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Sample records for a-570-504 petroleum wax

  1. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  2. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  6. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  7. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is...

  9. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic...

  10. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 172.886 Section 172.886 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.886 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used in or on food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a)...

  11. Process for producing a petroleum wax composition

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for producing a wax composition. It comprises: vacuum distilling a petroleum feed to prepare a 650 distillate heavy intermediate petroleum wax, having a melting point range of from about 155{degrees}F. to about 185{degrees}F., subjecting the heavy intermediate petroleum wax to furfural/duosol solvent extraction, dissolving and crystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, dissolving and recrystallizing the heavy intermediate petroleum wax from a methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixed solvent, percolating the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax in the molten state through a clay bed; and blending the recrystallized heavy intermediate petroleum wax from about 50 weight percent to about 90 weight percent with from about 10 weight percent to about 30 weight percent of a polymeric compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, polypropylene and mixtures there of and having a molecular weight of from about 2,000 to about 100,000 and a melt index of from about 1 to about 250{degrees} at 375{degrees}F.

  12. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a mixture of solid hydrocarbons, paraffinic in...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is permitted in subchapter B of...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  15. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  16. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  17. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  18. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum...

  2. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely...

  3. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  4. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or... Petroleum Wax Candles from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review). Issued: December 17, 2010....

  5. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... request for comments on the scope of antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's... determinations involving the Order. \\1\\ See Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of...

  6. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... of initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from...

  7. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  8. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel paraffin wax-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp strain PW-1, from petroleum-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y L; Liu, Z; Liu, T

    2016-06-10

    An isolate capable of degrading paraffin wax was isolated from petroleum-contaminated sites in Daqing, China, and identified as Pseudomonas sp strain PW-1 by analyzing the 16S rDNA sequence (GenBank accession No.: KF529529) as well as the biochemical and physiological characteristics. The optimized degradation conditions of the isolate were as follows: FeSO4 metal ion concentration of 0.01 g, temperature of 30°C, (NH4)2SO4 nitrogen source concentration of 1.5 g/L, and a carbon: nitrogen ratio of 10:1. Response surface methodology-based analysis of the culture time, inoculation amount, and initial pH of the medium revealed that the optimal theoretical conditions were a culture time of 11.16 days, inoculation amount of 3.13%, and an initial pH of 9.29. The theoretical degradation rate was up to 54.68% under the optimal conditions. Taking into account the experimental conditions of a laboratory, 11.2 days of cultivating time, 3% inoculum, and a medium initial pH of 9.3 were used in practical settings. Experimental results showed that the degradation rate of paraffin wax was 52.85%, which demonstrated that this strain could degrade 1050 mg paraffin wax, using it as the sole carbon source, in a 1000-mL minimal salts medium. These results indicate that the strain PW1 can be used for application in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems in order to enhance oil recovery.

  10. Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  11. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  12. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...

  13. HL-20 Wax Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A numerically machined wax pattern of the NASA HL-20 orbital re-entry lifting body was cut from a CAD/CAM file. This nine-inch wax model was later used in a lost wax investment casting process to replicate the pattern in ceramic for wind-tunnel aero-heating studies

  14. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems.

  15. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  16. Testing of LiAlH4 as a Potential Additive to Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel Sb . GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER John D. DeSain, Thomas J. Curtiss, Ronald...Petroleum Waxes," ASTM Designation: D 1321-04. 47. "Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)," ASTM Designation

  17. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  18. Wax separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, T.E.

    1980-06-03

    Particles of solid wax are separated from a slurry comprising said wax particles and a hydrocarbon oil by filtering the slurry through a cloth filter medium. It has been found that using, as the filter medium, a needled-felt cloth fabricated from fibers fusible by means of an open flame and having a singed surface on which the wax is collected results in an unexpected reduction in filter cloth blinding thereby yielding up to 30% increased throughput through the filter cloth and greatly reducing the frequency of washing the filter cloth. The cloth is further characterized in that it has a permeability to air in excess of about 3 cubic feet per minute per square foot of cloth surface at a differential pressure of 0.5 inches of water, a root mean square surface roughness in excess of 500 rms microinches and a fouling factor in excess of about 75%. This improved process has been found to be particularly useful for separating wax particles from a dewaxed lube oil slurry.

  19. [Bee, wax and honey].

    PubMed

    de Laguérenne, Claude

    2003-01-01

    The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.

  20. Keeping Wax Liquid For Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Russell V.

    1989-01-01

    "Hot gun" applies masking wax and similar materials in liquid state. Holding chamber and nozzle supply continuous heat to wax, and wax injects directly into hole as liquid. Nozzles of various sizes interchange so one selects nozzle having opening suited to viscosity of wax and size of hole in particular application. Gun fast, eliminates repeated application, and greatly reduces cleanup time. Available commercially for applying hot glue, used to ensure wax penetrates and fills holes, flow passages, and manifold passages so contamination sealed off during manufacturing operations.

  1. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and....1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan tallow or sumac wax, is a... succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China,...

  4. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter. (d) Prior sanctions for.... It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing...

  6. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

  7. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is... wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... esters and free acids. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d...

  13. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  14. Prebiotic Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that " the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  15. Prebiotic petroleum.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mekki-Berrada

    2014-12-01

    This short communication summarizes a global and continuous reflection on the origins of life. "Prebiotic Petroleum" assumes that "the class of most complex molecules of life that may have geochemical and abiotic origin is the class of fatty acids with long aliphatic chains" and proposes a physical process for the formation of liposomes. Developments following the workshop start from the idea that the liposomes also acquire ion exchange channels physically during their forming process.

  16. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  17. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  18. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  19. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  20. 31 CFR 576.308 - Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 576.308 Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products. The term Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products means any petroleum, petroleum products, or natural gas originating in...

  1. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  2. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  5. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the...

  6. Improved wax mold technique forms complex passages in solid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Page, A. D.; Phillips, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Low-cost fabricating technique produces minute, complex air passages in fluidic devices. Air jet interactions in these function as electronic and electromechanical control systems. Wax cores are fabricated without distortion by two-wax process using nonsoluble pattern-wax and water-soluble wax. Significant steps in fabrication process are discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made...

  8. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment.

  9. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  10. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene, and naphtha, and insoluble in water and in cold alcohol. (b) In accordance with paragraph (b)(1)...

  11. Biocidal Wax Composition and Preparation Thereof.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    WAX COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION THEREOF 2 3 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE 4 A biocidal wax composition for preventing corrosion and 5 biological fouling...13 by marine growth or corrosion . Wooden blocks and piers can be 14 destroyed in a few years if left untreated. Many of the 15 traditional treatments...capability or strength 18 through corrosion and marine growth on their surfaces. 19 One approach to reducing marine growth is coating the sur- 20 face

  12. Tectonic microplates: laying it down on wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R. R.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2008-12-01

    We present a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading that produces rotating, growing microplates. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. We propose a theory for the formation of microplates.

  13. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  14. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  20. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  1. Preparation of polysaccharides from wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gangliang; Tan, Jiantao; Tan, Xianchun; Peng, Daquan

    2011-08-01

    Preparation of polysaccharides from the wax gourd was studied. The crude polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol precipitation, and deproteinized by the hydrochloric acid method. The deproteinized polysaccharides were separated by column chromatography to obtain the pure polysaccharides. The pure polysaccharides have a β-D-pyranosidic bond, and their molecular weight distribution is about 22,500. It was indicated that the final product had much more purity by IR spectrum analysis, UV absorption spectrum analysis, and phenol-sulfuric acid method, respectively. It was proved that wax gourd polysaccharides were composed of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, and galactose by thin layer chromatography.

  2. Extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane bagasse and the enzymatic hydrolysis of dewaxed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Peng, Fen; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-16

    Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bioeconomy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was performed and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. About 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of Fourier-transform infrared characterization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives. In addition, the effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was also investigated. The digestibilities of cellulose and xylan in dewaxed sugarcane bagasse were 18.7 and 10.3%, respectively, compared with those of 13.1 and 8.9% obtained from native sugarcane bagasse. The dewaxed sugarcane bagasse became more accessible to enzyme due to the disruption of the outermost layer of the waxy materials.

  3. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  4. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  5. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  6. Experimental wax mixtures for dental use.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1997-07-01

    Improvements in the properties of dental waxes were sought by alterations in their composition. Twenty-six blends of paraffin wax, beeswax and inorganic filler were subjected to the following tests: plastic deformation (flow), linear thermal expansion, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Flow tests were conducted in accordance with the corresponding ISO specification. Thermal expansion coefficients were estimated using thermomechanical analysis. Mechanical properties were tested using a universal testing machine. Pure paraffin and beeswax were used as controls. The results were subjected to analysis using correlation and regression. Regression coefficients in the range of 0.90-0.99 were obtained in most cases, flow tests exhibiting the highest coefficients and flexural strength the lowest. The incorporated filler particles reduced the flow of the natural waxes, especially of the ester-containing beeswax, and improved the elastic modulus and strength. Good correlation was found between the ingredient proportions and measured properties, suggesting a relationship between them, although this is quite complicated in the case of tertiary wax mixtures. The experimental blends exhibited properties that are potentially useful for a range of clinical applications.

  7. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinforced wax. 178.3850 Section 178.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids §...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax....

  14. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  15. Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

  16. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  17. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  18. Geostatistics and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviewed is designed as a practical guide to geostatistics or kriging for the petroleum geologists. The author's aim in the book is to explain geostatistics as a working tool for petroleum geologists through extensive use of case-study material mostly drawn from his own research in gas potential evaluation in West Virginia. Theory and mathematics are pared down to immediate needs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  20. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  1. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  2. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  3. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  4. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOEpatents

    Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J.

    1997-08-26

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recovery, transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products. 7 figs.

  5. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOEpatents

    Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal mircrobalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recover transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products.

  6. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  7. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    PubMed

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  8. Self-association of plant wax components: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Casado, C G; Heredia, A

    2001-01-01

    Excess specific heat, C(p)()(E), of binary mixtures of selected components of plant cuticular waxes has been determined. This thermodynamic parameter gives an explanation of the special molecular arrangement in crystalline and amorphous zones of plant waxes. C(p)()(E) values indicate that hydrogen bonding between chains results in the formation of amorphous zones. Conclusions on the self-asembly process of plant waxes have been also made.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  13. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  14. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  15. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  16. Fundamentals of petroleum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Elroy, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    It's a complete guide to the fundamentals of reading, using, and making petroleum maps. The topics covered are well spotting, lease posting, contouring, hanging cross sections, and ink drafting. This book not only tells the how of petroleum mapping, but it also tells the why to better understand the principles and techniques. The books does not teach ''drafting,'' but does describe the proper care and use of drafting equipment for those who are totally new to the task.

  17. 1991 international petroleum encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    There is no other petroleum industry publication quite like the International Petroleum Encyclopedia. With a timely, accurate combination of global industry coverage and analysis, detailed statistical surveys, cutting-edge reports on technological advancements and the ever-popular atlas maps, the 1991 International Petroleum Encyclopedia is a smart buy for professionals whose business is oil and gas, as well as for those whose business is affected by the industry's trends and developments. Written by a professional staff of Oil and Gas Journal petroleum experts, the 1991 IPE gives you the all important global perspective for constructing sound business strategies for the 90's. The petroleum industry is scrambling for information that will help it survive this volitile period. This book reports on the topics in the petroleum industry the latest developments in horizontal drilling, world refining (the latest information on reformulated fuels), and predictions about the post-war Persian Gulf industry. PULS, discussions on changes in the Gulf of Mexico, developments in the LNG trade, and crude oil tanker supply/.demand curves.

  18. Long-chain alkanes and fatty acids from Ludwigia octovalvis weed leaf surface waxes as short-range attractant and ovipositional stimulant to Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mitra, S; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2017-01-30

    The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml-1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.

  19. 31 CFR 542.314 - Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum or petroleum products of... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.314 Petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. The term petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin means petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  20. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman; Garwood, William E.; Kuo, James C.; Leib, Tiberiu M.; Nace, Donald M.; Tabak, Samuel A.

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  1. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  2. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  3. Physical characterization of wax/oil crystalline networks.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvana; Tan, Chin Yiap; Jana, Sarbojeet

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the physical properties of different types of wax/oil systems. Olive (OO), corn (CO), soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), safflower (SAFO), and canola (CAO) oils were mixed with sunflower oil wax (SFOW), paraffin wax (PW), and beeswax (BW) at different concentrations (1% to 10%). Results from this study show that the physical properties of wax/oil systems is affected not only by the concentration and type of wax used, but also by the type of oil used. In general, wax/oil systems formulated with SFOW generated crystalline networks with high enthalpies (1 to 22 J/g) and high G' values (2 to 6 × 10(6) Pa) compared with the values obtained for BW and PW. SFOW crystalline networks were characterized by needle-like crystals independently of the wax concentrations and type of oil used. BW crystalline networks, however, were characterized by different crystal morphologies (needle-like or spherulites) depending on the wax concentration and type of oil used. PW samples were characterized by a crystalline network formed by needle- and platelet-like crystals. Enthalpy values of BW and PW samples were similar (0.3 to 20 J/g), but BW samples resulted in significantly higher (P < 0.05) G' values in the 5% and 10% samples with values of 3.9 × 10(6) and 6.1 × 10(5) Pa for 10% BW and PW, respectively.

  4. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Carbonization of petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Eser, S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the petroleum cokes are determined by their crystalline structure, which principally depends on the nature of the mesophase formed during the liquid-phase carbonization of the precursors. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between the chemical nature of the petroleum feedstocks and the mesophase development during carbonization. Ashland 240 pitch and a range of petroleum heavy residua were characterized by solvent fractionation, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, H and TC Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The semi-coke (pyridine insolubles) formation from the feedstocks and their asphaltene fractions was found to be first-order with respect to the concentration of pyridine solubles over a wide conversion range. An inverse relationship was observed between the rate of carbonization of the asphaltenes and the degree of mesophase development. The degree of mesophase development during the carbonization of the feedstock asphaltenes increased consistently with the increasing hydrogen aromaticity over the whole range of the feedstocks used. The principal conclusion from this study is that the mesophase development during carbonization critically depends on the chemical constitution of the petroleum feedstocks. The molecular nature of the asphaltene fractions determines the extent of mesophase development during the carbonization of the petroleum heavy residua. In this respect, the hydrogen aromaticity of the asphaltenes appears to be a good measure for the feedstock quality in terms of resulting coke structure and properties.

  7. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  8. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. National Standard Petroleum Oil Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1936-03-04

    largely according to the recommendations of a committee appointed by the American Petroleum Institute to represent the petroleum industry. In order to... Petroleum Institute , the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and the National Bureau of Standards, in December 1921, agreed to recommend that in the future only...overcome the confusion that has existed in the petroleum-oil industry by reason of the use of two so-called Baume scales for light liquids, the American

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Petroleum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris; Kolb, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an historical review of the role of petroleum in world history and information on the chemistry of petroleum. It is suggested that petroleum chemistry be discussed since within the next two decades oil and gas will provide the major portion of U.S. energy. (Author/SA)

  16. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.; Lal, J.; Mandava, S.; Park, S.; Rodi, D. J.; Ho, N. T.; Ho, C.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobin structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.

  17. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  18. Petroleum lands and leasing

    SciTech Connect

    Burk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

  19. Petroleum-derived carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on petroleum coke. Topics considered at the symposium included mesophase formation, thermal analysis, rheology, microstructure, carbon fibers, electron microscopy, residual oil processing, synthetic aromatic pitch, delayed coking, calcination, desulfurization, graphite, metallurgical coke, carbon black, natural gas pyrolysis, liquid impregnation, and carbon-carbon composites.

  20. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  1. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  2. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  3. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  4. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  5. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean...

  6. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  7. Trans-fat free margarine from organogel formed by a plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research presents a practical method to replace a hardstock containing trans-fat and saturated fat with a small amount of a plant wax in margarine and spreads. Plant waxes were investigated for their ability to make an organogel of many different vegetable oils. Sunflower wax and rice bran wax ...

  8. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  9. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    PubMed

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  10. Diesel fuel containing wax oxidates to reduce particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, H.G.; Sweeney, W.M.

    1980-09-16

    Addition of 0.1 to 1.5 percent by weight of wax oxidates to a diesel fuel is found to reduce the amount of soot and invisible particles produced when the fuel is used in a diesel engine. The wax oxidates act synergistically with fuel-soluble organometallic compounds such as alkyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex salts in reducing particulates. The wax oxidates used have a ratio of neutralization number to saponification number below about 0.40 and a saybolt universal viscosity at 210* F. Higher than 1600.

  11. Effect of the epicuticular waxes of fruits and vegetables on the photodegradation of rotenone.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Cabizza, Maddalena; Cabras, Marco; Melis, Marinella; Tuberoso, Carlo; Cabras, Paolo

    2004-06-02

    The effect of epicuticular waxes extracted from fruits (apple, nectarine, pear, and plum) and vegetables (tomato and eggplant) on the photodegradation of rotenone was studied. The waxes affected the decay rate and the degradation pathway of this botanical insecticide. Tomato, nectarine, and plum waxes decreased the photodegradation rate compared to controls, whereas apple and pear waxes increased it. Rotenone irradiated under sunlight without waxes gave seven photoproducts; in contrast, in the presence of waxes it changed its behavior, leading to different pathways according to the wax employed. The main photoproduct formed was 12abeta-rotenolone.

  12. A novel dominant glossy mutation causes suppression of wax biosynthesis pathway and deficiency of cuticular wax in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of land plants are covered with cuticular waxes that limit non-stomatal water loss and gaseous exchange, and protect plants from ultraviolet radiation and pathogen attack. This is the first report on the characterization and genetic mapping of a novel dominant glossy mutant (BnaA.GL) in Brassica napus. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cuticle ultrastructure of GL mutant leaf and stem were altered dramatically compared with that of wide type (WT). Scanning electron microscopy corroborated the reduction of wax on the leaf and stem surface. A cuticular wax analysis of the GL mutant leaves further confirmed the drastic decrease in the total wax content, and a wax compositional analysis revealed an increase in aldehydes but a severe decrease in alkanes, ketones and secondary alcohols. These results suggested a likely blockage of the decarbonylation step in the wax biosynthesis pathway. Genetic mapping narrowed the location of the BnaA.GL gene to the end of A9 chromosome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip assay in combination with bulk segregant analysis (BSA) also located SNPs in the same region. Two SNPs, two single sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one IP marker were located on the flanking region of the BnaA.GL gene at a distance of 0.6 cM. A gene homologous to ECERIFERUM1 (CER1) was located in the mapped region. A cDNA microarray chip assay revealed coordinated down regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the cuticular wax biosynthetic pathway in the glossy mutant, with BnCER1 being one of the most severely suppressed genes. Conclusions Our results indicated that surface wax biosynthesis is broadly affected in the glossy mutant due to the suppression of the BnCER1 and other wax-related genes. These findings offer novel clues for elucidating the molecular basis of the glossy phenotype. PMID:24330756

  13. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Cucumis sativus L. WAX2 Plays a Pivotal Role in Wax Biosynthesis, Influencing Pollen Fertility and Plant Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-07-01

    Cuticular waxes play an important part in protecting plant aerial organs from biotic and abiotic stresses. In previous studies, the biosynthetic pathway of cuticular waxes and relative functional genes has been researched and understood; however, little is known in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, we cloned and characterized an AtWAX2 homolog, CsWAX2, in cucumber and found that it is highly expressed in the epidermis, where waxes are synthesized, while subcellular localization showed that CsWAX2 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional expression of CsWAX2 was found to be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and ABA, while the ectopic expression of CsWAX2 in an Arabidopsis wax2 mutant could partially complement the glossy stem phenotype. Abnormal expression of CsWAX2 in transgenic cucumbers specifically affected both very long chain (VLC) alkanes and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transgenic cucumber plants of CsWAX2 showed significant changes in pollen viability and fruit resistance to water loss and pathogens compared with the wild type. Collectively, these results indicated that CsWAX2 plays a pivotal role in wax biosynthesis, influencing pollen fertility and the plant's response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Test Procedures for Qualifying Waxes for Use in Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-16

    QUALIFICATION FOR USE IN COMPOSITION A-3 EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition Plant , Kingsport ...explosive for Navy use. TV. QUALIFICATION FOR USEJ]l COMPOSITION B EXPLOSIVE A sample of the candidate wax will be forwarded to Holston Army Ammunition ... Plant , Kingsport , Tennessee , to be used in manufacturing Grade A Composition B explosive to meet the requirements of MIL-C-401. This will be used in

  5. Analysis of paraffin wax oxidates by differential infrared spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, M.

    1985-05-01

    The oxidation products of paraffin waxes are estimated by isolation followed by instrumental techniques which are laborious and time-consuming. Differential infrared spectrometry has been applied to analyze the usual paraffin wax oxidates. The saponification and the solubility problems encountered in these samples were overcome by the addition of crown ethers. The technique is quicker, less time-consuming, and less expensive and only a small sample size is required. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Petroleum Processing Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Jenny Loveridge

    2012-09-01

    A series of volatile crude oils was characterized using the Asphaltene Determinator oncolumn precipitation and re-dissolution method developed at Western Research Institute (WRI). Gravimetric asphaltenes and polars fractions from silica gel chromatography separation of the oils were characterized also. A study to define the differences in composition of asphaltenes in refinery desalter rag layer emulsions and the corresponding feed and desalter oils was conducted. Results indicate that the most polar and pericondensed aromatic material in the asphaltenes is enriched in the emulsions. The wax types and carbon number distributions in the two heptaneeluting fractions from the Waxphaltene Determinator separation were characterized by repetitive collection of the fractions followed by high temperature gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) was conducted by researchers at the Florida State University National High Magnetic Field laboratory in a no-cost collaboration with the study.

  7. Differences in substrate specificities of five bacterial wax ester synthases.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Wahlen, Bradley D; Garner, EmmaLee; Wei, Jiashi; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2012-08-01

    Wax esters are produced in certain bacteria as a potential carbon and energy storage compound. The final enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway responsible for wax ester production is the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT), which utilizes a range of fatty alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. We report here the isolation and substrate range characterization for five WS/DGAT enzymes from four different bacteria: Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8, Acinetobacter baylyi, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5. The results from kinetic studies of isolated enzymes reveal a differential activity based on the order of substrate addition and reveal subtle differences between the substrate selectivity of the different enzymes. These in vitro results are compared to the wax ester and triacylglyceride product profiles obtained from each organism grown under neutral lipid accumulating conditions, providing potential insights into the role that the WS/DGAT enzyme plays in determining the final wax ester products that are produced under conditions of nutrient stress in each of these bacteria. Further, the analysis revealed that one enzyme in particular from M. aquaeolei VT8 showed the greatest potential for future study based on rapid purification and significantly higher activity than was found for the other isolated WS/DGAT enzymes. The results provide a framework to test prospective differences between these enzymes for potential biotechnological applications such as high-value petrochemicals and biofuel production.

  8. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  9. Studies on the structure of the plant wax nonacosan-10-ol, the main component of epicuticular wax conifers.

    PubMed

    Matas, Antonio J; Sanz, María José; Heredia, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The main component presents in the epicuticular waxes of needles of Pinus halepensis and the most of conifers, the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained from these physical techniques permitted to establish a definitive structural model of the molecular arrangement of this wax, basically in good agreement with the model formulated by other authors from theoretical formulations. Biological implications of the proposed structure have been also formulated.

  10. Operating experience firing waxed corrugated cardboard waste

    SciTech Connect

    McBurney, B.

    1995-09-01

    Georgia-Pacific operates a corrugated packaging facility in Doraville, Georgia which a suburb of Atlanta. The plant processes bulk brown paper into corrugated sheets for corrugated packaging. The plant`s process and building heat requires approximately 15,000 PPH steam at 150 psig which was supplied by a natural gas fired package boiler. The mill disposed of the cardboard trimmings and waste in a nearby landfill at a disposal cost of several thousand dollars per month. In 1992, the mill recognized that the landfill would close in several years which would result in a significant increase in monthly cardboard waste disposal costs. Therefore, the mill sought an alternate yet economical solution for waste disposal. After evaluating several different alternatives including recycling, the mill installed a boiler system designed to fire the waxed corrugated cardboard waste (WCW) as both a solution for disposal of this waste and as an alternate source of boiler fuel. This paper reviews plant design, operating performance and maintenance history.

  11. Removal of Wax and Stickies from OCC by Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    M. R. Doshi; J. Dyer

    2000-01-31

    Laboratory research indicates that wax is amenable to removal by froth flotation provided it is free or detached from the fiber. The only effective means, at this time, of maximizing detachment of wax is through the use of low consistency pulping at temperatures above the melting point of wax. Wax removal from WCC through washing, flotation, or a combination of both was approximately 90% in these laboratory studies, indicating that not all of the wax is detached from fibers. These results were summarized in Annual Report 1, December 1, 1997 to November 30, 1998. Pilot trials were conducted in which the authors simulated a conventional OCC repulping process with and without flotation. Additional aggressive washing and water clarification were also examined during the study. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots and extractable material from the furnish. Based on this study, the authors predict that a compact flotation system with 2 lb surfactant/ton of fiber would improve the OCC pulp quality with regard to wax spots by 60% and would not negatively affect strength properties. Flotation losses would be in the 2-5% range. Two mill trials were conducted during the last quarter of the project. One trial was carried out at Green Bay Packaging, Green Bay, WI, and a second trial was conducted at Menasha Corporation, Otsego, MI. A 250-liter Voith Sulzer Ecocell was used to evaluate the removal of wax and stickies from the OCC processing systems at these two mills. The inclusion of flotation in the OCC stock preparation system significantly improved the removal of wax spots from the furnish. The data indicate that flotation was more effective in removing wax and stickies than reverse cleaners. The mill trials have demonstrated that flotation can be substituted for or replace existing reverse cleaning systems and, in some cases, can replace dispersion systems. In this manner, the use of flotation can

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  18. 31 CFR 542.412 - Transactions relating to Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. 542.412 Section 542.412 Money and... Syrian petroleum or petroleum products from third countries; transshipments. (a) Transactions relating to goods containing petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin are not prohibited by § 542.208...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  1. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  3. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  4. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  7. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum and Petroleum Products No... SUPPLY CONTROLS Pt. 754, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 754—Petroleum and Petroleum Products This... petroleum (including reconstituted crude petroleum), tar sands and crude shale oil. 2710.0710...

  9. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. Indigenous Precambrian petroleum revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, G.E.; Kaczor, M.J.; McArthur, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    Irrefutable evidence of fossil remains from Precambrian sediments and proved petroleum reserves in upper Proterozoic (Riphean-Vendian) strata of the Irkutsk basin, USSR, suggest that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks should be a focus for hydrocarbon exploration. Since 1965, a dramatic increase in publications which document worldwide occurrences of Precambrian life forms discloses that, by the end of the Proterozoic, organic evolution had produced diversified assemblages of relatively highly developed macroorganisms and microorganisms. Some of these organisms have generated crude oil in the Nonesuch Shale of northern Michigan and kerogen in stromatolitic carbonate rocks in Africa Kerogen has been extracted from approx. 2300-m.y. old Transvaal (Africa) stromatolitic limestone containing coccoid and complex filamentous cyanophytes. Also, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons have been obtained from the approx. 2800-m.y. old Bulawayan stromatolitic limestone of Rhodesia. Additional evidence indicates that commercial reserves of petroleum from Precambrian strata are possible. An oil discovery in Lower Cambrian rocks in 1962, at Markovo in the Irkutsk basin of the Siberian platform area, led to four noncommercial and eight commercial fields producing from Lower Cambrian and Upper Proterozoic strata.

  15. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Petroleum occurrences and plate tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Olenin, V.B.; Sokolov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanisms of petroleum formation and petroleum accumulation proposed in recent years by some Russian and foreign investigators from the viewpoint of the new global or plate tectonics. On the basis of discussion and the facts, the authors conclude that the mechanisms proposed are in contradiction to reality and their use in practical application is at least premature.

  17. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  18. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  19. Job Prospects for Petroleum Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Describes petroleum engineering as one area in industry where job opportunities are few but where the worst of the declines has been seen. Discusses the causes of the decline. Lists several areas where petroleum engineers have found alternatives including environmental projects, water supply projects, and computer applications. (CW)

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-15

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  1. The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

    2013-04-01

    Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated.

  2. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Adrián F; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained in seawater samples. All clones retrieved from marine sediments affiliated with gammaproteobacterial sequences and within them, most phylotypes formed a unique cluster related to putative WS/DGAT belonging to marine OM60 clade. In contrast, soils samples contained phylotypes only related to actinomycetes. Among them, phylotypes affiliated with representatives largely or recently reported as oleaginous bacteria, as well as with others considered as possible lipid-accumulating bacteria based on the analysis of their annotated genomes. Our study shows for the first time that the environment could contain a higher variety of ws/dgat than that reported from bacterial isolates. The results of this study highlight the relevance of the environment in a natural process such as the synthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids. Particularly, both marine sediments and soil may serve as a useful source for novel WS/DGAT with biotechnological interest.

  3. Wetland plant waxes from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; Magill, C. R.; Barboni, D.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    Olduvai Gorge, northern Tanzania, exposes a Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary record that includes lake and lake-margin sediments and fossil remains of ancient plants and early humans. There are rich paleontological and cultural records at Olduvai Gorge that include thousands of vertebrate fossils and stone tools. Previous studies of plant biomarkers in lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge reveal repeated, abrupt changes in landscape dominance by woodland or grassland vegetation during the early Pleistocene, about 1.8 million years ago. However, the reconstruction of wetland vegetation in the past is limited by a dearth of published lipid signatures for modern wetland species. Here, we present lipid and isotopic data for leaf tissues from eight modern plants (i.e., sedge and Typha species) living in wetlands near Olduvai Gorge. Trends in values for molecular and leaf δ13C and average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes in plant tissues are similar to values for underlying soils. Compound-specific δ13C values for n-alkanes C25 to C33 range between -36.4 to -23.1‰ for C3 plants and -22.3 to -19.5‰ for C4 plants. Fractionation factors between leaf and lipids, ɛ29 and ɛ33, fall within the range reported in the literature, but they differ more widely within a single plant. For C3 plants, the average difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 is 6.5 ‰, and the difference between ɛ29 and ɛ33 for C4 plants is less than 2‰. Both plant types show a parabolic relationship between chain length and δ13C values, in which C29 typically has the most depleted value, and typically shift by 3-5‰ between alkane homologs. This pattern has not been previously reported, and could be unique for sedge lipids. If so, these data help constrain the application of plant wax biomarkers from sedges for paleo-vegetation reconstruction in paleoclimate studies and at archaeological sites.

  4. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  5. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Phthalimides with long-chain alkyl groups have been found to be very wax-like. They are made from phthalic anhydride and an alkyl amine. Pure N-octadecyl...Phthalate Half-Esters Phthalic anhydride (5.07 g) and 14.9 grams of Unilin 350 alcohol were charged to a container and heated with stirring for 2 hours at...With The Enthalpy Of ....... 40 Wax Desensitizers 7. DSC Of Ganex WP-660/TNT Mixture ........................ 50 8. DSC Of Solsperse 5000/TNT Mixture

  6. Clinically based diagnostic wax-up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock-up.

    PubMed

    Simon, Harel; Magne, Pascal

    2008-05-01

    A diagnostic wax-up can enhance the predictability of treatment by modeling the desired result in wax prior to treatment. It is critical to correlate the wax-up to the patient to avoid a result that appears optimal on the casts but does not correspond to the patient's smile. This article reviews the applications and techniques for clinically based diagnostic wax-up, and focuses on the diagnostic mock-up philosophy as a means to obtain predictable esthetics and function.

  7. A modified technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gajdhar, Shaiq; Gajdhar, Sajda Khan; Salakalakonda, Srikanth Reddy; Vasthare, Abubakkar

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a technique for fabricating a wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis by tracing the shape of a sliced cast of the contralateral ear at an interval of 1-mm and transferring the shape of each 1-mm slice to a similar dimension modeling wax sheet. In this way, slices of modeling wax are obtained, which can be reversed and placed over the previous slice to produce a mirror image wax pattern of the contralateral ear.

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    GAO examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified were compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  9. Strategic petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report has examined approximately 40 alternative, nontraditional methods of acquiring oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The alternatives identified are compared to the current method of acquiring and financing SPR oil through congressional appropriations that are reported in the budget. When compared to the conventional method of financing oil, most of the proposals have certain benefits or advantages, but all of them have economic or other disadvantages. For example, some proposals would reduce the budget deficit by increasing government revenues but would raise prices to the consumer. Other proposals would reduce short-term expenditures (asset sales, leasing oil or indexed bonds). However, the proposals might increase long-term expenditures by more than the initial reduction in outlays.

  10. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-15

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  11. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  12. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  13. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  14. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  15. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  16. Influence of Conventional and Digital Wax-ups on Axial Tooth Contour.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar; Bennamoun, Mohammed; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conventional and digital diagnostic wax-up on the axial tooth contour. Dental models of 15 patients were collected. Each model received conventional wax-up and digital wax-up. The conventional wax-up was based on tooth modification with dental wax on actual models. The digital wax-up involved fitting an average tooth form on virtual pretreatment models. Each wax-up model was digitally superimposed on the corresponding pretreatment model. For each modified tooth, analysis planes were extracted at three locations: mesial line angle, midtooth, and distal line angle. The impact of the following variables was evaluated: interarch location (maxilla vs mandible), intra-arch location (anterior vs posterior), tooth category (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars), and tooth location (midtooth vs line angle). The axial contour of the modified teeth increased after each wax-up, and this increase was directly proportional to the distance from the gingival margin. There is a clear tendency for the digital wax-up to cause a greater contour increase than the conventional wax-up. The anterior teeth were associated with a greater tooth contour increase than posterior teeth and the contour of the molars was the least affected. Although the conventional wax-up contour alteration was significantly less than for the digital wax-up, the actual difference was minimal.

  17. Petroleum fingerprinting: Effective identification of petroleum products at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    A critical issue in many environmental liability cases is the successful identification of the parties responsible for petroleum products that contaminate sites or properties. Identification of these parties is critical for owners of petroleum contaminated sites who are seeking to spread liability by identifying previous owners or operators of nearby properties who may be the source of, and thus be responsible for, the petroleum contamination at these sites. This issue is also critical for these potential defendants who will seek to demonstrate that the petroleum products associated with their activities could not be the source of the contamination in question. Finally, the issue is critical in situations where multiple responsible parties seek to equitably allocate among themselves shares of contamination and associated clean-up costs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  2. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  3. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  4. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  5. 31 CFR 561.319 - Petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum products. 561.319 Section... Definitions § 561.319 Petroleum products. The term petroleum products includes unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type...

  6. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  7. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food in accordance with the... naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to meet the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in food..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  9. 21 CFR 172.250 - Petroleum naphtha.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum naphtha. 172.250 Section 172.250 Food... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.250 Petroleum naphtha. Petroleum naphtha may be safely used in..., essentially paraffinic and naphthenic in nature obtained from petroleum, (b) The additive is refined to...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class I... system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the exception of § 820.180, with respect to...

  11. Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metalplating wax ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus on table by door used for metal-plating wax discs in order to make a steel master for use in mass production of phonograph records. Process used primarily from 1915 to 1928. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  12. Distinct Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities on Arabidopsis Wax Mutant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Reisberg, Eva E.; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Riederer, Markus; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The phyllosphere of plants is inhabited by diverse microorganisms, however, the factors shaping their community composition are not fully elucidated. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. We thus aimed to investigate whether mutations in the cuticular wax biosynthesis would affect the diversity of the phyllosphere microbiota. A set of four Arabidopsis thaliana eceriferum mutants (cer1, cer6, cer9, cer16) and their respective wild type (Landsberg erecta) were subjected to an outdoor growth period and analysed towards this purpose. The chemical distinctness of the mutant wax phenotypes was confirmed by gas chromatographic measurements. Next generation amplicon pyrosequencing of the bacterial communities showed distinct community patterns. This observation was supported by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis experiments. Microbial community analyses revealed bacterial phylotypes that were ubiquitously present on all plant lines (termed “core” community) while others were positively or negatively affected by the wax mutant phenotype (termed “plant line-specific“ community). We conclude from this study that plant cuticular wax composition can affect the community composition of phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:24223831

  13. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed.

  14. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  15. Integrating Science in Your Classroom: Wax On, Wane Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2006-01-01

    The changing figures of the waxing and waning moon are among the most conspicuous of celestial phenomena and were some of the first to be understood. This paper describes a classroom activity designed to teach children about the phases of the moon.

  16. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to make a pattern of a patient's bite to make study models of the teeth. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PROPERTIES, QUALITY, APPLICATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The document contains Chapters 7-10 of a Russian handbook of petroleum products. These chapters discuss drive-train oils, lubricating oils for aviation gas-turbine engines, industrial oils, and insulating oils.

  20. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  6. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  7. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Elena V; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-04-03

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  8. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion. PMID:28367985

  9. Heat transfer enhancement in a paraffin wax thermal storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Eftekhar, J.; Haji-Sheikh, A.; Lou, Y.S.

    1984-08-01

    Heat transfer enhancement in a thermal storage system consisting of vertically arranged fins between a heated and cooled horizontal finned-tube arrangement is reported. The high thermal expansion coefficient and low viscosity of paraffin wax, at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C, are utilized to induce natural convection in the liquid phase even at small thicknesses. The experimental data on the rate of production of liquid as a function of time and temperature of the hot surface is presented. The photographs of the melted zone indicate a naturally buoyant flow induced in the neighborhood of the vertical fins causes a rapid melting of the solid wax and a downdraft along the cooler solid phase surface. The heat transfer coefficient at the interface is calculated from experimentally determined instantaneous locations of the moving boundary.

  10. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  11. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs.

  12. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  13. Anna Morandi's wax self-portrait with brain.

    PubMed

    Messbarger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    In her self-portrait in wax, eighteenth-century Bolognese anatomist and anatomical modeler Anna Morandi Manzolini (1714-1774) represented herself in sumptuous aristocratic dress while dissecting a human brain. This essay explores the scientific and symbolic meaning of the vivid self-portrayal in terms of Anna Morandi's lifework at the intersection of art and anatomical science and within the remarkable cultural context of Enlightenment Bologna that fostered her rise to international acclaim.

  14. Leaf epicuticular waxes as proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Lanny, Verena; Eglinton, Timothy; Zech, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Long-chain n-alkanes and n-carboxylic acids are essential constituents of leaf waxes and can be used for the reconstruction of the paleovegetation and paleoclimate (e.g. Zech et al. 2013a). However, more research is needed to assess the full potential of these leaf wax biomarkers. Here we present results from a study on a transect from Southern Germany to Sweden. Our resuts show that litter and soils under deciduous trees have a dominance of the C27 n-alkane and the C28 n-carboxylic acid. Conifers are characterized by the dominance of the C29 n-alkane and the C22 and C24 n-carboxylic acids. C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-carboxylic acids can be attributed to grasses and herbs. Degradation of both compound classes in paleosols and sediments should be taken into consideration (e.g. Zech et al. 2013b), but the impact of degradation is not yet fully understood. We are now running compound-specific stable isotope analyses on all transect samples to evaluate the potential of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios in leaf waxes as proxy for the hydrological conditions. In addition, we aim at presenting first results of leaf wax biomarker analyses for a last-glacial loess-paleosol sequence from Spain. References Zech M., Krause T., Meszner M. & Faust D. 2013b: Incorrect when uncorrected: Reconstructing vegetation history using n-alkane biomarkers in loess-paleosol sequences: A case study from the Saxonian loess region, Germany. Quaternary International, 296, 108-116. Zech, R., Zech, M., Marković, S., Hambach, U. & Huang Y. 2013a: Humid glacials, arid interglacials? Critical thoughts on pedogenesis and paleoclimate based on multi-proxy analyses of the loess-paleosol sequence Crvenka, Northern Serbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387, 165-175.

  15. Effect of microwave radiation on Jayadhar cotton fibers: WAXS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjana, A. R. Mahesh, S. S. Divakara, S. Somashekar, R.

    2014-04-24

    Thermal effect in the form of micro wave energy on Jayadhar cotton fiber has been investigated. Microstructural parameters have been estimated using wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) data and line profile analysis program developed by us. Physical properties like tensile strength are correlated with X-ray results. We observe that the microwave radiation do affect significantly many parameters and we have suggested a multivariate analysis of these parameters to arrive at a significant result.

  16. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Imke K.; Lanny, Verena; Franke, Jörg; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Zech, Michael; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, Roland

    2016-10-01

    Lipid biomarkers are increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental and climate conditions. Leaf-wax-derived long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids may have great potential for reconstructing past changes in vegetation, but the factors that affect the leaf wax distribution in fresh plant material, as well as in soils and sediments, are not yet fully understood and need further research. We systematically investigated the influence of vegetation and soil depth on leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect. The deciduous forest sites are often dominated by the n-C27 alkane and n-C28 alkanoic acid. Conifers produce few n-alkanes but show high abundances of the C24 n-alkanoic acid. Grasslands are characterized by relatively high amounts of C31 and C33 n-alkanes and C32 and C34 n-alkanoic acids. Chain length ratios thus may allow for distinguishing between different vegetation types, but caution must be exercised given the large species-specific variability in chain length patterns. An updated endmember model with the new n-alkane ratio (n-C31 + n-C33) / (n-C27 + n-C31 + n-C33) is provided to illustrate, and tentatively account for, degradation effects on n-alkanes.

  17. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues.

  18. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  19. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  20. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-09-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  1. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  3. Effect of selected physical properties of waxes on investments and casting shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Yamagishi, T; Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A

    1996-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between flow characteristics, bending strength, and softening temperature of paraffin and dental inlay waxes to casting shrinkage when patterns were invested with a phosphate-bonded investment. This study found that the casting shrinkage decreased as the flow of the wax pattern increased. If a low flow wax is used or if there is a need for a thick pattern, the size of the casting ring should be increased. When wax patterns are formed for cast restorations, it is important to select the type of wax with the most desirable properties for the margin and the occlusal portions. Moreover, to accurately fabricate castings, it is necessary to understand the physical properties of the chosen waxes.

  4. Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2014-09-01

    In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts.

  5. Antifeedant Activity of Citrus Waste Wax and Its Fractions Against the Dry Wood Termite, Cryptotermes brevis

    PubMed Central

    Sbeghen-Loss, Ana Carolina; Mato, Mauricio; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Frizzo, Caren; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    The wood protective action of citrus wax, a waste from the citrus industry that is a mixture of citrus fruit epicuticular waxes and essential oils, was evaluated against the termite Cryptotermes brevis Walker (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). The antifeedant index (AI) of the total wax and fractions was calculated. The total citrus wax exhibited an AI50 value of 24.69 mg/cm3, the wax after hydrodistillation showed the strongest antifeedant property (AI50 11.68 mg/cm3). Fractionation of the wax and gas chromatography—mass spectrometric analysis allowed the identification of coumarins and furancoumarins as the active compounds. These results suggest the potential use of these industrial residues as a natural approach to termite control. PMID:22243487

  6. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  8. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  9. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  10. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  11. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  12. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  13. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation:...

  14. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. ] SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal... Brought Before the National Petroleum Council Adjournment Public Participation: The meeting is open to...

  15. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. The term petroleum (also known as crude oil) means a mixture of hydrocarbons...

  16. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory... National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is open to the public....

  17. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  18. Vegetable oils as a petroleum replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current dependence of the world economy on petroleum cannot be sustained in the long run. Petroleum is expected to be depleted in the foreseeable future. In addition, the use of petroleum causes carbon dioxide emissions leading to global warming. Renewable sources need to be explored. One of the...

  19. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  20. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  1. Petroleum geology of marine evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1994-08-01

    The conditions necessary for evaporite deposition are also important with respect to genesis of source beds for petroleum. In a restricted basin marked by large-scale salt successions, it is presumed that the basin proper is separated from the open sea either by structural or physiographic barriers. These barriers may elevate the effective wave base so that much of the basin is in the stagnant zone or in reducing environment, where sediments rich in organic matter may be deposited. Such shallow barriers increase the conditions favorable for the generation of petroleum. Since marine evaporitic basins are not ideally closed systems, but are subject to influxes and perhaps refluxes of sea water or brine, much petroleum associated with evaporites is generated from dissolved and particulate organic matter swept from the normal marine into the evaporitic environments. Only carbonates precipitate in the mesosaline part (4-12% salinity) of such evaporitic environments. They are of great significance in source rock origin. The huge reserves of petroleum in the Mesozoic of the Middle East, and many other areas including the Michigan, Paradox, and Delaware basins, owe their origin to the thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites of the mesosaline environments. Repeated cycles of oil and gas formation in the stratigraphic record are related to tectonic, climatic, or eustatic events or both, and to increasing sedimentary overburden.

  2. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  3. The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

  4. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness.

  5. Shape-tunable wax microparticle synthesis via microfluidics and droplet impact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doojin; Beesabathuni, Shilpa N.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical and non-spherical wax microparticles are generated by employing a facile two-step droplet microfluidic process which consists of the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a flow-focusing microchannel and their subsequent off-chip crystallization and deformation via microdroplet impingement on an immiscible liquid interface. Key parameters on the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a microfluidic channel are the viscosity of the molten wax and the interfacial tension between the dispersed and continuous fluids. A cursory phase diagram of wax morphology transition is depicted depending on the Capillary number and the Stefan number during the impact process. A combination of numerical simulation and analytical modeling is carried out to understand the physics underlying the deformation and crystallization process of the molten wax. The deformation of wax microdroplets is dominated by the viscous and thermal effects rather than the gravitational and buoyancy effects. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the wax illustrates the time dependent thermal effects on the droplet deformation and crystallization. The work presented here will benefit those interested in the design and production criteria of soft non-spherical particles (i.e., alginate gels, wax, and polymer particles) with the aid of time and temperature mediated solidification and off-chip crosslinking. PMID:26697124

  6. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena. PMID:27669566

  7. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  8. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  9. 31 CFR 542.209 - Prohibited transactions or dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.209 Section 542.209 Money and... dealings in or related to petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. Except as otherwise authorized... petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin is prohibited....

  10. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  11. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  12. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  13. 31 CFR 576.206 - Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum Products, and the Central Bank of Iraq. 576.206 Section... Prohibitions § 576.206 Protection granted to the Development Fund for Iraq, Iraqi Petroleum and Petroleum... petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein, but only until title passes to the...

  14. Basic petroleum geology, 2nd ed. , revised

    SciTech Connect

    Link.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains revised and updated material, including approximately 200 additional illustrations and an extensive glossary of terms. A valuable reference for geology students and petroleum professionals, the text presents fundamental concepts of geology in terms of sedimentary deposition, petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery. This book contains information on geologic time, historical geology and stratigraphy; Minerals and rocks; Weathering erosion, and deposition; Marine erosion and deposition; Depositional basins; Lacustrine, desert and glacial environments; Subsurface water and diagenesis; Structural geology; petroleum traps; Petroleum and reservoirs; Geological considerations and engineering practices; Rocks, reservoirs, and recovery techniques; Exploration techniques for petroleum; Bibliography Glossary; Index.

  15. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line.

  20. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, G.; Tan, T.; Ziaie, B.

    2013-11-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc-copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ˜3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process.

  1. Offshore asphaltene and wax deposition: Problems/solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J. |

    1996-05-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Such problems seriously threaten economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore facilities are especially susceptible to such deposition for a number of reasons. This article presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the problems, the field has been produced for more than 14 years with minimum environmental impact. Principal conclusions developed are discussed in this paper.

  2. [Episodic paroxysmal hemicrania with seasonal waxing and waning pattern].

    PubMed

    Selekler, Hamit Macit; Temel, Ozden; Kutlu, Ayşe

    2010-01-01

    The chronic form of paroxysmal hemicrania was defined first. Although the episodic form was thought to be inevitably chronic, in time, episodic forms that never reach the chronic phase were identified. The supposed incidence of paroxysmal hemicrania is 1/50.000, and the ratio of the episodic to chronic form is 1:4. A seasonal type of episodic form, which is limited to three cases in the literature, has also been reported. In this article, a case who remained episodic for 40 years with seasonal waxing and waning attack variations is reported.

  3. The Behavior of Some Waxes in Composition B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    DR.DAR-’ISS IS NUMEEH OF PAGES ’VDTFORRINIi dleeUjt aiI leedof.) I1S. SECURITY CLAWS ( of tAis roper) US5 Army Armament Research and Development Command... accounted for the differences observed in the properties of the mixture. The question of wettability of RDX by waxes must be resolved first at ambient...Desensitization of Explosives," AWRE No. 0-15/65, (1965). 11. Evans Research and Development Corp, "Studies on Surface Properties of High Explosives

  4. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  5. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ..., regarded a taper imported by Global Marketing Services' that had a Santa Claus figurine attached to the... Memorandum at Tab K. In a letter explaining to Global Marketing Services why we excluded their candle, the... inclusion of these candles in the scope of the order. See Letter from the Department to Global...

  6. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  7. Petroleum geology of western Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Antarctica's geology is mostly obscured by thick, moving ice that covers 95% of the land and continental shelf. Reconnaissance investigations of outcrops, shallow boreholes, and geophysical surveys are limited and peripheral owing to ice coverage. However, it is possible to outline substantial elements of the regional geology. Further insight is gained by comparison to analogous sedimentary provinces, especially provinces once adjoined within the framework of the Gondwana supercontinent until middle Cretaceous. The petroleum potential of Antarctica, as in the case of the other related high-standing Gondwana continental fragments, is in Early Cretaceous rifts associated with the Gondwana breakup and with the Pacific convergence in the west Antarctica back arc. The Pacific-facing western Antarctica includes two structural provinces: (1) the Cretaceous and younger interior rift system on the east side of the Weddell and Ross Sea embayment, which contain aulacogens that form the boundary with East Antarctica and (2) the back-arc and fore-arc basins adjoining the Antarctica Peninsula and extending into Marie Byrd Land and the Bellingshausen Sea which are associated with the eastward convergence of the Pacific plate. The petroleum potential of the rifts may be assessed by analogies with related rifts of Australia, India, and South Africa; assessment of the convergent basins of western Antarctica depends upon analogy with similar basins of South America, New Zealand, and Indonesia. An estimate of the petroleum potential of western Antarctica generally is comparable with oil and gas occurrences (both in overall quantity and in field sizes) in the other Gondwana continental fragments. However, in view of the thict moving ice cover, the remote locale, and severe climate, petroleum production is largely beyond technology at this time and probably is economically unfeasible.

  8. Conversion of heavy petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.

    1982-03-02

    Heavy petroleum oils, such as vacuum resids, and heavy fractions of tar sands and shale oil, are partially converted to more volatile hydrocarbons by mixing with light aromatic hydrocarbons and treatment of the mixture with a friedel-crafts catalyst such as aluminum chloride. It is believed that the conversion found is essentially a transalkylation, I.E. The resid undergoes dealkylation with concurrent alkylation of the light aromatic hydrocarbon.

  9. Dental wax impressions of plant tissues for viewing with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Beermann, Anke; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a valuable method for examining surface structures. Taking wax impressions of plant structures, such as leaves, is a nondestructive procedure that makes it possible to view changes in surface structures over time, such as during development. This protocol describes a method for making dental wax impressions of plant tissues.

  10. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  11. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax.

  12. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  13. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  14. What do microbes encounter at the plant surface? Chemical composition of pea leaf cuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L W; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

    2005-09-01

    In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed.

  15. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  16. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  17. Cuticular wax composition of Salix varieties in relation to biomass productivity.

    PubMed

    Teece, Mark A; Zengeya, Thomas; Volk, Timothy A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2008-01-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of six Salix clones (one Salix miyabeana, one Salix dasyclados, one Salix eriocephala, two Salix purpurea, and one interspecific hybrid of Salix eriocephala x interior) with different biomass productivities were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total wax content ranged from 6.3 to 16.8 microg cm(-2), and two distinct patterns of wax were measured. The wax from leaves of S. dasyclados 'SV1' differed from all other clones and was dominated by fatty acids (42%), high concentrations of n-alkanes (25%) and n-alcohols (28%), with low n-aldehyde content (4%). All other clones produced cuticular wax dominated by n-alcohols (32-51%), particularly 1-hexacosanol, with fatty acids (14-37%) and n-aldehydes (19-26%) present in lower abundances. Clones of Salix grown under identical environmental conditions produce noticeably different amounts of cuticular wax. In contrast to previous studies of Salix, total wax content was independent of biomass productivity, measured as basal area, suggesting that wax production is not directly linked with woody biomass production by shrub willows under these site conditions.

  18. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  19. Overview of African petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perrodon, A. )

    1993-07-12

    Bordered by two large, still spreading oceans and subjected to tensional forces for more than 200 million years, continental Africa has now reached its largest surface expression ever. With a total sedimentary area of 15 million sq km distributed in about 80 basins, Africa possesses and produces circa 10% of the world's oil and 7% of the gas. More than 95% of these hydrocarbons are concentrated in seven petroleum provinces, ruled by three great petroleum systems that in turn are tightly controlled and determined by the geodynamic characteristics of the basins. From a stratigraphic standpoint, these three petroleum systems belong to three geological time periods: Silurian, Cretaceous, and Oligo-Miocene. Generally the Silurian system occurs in Saharan sag basins, the Cretaceous-Eocene systems in a continental rift complex of western and equatorial Africa, and the Cenozoic in two deltaic basins. The Upper Paleozoic and Jurassic, so rich in other continents, here play but a very minor part. The paper describes the Silurian system, the Cretaceous-Eocene system, and the Tertiary system.

  20. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  1. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56-94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV), pH (6.79-6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times.

  2. Fruit cuticular waxes as a source of biologically active triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Pensec, Flora; Bertsch, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    The health benefits associated with a diet rich in fruit and vegetables include reduction of the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, that are becoming prevalent in the aging human population. Triterpenoids, polycyclic compounds derived from the linear hydrocarbon squalene, are widely distributed in edible and medicinal plants and are an integral part of the human diet. As an important group of phytochemicals that exert numerous biological effects and display various pharmacological activities, triterpenoids are being evaluated for use in new functional foods, drugs, cosmetics and healthcare products. Screening plant material in the search for triterpenoid-rich plant tissues has identified fruit peel and especially fruit cuticular waxes as promising and highly available sources. The chemical composition, abundance and biological activities of triterpenoids occurring in cuticular waxes of some economically important fruits, like apple, grape berry, olive, tomato and others, are described in this review. The need for environmentally valuable and potentially profitable technologies for the recovery, recycling and upgrading of residues from fruit processing is also discussed.

  3. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E. Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station, Experiment )

    1990-06-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C{sub n}) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C{sub n} of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C{sub n} of 24-32. The C{sub n} of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 4 h, 60% of the recovered {sup 14}C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of {sup 14}C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to 55% at 8 h. Little {sup 14}C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes.

  4. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    PubMed

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  5. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ishaka, Aminu; Umar Imam, Mustapha; Mahamud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Maznah, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm), with optimum charge distribution (−55.8 to −45.12 mV), pH (6.79–6.92) and refractive index (1.50); these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. PMID:24872689

  6. Investigating molecular interactions and surface morphology of wax-doped asphaltenes.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Farideh; Mousavi, Masoumeh; Hung, Albert; Fini, Ellie H

    2016-04-07

    The nature and origin of bee-like microstructures (bees) in asphalt binders and their impact on asphalt oxidation have been the subject of extensive discussions in recent years. While several studies refer to the bees as solely surface features, some others consider them to be bulk microcrystalline components that are formed due to co-precipitation of wax and asphaltene molecules. In this study, we use a rigorous theoretical and experimental approach to investigate the interplay of asphalt components (mainly asphaltene and wax) and their impact on bee formation. In the theoretical section, quantum-mechanical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) are used to evaluate the strength of interactions between asphaltene unit sheets in the presence and absence of a wax component, as well as the mutual interactions between asphaltene molecules (monomers and dimers) and paraffin wax. The results of this section reveal that paraffin waxes not only do not reinforce the interaction between the asphaltene unit sheets, they destabilize asphaltene assembly and dimerization. AIM (Atom in Molecules) analysis shows the destabilizing effect of wax on asphaltene assembly as a reduction in the number of cage and bond critical points between asphaltenes. This destabilization effect among interacting systems (asphaltene-asphaltene and wax-asphaltene) does not support the hypothesis that interaction between paraffin waxes and non-wax components, such as asphaltene, is responsible for their co-precipitation and bee formation. To further examine the effect of wax component on asphalt microstructure experimentally, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface morphology of an asphalt sample doped with 1% to 25% paraffin wax. In agreement with the conclusions drawn from the DFT approach, our experiments indicate that paraffin wax tends to crystallize separately and form lamellar paraffin wax crystal inclusions with 10 nm thickness. Moreover, the addition of 3% wax

  7. System and method for the mitigation of paraffin wax deposition from crude oil by using ultrasonic waves

    DOEpatents

    Towler, Brian F.

    2007-09-04

    A method for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls. The method comprises positioning at least one ultrasonic frequency generating device adjacent the production tubing walls and producing at least one ultrasonic frequency thereby disintegrating the wax and inhibiting the wax from attaching to the production tubing walls. A system for mitigating the deposition of wax on production tubing walls is also provided.

  8. Problems during orthognathic surgery resulting from errors in diagnostic wax bite.

    PubMed

    Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Sun, Yi; Lambrichts, Ivo; Politis, Constantinus

    2013-05-01

    There are many problems associated with model surgery and splint fabrication, and they can directly affect the results of surgery. An erroneous diagnostic wax bite can lead to improper positioning of the upper jaw during bimaxillary surgery. In addition, postoperative malocclusions that are out of orthodontic range often are initiated perioperatively by insufficient surgical control over interdigitation, overjet, overbite, and control of the midlines. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether wax bites can be used effectively in patients undergoing bimaxillary operations. In 5 (10%) of 50 patients, the wax bite did not fit properly. Based on these preliminary results, we believe it would be prudent to build safety measures into the treatment of patients who require bimaxillary surgery. If the wax bite does not fit properly at the beginning of surgery, navigation tools could be used to overcome inaccuracies resulting from the wax bite.

  9. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars.

  10. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems.

  11. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-03

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications.

  12. The Influence of Source Biases on Sedimentary Leaf Waxes and Their Stable Isotope Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freimuth, E. J.; Lowell, T. V.; Wiles, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes and their carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic compositions are an important tool to understand past changes in paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Important recent advances in our understanding about the isotopic signal preserved in sedimentary leaf waxes have been inferred from studies made on individual modern plants. However, paleoreconstructions are based on sedimentary leaf waxes, which reflect mixing between multiple sources, such as ablated leaf waxes from nearby or from afar, wind blown leaf litter, and riverine transported leaf waxes. Each of these sources integrates leaf waxes from different species and growth forms, likely resulting in source-specific taphonomic biases on sedimentary leaf wax isotopes. To better understand source biases in sedimentary leaf waxes, we investigated n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and their carbon and hydrogen isotopes in vegetation and lake sediments at Brown's Lake and Bog, a 'simple' forested closed-basin lake in northeastern Ohio. Interestingly, we found that tree n-alkane δD varied substantially during the growing season, broadly tracking changes in source water composition. However, δD values of n-alkanes in the tree leaf litter did not match that of the most recent sedimentary n-alkanes. Instead, surface sediment n-alkane δD more closely matched that of the woody shrubs and grasses growing right around the lake. n-Alkanoic acid data is forthcoming. We are currently exploring lake sediment n-alkane accumulation rates against midwestern flux rates of wind blown leaf waxes from afar. Our preliminary results suggest that although studies made on individual leaves are indeed important, we may need to consider additional leaf wax sources that potentially influence sedimentary archives.

  13. Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants exposed to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan Su; Park, Si Hyung; Jenks, Matthew A

    2007-09-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops, having seeds and oil that are highly valued as a traditional health food. The objective of this study was to evaluate leaf cuticular wax constituents across a diverse selection of sesame cultivars, and the responses of these waxes to drought-induced wilting. Water-deficit was imposed on 18 sesame cultivars by withholding irrigation for 15d during the post-flowering stage, and the effect on seed yield and leaf waxes compared with a well-watered control. Leaf cuticular waxes were dominated by alkanes (59% of total wax), with aldehydes being the next-most abundant class. Compared to well-irrigated plants, drought treatment caused an increase in wax amount on most cultivars, with only three cultivars having a notable reduction. When expressed as an average across all cultivars, drought treatment caused a 30% increase in total wax amount, with a 34% increase in total alkanes, a 13% increase in aldehydes, and a 28% increase in the total of unknowns. In all cultivars, the major alkane constituents were the C27, C29, C31, C33, and C35 homologs, whereas the major aldehydes were the C30, C32, and C34 homologs, and drought exposure had only minor effects on the chain length distribution within these and other wax classes. Drought treatments caused a large decrease in seed yield per plant, but did not affect the mean weight of individual seeds, showing that sesame responds to post-flowering drought by reducing seed numbers, but not seed size. Seed yield was inversely correlated with the total wax amount (-0.466*), indicating that drought induction of leaf wax deposition does not contribute directly to seed set. Further studies are needed to elucidate the ecological role for induction of the alkane metabolic pathway by drought in regulating sesame plant survival and seed development in water-limiting environments.

  14. Biomass Burning, Long-Range Atmospheric Transport and the Sedimentary Record of Plant Wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Sedimentary distributions of plant leaf wax molecular and isotopic composition can provide detailed information about past terrestrial ecosystem structure and its variability in response to climatic forcing. However, in many locales (e.g. marine sediments, high elevation lakes), sedimentary plant waxes are derived primarily from atmospheric deposition rather than from local fluvial input or direct runoff. Thus, an understanding of wax atmospheric transport and deposition is essential for accurate interpretation of the sedimentary signal. In this talk we synthesize results from our studies of wax aerosol composition and atmospheric transport at strategically located sites (Northern Alaska, Maine, Florida, Bermuda, Barbados, French Guiana) that sample continental air masses passing over major terrestrial ecosystems (tundra, North American boreal, temperate and southern pine forests, North African desert grasslands, Amazon rain forest). Wax aerosols in boundary layer air masses reflect a large regionally integrated source signal. Over the North Atlantic, the long-range atmospheric transport of plant waxes is essentially uncorrelated with episodes of high African dust transport. Rather, the highest plant wax aerosol concentrations are clearly associated with continental air masses that are laden with smoke from biomass burning, which enhances long-range transport both by the process of steam distillation of wax and other easily volatilized compounds off living (moisture-rich) vegetation in the advancing front of the fire and by deep atmospheric convection, which efficiently injects re- condensed particles into the lower troposphere where they can be most efficiently transported by high altitude winds. The direct linkage between enhanced long-range atmospheric transport of plant waxes and biomass burning suggests that the wax sedimentary record in localities dominated by atmospheric input strongly co-varies with climate-driven changes in fire frequency and is

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of Tissue Surface Adaption of CAD-Designed and 3D Printed Wax Pattern of Maxillary Complete Denture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hu; Wang, Han; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantitatively evaluate the tissue surface adaption of a maxillary complete denture wax pattern produced by CAD and 3DP. Methods. A standard edentulous maxilla plaster cast model was used, for which a wax pattern of complete denture was designed using CAD software developed in our previous study and printed using a 3D wax printer, while another wax pattern was manufactured by the traditional manual method. The cast model and the two wax patterns were scanned in the 3D scanner as “DataModel,” “DataWaxRP,” and “DataWaxManual.” After setting each wax pattern on the plaster cast, the whole model was scanned for registration. After registration, the deviations of tissue surface between “DataModel” and “DataWaxRP” and between “DataModel” and “DataWaxManual” were measured. The data was analyzed by paired t-test. Results. For both wax patterns produced by the CAD&RP method and the manual method, scanning data of tissue surface and cast surface showed a good fit in the majority. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed between the CAD&RP method and the manual method. Conclusions. Wax pattern of maxillary complete denture produced by the CAD&3DP method is comparable with traditional manual method in the adaption to the edentulous cast model. PMID:26583108

  16. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely... liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may... derived from petroleum or synthesized from petroleum gases. The additive is chiefly...

  18. World petroleum systems with Jurassic source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Klemme, H.D. )

    1993-11-08

    Fourteen petroleum systems with Upper Jurassic source rocks contain one quarter of the world's discovered oil and gas. Eleven other systems with Lower and Middle Jurassic source rocks presently have a minor but significant amount of discovered oil and gas. The purpose of this article is to review the systems geologically, describe their location in space and time on a continental scale, estimate their relative petroleum system recovery efficiencies, and outline the effect their essential elements and processes have on their petroleum plumbing.

  19. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  20. Petroleum geology of the state of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Lingley, William S.; Law, Ben E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the potential petroleum resources of Washington State as recently summarized in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. Eight conventional petroleum plays, three coal-bed gas plays, and two continuous-type gas plays are defined and characterized. Of these plays, the potential for significant petroleum accumulations appears greatest in the Columbia Plateau region of eastern Washington. Potential accumulations in western Washington are smaller but could have local economic significance. The absence of high-quality petroleum source rocks is probably the most important factor limiting development of large accumulations.

  1. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-16

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  5. Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, c.v. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.

    PubMed

    Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., c.v. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for

  6. 31 CFR 542.208 - Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited importation of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian origin. 542.208 Section 542.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 542.208 Prohibited importation of petroleum or...

  7. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  8. Petroleum fingerprinting with organic markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum fingerprinting is an invaluable tool in forensic geochemistry. This article summarizes applications of fingerprinting in several oil spills and natural oil seepages that we have studied during the last 25 years. It shows how each unique chemical fingerprint can be used to correlate or differentiate oils. Fingerprints can provide information about processes in the environment that impact oils such as weathering and microbial degradation. They can be used to evaluate organic matter that contributed to oils, and classify oils with regard to the geological framework of their source, such as evaluating geological facies, age, lithology, and depositional environment.

  9. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  10. Altering small and medium alcohol selectivity in the wax ester synthase.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Ohlert, Janet M; Timler, Jacobe G; Lijewski, Amelia M

    2015-11-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT or wax ester synthase) catalyzes the terminal reaction in the bacterial wax ester biosynthetic pathway, utilizing a range of alcohols and fatty acyl-CoAs to synthesize the corresponding wax ester. The wild-type wax ester synthase Maqu_0168 from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 exhibits a preference for longer fatty alcohols, while applications with smaller alcohols would yield products with desired biotechnological properties. Small and medium chain length alcohol substrates are much poorer substrates for the native enzyme, which may hinder broad application of the wax ester synthase in many proposed biosynthetic schemes. Developing approaches to improve enzyme activity toward specific smaller alcohol substrates first requires a clear understanding of which amino acids of the primary sequences of these enzymes contribute to substrate specificity in the native enzyme. In this report, we surveyed a range of potential residues and identified the leucine at position 356 and methionine at position 405 in Maqu_0168 as residues that affected selectivity toward small, branched, and aromatic alcohols when substituted with different amino acids. This analysis provides evidence of residues that line the binding site for wax ester synthase, which will aid rational approaches to improve this enzyme with specific substrates.

  11. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  12. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  13. Thermal behavior of gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene/paraffin wax blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Saleh M.; Elnahas, H. H.; El-Zahed, H.; Abdeldaym, A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/paraffin wax blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and melt flow index (MFI). Blends of LDPE/wax in ratios of 100/0, 98/2, 96/4, 94/6, 92/8, 90/10 and 85/15 (w/w) were prepared by melt-mixing at the temperature of 150°C. It was found that increasing the wax content more than 15% leads to phase separation. DSC results showed that for all blends both the melting temperature (Tm) and the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) decrease linearly with an increase in wax content. TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of all blends decreases linearly with increasing wax content. No clear correlation was observed between the melting point and thermal stability. Horowitz and Metzger method was used to determine the thermal activation energy (Ea). MFI increased exponentially by increasing the wax content. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal behavior of the blends was also investigated at different gamma irradiation doses. Significant correlations were found between the thermal parameters (Tm, ΔHm, T5%, Ea and MFI) and the amount of wax content and gamma irradiation.

  14. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    PubMed

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  15. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOEpatents

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  16. Eruptive syringoma developed over a waxing skin area.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, María C; Enguita, Ana B; Navas, Rafael; Polo, Isabel; Rodríguez Peralto, José L

    2008-08-01

    Syringomas are benign, eccrine, sweat gland tumors that clinically appear as small skin-colored or yellow papules. Eruptive syringomas are rare variants that typically develop on the body's cutaneous anterior surface. Syringomas on the genital area have rarely been reported, although several authors maintain that syringoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pubic pruritic papular dermatitis. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with multiple, eruptive, asymptomatic papules involving the pubic area developed after waxing of the zone. Histological examination revealed disseminated syringomata. We postulate that the lesions were induced by depilation with a subsequently reactive inflammatory process resulting in a hyperplastic reaction of the eccrine ducts. This case supports the previous hypothesis suggesting that some of the so-called "eruptive syringomas" may start as a primary inflammatory eccrine reaction.

  17. Transport barriers made of cutin, suberin and associated waxes.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas

    2010-10-01

    Cutinized leaf epidermal cells and suberized root cell walls form important lipophilic interfaces between the plant and its environment, significantly contributing to the regulation of water uptake and the transport of solutes in and out of the plant. A wealth of new molecular information on the genes and enzymes contributing to cutin, suberin and wax biosynthesis have become available within the past few years, which is examined in the context of the functional properties of these barriers in terms of transport and permeability. Recent progress made in measuring transport properties of cutinized and suberized barriers in plants is reviewed, and promising approaches obtained with Arabidopsis and potato that might link the molecular information with transport properties are suggested.

  18. Characterization and chromosomal organization of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Biao; Liu, Wenrui; Peng, Qingwu; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Dasen

    2014-11-01

    Wax gourd (2n=2x=24) is an important vegetable species in Cucurbitaceae. Because it can be stored for a very long period of time, it plays an important role in ensuring the annual supply and regulating off-season supply of the vegetables. However, the availability of genetic information about wax gourd is limited. This study aimed to identify the useful genetic information for wax gourd. The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia retrotransposons were isolated from the genome of wax gourd using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. A total of twenty eight RT sequences were obtained, which showed high heterogeneity with the similarity ranging from 47.5% to 94.3%. Sixteen (57.1%) of them were found to be defective, being disrupted by stop codons and/or frameshift mutations. These 28 sequences were divided into five subfamilies. The comparative phylogenetic analysis with other Cucurbitaceae species from GenBank database showed that most retrotransposons derived from the same genus tended to cluster together, although there were a few exceptions. These results indicate that both vertical transmission and horizontal transmission are the sources of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with Ty1-copia retrotransposon sequences as probes revealed that this kind of retrotransposons had a dispersed genomic organization, physically distributed among all the chromosomes of wax gourd, with clusters in the heterochromatin regions. This is the first report of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in wax gourd, which would be helpful for our understanding about the organization and evolutions of wax gourd genome and also provide valuable information for our utilization of wax gourd retrotransposons.

  19. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  20. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research.

  1. Gamma irradiation testing of montan wax barrier materials for in-situ waste containment

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Heiser, J.

    1996-02-01

    A scoping study was carried out to quantify the potential use of a montan wax as a barrier material for subsurface use. If it possesses resistance to chemical and structural change, it could be used in a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. The main emphasis was to quantify the wax`s long-term ability to withstand radiation-induced mechanical, chemical, and microbial degradation.

  2. Characteristics of wax occlusion in the surgical repair of superior canal dehiscence in human temporal bone specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yew Song; Kozin, Elliott D.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) repair using surgical bone wax may result in variable outcomes if large wax volumes are applied. Background SCD is a disorder characterized by a pathologic defect in the bony labyrinth of the superior semicircular canal (SSC), resulting in vestibular and/or auditory symptoms. Repair of SCD using bone wax can provide symptomatic relief, but surgical outcomes are variable. These observations may be associated with the inconsistency in the position and extension of intralabyrinthine bone wax during surgical repair. Methods A pathological model of SCD was created using cadaveric human temporal bones and a microdrill. Defects in the arcuate eminence 0.5–3.5 mm in length were repaired using surgical occlusion with bone wax. The volume of wax used in the repair was quantified. The position of bone wax was evaluated by direct visualization and imaging (computed tomography [CT]). To visualize wax on CT, specimens were repaired using radiopaque wax. Results Exceedingly small volumes of bone wax (3.0–5.0 mm2) reliably occluded the canal lumen. Multiple wax applications resulted in extension into the common crus and ampulla. The length of this extension was related to the number of applications. Conclusions Repair of SCD with bone wax occludes the bony defect completely in most cases. Wax can extend along the lumen of the superior canal beyond the limits of the dehiscence to reach the sensory neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. Limiting the number of wax applications is essential to avoid inadvertent injury to the delicate neurosensory systems. PMID:26649609

  3. Investigation of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    to investigate Non-Petroleum Based Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced CIDI Automobile Engines, in two phases. The project began with a Planning...passenger car engine. Planning was to include defining the research necessary for future transitional non- petroleum fuel components that could also be

  4. Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-02-01

    The petroleum refining industry defined a detailed R&D roadmap, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, to identify high-priority areas for technology R&D. Those priorities helped ITP target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a balanced R&D portfolio to yield useful results in the near, mid, and long-term.

  5. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  6. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal...

  7. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal... that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a two-year period, beginning January 12,...

  8. 31 CFR 561.318 - Petroleum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Petroleum. 561.318 Section 561.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... § 561.318 Petroleum. A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural...

  9. Detecting and discriminating petroleum and petroleum products from water on terrestrial backgrounds with hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C. Scott

    Petroleum and petroleum product spills are frequent and as both Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon accident demonstrated, they can be catastrophic. A prominent portion of the response is mapping the extent to which oil has reached both shoreline and inland areas. Yet, petroleum and water--when present on common substrates such as sand, concrete, and vegetation--are often difficult to distinguish in panchromatic and multispectral imagery. This research demonstrates how hyperspectral remote sensing, also known as imaging spectroscopy, provides petroleum detection and discrimination from water on terrestrial backgrounds. Utilizing spectral libraries, it also performs material identification and successfully discriminates some petroleum products from one another as a means of further classification and mapping spill extent. To achieve these goals, this effort collected spectral signatures of four crude oils and five refined petroleum products on ten common terrestrial substrates and compared them to water on the same backgrounds over a period of 1-90 days, depending on liquid volatility. The result is the first publicly available spectral library for petroleum and petroleum products on terrestrial substrates in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (400-2500 nm) for use in petroleum spill detection and response. It also establishes a baseline for the use of imaging spectroscopy as a technique for confident, accurate petroleum detection in the terrestrial environment. Using common material identification algorithms, the spectra were successfully applied to airborne hyperspectral data from the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005 as a proof-of-concept for discriminating petroleum from water.

  10. Identification of natural, anthropogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Volkman, J K; Holdsworth, D G; Neill, G P; Bavor, H J

    1992-03-01

    Complex distributions of hydrocarbons occur in most aquatic sediments. Total concentrations can range from a few parts per million in non-polluted intertidal and oceanic areas to parts per thousand in heavily contaminated estuarine, lake and near-shore environments. Iatroscan TLC-FID provides a quick assessment of the total hydrocarbon load, but capillary GC, HPLC and GC-MS are essential for obtaining detailed composition data from which information on possible sources can be derived. Alkenes from microalgae, such as n-C21:6, n-C17:1 and unusual C25 and C30 isoprenoid alkenes, are often the most abundant single components in sedimentary hydrocarbon distributions. Some hydrocarbons are also produced from diagenetic transformation of functionalised lipids present in the sediment. Long-chain alkanes typical of plant waxes can be important constituents, even in marine sediments far from the coast. These distributions display a strong predominance of odd chain lengths, whereas n-alkane distributions in oils usually show little or no predominance of either odd or even chain lengths. However, the presence of this type of distribution in a sediment may not indicate petroleum contamination since biological sources for similar distributions are now recognised. Petroleum-derived residues are common in coastal and estuarine areas, particularly those near urban or industrial centers. This contamination is readily seen in capillary gas chromatograms of the alkanes as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The source of the oil can often be deduced from characteristic distributions of biomarker steranes, rearranged steranes, hopanes and methyl hopanes determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methyl hopanes are major polycyclic alkanes in oils from carbonate source rocks, such as those from the Middle East, but are uncommon in Australian oils. GC-MS fingerprinting techniques show that lubricating oils are a major source of hydrocarbon pollution in many estuaries

  11. [Inflammatory granuloma of iliac bone harvest site: a rare complication of Horsley bone wax].

    PubMed

    Faghahati, S; Gleizal, A; Beziat, J-L

    2013-08-01

    Bone wax or Horsley wax, which is used very frequently in bone surgery, is a non-absorbable mixture of beeswax (70%) and Vaseline. It permits the haemostasis of bone gaps by mechanical obstruction of bone pores containing blood capillaries. Complications due to this product are rare but sometimes quoted in literature. We report the case of a 17-year-old patient who, 10 months after surgery and after an asymptomatic period, presented an inflammatory granuloma at the scar of iliac bone harvest, which had been used as a maxillary graft. This complication necessitated a first exploratory and cleansing surgery, as well as a second surgery, which clarified the origin of the inflammation and made it possible to eliminate the wax remains. We think that bone wax should be used sparingly and with caution, firmly applied to the bleeding site without leaving any free particles.

  12. Development of Screenable Wax Coatings and Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design new formulations and production processes for water-based adhesives and wax coatings that can be easily screened from recycling operations.

  13. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  14. An improved index for the waxed stage of an implant-retained framework.

    PubMed

    Adrian, E D; Krantz, W A; Ivanhoe, J R; Edge, M J

    1991-11-01

    A method for making an improved index for the waxed stage of Branemark implant-retained frameworks is described. The index improves visibility of the tooth and abutment cylinder relationship permitting the optimization of framework dimensions and contour.

  15. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20°C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation.

  16. Preliminary study on analysis and removal of wax from a Carrara marble statue.

    PubMed

    Barreca, Salvatore; Bruno, Maurizio; Oddo, Lorena; Orecchio, Santino

    2015-11-27

    This preliminary study has mainly focused on the wax identification by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and removal. Wax is used for many purposes in the field of art as protective coatings on wooden, stone or metal objects. From the comparison of the spectra H NMR and in particular with the correspondence of the resonance peaks of the samples taken from the statue and beeswax and paraffin, we can conclude that the wax applied on the statue surface is beeswax. From our data, it can be concluded that, to remove the beeswax, from any stone support, the more effective solvent is the mixture of cyclohexane/ethyl acetate. The removal percentages ranged from 19 to 99%. Lower percentages of removal have been observed in the case of yellow marble, probably because of its high porosity. We can affirm that, this solvent mixture can be employed in real art objects using cotton swabs to remove protective wax.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  19. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  20. Rewiring the wax ester production pathway of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.

    PubMed

    Santala, Suvi; Efimova, Elena; Koskinen, Perttu; Karp, Matti Tapani; Santala, Ville

    2014-03-21

    Wax esters are industrially relevant high-value molecules. For sustainable production of wax esters, bacterial cell factories are suggested to replace the chemical processes exploiting expensive starting materials. However, it is well recognized that new sophisticated solutions employing synthetic biology toolbox are required to improve and tune the cellular production platform to meet the product requirements. For example, saturated wax esters with alkanol chain lengths C12 or C14 that are convenient for industrial uses are rare among bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, a natural producer of wax esters, is a convenient model organism for studying the potentiality and modifiability of wax esters in a natural host by means of synthetic biology. In order to establish a controllable production platform exploiting well-characterized biocomponents, and to modify the wax ester synthesis pathway of A. baylyi ADP1 in terms product quality, a fatty acid reductase complex LuxCDE with an inducible arabinose promoter was employed to replace the natural fatty acyl-CoA reductase acr1 in ADP1. The engineered strain was able to produce wax esters by the introduced synthetic pathway. Moreover, the fatty alkanol chain length profile of wax esters was found to shift toward shorter and more saturated carbon chains, C16:0 accounting for most of the alkanols. The study demonstrates the potentiality of recircuiting a biosynthesis pathway in a natural producer, enabling a regulated production of a customized bioproduct. Furthermore, the LuxCDE complex can be potentially used as a well-characterized biopart in a variety of synthetic biology applications involving the production of long-chain hydrocarbons.

  1. Plant leaf wax biomarkers capture gradients in hydrogen isotopes of precipitation from the Andes and Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feakins, Sarah J.; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Salinas, Norma; Shenkin, Alexander; Blonder, Benjamin; Goldsmith, Gregory R.; Ponton, Camilo; Arvin, Lindsay J.; Wu, Mong Sin; Peters, Tom; West, A. Joshua; Martin, Roberta E.; Enquist, Brian J.; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-06-01

    Plant leaf waxes have been found to record the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and are thus used to reconstruct past climate. To assess how faithfully they record hydrological signals, we characterize leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3 km elevation range on the eastern flank of the Andes. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in the tree community. For each tree we collected xylem and leaf samples for analysis of plant water and plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions. In total, 176 individuals were sampled across 32 species and 5 forest plots that span the gradient. We find both xylem water and leaf wax δD values of individuals correlate (R2 = 0.8 and R2 = 0.3 respectively) with the isotopic composition of precipitation (with an elevation gradient of -21‰ km-1). Minimal leaf water enrichment means that leaf waxes are straightforward recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in wet climates. For these tropical forests we find the average fractionation between source water and leaf wax for C29n-alkanes, -129 ± 2‰ (s.e.m., n = 136), to be indistinguishable from that of temperate moist forests. For C28n-alkanoic acids the average fractionation is -121 ± 3‰ (s.e.m., n = 102). Sampling guided by community assembly within forest plots shows that integrated plant leaf wax hydrogen isotopic compositions faithfully record the gradient of isotopes in precipitation with elevation (R2 = 0.97 for n-alkanes and 0.60 for n-alkanoic acids). This calibration study supports the use of leaf waxes as recorders of the isotopic composition of precipitation in lowland tropical rainforest, tropical montane cloud forests and their sedimentary archives.

  2. How to ... take a wax bite for a Twin Block appliance.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    The Twin Block appliance is the most commonly used functional appliance in the UK. It is very important to take a satisfactory wax bite, as it not only helps the technician to make an accurate appliance but it is essential for the successful use of this appliance. In this article, we suggest the appropriate clinical technique for taking an effective wax bite for the Twin Block appliance.

  3. Egg wax from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karine R; Macedo, Alexandre J; Nicastro, Gianlucca G; Baldini, Regina L; Termignoni, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is constantly challenged during its life cycle by microorganisms present in their hosts or in the environment. Tick eggs may be especially vulnerable to environmental conditions because they are exposed to a rich and diverse microflora in the soil. Despite being oviposited in such hostile sites, tick eggs remain viable, suggesting that the egg surface has defense mechanisms against opportunistic and/or pathogenic organisms. R. microplus engorged females deposit a superficial wax layer onto their eggs during oviposition. This egg wax is essential for preventing desiccation as well as acting as a barrier against attack by microorganisms. In this study, we report the detection of anti-biofilm activity of R. microplus egg wax against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Genes involved in the functions of production and maintenance of the biofilm extracellular matrix, pelA and cdrA, respectively, were markedly downregulated by a tick egg-wax extract. Moreover, this extract strongly inhibited fliC gene expression. Instead of a compact extracellular matrix, P. aeruginosa PA14 treated with egg-wax extract produces a fragile one. Also, the colony morphology of cells treated with egg-wax extract appears much paler and brownish, instead of the bright purple characteristic of normal colonies. Swarming motility was also inhibited by treatment with the egg-wax extract. The inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm does not seem to depend on inhibition of the quorum sensing system since mRNA levels of the 3 regulators of this system were not inhibited by egg-wax extract.

  4. Determination of the aromatic compounds in plant cuticular waxes using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubis, Eligiusz N.; Dubis, Alina T.; Popławski, J.

    2001-09-01

    The infrared study of the aromatic components of hops ( Humulus lupulus) cuticular wax was performed. HATR FT-IR technique for fresh leaves and their extract analysis was applied. Phenylmethyl myristate, 2-phenylethyl myristate and docosyl benzoate were synthesized and used as reference standards. An absorption band in the range of 709-966 cm -1 indicates the presence of aromatic esters in plant cuticular waxes.

  5. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products.

  6. Drilling and general petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Forty-nine papers are included in the Drilling and General Petroleum Engineering Volume of the SPE Annual Conference and Exhibition proceedings. The conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 25-28, 1994. The papers cover such topics as: extended reach well drilling, development of marginal satellite fields, slim hole drilling, pressure loss predictions, models for cuttings transport, ester-based drilling fluid systems, borehole stability, cementing, operations, bit failures, roller core bits, well tracking techniques, nitrogen drilling systems, plug failures, drill bit and drillstring dynamics, slim hole vibrations, reserve estimates, enhanced recovery methods, waste disposal, and engineering salary trends. A separate abstract and indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  8. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  9. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  10. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  11. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application.

  12. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  13. Getting in shape: molten wax drop deformation and solidification at an immiscible liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Lindberg, Seth E; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-05-01

    The controlled production of non-spherical shaped particles is important for many applications such as food processing, consumer goods, adsorbents, drug delivery, and optical sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation and simultaneous solidification of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface of higher density. By varying initial temperature and viscoelasticity of the molten drop, drop size, impact velocity, viscosity and temperature of the bath fluid, and the interfacial tension between the molten wax and bath fluid, spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath and were arrested into non-spherical solidified particles in the form of ellipsoid, mushroom, disc, and flake-like shapes. We constructed cursory phase diagrams for the various particle shapes generated over a range of Weber, Capillary, Reynolds, and Stefan numbers, governed by the interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal effects. We solved a simplified heat transfer problem to estimate the time required to initiate the solidification at the interface of a spherical molten wax droplet and cooling aqueous bath after impact. By correlating this time with the molten wax drop deformation history captured from high speed imaging experiments, we elucidate the delicate balance of interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal forces that determine the final morphology of wax particles.

  14. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    PubMed

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  16. Macros help solve common petroleum engineering calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, D.

    1995-11-06

    A toolkit consisting of macros provides petroleum engineers an easy method for incorporating petroleum fluid properties into spreadsheets. Published correlations were used to write the macros, defined as Microsoft Excel functions. Engineers can call these functions when constructing spreadsheets and eliminate having to access external sources for many common fluid property correlations. The Excel functions also allow the correlations to be easily incorporated into existing spreadsheets. A collection of spreadsheets is included with the toolkit that use these functions for the solution of common petroleum engineering problems. Functions, terms, spreadsheets are listed in the accompany box. The article also explains how to obtain a diskette containing the macros.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  18. Engineering salary trends in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.C.; Terrant, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the changes that occur cyclically in engineering manpower supply/demand trends in the petroleum industry, it is desirable to have an awareness of some of the major activities and factors affecting such trends; of starting Petroleum Engineering salaries relating to that background; of the on-going engineering salary status which developed from these activities; and of the large effect that high starting and on-going salaries do have in attracting and retaining engineers within the petroleum industry. It is important to realize that changes in industry trends can be brought about both by economic and political decisions, in both domestic and international activities.

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  20. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  1. Geology for petroleum exploration, drilling and production

    SciTech Connect

    Hyne, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of oil. The author guides the readers in logical sequence: How oil and gas form and accumulate; how to explore for oil; and how to drill and complete a well and produce the petroleum. The contents are: The earth's crust; identification of common rocks and minerals; weathering, erosion, and unconformities; deformation; geologic time; sandstone reservoirs; limestone reservoirs; subsurface fluids; sedimentary rock patterns; surface and subsurface maps; ocean environment - plate tectonics; hydrocarbons source rocks, generation, migration and accumulation; well logs, traps; petroleum exploration; drilling a well; completing a well; and petroleum production.

  2. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shay, T.A. ); Hoddinott, K. )

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Hydrophobic trichome layers and epicuticular wax powders in Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Pierce, S; Maxwell, K; Griffiths, H; Winter, K

    2001-08-01

    The distinctive foliar trichome of Bromeliaceae has promoted the evolution of an epiphytic habit in certain taxa by allowing the shoot to assume a significant role in the uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Despite the profound ecophysiological and taxonomic importance of this epidermal structure, the functions of nonabsorbent trichomes in remaining Bromeliaceae are not fully understood. The hypothesis that light reflection from these trichome layers provides photoprotection was not supported by spectroradiometry and fluorimetry in the present study; the mean reflectance of visible light from trichome layers did not exceed 6.4% on the adaxial surfaces of species representing a range of ecophysiological types nor was significant photoprotection provided by their presence. Several reports suggesting water repellency in some terrestrial Bromeliaceae were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a new technique-fluorographic dimensional imaging (FDI)-were used to assess the interaction between aqueous droplets and the leaf surfaces of 86 species from 25 genera. In the majority of cases a dense layer of overlapping, stellate or peltate trichomes held water off the leaf epidermis proper. In the case of hydrophobic tank-forming tillandsioideae, a powdery epicuticular wax layer provided water repellency. The irregular architecture of these indumenta resulted in relatively little contact with water droplets. Most mesic terrestrial Pitcairnioideae examined either possessed glabrous leaf blades or hydrophobic layers of confluent trichomes on the abaxial surface. Thus, the present study indicates that an important ancestral function of the foliar trichome in Bromeliaceae was water repellency. The ecophysiological consequences of hydrophobia are discussed.

  4. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  5. Turnover of Leaf Waxes in Florida Slash Pine: Results of an Isotopic Labeling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumsey, J.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.; Mortazavi, B.; Smith, M.; Chanton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic discrimination of terrestrial photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and δ13CO2 are important parameters in global carbon models that are employed to estimate global carbon sources and sinks. Yet, terrestrial isotopic discrimination can be highly variable over space and time, yielding large uncertainties of terrestrial fluxes. The isotopic composition of plant wax aerosols in continental air masses can be used as an indirect measure of the spatial and temporal patterns of photosynthetic discrimination integrated over large (subcontinental) spatial scales. However, the temporal offset between wax biosynthesis and the wax aerosol isotopic signal of photosynthetic discrimination is not well constrained. To further our understanding of this temporal lag, this study sought to determine the turnover time of conifer leaf waxes by performing an isotopic labeling experiment. Four clonal pine saplings were placed in a tent and labeled with enriched 13CO2 for one year, while another four control saplings were grown under ambient CO2. At the end of the year long enrichment, the labeled saplings were removed from the tent and placed in ambient air, such that the wax turnover rate could be determined by analyzing the resultant isotopic and molecular changes. The results of this experiment indicated that after 80 days of sequestering ambient CO2, the wax (and soluble sugar) isotopic composition of the labeled saplings varied minimally. The molecular composition of the waxes, however, did change over time. From these results we concluded that waxes are turning over, but rather than being synthesized de novo from recently fixed carbon precursors they are synthesized using carbon from stored (labeled) carbon pools. Therefore, the δ13C of conifer leaf waxes in aerosols may not reflect recent photosynthetic discrimination, but instead represents photosynthetic discrimination integrated over a longer period of time. The implications of these findings are focused on

  6. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  8. Slides for Petroleum Refinery Fenceline Monitoring Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These webinars provided an overview of EPA’s 2015 rule to reduce air emissions from petroleum refineries and solicit input on how to display the information collected from fenceline monitors at refineries.

  9. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  11. SYSTEMS CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of an established mathematical treatment useful for the characterization and identification of petroleum pollutants is described. Using discriminant analysis of relevant infrared spectrophotometric data, 99% of numerous known and unknown oil samples have been corr...

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  13. Petroleum and Individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    A general treatment of petroleum and PAHs including presentations on composition and characteristics, sources, environmental fate, and effects on plants, invertebrates, fish, reptiles and amphibians, birds, and mammals. A revision of the 1995 book chapter of the same title.

  14. A novel bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase mediates wax ester and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2003-03-07

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters are neutral lipids with considerable importance for dietetic, technical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1 accumulates wax esters and TAGs as intracellular storage lipids. We describe here the identification of a bifunctional enzyme from this bacterium exhibiting acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase (wax ester synthase, WS) as well as acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity. Experiments with a knock-out mutant demonstrated the key role of the bifunctional WS/DGAT for biosynthesis of both storage lipids in A. calcoaceticus. This novel type of long-chain acyl-CoA acyltransferase is not related to known acyltransferases including the WS from jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), the DGAT1 or DGAT2 families present in yeast, plants, and animals, and the phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase catalyzing TAG formation in yeast and plants. A large number of WS/DGAT-related proteins were identified in Mycobacterium and Arabidopsis thaliana indicating an important function of these proteins. WS and DGAT activity was demonstrated for the translational product of one WS/DGAT homologous gene from M. smegmatis mc(2)155. The potential of WS/DGAT to establish novel processes for biotechnological production of jojoba-like wax esters was demonstrated by heterologous expression in recombinant Pseudomonas citronellolis. The potential of WS/DGAT as a selective therapeutic target of mycobacterial infections is discussed.

  15. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  16. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis.

  17. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  18. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  19. Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880's, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

  20. Indonesian petroleum systems and exploration efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.V.C.; Tisnawijaya, S.

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of Indonesia has over 40 productive petroleum systems and more than 100 speculative petroleum systems. Since the first oil discoveries in the 1880`s, cumulative discovered ultimately recoverable petroleum resources in Indonesia have reached 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent. There are eight principal producing areas and nearly 1,000 oil and gas fields. Most of these resources have been found in the last 50 years. Successful exploration continues; at least two discoveries per year are made which exceed 50 million barrels of oil equivalent reserves. Productive/petroleum system source types are split almost equally between marine and deltaic-lacustrine facies. The majority of source rocks are Tertiary in age; Mesozoic source rocks are restricted to Eastern Indonesia. Discovery process analysis indicates generally high exploration efficiency in Indonesia. An upwardly convex discovery process curve typifies many systems, reflecting both exploration efficiency and maturity; this pattern is well displayed in areas such as Central Sumatra and Salawati. A much more random or straight line process curve, as seen in West Natuna, occurs where more complex petroleum systems have inhibited exploration efficiency. An inverted, or concave upward curve, seen in some Java petroleum systems, is probably economically driven, related to development of domestic Indonesian gas markets. Several curves, such as those for the North Sumatra:Bampo-Peutu and East Kalimantan:Tanjung systems are dominated by single fields. Different exploration phases can be recognized in many systems, each phase having its own specific exploration statistics.

  1. Biogenically formed petroleum should be considered

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, J.W.

    1987-06-01

    This article argues that the currently popular thermal maturation theory for source beds holds that significant quantities of petroleum (oil and/or gas that can be produced, captured and used as fuel or feedstock) cannot be generated at temperatures less than about 200/sup 0/F, which typically require burial depths of about 10,000 ft. On the contrary, physical geologic evidence often indicates that petroleum was generated within a few hundred feet vertically (stratigraphically) of its present occurrence and at significantly lower temperatures and shallower depths than held by thermal maturation theory. Further, it is known that at least some methane (such as ''swamp gas'') can be derived from immature sources; these are commonly called biogenic gases. So, perhaps most petroleum is formed under this old concept of biogenic petroleum, aided, but not limited by, the heating of kerogens. That is, perhaps most petroleum is produced by the activities of bacteria, and/or other life forms, on the remains of plants and animals. Certainly both procedures can produce petroleum; there is no need to universally accept one an reject the other.

  2. Asphaltenes: The cholesterol of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Kokal, S.L.; Sayegh, S.G.

    1995-11-01

    Asphaltene precipitation and deposition has been recognized to be a significant problem in oil production, transmission,and processing facilities. The precipitation of asphaltenes is cause by a number of factors including changes in pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the crude oil, mixing the oil with diluents or other oils, and during acid stimulation. The precipitated asphaltenes reduces the permeability of the reservoir near the well-bore region causing formation damage and can plug-up the well-bores and well tubings. Deposition of asphaltenic organic scales leads to operational problems, safety hazards and an overall decrease in production efficiency, thereby increasing the cost of oil production. This paper presents a review of the important factors which affect asphaltene precipitation in petroleum reservoirs and in processing facilities. The nature and characteristics of asphaltenes in the crude oil and their molecular and colloidal properties are discussed. A description of the asphaltene deposition problem manifestations in the reservoir, well bores and well tubings, processing and transportation equipment is presented. current research work in this area is also discussed.

  3. Thermal stability of petroleum pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum pitches and similar materials are becoming increasingly important as raw materials for the production of various types of carbons and graphites. Most recently, significant interest in such materials as low cost precursors for carbon fiber has developed. Crucial to success in this regard is the behavior of pitches and related substances as they pass through a mesophase or liquid crystalline form during heat treatment to form carbonaceous material. There is limited understanding of this phenomenon as well as the effects of pitch modification on it. An effort was made to elucidate the mesophase formation mechanisms by comparison of thermally-formed mesophase with that formed more rapidly in solvent-separated narrower pitch fractions. Specifically, selected pitches are subjected to heat treatment and characterized in terms of their composition, microstructural development, and rheology. Independent study was made of the effects of shearing field on composition, mesophase development, and molecular weight distributions for CTP-240 pitch. Complementary work is described for the thermal decomposition of pitch fractions obtained by solvent extraction. Several important technical advances are described that will assist in further study of these materials.

  4. Petroleum geology of east Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Two oil-gas provinces are present in East Siberia: the Lena-Tunguska in the central, southern, and western parts, and the Khatanga-Viluy along the northern and eastern margins. The provinces developed as rift-sag features in late Proterozoic and Paleozoic time. The identified oil and gas deposits of the Lena-Tunguska province appear to be associated with a Proterozoic rift that extends east-northeast across the southern part of the basin. These deposits are in upper Proterozoic and Cambrian sandstones and carbonate rocks, sealed by Cambrian salt and argillites. The oil and gas deposits of the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are within foreland downwarps that developed in connection with docking of crustal plates during the Mesozoic: during the Triassic on the north and during the Cretaceous on the east. The source of the petroleum in the immature rocks of the southeastern Lena-Tunguska province is uncertain, perhaps being derived from rocks in a downwarp to the south or from source beds that are now beneath a conjectured thrust sheet. This province has both oil and gas pools, but is gas prone in general. The source beds for the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are Permian and Mesozoic in age; the province is gas prone. More than 40 oil and gas fields have now been discovered in East Siberia.

  5. Stomatal Density Influences Leaf Water and Leaf Wax D/H Values in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Feakins, S. J.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant leaf wax is a powerful tool to study the hydrology of past and present environments. The δD value of leaf waxes is known to primarily reflect the δD value of source water, modified by biological fractionations commonly summarized as the 'net or apparent' fractionation. It remains a challenge, however, to quantitatively relate the isotopic composition of the end product (wax) back to that of the precursor (water) because multiple isotope effects contributing to the net fractionation are not yet well understood. Transgenic variants have heretofore unexplored potential to isolate individual isotope effects. Here we report the first hydrogen isotopic measurements from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with calculations of leaf water enrichment, net and biosynthetic fractionation values from measured δD of plant waters and leaf wax n-alkanes. We employed transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, engineered to have different stomatal density, by differential expression of the stomatal growth hormone stomagen. Comparison of variants and wild types allow us to isolate the effects of stomatal density on leaf water and the net fractionation expressed by leaf wax biomarkers. Results show that transgenic leaves with denser pores have more enriched leaf water and leaf wax δD values than wild type and even more so than transgenic leaves with sparse stomata (difference of 10 ‰). Our findings that stomatal density controls leaf water and leaf wax δD values adds insights into the cause of variations in net fractionations between species, as well as suggesting that geological variations in stomatal density may modulate the sedimentary leaf wax δD record. In nature, stomatal density varies between species and environments, and all other factors being equal, this will contribute to variations in fractionations observed. Over geological history, lower stomatal densities occur at times of elevated pCO2; our findings predict reduced leaf

  6. Digital image processing versus visual assessment of chewed two-colour wax in mixing ability tests.

    PubMed

    van der Bilt, A; Speksnijder, C M; de Liz Pocztaruk, R; Abbink, J H

    2012-01-01

    Two-colour chewing gum and wax have been widely used as test foods to evaluate the ability to mix and knead a food bolus. The mixing of the colours has been assessed by computer analysis or by visual inspection. Reports contradict each other about whether computer analysis and visual assessment could equally well discriminate between the masticatory performances of groups of participants with different dental status. This study compares the results of computer analysis of digital images of chewed two-colour wax with the results of visual assessment of these images. Sixty healthy subjects participated and chewed on red-blue wax for 5, 10, 15 and 20 chewing strokes. The subjects were divided into three groups of 20, matched for age and gender, according to their dental status: natural dentition, full dentures and maxillary denture plus implant-supported mandibular overdenture. Mixing of the chewed wax was determined by computer analysis of images of the wax and by visual assessment of the images by five examiners. Both the computer method and the observers were able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the dentate subjects from the two denture wearer groups. Computer analysis could also discriminate the mixing abilities of the two denture groups. However, observers were not able to distinguish the mixing abilities of the two denture groups after 5, 10 and 15 chewing strokes. Only after 20 chewing strokes, they could detect a significant difference in mixing ability.

  7. Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wax-coated Sands for Sport Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardet, J. P.; Benazza, C.; Bruchon, J. F.; Mishra, M.

    2009-06-01

    Natural soils such as sandy loams are being replaced by synthetic soils for various types of sport and recreational surfaces, including horseracing tracks. These synthetic soils are made of a mixture of sand, microcrystalline wax, synthetic fibers and rubber chips which optimize the mechanical and hydraulic properties of natural soils so that they drain faster after rainstorms and decrease risks of sport injuries while retaining appropriate sport performances. Silica sand, which makes up the largest fraction of synthetic soils, is hydrophyllic by nature, i.e., tends to retain water on sand grain surfaces. After rainstorms, hydrophilic surfaces retain a large amount of water, are difficult to compact, and yield uncontrollable mechanical and hydraulic properties when too moist. The addition of wax contributes to improving both mechanical and hydraulic properties of sands. Wax coats the sand grains with a thin layer, and enhances adherence between sand particles. It repels water from sand grains and influences both compaction and hydraulic properties. This study reports experimental results that help to understand the properties of wax-coated sands used in synthetic surfaces, especially the degradation of synthetic surfaces that have insufficient wax-coatings.

  8. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  9. Recommendations for dealing with asphaltene or wax problems in offshore production facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leontaritis, K.J.

    1996-09-01

    Many production facilities around the world suffer from either asphaltene or wax deposition. Asphaltene and wax problems are seriously threatening the economic production from many offshore reservoirs due to the high cost of remedial measures. Offshore production facilities are especially susceptible to asphaltene or wax deposition for a number of reasons. One indispensable requirement for dealing with these problems, that offshore production facilities usually lack, is extra storage capacity for temporarily storing asphaltene or wax cuttings and washings away from inflicted equipment. The cuttings and washings, even if temporary storage were available, need to be dealt with nearly on a daily basis. Providing equipment to process the slop offshore is expensive and messy (environmentally). Hence, the cuttings and washings, in many cases, must be carried away to onshore slop processing facilities. The above discussion assumes, of course, that the operator has already found the best technology (e.g., tools, chemicals, etc.) for removing the deposits from the offshore equipment, which in itself is another challenge that precedes the disposal problem. All of the above considerations underscore the fact that the best way of dealing with the asphaltene and wax problems is to prevent them, where possible. This paper presents ideas and methodologies on how to predict, diagnose, prevent, or mitigate problems caused by organic deposition in offshore production facilities. In one facility where these ideas were put to use, despite the debilitating magnitude of the asphaltene problems encountered, the field has been successfully produced for over 14 years with minimum environmental impact.

  10. Mechanism of drug release from an acrylic polymer-wax matrix tablet.

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Mehta, S C; Radebaugh, G W; Fawzi, M B

    1994-06-01

    An acrylic polymer-wax matrix system was evaluated for oral sustained-release tablets of diphenhydramine HCl. A desirable release profile of diphenhydramine was achieved by incorporating Eudragit L in a carnauba wax matrix. In this polymer-wax system, carnauba wax maintained the integrity of the matrix, whereas Eudragit L slowly eroded in the matrix as the drug was released. Thus, the area-to-volume ratio of the tablet remained constant over the duration of the drug release. In vitro drug release studies were conducted at physiological pHs that exist in the gastrointestinal tract. Drug release rates decreased as the polymer:drug ratio increased from 1:2 to 2:1. The drug release rate was faster in pH 7.5 phosphate buffer than in 0.1 N HCl solution. The drug release from these polymer-wax matrices is described by a combination diffusion/erosion mechanism. Based on the typical pH encountered in intestinal fluids, complete dissolution of the drug and polymer at pH 7.5 in 8-10 h would ensure good bioavailability of the drug following oral administration.

  11. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joensuu, Johanna; Altimir, Nuria; Hakola, Hannele; Rostás, Michael; Raivonen, Maarit; Vestenius, Mika; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Riederer, Markus; Bäck, Jaana

    2016-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  12. Effect of epicuticular wax on UV scattering of sorghum leaves and canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawhey, Cheryl I.; Grant, Richard H.

    2003-11-01

    Sorghum bicolor is grown in equatorial regions that have naturally high ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposures. To determine whether the increased wax production on the sorghum leaves and sheaths protects the plant by increased scattered radiation from the plant surface, the effects of wax amount on UVB reflectances were examined in greenhouse and field experiments involving three isolines of sorghum -- wild-type and two wax mutants. Reflectance of the wild-type sheath was found to be a result of the wax present while that on the mutant sheaths was not dependent on wax amount. Overhead UVB exposure corresponded with reduced sheath and increased leaf UVB reflectance for wild-type but negligible changes in both sheath and leaf reflectance for the two mutants. Although the sheath reflectances of wild-type were twice that of the two mutants, the negligible difference in leaf reflectance between isolines resulted in negligible differences in the canopy bi-directional reflectance, even at high view angles. The UVA canopy reflectance factors of the three sorghum isolines were measured at 0.03 at viewing angles near nadir on clear sky days. Predicted reflectance factors were calculated using the SAIL model then compared with the measured reflectance factors to evaluate the effect of sky diffuse fraction on the measured differences.

  13. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  14. Three-dimensional silicone microfluidic interconnection scheme using sacrificial wax filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmatilleke, Saman; Henderson, H. Thurman; Bhansali, Shekhar; Ahn, Chong H.

    2000-08-01

    A very simple room-temperature procedure is presented herein for formation of true three-dimensionality of microplumbing in plastic (silicone elastomer in this case), by molding the plastic to simply encapsulate a pre-formed network of sacrificial wax threads or other connected wax configurations which are ultimately to become micro channels and cavities in the plastic motherboard. When these wax sacrificial areas are etched away with acetone, precise cavities, channels, and capillaries results with direct arbitrary three- dimensionality for the first time. This method leads also to a simple and effective external interconnect scheme where ordinary fused silica tubes may be press-fitted into the surface opening to withstand high pressure. This method may be extended for connection of multiple levels of silicone motherboards together using small sections of fused silica tubing, with no loss of stacking volume because of the lack of any connector lips or bosses. An array of micro channels having circular cross sections with diameters of 100, 150 and 200 microns were molded on silicone elastomer using wax thread. The wax thread was dissolved in acetone after the silicon elastometer became components (motherboards) while being able to control the channel lengths within the stacks as desired. Mixing chambers were also molded in a single silicone elastomer layer, because true three-dimensionality is trivially possible without the complexity of multi stacked lithography.

  15. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  16. Major evolutionary trends in hydrogen isotope fractionation of vascular plant leaf waxes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Edwards, Erika J; Zeng, Yongbo; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (δD) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax δD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water δD values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences.

  17. Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Edwards, Erika J.; Zeng, Yongbo; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (δD) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax δD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water δD values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences. PMID:25402476

  18. Cuticular permeance in relation to wax and cutin development along the growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jarvis, Mike; Fricke, Wieland

    2007-05-01

    The developing leaf three of barley provides an excellent model system for the direct determination of relationships between amounts of waxes and cutin and cuticular permeance. Permeance of the cuticle was assessed via the time-course of uptake of either toluidine blue or (14)C-labelled benzoic acid ([(14)C] BA) along the length of the developing leaf. Toluidine blue uptake only occurred within the region 0-25 mm from the point of leaf insertion (POLI). Resistance--the inverse of permeance--to uptake of [(14)C] BA was determined for four leaf regions and was lowest in the region 10-20 mm above POLI. At 20-30 and 50-60 mm above POLI, it increased by factors of 6 and a further 32, respectively. Above the point of emergence of leaf three from the sheath of leaf two, which was 76-80 mm above POLI, resistance was as high as at 50-60 mm above POLI. GC-FID/MS analyses of wax and cutin showed that: (1) the initial seven fold increase in cuticular resistance coincided with increase in cutin coverage and appearance of waxes; (2) the second, larger and final increase in cuticle resistance was accompanied by an increase in wax coverage, whereas cutin coverage remained unchanged; (3) cutin deposition in barley leaf epidermis occurred in parallel with cell elongation, whereas deposition of significant amounts of wax commenced as cells ceased to elongate.

  19. Petroleum and the Environment: Teaching about Petroleum and the Future of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Travis; Camphire, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Students live in a world that is powered by petroleum and other energy resources to an unsurpassed degree. The United States today consumes more than 24% of all the energy used in the world--and about 60% of this energy is provided by petroleum (oil and natural gas). The availability of abundant, inexpensive energy is the main reason that the…

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; Crude oil prices; Prices of petroleum products; Volumes of petroleum products; and Prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1998, with data from March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Petroleum geology of southwestern Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Sitler, G.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 250 wells have been drilled in the 22-county area comprising southwestern Ohio. Despite numerous shows from various zones, no sustained commercial production has been established. Live oil and gas shows have been reported from surface exposures of outcropping Silurian carbonates down to, and including, the Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone. Several wells have been completed and actually produced hydrocarbons for a short period, but were subsequently abandoned. Despite the lack of established production, the area holds considerable promise as a potential oil and natural gas producing region. Gravity, magnetics, seismic, surface and source rock geochemistry, linear trace analysis, and subsurface computer mapping have all been used to study the structure, stratigraphy, and petroleum geology of the area. Basement geology is complex and has affected sedimentation patterns in the overlying Cambrian rocks. The Grenville-Central Province contact is present in the area and exhibits faulting, mineralization, and possibly plutonism. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the area is relatively simple, with clastics at the base, carbonates in the middle, and a thick shale capping the sequence. Several major facies changes are evident within the section. Structural geology is also fairly simple. However, local discontinuities are apparent and include Precambrian doming and faulting, reactivated faulting, and Knox unconformable surfaces. Potential reservoirs in the area include the Utica Shale, Trenton Limestone, St. Peter Sandstone, Rose Run sandstone, Knox dolomites, Kerbel sandstone, Eau Claire Sandstone, and Mount Simon Sandstone. Favorable source rock geochemistry and the abundance of hydrocarbon shows suggest favorable source rocks to be present. Many different types of traps have been observed.

  12. Petroleum geology of East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

  13. Pattern waxes and inaccuracies in fixed and removable partial denture castings.

    PubMed

    Diwan, R; Talic, Y; Omar, N; Sadig, W

    1997-05-01

    It is the desire of every dentist and dental technician to produce a restoration that will fit the patient with a minimum of adjustments and certainly one that does not require remaking. Yet many abuse the materials with which they work, either through improper manipulation, lack of familiarity with their properties, or by attempting to reduce laboratory time by taking short cuts. Wax is one of the materials that requires more knowledge and skill to manipulate accurately because it has a considerably higher coefficient of thermal expansion (and contraction) than any other dental material. It often contributes considerably to the inaccuracies of cast dental restorations. This article provides a review of dental waxes used to make prosthodontic castings and points out some of the properties of waxes that must be controlled to make accurate restorations.

  14. 'Wax bloom' on beeswax cultural heritage objects: Exploring the causes of the phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bartl, B; Kobera, L; Drábková, K; Ďurovič, M; Brus, J

    2015-07-01

    The term 'wax bloom' is used to describe a thin whitish crystalline layer that develops on the surface of beeswax objects under specific conditions. This phenomenon is undesirable, especially in the cases of objects with aesthetic or informational value, such as wax sculptures or historical seals. A combination of solid-state NMR and FTIR measurements allowed to obtain fairly detailed insight into the problem and to suggest a probable mechanism of its development. Secondary crystallization of unsaturated hydrocarbons from beeswax was determined as a primary cause. After the macroscopic solidification of beeswax from the melt, these molecules remain for months in a highly mobile, liquid-like state. This facilitates their diffusion to the surface, where they eventually crystallize, forming the 'wax bloom' effect. Although these results are of particular interest with respect to the conservation of beeswax artifacts, they are relevant to this material in general and help with understanding its unique properties.

  15. Structure of Anion-Conducting Polymers from Waxs and MD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisken, Barbara; Tahmasebi, Sepehr; Schibli, Eric; Holdcroft, Steven

    The structure of novel polymers for anion exchange membranes (AEMs) is investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a united-atom force field model based on the DREIDING force field. The polymers being studied are poly(benzimidazole) (PBI) derivatives including poly(dimethylbenzimidazole) (PDMBI), mesitylene poly(benzimidazole) (mes-PBI), and mesitylene poly(dimethylbenzimidazole) (mes-PDMBI). WAXS reveals an amorphous structure with two main length scales. By comparing simulation results to WAXS data, we attribute features observed in the scattering data to side-to-side spacing between polymer chains and to the parallel-ring stacking of the benzimidazole rings. Overall, we are able to validate the interpretation of scattering data by combining MD simulations and scattering experiments.

  16. GAMMA IRRADIATION TESTING OF MONTAN WAX FOR USE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    SOO,P.; HEISER,J.; HART,A.

    1996-09-08

    A field demonstration was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to quantify the potential use of montan wax as a subsurface barrier material for nuclear waste management applications. As part of that demonstration, a study was completed to address some of the characteristics of the wax. Of particular interest is its resistance to chemical and structural changes that would influence its integrity as a barrier to minimize the migration of contaminants from their storage or disposal locations. Properties that were evaluated included hardness, melting point, molecular weight, and biodegradation as a function of gamma radiation dose. Based on the data obtained to date the wax is extremely resistant to radiation-induced change. Coupled with low permeability, the material shows promise as a subsurface barrier material.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  20. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant–water environment at leaf flush

    PubMed Central

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season. PMID:23359675

  1. Leaf waxes in riparian trees: hydrogen isotopes, concentrations, and chain-length patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J.; Doman, C.; Khachaturyan, S.

    2011-12-01

    The stable hydrogen isotope ratios of epicuticular leaf wax n-alkanes record aspects of a plant's ecophysiological conditions. However, it remains unclear as to whether n-alkane hydrogen isotope values (δ2H) directly reflect environmental water (source water or tissue water) or environmental water in combination with a biochemical fractionation. Furthermore, it is uncertain if leaf n-alkane δ2H values reflect a single time interval during leaf expansion or if n-alkane δ2H values record the combination of inputs throughout the entire lifespan of a leaf. These different possibilities will influence how leaf wax biomarkers are interpreted in both ecological and environmental reconstruction contexts. To address these issues, we sampled leaves/buds, stems, and water sources of five common western U.S. riparian species under natural field conditions throughout the growing season. Riparian species were selected because the input water source is most likely to be nearly constant through the growing season. We found that species in this study demonstrated marked and systematic variations in n-alkane concentration, average chain length, and δ2H values. Intraspecific patterns were consistent: average chain lengths and δ2H values increased from bud opening through full leaf expansion with little variation during the remainder of the sampling interval, while leaf-wax concentration as a fraction of total biomass increased throughout the growing season. These data imply that leaf-wax δ2H values reflect multiple periods of wax growth and that the leaf wax is continually produced throughout a leaf's lifespan.

  2. Leaf-wax n-alkanes record the plant-water environment at leaf flush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, Brett J.; Berke, Melissa A.; Doman, Christine E.; Khachaturyan, Susanna; Ehleringer, James R.

    2013-02-01

    Leaf-wax n-alkanes 2H/1H ratios are widely used as a proxy in climate reconstruction. Although the broad nature of the relationship between n-alkanes δ2H values and climate is appreciated, the quantitative details of the proxy remain elusive. To examine these details under natural environmental conditions, we studied a riparian broadleaf angiosperm species, Populus angustifolia, growing on water with a constant δ2H value and monitored the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes and of stem, leaf, stream, and atmospheric waters throughout the entire growing season. Here we found the δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes recorded only a 2-wk period during leaf flush and did not vary for the 19 weeks thereafter when leaves remained active. We found δ2H values of leaf-wax n-alkanes of P. angustifolia record conditions earlier in the season rather than fully integrating the entire growing season. Using these data, we modeled precipitation δ2H values during the time of wax synthesis. We observed that the isotope ratios of this precipitation generally were 2H-enriched compared with mean annual precipitation. This model provides a mechanistic basis of the often-observed 2H-enrichment from the expected fractionation values in studies of broadleaf angiosperm leaf-wax δ2H. In addition, these findings may have implications for the spatial and temporal uses of n-alkane δ2H values in paleoapplications; when both plant community and growth form are known, this study allows the isolation of the precipitation dynamics of individual periods of the growing season.

  3. H-Isotopic Fractionation During Biosynthesis of Leaf Waxes in C3 Plants: Trees vs. Grasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Hou, J.; Huang, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that hydrogen isotope (D/H) ratios of higher-plant leaf waxes in lake sediments have great potential to be used as a proxy for reconstructing past source water isotope composition and/or relative humidity on continents. However, hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis of leaf waxes in various terrestrial plants remains poorly understood. A recent study of 7 terrestrial and aquatic plant types from a single site in Massachusetts shows that D/H ratios among different plant types can vary as much as 70‰, with the largest difference occurring between tree and grasses (Hou et al., in review). This variability may have been caused by different degrees of evapotranspiration among different plant types (e.g., trees vs. grasses), but could also be attributed to different biosynthetic isotopic fractionation. We designed a series of growth chamber experiments to trace the sources of hydrogen isotopic difference between trees and grasses. Five tree species [white ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), spruce (Picea sp.) and white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)] and three grass species [orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), timothy weed (Phleum pratense), Foxtail (Setaria sp.)] were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Plants were irrigated with the same source water. We tracked hydrogen isotopic variation of water from source water to stem water to leaf water, and eventually to leaf waxes. Fifty-three leaf and stem samples were harvested. Water from these samples was vacuum-extracted and analyzed for D/H ratios, and compared with D/H ratios of corresponding leaf waxes. Our results allow us to determine whether evapotranspiration rates or intrinsic isotopic fractionation during biosynthesis was the dominant factor controlling the H isotopic ratios of leaf waxes in trees and grasses. Our results are also helpful for interpreting hydrogen isotopic variations of sedimentary leaf waxes.

  4. Sensory quality and physiological responses in two mandarin varieties differing in ethanol accumulation after waxing and storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Gold Nugget’ (GN) and ‘Pixie’ (P) mandarins had been previously found by us to greatly differ in the amount of ethanol accumulated in the fruit after waxing and storage. Since ethanol is linked to off-flavor in waxed citrus it was of interest to investigate the potential physiological mechanisms t...

  5. Changes of the wax contents in mixtures of olive oils as determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Hodaifa, Gassan; MartínezNieto, Leopoldo; Lozano, Juan L; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    Mixing of refined olive-pomace oil with virgin olive oil is a fraud that has been tried often. Normally, the tests that detected the fraud were determinations of wax esters, erythrodiol+uvaol, and stigmastadienes contents. The most common is the determination of wax esters content (extra virgin olive oil is very poor in wax esters, usually less than 100 mg/kg). In this work, the variations of individual wax esters (C40, C42, C44, and C46), with different degrees of unsaturation content, and total wax esters were studied when extra virgin olive oil and refined pomace-olive oil were mixed. The following mixtures were prepared: extra virgin olive oil plus 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 25, 35, 45, 50, and 80% of refined olive-pomace oil. In all cases, individual and total wax ester content variation was linear with increasing percentage of refined olive-pomace oil in the mixture. The variation of the total wax esters content can be adjusted according to the equation: Total wax esters, mg/kg = 14.3 x (% refined olive-pomace oil) + 83.9.

  6. Evaluating Changes in Paleo-temperature Gradients using Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions of Leaf-wax Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Huber, M.; Pagani, M.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem in the paleoclimate modeling community has been the inability of the models to reproduce the shallow meridional temperature gradient (∆T) observed in proxy temperature records for the warm, greenhouse time intervals in Earth's history, such as the early Eocene. It is often stated that this mismatch indicates a missing high-latitude feedback mechanism in the climate models that would cause substantial polar amplification of warming. However, this issue is complicated by the potential biasing of proxy records due to issues related to temperature calibrations and/or diagenesis. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to estimate ∆T for these time intervals using hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf-wax biomarkers (dDleaf-wax) preserved in the sedimentary record. Today, dDleaf-wax is closely related to the hydrological cycle and source vegetation. In the mid- and high-latitudes, dDleaf-wax changes pertaining to the hydrological cycle can be interpreted using a Rayleigh distillation process, where evaporated moisture from the sub-tropics undergoes isotopic fractionation and becomes increasingly D-depleted during poleward transport. We develop a box model based on the Rayleigh distillation process that uses the global mean temperature for the time-period and geological archives of dDleaf-wax to estimate the meridional temperature gradient. We use this box model for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56Ma), a rapid-warming event in the early Eocene where global warming is accompanied by evidence for increased input of greenhouse gases. We compile existing leaf-wax dDleaf-wax records from the extra-tropics to estimate ∆T before and during the PETM. Preliminary results suggest that the temperature gradient increased during the body of the PETM, contradicting our expectations based on temperature proxies. We also use this approach to estimate ∆T during other intervals in earth's history, such as the early Eocene. Further

  7. Inheritance of ear wax types, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gonzalez, L; Lisker, R

    1982-01-01

    The mode of inheritance of ear wax type, ear lobe attachment and tongue rolling ability were studied in 77 families with a total of 293 children. The results clearly showed that the dry ear wax type and the attached ear lobe type represent the homozygous state for two pairs of autosomal recessive genes. The evidence for the same being true regarding the lack of ability to roll the tongue was less conclusive in our material, but this could be due to difficulties in communication between the examined individuals and the examiners.

  8. Modeling of the fast organic emissions from a wood-finishing product—Floor wax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, John C. S.; Guo, Zhishi

    Environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests were conducted to evaluate the fast organic emissions from a wood-finishing product—floor wax. For the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount of (<5 gm -2) of the wax was applied to an aluminum plate. It was found that the chamber exit organic concentrations can be estimated by a model with an initial condition of instant organic emissions. The model was applied to the house data to interpret the octane and nonane emissions. Significant sink effects were found in the house that prolonged the elevated octane and nonane concentrations for more than 2 days.

  9. Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev

    2009-04-15

    Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

  10. Some thermophysical properties of paraffin wax as a thermal storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Haji-Sheikh, A.; Eftekhar, J.; Lou, D.Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the suitability of paraffin wax SUNTECH P116 as a phase change material for storage of thermal energy. Certain temperature dependent thermophysical properties in the neighborhood of the melting point useful for this study, but not adequately available in the literature, are measured. They include thermal conductivity, density, thermal expansion coefficient, and viscosity. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of paraffin wax, in solid phase, is not a monotonic function of temperature as reported in the literature. Other thermophysical properties of the liquid phase measured vary monotonically with temperature.

  11. Cuticular Wax Accumulation Is Associated with Drought Tolerance in Wheat Near-Isogenic Lines

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun; Xu, Wen; Yu, Xiaocong; Shen, Hao; Li, Haosheng; Cheng, Dungong; Liu, Aifeng; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Cheng; Zhao, Shijie; Song, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI) conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC) in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS) conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1 and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha−1 and 7103.51 kg·ha−1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05), which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn) of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5 and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover, the leaf

  12. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  13. Unconventional petroleum: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Grissom, M.C.

    1983-10-30

    The summaries in this bulletin cover both secondary and tertiary recovery of petroleum and the following topics under Oil Shales and Tar Sands: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; and regulations. These summaries and older citations to information on petroleum, oil shales, and tar sands back to the 1960's are available for on-line searching and retrieval on the Energy Data Base using the DOE/RECON system or commercial on-line retrieval systems. Retrospective searches can be made on any aspect of petroleum, oil shales, or tar sands, or customized profiles can be developed to provide current information for each user's needs.

  14. Petroleum systems, resources of Southeast Asia, Australasia

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.

    1997-12-15

    The Southeast Asia-Australasia region has over 100 productive petroleum systems ranging in age from the Paleozoic to the Pliocene. Plate tectonics have played a fundamental role in controlling the distribution and character of the region`s petroleum systems. There is a clear division between those systems on the Eurasian plate and those on the Indo-Australian plate. The distribution of significant oil and gas resources is highly concentrated in just a few chrono-stratigraphic units. Early Tertiary Paleogene source rocks account for over 50% of the region`s in-place petroleum resources. This article summarizes the region`s systems and resources, and compares and contrasts some of their essential elements in Southeast Asia and Australasia. With average production of 3.2 million b/d of oil and 18 bscfd of gas, the region accounts for almost 6% of world oil and gas production.

  15. Process for manufacturing a petroleum resin

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, T.; Nagano, M.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-08-11

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a petroleum resin wherein a fraction (Component a) containing an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by cracking of petroleum and a thermally polymerized oil (Component b) obtained by previously thermal-polymerizing the component a are mixed and then the mixture of the components a and B is subjected to polymerization by employing a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. It is also directed to propose a petroleum resin of a superior quality having a softening point optionally in a range of 30-120/sup 0/C and various bromine value in such a manner that a mixing ratio of the components a and B is properly adjusted.

  16. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-11

    This report is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. The mirage of higher petroleum prices

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    Most petroleum industry price forecasters do not possess a record of which they can be proud. Long-term petroleum market forecasting has been so inaccurate that it has often been described as virtually impossible. To avoid criticism of their performance, many organizations no longer circulate their forecasts. Why have the forecasts been so wrong? Because of failure to predict supply. This paper reviews the erroneous methods used to predict price trends in the oil and gas industry and identifies methods to correct the problem.

  19. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadauria, S. ); Sengar, R.M.S. ); Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae.

  20. Situation report for petroleum exporting countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hermelee, A.; D'Acierno, J.; Beller, M.; Smith, T.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report incorporates the contents of fifteen individual situation reports for major petroleum exporting countries that were prepared from the Office of Energy Emergency Management Information System. The situation reports give a synopsis of political, economic, and petroleum industry data for each oil exporting country and are designed to provide up-to-date information enabling the EEMIS Project Office to react in a timely manner to late-breaking events. The report gives a brief overview of crude oil production for the major oil producing regions of the world and identifies crude flows from the major oil producing to consuming regions - Western Europe, United States, and Japan.

  1. Petroleum Production for the Nontechnical Person

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, F.

    1986-01-01

    Petroleum Production for the Nontechnical Person is written for those whose jobs touch the production field but who still want to know more about the basics of production - without going back to school and without getting bogged down in a lengthy discourse on fluid dynamics. Contents include: Overview of the petroleum industry; Majors and independents; Productive formations; Field development; Drilling equipment and methods; Formation evaluation; Completion methods; Casing and cementing; Production concepts; Production methods; Production problems and special cases; Stimulation methods; Waterflooding; Enhanced oil recovery; Natural gas processing and cogeneration; Glossary; Index.

  2. Two stochastic models useful in petroleum exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. M.; Bradley, P. G.

    1972-01-01

    A model of the petroleum exploration process that tests empirically the hypothesis that at an early stage in the exploration of a basin, the process behaves like sampling without replacement is proposed along with a model of the spatial distribution of petroleum reserviors that conforms to observed facts. In developing the model of discovery, the following topics are discussed: probabilitistic proportionality, likelihood function, and maximum likelihood estimation. In addition, the spatial model is described, which is defined as a stochastic process generating values of a sequence or random variables in a way that simulates the frequency distribution of areal extent, the geographic location, and shape of oil deposits

  3. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly with data for December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report presents statistical data on the production, imports, exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  9. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  10. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  13. 21 CFR 172.884 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 172.884... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.884 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the following prescribed...

  14. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.882 Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with...

  15. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.882 Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with...

  16. 49 CFR 393.69 - Liquefied petroleum gas systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas systems. 393.69 Section... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Fuel Systems § 393.69 Liquefied petroleum gas systems. (a) A fuel system that uses liquefied petroleum gas as a fuel for the operation of a motor vehicle or for...

  17. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.882 Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with...

  18. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.720 - Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas. 1065.720... Standards § 1065.720 Liquefied petroleum gas. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, liquefied petroleum gas for testing must meet the specifications in the following table: Table 1 of §...