verminephrobacter eiseniae, Azoarcus, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Francisella tularensis, Methanothermus fervidus, and Methanocorpusculum labreanum were represented only in the activated sludge bioreactor. These highly dynamic microbes could serve as taxonomic biomarkers for toxic thresholds related to terephthalate and its derivatives. This paper, highlights the application of universal stress proteins in metagenomics analysis. Dynamics of microbial consortium of this nature can have future in biotechnological applications in bioremediation of toxic chemicals and radionuclides. PMID:24151583

  13. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru . E-mail: xrwang@njmu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

  14. Aminolysis of polyethylene terephthalate surface along with in situ synthesis and stabilizing ZnO nanoparticles using triethanolamine optimized with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Poortavasoly, Hajar; Montazer, Majid; Harifi, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This research concerned the simultaneous polyester surface modification and synthesis of zinc oxide nano-reactors to develop durable photo-bio-active fabric with variable hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity under sunlight. For this purpose, triethanolamine (TEA) was applied as a stabilizer and pH adjusting chemical for the aminolysis of polyester surface and enhancing the surface reactivity along with synthesis and deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on the fabric. Therefore, TEA played a crucial role in providing the alkaline condition for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and acting as stabilizer controlling the size of the prepared nanoparticles. The stain-photodegradability regarded as self-cleaning efficiency, wettability and weight change under the process was optimized based on zinc acetate and TEA concentrations, using central composite design (CCD). Findings also suggested the potential of the prepared fabric in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria growth with greater than 99.99% antibacterial efficiency. Besides, the proposed treatment had no detrimental effect on tensile strength and hand feeling of the polyester fabric.

  15. NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ACRYLATED OLIGOMERS. (R827121)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. ON THE UV CURABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: ACRYLATED OLIGOESTERS. (R826728)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: INVESTIGATION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METHACRYLATED OLIGOESTERS. (R826728)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. ON THE UV CURABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: ACRYLATED OLIGOESTERS. (R827121)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. ON THE UV CURABILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: METHACRYLATED OLIGOESTERS. (R827121)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING I: INVESTIGATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ACRYLATED OLIGOMERS. (R826728)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. The Effects of Sugars on the Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli 185p on Stainless Steel and Polyethylene Terephthalate Surfaces in a Laboratory Model

    PubMed Central

    Khangholi, Mahdi; Jamalli, Ailar

    2016-01-01

    Background Bacteria utilize various methods in order to live in protection from adverse environmental conditions. One such method involves biofilm formation; however, this formation is dependent on many factors. The type and concentration of substances such as sugars that are present in an environment can be effective facilitators of biofilm formation. Methods First, the physico-chemical properties of the bacteria and the target surface were studied via the MATS and contact angle measurement methods. Additionally, adhesion to different surfaces in the presence of various concentrations of sugars was compared in order to evaluate the effect of these factors on the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli, which represents a major food contaminant. Results Results showed that the presence of sugars has no effect on the bacterial growth rate; all three concentrations of sugars were hydrophilic and demonstrated a high affinity toward binding to the surfaces. Conclusions The impact of sugars and other factors on biofilm formation can vary depending on the type of bacteria present. PMID:27800149

  2. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in cold-stored romaine lettuce packaged in a commerical polyethylene terephthalate container

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy greens continue to be a significant vector for foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) treatment is a promising method for microbial decontamination of produce. An important aspect of this technology is the potential f...

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a commercial polyethylene terephthalate container using atmospheric cold plasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a conventional commercial plastic container were evaluated during storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days. Effects ...

  4. Aminolysis of polyethylene terephthalate surface along with in situ synthesis and stabilizing ZnO nanoparticles using triethanolamine optimized with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Poortavasoly, Hajar; Montazer, Majid; Harifi, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This research concerned the simultaneous polyester surface modification and synthesis of zinc oxide nano-reactors to develop durable photo-bio-active fabric with variable hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity under sunlight. For this purpose, triethanolamine (TEA) was applied as a stabilizer and pH adjusting chemical for the aminolysis of polyester surface and enhancing the surface reactivity along with synthesis and deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on the fabric. Therefore, TEA played a crucial role in providing the alkaline condition for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and acting as stabilizer controlling the size of the prepared nanoparticles. The stain-photodegradability regarded as self-cleaning efficiency, wettability and weight change under the process was optimized based on zinc acetate and TEA concentrations, using central composite design (CCD). Findings also suggested the potential of the prepared fabric in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria growth with greater than 99.99% antibacterial efficiency. Besides, the proposed treatment had no detrimental effect on tensile strength and hand feeling of the polyester fabric. PMID:26478337

  5. NOVEL BINDER SYSTEMS DERIVED FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) PET WASTE FOR SOLVENTLESS MAGNETIC TAPE MANUFACTURING: INVESTIGATION ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE METHACRYLATED OLIGOESTERS. (R827121)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Gene Silencing In Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by PEI siRNA Complexes Released From Dip-Coated Electrospun Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Nabzdyk, Christoph S.; Chun, Maggie; Oliver-Allen, Hunter; Pathan, Saif G.; Phaneuf, Matthew D.; You, Jin-Oh; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; LoGerfo, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    An excessive tissue response to prosthetic arterial graft material leads to intimal hyperplasia (IH), the leading cause of late graft failure. Seroma and abnormal capsule formation may also occur after prosthetic material implantation. The matricellular protein Thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) has shown to be upregulated in response to biomaterial implantation. This study evaluates the uptake and release of small interfering RNA (siRNA) from unmodified and surface functionalized electrospun PET graft materials. ePET graft materials were synthesized using electrospinning technology. Subsets of the ePET materials were then chemically modified to create surface functional groups. Unmodified and surface-modified ePET grafts were dip-coated in siRNAs alone or siRNAs complexed with transfection reagents polyethyleneimine (PEI) or Lipofectamine RNAiMax. Further, control and TSP-2 siRNA-PEI complex treated ePET samples were placed onto a confluent layer of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs). Complexation of all siRNAs with PEI led to a significant increase in adsorption to unmodified ePET. TSP-2 siRNA-PEI released from unmodified-ePET silenced TSP-2 in AoSMC. Regardless of the siRNA-PEI complex evaluated, AoSMC migrated into the ePET. siRNA-PEI complexes delivered to AoSMC from dip-coated ePET can result in gene knock-down. This methodology for siRNA delivery may improve the tissue response to vascular and other prosthetics. PMID:24397987

  7. Assessment of polyethylene wear in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Devane, P A; Horne, J G

    1999-12-01

    The three-dimensional technique is a method for the measurement of polyethylene wear in patients with total hip joint replacement. Application of image processing technology allows automation of point selection from digital images of radiographs scanned into the computer. Validation of image processing modifications reveals a three-fold increase in accuracy and a 40-fold increase in reproducibility compared with manual input of points from a digitizer during bench testing. A review of three-dimensional technique application to clinical patients gives information on the factors that influence polyethylene wear. Increasing age, activity level, femoral head size, decreasing polyethylene thickness, and insertion of total hip prostheses without cement all increase polyethylene wear. Restoration of femoral offset during total hip replacement seems to decreases polyethylene wear. No apparent difference in polyethylene wear rate could be found between two groups of patients, one group had a stainless steel-polyethylene articulation and the other had a ceramic-polyethylene articulation. Measurement of the serial polyethylene wear of individual patients reveals a high rate of femoral head penetration during the first 2 years after total hip replacement using metal-backed acetabular components inserted without cement. Interpretation of this femoral head penetration as true polyethylene wear may be erroneous, however, because creep of the polyethylene and acetabular liner movement within its metal shell cannot be measured. PMID:10611861

  8. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were melt extruded through a two strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios. PTT fibers were obtained by removal of the CAB matrix from the drawn extrudates, a...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  10. Atomic/Molecular Layer Deposition of Lithium Terephthalate Thin Films as High Rate Capability Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Nisula, Mikko; Karppinen, Maarit

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-quality electrochemically active organic lithium electrode thin films by the currently strongly emerging combined atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique using lithium terephthalate, a recently found anode material for lithium-ion battery (LIB), as a proof-of-the-concept material. Our deposition process for Li-terephthalate is shown to well comply with the basic principles of ALD-type growth including the sequential self-saturated surface reactions, a necessity when aiming at micro-LIB devices with three-dimensional architectures. The as-deposited films are found crystalline across the deposition temperature range of 200-280 °C, which is a trait highly desired for an electrode material but rather unusual for hybrid inorganic-organic thin films. Excellent rate capability is ascertained for the Li-terephthalate films with no conductive additives required. The electrode performance can be further enhanced by depositing a thin protective LiPON solid-state electrolyte layer on top of Li-terephthalate; this yields highly stable structures with capacity retention of over 97% after 200 charge/discharge cycles at 3.2 C.

  11. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... than 15 percent ethyl alcohol. The copolymer has a terephthalate/azelate molecular ratio of 1.25/1.00...,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing... reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr.,...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... than 15 percent ethyl alcohol. The copolymer has a terephthalate/azelate molecular ratio of 1.25/1.00...,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing... reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr.,...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... than 15 percent ethyl alcohol. The copolymer has a terephthalate/azelate molecular ratio of 1.25/1.00...,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing... reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr.,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... than 15 percent ethyl alcohol. The copolymer has a terephthalate/azelate molecular ratio of 1.25/1.00...,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing... reference. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr.,...

  15. Polyethylene imine-metal salt solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. T.; Chiang, C. K.; Takahashi, T.

    1985-02-01

    This research pertains to the development of new solid battery electrolytes. An object of this invention is to provide polymeric electrolytes using a wider variety of metal salts. These and other objects of this invention are accomplished by providing: (1) a solid polymer electrolyte comprising: a matrix of linear poly(ethylene amine) having the formula (-CH2CH2NH-)n; and (2) a metal salt which is LiI, LiClO4, NaI, NaBr, KI, CsSCN, AgNO3, CuCl1, CoCl2, or Mg(ClO4)2, wherein the salt is dissolved in and distributed throughout the poly(ethylene amine) matrix and from more than zero to 0.10 moles of salt are used per mole of monomer repeat unit, (-CH2CH2NH-).

  16. Polyethylene bags and solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Helbling, E.W. )

    1993-01-22

    This technical comment questions the use of polyethylene bags to collect and store samples in a previously reported study on the effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on natural phytoplankton assemblages in Antarctic waters. A significant difference in the photosynthetic rates was noted for samples in glassware as opposed to bags, although the overall conclusions remained similar. A response by the original authors is included. 1 tab.

  17. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  18. Surface modification of polyethylene by functionalized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Marchant, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    The surface of low density polyethylene(PE) has been modified by functionalized plasma-polymerized N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (PPNVP) and allyl alcohol(PPAA) thin films, PPNVP and PPAA(approx. 100 nm). The surface structure and functional groups of modified surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, ATR/FTIR and ESCA techniques. Plasma polymer modified PE surfaces exhibited significant water contact angle hysteresis and a much lower value of advancing water contact angle than that of unmodified polyethylene. Reduction of PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by sodium borohydride coverted into hydroxyl groups. The determined concentrations of hydroxyl groups on the reduced PPNVP and PPAA modified surfaces by ESCA after gas-phase derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) were about 25% and 30% of total oxygen content, respectively. Finally, the amine containing molecules such as amine-terminated polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) were coupled to the hydroxylated surfaces. These novel modified PE surfaces are suitable for immobilization of biomolecules.

  19. Comparative wear tests of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Harsha, A P; Joyce, Tom J

    2013-05-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major concern in hip implant failure. Therefore, recent research work has focussed on wear-resistant materials, one of the most important of which is cross-linked polyethylene. In view of this, the objective of this study was to compare the in vitro wear performance of cross-linked polyethylene to traditional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. In order to mimic appropriate in vivo conditions, a novel high-capacity wear tester called a circularly translating pin-on-disc was used. The results of this in vitro study demonstrated that the wear rate for cross-linked polyethylene was about 80% lower than that of conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. This difference closely matches in vivo results reported in the literature for total hip replacements that use the two biopolymers. The in vitro results were also verified against ASTM F732-00 (standard test method for wear testing of polymeric materials for use in total joint prostheses). The 50-station circularly translating pin-on-disc proved to be a reliable device for in vitro wear studies of orthopaedic biopolymers.

  20. Determination of the Thermal Decomposition Products of Terephthalic Acid by Using Curie-Point Pyrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begüm Elmas Kimyonok, A.; Ulutürk, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    The thermal decomposition behavior of terephthalic acid (TA) was investigated by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and Curie-point pyrolysis. TG/DTA analysis showed that TA is sublimed at 276°C prior to decomposition. Pyrolysis studies were carried out at various temperatures ranging from 160 to 764°C. Decomposition products were analyzed and their structures were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 11 degradation products were identified at 764°C, whereas no peak was observed below 445°C. Benzene, benzoic acid, and 1,1‧-biphenyl were identified as the major decomposition products, and other degradation products such as toluene, benzophenone, diphenylmethane, styrene, benzaldehyde, phenol, 9H-fluorene, and 9-phenyl 9H-fluorene were also detected. A pyrolysis mechanism was proposed based on the findings.

  1. Kinetic evaluation and process performance of an upflow anaerobic filter reactor degrading terephthalic acid.

    PubMed

    Davutluoglu, Orkun I; Seckin, Galip

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic degradation of terephthalic acid (TA) as the sole organic carbon source was studied in an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactor. The reactor was seeded with biomass obtained from a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor and was used to treat wastewater from a petrochemical facility producing dimethyl terephthalate. The UAF reactor was operated for 252 d with a constant hydraulic retention time of 24 h, and the organic loading rate (OLR) was gradually increased from 1 to 10 g-chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L d. After a lag period of approximately 40 d, the COD removal efficiency increased exponentially and high removal rate values (≈90%) were obtained, except for at highest OLR (10 g-COD/L d). The high removal rates and the robustness of the reactor performance could be attributed to the formation of biofilm as well as granular sludge. The methane production rates (0.22 to 2.15 L/d) correlated well with the removed OLRs (0.3 to 6.8 g-COD/L d) during the various phases of treatment, indicating that the main mechanism of TA degradation occurs via methanogenic reactions. The average methane content of the produced biogas was 70.3%. The modified Stover-Kincannon model was found to be applicable for the anaerobic degradation of TA in UAFs (Umax = 64.5, KB = 69.1 g-COD/L d and Ymax = 0.27 L-CH4/g-CODremoved). These results suggest that UAF reactors are among the most effective reactor configurations for the anaerobic degradation of TA.

  2. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Comparison of Oxygen Gauche Effects in Poly(Oxyethylene) and Poly(ethylene terephtylene) Based on Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Yoon, Do; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The so-called oxygen gauche effect in poly(oxyethylene) (POE) and its model molecules such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and diglyme (CH3OC2H4OC2H4OCH3) is manifested in the preference for gauche C-C bond conformations over trans. This has also been observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Our previous quantum chemistry calculations demonstrated that the large C-C gauche population in DME is due, in part, to a low-lying tg +/- g+ conformer that exhibits a substantial 1,5 CH ... O attraction. New calculations will be described that demonstrate the accuracy of the original quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, an extension of this work to model molecules for PET will be presented. It is seen that the C-C gauche preference is much stronger in 1,2 diacetoxyethane than in DME. In addition, there exist low-lying tg +/- g+/- and g+/-g+/-g+/- conformers that exhibit 1,5 CH ... O attractions involving the carbonyl oxygens. It is expected that the -O-C-C-O- torsional properties will be quite different in these two polymers. The quantum chemistry results are used to parameterize rotational isomeric states models (RIS) and force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of these polymers.

  4. Catastrophic failure of ceramic-polyethylene bearing total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Needham, Justin; Burns, Travis; Gerlinger, Tad

    2008-06-01

    Complications of ceramic-polyethylene bearing total hip arthroplasty (THA) include osteolysis, loosening, dislocation, and component failure. Catastrophic acetabular component failure involves severe damage to both the polyethylene liner and metal shell. This case study presents the first reported complete wear-through of the acetabular portion of a ceramic-polyethylene arthroplasty presenting as a dislocation and a review of the literature. In this study, a patient's alumina ceramic femoral head penetrated the polyethylene liner and titanium shell and presented as a dislocated THA. The contributing factors for this catastrophic failure include young patient age, high activity level, thin polyethylene liner, backside wear, component positioning, polyethylene sterilization with gamma irradiation in air, and lack of appropriate follow-up. Revision THA was performed without complications. PMID:18514888

  5. The yield behavior of polyethylene tubes subjected to biaxial loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semeliss, M.; Wong, R.; Tuttle, M.

    1990-01-01

    High-density polyethylene is subjected to biaxial states of stress to examine the yield behavior of the semicrystalline thermoplastic under constant octahedral shear-stress rates. Combinations of internal pressures and axial loads are applied to thin-walled tubes of polyethylene, and the strain response in the axial and hoop directions are measured. The polyethylene specimens are found to be anisotropic, and the experimental measurements are compared to yield criteria that are applicable to isotropic and anisotropic materials.

  6. Chemical interaction of polyethylene matrix with vegetable fillers in biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantyukhov, Petr; Monakhova, Tatiana; Popov, Anatoly; Zykova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

  7. Biocompatible composites of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Suan, T. Nguen; Ivanova, L. P.; Korchagin, M. A.; Chaikina, M. V.; Shilko, S. V.; Pleskachevskiy, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of biocompatible, antifriction and extrudable composites based on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as well as hybrid matrix "UHMWPE + PTFE" with biocompatible hydroxyapatite filler under the dry friction and boundary lubrication were investigated. A comparative analysis of effectiveness of adding the hydroxyapatite to improve the wear resistance of composites based on these two matrices was performed. It is shown that the wear intensity of nanocomposites based on the hybrid matrix is lower than that for the composites based on pure UHMWPE. Possibilities of using the composites of the polymer "UHMWPE-PTFE" mixture as a material for artificial joints implants are discussed.

  8. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  9. Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol Modified Hemoglobins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Gil; Barr, James; Morgan, Wayne; Ma, Li

    2011-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol modified hemoglobins (PEGHbs) was characterized by liquid chromatography and fluorescence methods. We prepared four samples of two different molecular weight PEG, 5KDa and 20KDa, modified bovine and human hemoglobin. We studied the oxygen affinities, stabilities, and peroxidase activities of PEGHbs. We have related oxygen affinities with different degrees of modifications. The data showed that the modification on the beta subunits was less stable than that of the alpha subunits on the human Hb based samples especially. We also compared peroxidase activities among different modified PEGHbs.

  10. Growth mode of polyethylene single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Toda, A.; Tanzawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1995-12-01

    The growth kinetics and morphology of polyethylene single crystals of narrow molecular weight fractions is reviewed. Single crystals grown from the melt show two types of morphology in the lateral habits; a lenticular shape elongated in the direction of the b-axis (type A) and a truncated lozenge with curved edges of the (100) growth faces (type B). The change in the lateral habits occurs in the vicinity of a transition in the supercooling dependence of growth rate along the b-axis direction. This talk will discuss the mechanism of the change in morphology and growth mode.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of purified terephthalic acid wastewater using a novel, rapid mass-transfer circulating fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangyang; Lu, Beibei; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Yinwen; Shen, Shubao

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic treatability of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater in a novel, rapid mass-transfer fluidized bed reactor using brick particles as porous carrier materials was investigated. The reactor operation was stable after a short 34 day start-up period, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency between 65 and 75%, terephthalate (TA) removal efficiency between 60% and 70%, and system organic loading rate (OLR) increasing from 7.37 to 18.52 kg COD/m(3) d. The results demonstrate that the reactor is very efficient, and requires a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h to remove both TA and COD from the high-concentration PTA wastewater. The system also has high resistance capacity to varied OLR.

  12. Nanostructurization and thermal properties of polyethylenes' welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galchun, Anatoliy; Korab, Nikolay; Kondratenko, Volodymyr; Demchenko, Valeriy; Shadrin, Andriy; Anistratenko, Vitaliy; Iurzhenko, Maksym

    2015-03-01

    As it is known, polyethylene (PE) is one of the common materials in the modern world, and PE products take the major share on industrial and trade markets. For example, various types of technical PE like PE-63, PE-80, and PE-100 have wide industrial applications, i.e., in construction, for pipeline systems etc. A rapid development of plastics industry outstrips detailed investigation of welding processes and welds' formation mechanism, so they remain unexplored. There is still no final answer to the question how weld's microstructure forms. Such conditions limit our way to the understanding of the problem and, respectively, prevent scientific approaches to the welding of more complicated (from chemical point of view) types of polymers than PE. Taking into account state-of-the-art, the article presents results of complex studies of PE weld, its structure, thermophysical and operational characteristics, analysis of these results, and basing on that some hypotheses of welded joint and weld structure formation. It is shown that welding of dissimilar types of polyethylene, like PE-80 and PE-100, leads to the formation of better-ordered crystallites, restructuring the crystalline phase, and amorphous areas with internal stresses in the welding zone.

  13. Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

  14. Polyethylene nanofibres with very high thermal conductivities.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sheng; Henry, Asegun; Tong, Jonathan; Zheng, Ruiting; Chen, Gang

    2010-04-01

    Bulk polymers are generally regarded as thermal insulators, and typically have thermal conductivities on the order of 0.1 W m(-1) K(-1). However, recent work suggests that individual chains of polyethylene--the simplest and most widely used polymer--can have extremely high thermal conductivity. Practical applications of these polymers may also require that the individual chains form fibres or films. Here, we report the fabrication of high-quality ultra-drawn polyethylene nanofibres with diameters of 50-500 nm and lengths up to tens of millimetres. The thermal conductivity of the nanofibres was found to be as high as approximately 104 W m(-1) K(-1), which is larger than the conductivities of about half of the pure metals. The high thermal conductivity is attributed to the restructuring of the polymer chains by stretching, which improves the fibre quality toward an 'ideal' single crystalline fibre. Such thermally conductive polymers are potentially useful as heat spreaders and could supplement conventional metallic heat-transfer materials, which are used in applications such as solar hot-water collectors, heat exchangers and electronic packaging. PMID:20208547

  15. Study of cobalt sorption on polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Kolics, A.; Varga, K. . Dept. of Radiochemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The accumulation of cobalt on various surfaces, especially on oxides, has been the subject of intensive research for decades. Part of these studies were devoted to the analysis of cobalt uptake on oxides, which are transported in the primary coolant of water-cooled nuclear reactors. Radioactive isotopes of cobalt ([sup 60]Co and [sup 58]Co) make a predominant contribution to the radioactivity of corrosion products. The investigation of cobalt accumulation on inert surfaces in solutions of well-defined composition may contribute to the better understanding of the results of contamination-decontamination experiments carried out on noninert adsorbents in various solutions. The results gained from the study of cobalt accumulation on polyethylene are presented in this paper. To clarify the role of colloid formation, the presence of borate species, and the surface properties of polyethylene in accumulation process, several independent techniques such as the in situ radiotracer method, centrifugation, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy are used. From the results, it can be stated that the kinetics of cobalt accumulation is dependent on the pH and composition of the solution phase. The accumulation of cobalt proceeds in both colloid and ionic forms; however, the amount of sorbed ionic cobalt species increases with pH due to their accumulation on colloids. The lower cobalt accumulation in borate-containing solution is attributed to the lower amount of colloid formation.

  16. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Ribeiro, Karla Veloso Gonçalves; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers. PMID:26076188

  17. Thermoluminescence Measurements of Medical Grade Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Scott; Dunlap, Greg; Palmer, Jeane; Jahan, M. S.

    1999-11-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a biomaterial used in hip and knee joint replacements. Because this material is implanted into the body the material must be sterilized to prevent infection after implantation. Gamma irradiation is the most common method of sterilization, but it has one drawback; it causes the formation of free radicals and subsequent oxidative degradation of PE. By using thermoluminescence (TL) technique, free radical quenching temperature can be determined. In this study, UHMWPE was X-irradiated ( ~1 MRad at 10 keV) at 32 ^oC and subsequently heated to 200 ^oC at 1 ^oC / sec. The resulting luminescence known as thermoluminescence (TL) was recorded using a commercial TL dosimeter. The TL output, known as a glow curve, consists of two glow peaks, the prominent one occurs at 70 ^oC and a second one at 120 ^oC. It is suggested that the peak at 70 ^oC results from the recombination of free radicals due to molecular motion in the amorphous region, and the 120 ^oC peak is due to the motion of crystalline medium of the polyethylene matrix. Thermal annealing of free radicals as detected by TL can be a useful technique for diagnostic test of stabilization of radiation-sterilized medical joint components. *Supported by NSF REU Program (grant number EEC9619821) at the University of Memphis.

  18. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Ribeiro, Karla Veloso Gonçalves; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers. PMID:26076188

  19. Polyethelene terephthalate (PET) scrap recycling. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of polyethelene terephthalate (PET) products. Discarded bottles and household PET scrap are primary sources of this material. Recycling machinery, processes, and programs are discussed. Cable insulation, sheet films, foam products, and other products made from recycled PET are described. The impact of recycling on resource conservation and waste disposal problems is evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Degradability of dimethyl terephthalate by Variovorax paradoxus T4 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 isolated from deep-ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu Ping; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2006-08-01

    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from deep-ocean sediments of the South China Sea using enrichment culturing technique and they were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae DOS01 (AY878409) and Variovorax paradoxus T4 (AY878410) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. S. yanoikuyae DOS01 was only capable of transforming dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) to monomethyl terephthalate (MMTP) without further degradation while V. paradoxus T4 exhibited ability in mineralizing DMTP as the sole source of carbon and energy. The biochemical pathway of DMTP degradation was through MMTP and terephthalic acid (TA) as major detectable degradation intermediates in the culture media by both microorganisms. V. paradoxus T4 utilized DMTP and MMTP via hydrolysis of diester and monoester in the initial steps in degradation as confirmed by total organic carbon analysis of the culture medium and esterase activity assay of the lysed cells and fraction. The specific hydrolysis activity of esterase induced by DMTP or MMTP showed that greater hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by esterase induced by DMTP-grown cells than that induced by MMTP. Results of this research suggest that the cleavage of the two identical carboxylic ester groups of phthalate diester are carried out by highly specific esterases of the same bacteria in the environment.

  1. The adhesion of oxygen-plasma treated poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, S.L.; Kinloch, A.J.; Watts, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of low-pressure oxygen-plasma treatment on the surfaces of poly(ethylene) (PE) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) films and its influence on the adhesion of PE/PET laminates were assessed. The 90{degree} peel test was used to estimate the adhesive fracture energy, G{sub c} for the laminates. XPS, SEM and AFM were used to analyse the treated films and fracture surfaces. Significant improvements in bond strength occurred within very short treatment times (5s at 50W) with the maximum adhesion occurring after 300s. For longer treatment times the bond strengths decrease slightly. G{sub c} values were found to be low when PET was the peel arm. When PE was the peel arm, the G{sub c} values were substantially larger using the current analysis.

  2. Radiation grafting of styrene onto polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Nagaike, Hiroshi; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2001-07-01

    In order to improve the radiation stability of aliphatic polymers, radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been studied. Two methods, namely, simultaneous irradiation and pre-irradiation method, were treated. In the case of simultaneous irradiation, it was indicated from the dependency of percent graft on monomer concentration and absorbed dose that grafting efficiency was reduced by the increase in the homo-polymerization of styrene. On the other hand, more highly grafting polymer could be prepared by the pre-irradiation method. Depth-profile of grafted phenyl ring was also analyzed by means of micro-FT-IR spectroscopy. Recently, radiation stability of the obtained graft polymer was tested.

  3. Polyethylene oxide hydration in grafted layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Zilu

    Hydration of water soluble polymers is one of the key-factors defining their conformation and properties, similar to biopolymers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is one of the most important biomedical-applications polymers and is known for its reverse temperature solubility due to hydrogen bonding with water. As in many practical applications PEO chains are grafted to surfaces, e.g. of nanoparticles or planar surfaces, it is important to understand PEO hydration in such grafted layers. Using atomistic molecular dynamic simulations we investigate the details of molecular conformation and hydration of PEO end-grafted to gold surfaces. We analyze polymer and water density distribution as a function of distance from the surface for different grafting densities. Based on a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding between polymer and water in grafted PEO layers, we will discuss the extent of PEO hydration and its implication for polymer conformation, mobility and layer properties. This research is supported by NSF (DMR-1410928).

  4. WAXS investigations on Polyethylene -- Carbon Nanofibers Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Li, Jianhua; Benitez, Rogelio; Lozano, Karen; Chipara, Mircea; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Dorina Chipara, Magdalena; Sellmyer, David J.

    2008-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been obtained by high-shear mixing of isotactic polyethylene with various amounts of purified nanofiller (vapor grown carbon nanofibers type PR-24AG from Pyrograf Products, Inc) by utilizing a HAAKE Rheomix at 65 rpm and 180 ^oC for 9 min followed by an additional mixing at 90 rpm for 5 min. Composites loaded with various amounts of vapor grown carbon nanofibers have been prepared. Various spectroscopic techniques have been used to assess the interactions between the polymeric matrix and carbon nanofibers. Wide angle X - Ray scattering investigations focused on the effect of carbon nanofibers on the crystalline phases of polypropylene and on the overall crystallinity degree of the polymeric matrix. This research aims at a better understanding of the nature and structure of the polymer -- carbon nanofibers interface.

  5. Renewable polyethylene mimics derived from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Türünç, Oĝuz; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Meier, Michael A R

    2011-09-01

    An increasing number of reports on the syntheses of carbohydrate- and plant oil-based polymers has been published in ongoing efforts to produce plastic materials from renewable resources. Although many of these polymers are biodegradable and this is a desirable property for certain applications, in some cases non-degradable polymers are needed for long-term use purposes. Polyolefins are one of the most important classes of materials that have already taken their places in our daily life. On the other hand, their production relies on fossil resources. Therefore, within this contribution, we discuss synthetic routes toward a number of polyethylene mimics derived from fatty acids via thiol-ene and ADMET polymerization reactions in order to establish more sustainable routes toward this important class of polymers. Two different diene monomers were thus prepared from castor oil derived platform chemicals, their polymerization via the two mentioned routes was optimized and compared to each other, and their thermal properties were investigated.

  6. Thermal conductivity of electrospun polyethylene nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Qian; Mayo, Anthony; Ni, Zhonghua; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei; Mu, Richard; Bellan, Leon M.; Li, Deyu

    2015-10-01

    We report on the structure-thermal transport property relation of individual polyethylene nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning with different deposition parameters. Measurement results show that the nanofiber thermal conductivity depends on the electric field used in the electrospinning process, with a general trend of higher thermal conductivity for fibers prepared with stronger electric field. Nanofibers produced at a 45 kV electrospinning voltage and a 150 mm needle-collector distance could have a thermal conductivity of up to 9.3 W m-1 K-1, over 20 times higher than the typical bulk value. Micro-Raman characterization suggests that the enhanced thermal conductivity is due to the highly oriented polymer chains and enhanced crystallinity in the electrospun nanofibers.

  7. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

    2008-08-11

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

  8. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via EB radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, E. C. L.; Lugão, A. B.; Andrade E. Silva, L. G.

    1998-06-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to theses foams, imparts opitmum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine: building and insulation: packaging: domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203° C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGy/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time.

  9. Simulation of melting in crystalline polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Zubova, E A; Balabaev, N K; Musienko, A I; Gusarova, E B; Mazo, M A; Manevitch, L I; Berlin, A A

    2012-06-14

    We carry out a molecular dynamics simulation of the first stages of constrained melting in crystalline polyethylene (PE). When heated, the crystal undergoes two structural phase transitions: from the orthorhombic (O) phase to the monoclinic (M) phase, and then to the columnar (C), quasi-hexagonal, phase. The M phase represents the tendency to the parallel packing of planes of PE zigzags, and the C phase proves to be some kind of oriented melt. We follow both the transitions O→M and M→C in real time and establish that, at their beginning, the crystal tries (and fails) to pass into the partially ordered phases similar to the RI and RII phases of linear alkanes, correspondingly. We discuss the molecular mechanisms and driving forces of the observed transitions, as well as the reasons why the M and C phases in PE crystals substitute for the rotator phases in linear alkanes.

  10. Luminescence in crosslinked polyethylene at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamji, S. S.; Bulinski, A. T.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuki, M.; Iwata, Z.

    1993-10-01

    Electrical treeing is often responsible for the breakdown of insulating materials used in power apparatus such as high-voltage transformers, cables, and capacitors. Insulation, such as crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), used in underground high-voltage cables usually operates at temperatures above ambient. This paper describes the characteristics of luminescence, emitted prior to electrical tree inception, at a crosslinked polyethylene-semiconducting material (XLPE-semicon) interface held above room temperature. Use of a sensitive light detection system showed that XLPE subjected to elevated temperatures emits luminescence even without voltage application. This light was attributed to thermoluminescence which decreased with the decrease in the concentration of the crosslinking by-products present in the polymer. The spectra of thermoluminescence were only in the visible range. On the other hand, electroluminescence occurred when the XLPE-semicon interface was held above room temperature and subjected to high electric stress. This light did not depend on the concentration of the crosslinking by-products and the spectra of electroluminescence were in the visible and the ultraviolet ranges. It is proposed that XLPE-semicon interface held at elevated temperature and subjected to long-term voltage application initially emits both thermoluminescence and electroluminescence. As the crosslinking by-products exude out of the polymer, thermoluminescence decreases with time and ultimately ceases, but electroluminescence occurs as long as the voltage is applied to the polymer. Although the intensity of electroluminescence emitted at high temperature was lower than that emitted at ambient, sufficient ultraviolet radiation was emitted. The ultraviolet radiation could photodegrade the polymer and lead to electrical tree inception.

  11. A new brominated polymeric additive for flame retardant glass-filled polybutylene terephthalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bar-Yaacov, Y.; Minke, R.; Touval, I.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to the undesirable effects (poor ultraviolet light stability and blooming) sometimes introduced by brominated flame retarders. A brominated polymeric additive (BPA) with little or none of these undesirable side effects is compared with decabromobiphenyl oxide (DBBPO). The additive bears the product name F-2300. It is found to be more easily dispersed than DBBPO. The F-2300 is as effective as the DBBPO in the oxygen index test. The improved efficiency of the F-2300 may be explained by its better dispersion in polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). Glass-filled PBT containing F-2300 is found to be more resistant to UV degradation than DBBPO-containing formulas. Formulations with F-2300 therefore have a longer useful outdoor life. F-2300 is a diglycidyl-type polymer containing 50 percent aromatically bound bromine. Its melting point is 112 C, and it is stable up to 372 C. It is pointed out that since its melts at a relatively low temperature, it can be introduced into the formulation as a large agglomerate and still be dispersed evenly throughout the polymer.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite of maleated poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with organoclay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Hung; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were prepared via melt blending. Natural MMT was modified by either octadecylamine (ODA) or dihexylamine (DHA). Neat PBAT was grafted with maleic anhydride via melt grafting process. Intercalation of the organoclay in the PBAT matrix was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the results of transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dispersion of ODA-modified MMT in the PBAT matrix was more homogeneous than that of neat MMT. The addition of organoclay can increase the cooling crystallization temperature of PBAT, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the results of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that the addition of ODA-modified MMT can improve the thermal stability of PBAT nanocomposites. The tensile strength was little affected, while the Young's modulus was increased with the addition of nanoclays. The grafting of PBAT with MA resulted in improved interaction between polymer matrix and the silicate layer due to the formation of chemical/physical bonds, thus the dispersion of organoclays was enhanced. By grafting PBAT with MA, the enzymatic biodegradation of the nanocomposite was increased, while the photodegradation of PBAT was little affected. Furthermore, the transmission of water vapor was reduced by the addition of organically modified MMT. PMID:25491991

  13. Surface nanopatterns of two types of banded spherulites in poly(nonamethylene terephthalate) thin films.

    PubMed

    Woo, E M; Nurkhamidah, Siti

    2012-04-26

    Surface nanopatterns of dual ring-banded spherulites in poly(nonamethylene terephthalate) (PNT) were investigated using polarized optical microscopy (POM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology differs between narrow-spaced single ring bands versus widely spaced double ring bands in spherulites, labeled Type-1 and Type-2, respectively. Ridge and valley consist of two discrete species ranging from nano- to micrometer-sized crystals shaped and oriented differently. Ridges of Type-1 and Type-2 spherulites apparently differ in shapes of the crystal plates. AFM height profile analysis reveals that the ridge of Type-2 ring-banded spherulite is higher than that of Type-1 spherulites. The crystal packing on the ridges and valley of these two types of ring-banded was further compared using high-magnification AFM phase imaging. There exists a transition zone in going from the ridge and valley regions in the Type-2 ring-banded spherulites crystallized at Tc = 75-85 °C; the crystals on the transition zone change gradually in sizes and orientation from those in the ridge to valley. By contrast, Type-1 ring-banded spherulite does not have this kind of transition zone, meaning that crystals in the ridges abruptly submerge into valley in Type-1 ring-banded spherulites. Details of packing of nanosize crystals in forming ridge and valleys of these two ring band types are discussed.

  14. Pulse respirometry in two-phase partitioning bioreactors: case study of terephthalic acid biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Alberto; Quijano, Guillermo; Thalasso, Frederic; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio

    2013-02-01

    Two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) are based on the addition of an organic phase, often called vector, to a bioreactor in order to increase mass transfer of oxygen or gaseous substrates from the gaseous phase to the aqueous phase. In TPPBs, like in any other reactor design, the characterization of the bioprocess is often required for design, control, and operation purposes. Pulse respirometry is a method that allows for microbial processes characterization through the determination of several stoichiometric and kinetic parameters with relatively little experimental effort. Despite its interest and its previous application in countless applications, pulse respirometry has never been applied in TPPBs. In this work, pulse respirometry was assessed in a model TPPB degrading terephthalic acid and using Elvax™ as solid vector to enhance oxygen transfer. The results indicated that the addition of 10 to 20% Elvax increased oxygen transfer by up to 97%, compared to control with no vector. Pulse respirometry was successfully applied and allowed for the determination of the growth yield, the substrate affinity constant, and the maximum growth rate, within other. It is concluded that pulse respirometry is a useful method, not only for the characterization of processes in TPPBs but also for the selection of a vector within several brands commercially available.

  15. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite of maleated poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with organoclay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jung-Hung; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were prepared via melt blending. Natural MMT was modified by either octadecylamine (ODA) or dihexylamine (DHA). Neat PBAT was grafted with maleic anhydride via melt grafting process. Intercalation of the organoclay in the PBAT matrix was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the results of transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dispersion of ODA-modified MMT in the PBAT matrix was more homogeneous than that of neat MMT. The addition of organoclay can increase the cooling crystallization temperature of PBAT, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, the results of thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) showed that the addition of ODA-modified MMT can improve the thermal stability of PBAT nanocomposites. The tensile strength was little affected, while the Young's modulus was increased with the addition of nanoclays. The grafting of PBAT with MA resulted in improved interaction between polymer matrix and the silicate layer due to the formation of chemical/physical bonds, thus the dispersion of organoclays was enhanced. By grafting PBAT with MA, the enzymatic biodegradation of the nanocomposite was increased, while the photodegradation of PBAT was little affected. Furthermore, the transmission of water vapor was reduced by the addition of organically modified MMT.

  16. Lewis acid/base character and crystallisation properties of poly(butylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Santos, José M R C A; Guthrie, James T

    2015-01-30

    Two grades of poly(butylene terephthalate) were analysed by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and the results correlated with the respective crystallisation properties. The following parameters were determined by IGC: the dispersive component of the surface tension, the enthalpy and the entropy of adsorption of selected polar and apolar probes, and the Lewis acidity and basicity constants, Ka and Kb respectively. The interpretation of the values determined for Ka and Kb is in agreement with the FTIR spectra relating to the carboxyl end-group and the hydroxyl end-group concentrations in these polymers. The differences in the molecular weight values and in the end-group type and concentration, between the two grades of PBT, do not cause differences in the crystallisation activation energy. This observation suggests that there is a leading contribution of the Lewis basic sites to the crystallisation activation energy of the grades of PBT that were analysed. However, the lower value of Ka and the greater molar mass of one of the PBT grades lead to a corresponding lower crystallisation degree.

  17. Characterization of a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)- hydrolyzing lipase from Pelosinus fermentans.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Antonino; Hromic, Altijana; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Karl; Quartinello, Felice; Haernvall, Karolina; Perz, Veronika; Arrell, Miriam S; Zinn, Manfred; Ribitsch, Doris; Guebitz, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    Certain α/β hydrolases have the ability to hydrolyze synthetic polyesters. While their partial hydrolysis has a potential for surface functionalization, complete hydrolysis allows recycling of valuable building blocks. Although knowledge about biodegradation of these materials is important regarding their fate in the environment, it is currently limited to aerobic organisms. A lipase from the anaerobic groundwater organism Pelosinus fermentans DSM 17108(PfL1) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified from the cell extract. Biochemical characterization with small substrates showed thermoalkalophilic properties (Topt=50 °C, pHopt=7.5) and higher activity towards para-nitrophenyl octanoate (12.7 U mg(-1)) compared to longer and shorter chain lengths (C14 0.7 U mg(-1) and C2 4.3 U mg(-1), respectively). Crystallization and determination of the 3-D structure displayed the presence of a lid structure and a zinc ion surrounded by an extra domain. These properties classify the enzyme into the I.5 lipase family. PfL1 is able to hydrolyze poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) polymeric substrates. The hydrolysis of PBAT showed the release of small building blocks as detected by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Protein dynamics seem to be involved with lid opening for the hydrolysis of PBAT by PfL1.

  18. Investigation of hydrogen bonds properties in the terephthalic acid crystal, using molecular dynamics method.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Ewa; Boczar, Marek; Wójcik, Marek J

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to perform calculations using the method of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, leading to the optimized geometry of the molecules of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (terephthalic acid) in crystals, for the hydrogen form and three variants of substitution of deuterium atoms inside a carboxyl group. Based on the results, trajectories and dipole moments were calculated, what makes possible to simulate vibrations in different systems, and to make calculation of theoretical infrared spectra and atomic power spectra. Theoretical results were compared with the experimental spectra, which verifies the correctness of the method and also was compared with the results obtained by quantum-mechanical calculations using DFT for the isolated dimer. Comparison of the spectra of different forms, allowed for in-depth analysis of the effect of isotopic substitution on the frequency of vibrations and shapes of bands, and confirm the presence of possible coupling effects and intra- and intermolecular interactions. Comparison with the DFT results for the dimer show influence of the crystal structure on the spectra.

  19. [Electricity generation using high concentration terephthalic acid solution by microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye-Jie; Song, Tian-Shun; Xu, Yuan; Chen, Ying-Wen; Zhu, She-Min; Shen, Shu-Bao

    2009-04-15

    The high concentration terephthalic acid (TA) solution as the substrate of microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied to generate electricity. The open circuit voltage was 0.54 V after inoculating for 210 h with anaerobic activated sludge, which proved that TA can be the substrate of microbial fuel cell to generate electricity. The influence of pH and substrate concentration on generating electricity was studied deeply. The voltage output of external resistance (R = 1,000 Omega) was the highest when pH was 8.0. It increased as the substrate concentration increasing and tended towards a maximum value. The maximum voltage output Umax was 0.5 V and Ks was 785.2 mg/L by Monod equation regression. When the substrate concentration (according to COD) was 4000 mg/L, the maximum power density was 96.3 mW/m2, coulomb efficiency was 2.66% and COD removal rate was 80.3%.

  20. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    The amorphous fraction of semicrystalline polymers has long been thought to be a significant contributor to creep deformation. In polyethylene (PE) nanocomposites, the semicrystalline nature of the maleated PE compatibilizer leads to a limited ability to separate the role of the PE in the nanocomposite properties. This dissertation investigates blown films of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and its nanocomposites with montmorillonite-layered silicate (MLS). Addition of an amorphous ethylene propylene copolymer grafted maleic anhydride (amEP) was utilized to enhance the interaction between the PE and the MLS. The amorphous nature of the compatibilizer was used to differentiate the effect of the different components of the nanocomposites; namely the matrix, the filler, and the compatibilizer on the overall properties. Tensile test results of the nanocomposites indicate that the addition of amEP and MLS separately and together produces a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties of the neat PE. Thermal transitions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine if the observed improvement in mechanical properties is related to changes in crystallinity. The effect of dispersion of the MLS in the matrix was investigated by using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical measurements were correlated to the dispersion of the layered silicate particles in the matrix. The nonlinear time dependent creep of the material was analyzed by examining creep and recovery of the films with a Burger model and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relation. The effect of stress on the nonlinear behavior of the nanocomposites was investigated by analyzing creep-recovery at different stress levels. Stress-related creep constants and shift factors were determined for the material by using the Schapery nonlinear viscoelastic equation at room temperature. The effect of temperature on the tensile and creep

  1. 40 CFR 721.7255 - Polyethyleneamine crosslinked with substituted polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). 721.7255 Section 721.7255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted polyethylene glycol with substituted polyethylene glycol (PMN P-01-833) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7255 - Polyethyleneamine crosslinked with substituted polyethylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). 721.7255 Section 721.7255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted polyethylene glycol with substituted polyethylene glycol (PMN P-01-833) is subject to...

  3. Redox-labelled poly(ethylene glycol) used as a diffusion probe in poly(ethylene glycol) melts

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, O.; Velasquez, C.; Porat, Z.

    1995-12-01

    Ferrocene labelled monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol) MPEG with molecular weights of 1900 and 750 was prepared and used as an electrochemical diffusion probe in poly(ethylene glycol) melts. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used in connection with microdisk electrodes to measure the diffusion coefficient of redox tagged molecules using melted poly(ethylene glycol) as a solvent. The molecular weight of the solvent polymer was 750, 2000 and 20000. Results from the temperature dependency of the diffusion process and of the viscosity and conductivity of the polymer electrolyte are presented and discussed.

  4. Core-shell electrospun polybutylene terephthalate/polypyrrole hollow nanofibers for micro-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Habib; Rezvani, Omid; Banihashemi, Solmaz

    2016-02-19

    In the present work, a new micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) sorbent as an extracting medium based on core-shell nanofibers was synthesized by electrospinning. The core-shell nanofibers of polyvinylpyrrolidone-Polybutylene terephthalate/polypyrrole (PVP-PBT/PPy) were electrospun and subsequently, modified hollow nanofibers were prepared by removing the central PVP moiety. Moreover, conventional PBT/PPy was also prepared for the comparison purposes. The homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the core-shell nanofibers were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The applicability of the fabricated nanofibers-coating was examined by immersed μ-SPE of some selected triazine herbicides from aqueous samples and wheat grains. Subsequently, the extracted analytes were transferred into a gas chromatography (GC) after solvent desorption. Influencing parameters on the morphology of nanofiber such as elctrospinning parameters and the weight ratio of components were optimized. In addition, effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength, sample pH, desorption temperature, and desorption time were investigated and optimized. Eventually, the developed method was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation values for real water samples spiked with the selected triazines at 1 ng mL(-1) were 4-8% (n=3) and the limits of detection for the studied compounds were between 50 and 90 ng L(-1). The calibration curves for the selected triazines were in the range of 0.3-500 ng mL(-1) and regression coefficients (R(2)) were between 0.9985 and 0.9996. PMID:26810808

  5. Mechanical Performance of Rotomoulded Wollastonite-Reinforced Polyethylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaowen; Easteal, Allan J.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    This paper describes the development of a new processing technology for rotational moulding of wollastonite microfibre (WE) reinforced polyethylene (PE). Manufacturing wollastonite-polyethylene composites involved blending, compounding by extrusion, and granulating prior to rotational moulding. The properties of the resulting composites were characterised by tensile and impact strength measurements. The results show that tensile strength increases monotonically with the addition of wollastonite fibres, but impact strength is decreased. In addition, the processability is also decreased after adding more than 12 vol% WE because of increased viscosity. The effects of a coupling agent, maleated polyethylene (MAPE), on the mechanical performance and processability were also investigated. SEM analysis reveals good adhesion between the fibre reinforcements and polyethylene matrix at the fracture surface with the addition of MAPE. It is proposed that fillers with small particles with high aspect ratio (such as wollastonite) provide a large interfacial area between the filler and the polymer matrix, and may influence the mobility of the molecular chains.

  6. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: THE FABRICATION OF POLYETHYLENE FML FIELD SEAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical guidance document is meant to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction assurance (CQC and CQA) guidelines that are presently available for high density polyethylene (HDPE) liner installation and inspection.

  7. Creep behavior of 6 micrometer linear low density polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Schur, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Creep tests were performed to provide material characteristics for a 6.4-micron polyethylene film used to construct high altitude balloons. Results suggest simple power law relationships are adequate for stresses below about 4.83 MPa.

  8. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Bis-Hydrazones and Schiff's bases Derived from Terephthalic Dihydrazide.

    PubMed

    Jois, H S Vidyashree; Kalluraya, Balakrishna; Vishwanath, T

    2015-05-01

    A series of novel Schiff base containing bis-1,2,4-triazole and bis-hydrazone derived from terephthalic dihydrazide was synthesized. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, mass spectra, FTIR and elemental analysis. UV-vis spectra and fluorescent spectra of the compounds were recorded. The effect of substituent such as electron withdrawing and electron donating groups on the fluorescent spectra was studied. Also, the comparative discussion on fluorescent spectra of Schiff's base and hydrazones has been described. The antioxidant activity of the compounds revealed that compound 5c and 5f are the most potent compounds in this series.

  9. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    PubMed Central

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO : hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces. PMID:15027845

  10. Theory of the deformation of aligned polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, A.; Swinburne, T. D.; Hasan, H.; Del Rosso, S.; Iannucci, L.; Sutton, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Solitons are proposed as the agents of plastic and viscoelastic deformation in aligned polyethylene. Interactions between straight, parallel molecules are mapped rigorously onto the Frenkel–Kontorova model. It is shown that these molecular interactions distribute an applied load between molecules, with a characteristic transfer length equal to the soliton width. Load transfer leads to the introduction of tensile and compressive solitons at the chain ends to mark the onset of plasticity at a well-defined yield stress, which is much less than the theoretical pull-out stress. Interaction energies between solitons and an equation of motion for solitons are derived. The equation of motion is based on Langevin dynamics and the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and it leads to the rigorous definition of an effective mass for solitons. It forms the basis of a soliton dynamics in direct analogy to dislocation dynamics. Close parallels are drawn between solitons in aligned polymers and dislocations in crystals, including the configurational force on a soliton. The origins of the strain rate and temperature dependencies of the viscoelastic behaviour are discussed in terms of the formation energy of solitons. A failure mechanism is proposed involving soliton condensation under a tensile load. PMID:26339196

  11. Polarimetric studies of polyethylene terephtalate flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stchakovsky, M.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Warenghem, M.

    2008-12-01

    Polymer sheets are currently used worldwide in a wide range of applications. The manufacturing process of these sheets involves extruding machines that stretch the material in both lateral and longitudinal directions with respect to the machine direction, thus inducing birefringence. In most cases, the film obtained is optically biaxial. Polarimetric spectroscopy (Ellipsometry and Mueller Matrix) combined with conoscopic observation are the methods of choice to study these properties. In this work we report an analysis of commercially available polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films used as substrate for food packaging as well as for embedded electronic devices such as solar cells or flexible displays. Initial observation of these films through polarizing microscope in conoscopic mode reveals first the trace of optical axis plane with respect to the film surface and second, whether the optical axis is acute or not. This preliminary study allows optimal sample positioning for further polarimetric studies. The measurements and modelling are done in both reflection and transmission mode on several spectroscopic polarimetric setups from UV to NIR. The models give as a main result, the dielectric tensor of the film as well as its orientation with respect to the laboratory reference frame.

  12. LLCE burial container high density polyethylene chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, E.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    An independent chemical compatibility review of LLCE HDPE polyethylene burial containers was conducted to evaluate the container resistance to the chemicals and constituents thought to reside within the Tank Farms. The study concluded that the LLCE Burial Container fabricated from HDPE Polyethylene was a good choice for this application. The reviewer was unaware that the specification for these containers require 2 - 3 percent finely dispensed carbon black which allows long term storage outside.

  13. The mechanical properties of density graded hemp/polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvegis, Raphaël; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the production and mechanical characterization of density graded biocomposites based on high density polyethylene and hemp fibres was performed. The effect of coupling agent addition (maleated polyethylene) and hemp content (0-30%) was studied to determine the effect of hemp distribution (graded content) inside the composite (uniform, linear, V and Λ). Tensile and flexural properties are reported to compare the structures, especially in terms of their stress-strain behaviors under tensile loading.

  14. Polyethylene/Boron Composites for Radiation Shielding Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Courtney; Grulke, Eric; Burgett, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2008-01-21

    Multifunctional composites made with boron are absorbers of low energy nuetrons, and could be used for structural shielding materials. Polyethylene/boron carbide composites were fabricated using conventional polymer processing techniques, and were evaluated for mechanical and radiation shielding properties. Addition of neat boron carbide (powder and nanoparticles) to an injection molding grade HPDE showed superior mechanical properties compared to neat HDPE. Radiation shielding measurements of a 2 wt% boron carbide composite were improved over those of the neat polyethylene.

  15. Crystallization and morphologies of linear low density polyethylene and its blends with high density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, Marsha Stalker

    Knowledge of the kinetics of polymer crystallization is important in controlling polymer forming processes, while knowledge of the resulting microstructure is important in predicting the ultimate mechanical properties of the material. It is also known that processing parameters will affect the ultimate morphology and properties of the sample. The crystallization, morphology and mechanical properties of a specific linear low density polyethylene copolymer and its blends with two high density polyethylene homopolymers of differing molecular weight are investigated. Several new techniques are employed in an effort to examine the effect of crystallization kinetics on the development of morphology. These include the simultaneous processing of thin film and bulk samples, and the use of atomic force microscopy to generate images of the microstructure. Thermal properties, and melting and crystallization behaviors are examined with differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties of the blends, as a function of crystallization temperature and blend content, are examined through the use of microhardness testing, and nanoindentation testing via the atomic force microscope. The former provides hardness values, which are related to both the elastic moduli and yield strengths of the samples; the latter technique provides a new method for deriving the relative elastic moduli of the component polymers, as well as for specific structures within the morphology. This provides a novel means of determining the distribution of the component polymers within the blend. The rates of crystallization for the blends and the component polymers are analyzed with respect to the Hoffman Kinetic Theory for the crystallization of polymers to determine whether the existing theory is adequate for describing the behaviors of the blends. It has been determined that the blend systems form a co-crystalline microstructure; however, significant amounts of linear low density polyethylene are

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Polyethylene is an ethylene polymer used for a variety of purposes in cosmetics as an abrasive, adhesive, binder or bulking agent, an emulsion stabilizer, a film former, an oral care agent, and as a nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent. Polyethylene is also used in food packaging materials and medical products, including prosthetics. The molecular weight of Polyethylene as used in cosmetics varies over a wide range. The lowest reported molecular weight is 198 Daltons and the highest is 150,000. In any given polymer preparation, there can be a broad range of molecular weights. Cellular and tissue responses to Polyethylene, determined as part of implant biocompatibility testing, include fibrous connective tissue build-up around the implant material that varies as a function of the physical form of the implant material. Specific assays for osteoblast proliferation and collagen synthesis demonstrated a reduction as a function of exposure to Polyethylene particles that is inversely related to particle size. The effect of Polyurethane particles on monocyte-derived macrophages, however, had a stimulatory effect, prolonging the survival of these cells in culture. The LD50 for Polyethylene, with an average molecular weight of 450, in rats was > 2000 mg/kg. For Polyethylene with an average molecular weight of 655, the LD50 was > 5.0 g/kg. Toxicity testing in rats shows no adverse effects at Polyethylene (molecular weight not given) doses of 7.95 g/kg or at 1.25%, 2.50%, or 5.00% in feed for 90 days. Dermal irritation studies on rabbits in which 0.5 g of Polyethylene (average molecular weight of 450) was administered in 0.5 ml of water caused no irritation or corrosive effects; Polyethylene with an average molecular weight of 655 was a mild irritant. Polyethylene (average molecular weight of 450) did not cause dermal sensitization in guinea pigs tested with 50% Polyethylene (w/w) in arachis oil BP. Polyethylene, with a molecular weight of 450 and a molecular weight of 655

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Polyethylene is an ethylene polymer used for a variety of purposes in cosmetics as an abrasive, adhesive, binder or bulking agent, an emulsion stabilizer, a film former, an oral care agent, and as a nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent. Polyethylene is also used in food packaging materials and medical products, including prosthetics. The molecular weight of Polyethylene as used in cosmetics varies over a wide range. The lowest reported molecular weight is 198 Daltons and the highest is 150,000. In any given polymer preparation, there can be a broad range of molecular weights. Cellular and tissue responses to Polyethylene, determined as part of implant biocompatibility testing, include fibrous connective tissue build-up around the implant material that varies as a function of the physical form of the implant material. Specific assays for osteoblast proliferation and collagen synthesis demonstrated a reduction as a function of exposure to Polyethylene particles that is inversely related to particle size. The effect of Polyurethane particles on monocyte-derived macrophages, however, had a stimulatory effect, prolonging the survival of these cells in culture. The LD50 for Polyethylene, with an average molecular weight of 450, in rats was > 2000 mg/kg. For Polyethylene with an average molecular weight of 655, the LD50 was > 5.0 g/kg. Toxicity testing in rats shows no adverse effects at Polyethylene (molecular weight not given) doses of 7.95 g/kg or at 1.25%, 2.50%, or 5.00% in feed for 90 days. Dermal irritation studies on rabbits in which 0.5 g of Polyethylene (average molecular weight of 450) was administered in 0.5 ml of water caused no irritation or corrosive effects; Polyethylene with an average molecular weight of 655 was a mild irritant. Polyethylene (average molecular weight of 450) did not cause dermal sensitization in guinea pigs tested with 50% Polyethylene (w/w) in arachis oil BP. Polyethylene, with a molecular weight of 450 and a molecular weight of 655

  18. Effect of amine functionalized polyethylene on clay-silver dispersion for polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Valdes, S.; Ibarra-A, M. C.; Ramírez-V, E.; Ramos-V, L. F.; Martinez-C, J. G.; Romero-G, J.; Ledezma-P, A. S.; Rodriguez-F, O. S.

    2014-08-01

    The compatibilization provided by maleic anhydride (MA) and 2-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethoxy] ethanol (DMAE) functionalized polyethylene for forming polyethylene-based nanocomposites was studied and compared. MA was grafted into PE by melt mixing to obtain PEgMA (compatibilizer 1), thereafter, PEgMA was reacted with DMAE and an antioxidant also by melt mixing to obtain PAgDMAE (compatibilizer 2). These compatibilizers were reacted using ultrasound with a solution of AgNO3 0.04 M and Ethylene glycol. Ammonium hydroxide was added in a ratio of 2:1 molar with respect to silver nitrate. These silver coated compatibilizers were mixed with PE and nano-clay (Cloisite I28E), thus forming the different hybrid PE-clay-silver nanocomposites. FTIR confirmed the formation of these two compatibilizers. All the compatibilized nanocomposites had better filler (clay and silver) dispersion and exfoliation compared to the uncompatibilized PE nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction, mechanical and antimicrobial properties attained showed that the PEgDMAE produced the better dispersed PE, clay and silver nanocomposites. The obtained nanocomposites showed outstanding antimicrobial properties against bacteria, Escherichia coli and fungus, Aspergillus niger. It is concluded that the PEgDMAE offers an outstanding capability for preparing nanocomposites with highly exfoliated and dispersed filler into the PE matrix.

  19. Study on ternary low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend films.

    PubMed

    Sabetzadeh, Maryam; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Masoomi, Mahmood

    2015-03-30

    In this work, low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) films are prepared with the aim of obtaining environmentally friendly materials containing high TPS content with required packaging properties. Blending of LDPE/LLDPE (70/30 wt/wt) with 5-20 wt% of TPS and 3 wt% of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) is performed in a twin-screw extruder, followed by the blowing process. Differential scanning calorimetric results indicate starch has more pronounced effect on crystallization of LLDPE than LDPE. Scanning electron micrograph shows a fairly good dispersion of TPS in PE matrices. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirm compatibility between polymers using PE-g-MA as the compatibilizer. Storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity increase with incorporation of starch. Tensile strength and elongation-at-break decrease from 18 to 10.5 MPa and 340 to 200%, respectively when TPS increases from 5 to 20%. However, the required mechanical properties for packaging applications are attained when 15 wt% starch is added, as specified in ASTM D4635. Finally 12% increase in water uptake is achieved with inclusion of 15 wt% starch.

  20. Polyethylene glycol-coated biocompatible surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alcantar, N A; Aydil, E S; Israelachvili, J N

    2000-09-01

    Surfaces covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG; HO-(CH(2)-CH(2)-O)(n)-H) have been shown to be biocompatible because PEG's properties yield nonimmunogenicity, nonantigenicity, and protein rejection. To produce a biocompatible surface coating, we have developed a method for grafting PEG onto activated silica films. We first deposited an amorphous silica film by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from SiH(4) and O(2) gases, which provided the flexibility to coat diverse materials with different chemistries and shapes. The silica films were activated by exposure to water plasma, increasing the number of silanol groups (Si-OH) on their surface. The surface silanol groups were then chemically reacted with the hydroxyl end of PEG to form an ester bond, Si-O-C, and to cover the surface with PEG. The surface reactions were monitored using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The vibrational absorption bands of the C-O and -CH(2) bonds increased with time and saturated, indicating that PEG was adsorbed to saturation coverage on the surface. Simultaneously, the Si-OH absorption band decreased, showing that the surface silanols reacted with PEG and were depleted. The PEG-covered surfaces were physically characterized by atomic force microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle measurements. These characterization techniques provided additional evidence for the existence of chemically bonded PEG on the surfaces. Efficacy of protein rejection on PEG-covered surfaces was studied through measurements of the fluorescence intensity of Texas red-labeled bovine serum albumin brought in contact with such surfaces in solution. Significantly less protein adsorption was observed on surfaces covered with PEG compared to uncovered surfaces. PMID:10880075