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Sample records for a-580-867 large power

  1. 76 FR 49439 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... of large liquid dielectric power transformers (``large power transformers'') from the Republic of... Transformer Technology, Inc., (collectively, ``the Petitioners''). See the Petition for the Imposition of...

  2. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... initiation of the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  3. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... Commission (ITC), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on large power transformers from the... determination of sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers...

  4. 77 FR 40857 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... (the Department) has determined that imports of large power transformers from the Republic of Korea... large power transformers from Korea. See Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea...

  5. Analysis of large power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dommel, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Computer-oriented power systems analysis procedures in the electric utilities are surveyed. The growth of electric power systems is discussed along with the solution of sparse network equations, power flow, and stability studies.

  6. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  7. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  8. Variability in large-scale wind power generation: Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Weir, David

    2015-10-25

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net load events. The comparison shows regions with low variability (Sweden, Spain and Germany), medium variability (Portugal, Ireland, Finland and Denmark) and regions with higher variability (Quebec, Bonneville Power Administration and Electric Reliability Council of Texas in North America; Gansu, Jilin and Liaoning in China; and Norway and offshore wind power in Denmark). For regions with low variability, the maximum 1more » h wind ramps are below 10% of nominal capacity, and for regions with high variability, they may be close to 30%. Wind power variability is mainly explained by the extent of geographical spread, but also higher capacity factor causes higher variability. It was also shown how wind power ramps are autocorrelated and dependent on the operating output level. When wind power was concentrated in smaller area, there were outliers with high changes in wind output, which were not present in large areas with well-dispersed wind power.« less

  9. How large customer direct power transaction mode give consideration to power generation cleaning and power saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei; Li, Ran

    2017-05-01

    The so-called Large Customers' Direct Power Transaction, refers to the mode that the users on high voltage level, or being seized of hold the large power or independent power distribution, have the qualification of purchasing electricity directly from the generation companies and pay reasonable electricity transmission and distribution fee to the power network enterprises because the transaction is through its transmission channel. The Direct Purchase promotes the marketization level of electricity trading, but there are some problems in its developing process, especially whether promotes the green optimal allocation of power resources, this paper aims to explore the solution.

  10. Credit Risk Evaluation of Large Power Consumers Considering Power Market Transaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulin, Li; Erfeng, Xu; ke, Sun; Dunnan, Liu; Shuyi, Shen

    2018-03-01

    Large power users will participate in power market in various forms after power system reform. Meanwhile, great importance has always attached to the construction of the credit system in power industry. Due to the difference between the awareness of performance and the ability to perform, credit risk of power customer will emerge accordingly. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate credit risk of large power customers in the new situation of power market. Firstly, this paper constructs index system of credit risk of large power customers, and establishes evaluation model of interval number and AHP-entropy weight method.

  11. Power oscillation suppression by robust SMES in power system with large wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Cuk Supriyadi, A. N.; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    The large penetration of wind farm into interconnected power systems may cause the severe problem of tie-line power oscillations. To suppress power oscillations, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which is able to control active and reactive powers simultaneously, can be applied. On the other hand, several generating and loading conditions, variation of system parameters, etc., cause uncertainties in the system. The SMES controller designed without considering system uncertainties may fail to suppress power oscillations. To enhance the robustness of SMES controller against system uncertainties, this paper proposes a robust control design of SMES by taking system uncertainties into account. The inverse additive perturbation is applied to represent the unstructured system uncertainties and included in power system modeling. The configuration of active and reactive power controllers is the first-order lead-lag compensator with single input feedback. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on the enhancement of robust stability margin. The particle swarm optimization is used to solve the problem and achieve the controller parameters. Simulation studies in the six-area interconnected power system with wind farms confirm the robustness of the proposed SMES under various operating conditions.

  12. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers... materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings... Commission and Commerce by ABB Inc., Cary, NC; Delta Star Inc., Lynchburg, VA; and Pennsylvania Transformer...

  13. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Large Scale

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites provide for developing renewable energy in the United States. EPA developed national level site screening criteria in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal facilities. While the screening criteria demonstrate the potential to reuse contaminated land for renewable energy facilities, the criteria and data are neither designed to identify the best sites for developing renewable energy nor all-inclusive. Therefore, more detailed, site-specific analysis is necessary to identify or prioritize the best sites for developing renewable energy facilities based on the technical and economic potential. Please note that these sites were only pre-screened for renewable energy potential. The sites were not evaluated for land use constraints or current on the ground conditions. Additional research and site-specific analysis are needed to verify viability for renewable energy potential at a given site.

  14. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  15. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflation is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.

  16. Discharge transient coupling in large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John; Stillwell, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have shown that plasma environments can induce discharges in solar arrays. These plasmas simulate the environments found in low earth orbits where current plans call for operation of very large power systems. The discharges could be large enough to couple into the power system and possibly disrupt operations. Here, the general concepts of the discharge mechanism and the techniques of coupling are discussed. Data from both ground and flight experiments are reviewed to obtain an expected basis for the interactions. These concepts were applied to the Space Station solar array and distribution system as an example of the large space power system. The effect of discharges was found to be a function of the discharge site. For most sites in the array discharges would not seriously impact performance. One location at the negative end of the array was identified as a position where discharges could couple to charge stored in system capacitors. This latter case could impact performance.

  17. Reactor Power for Large Displacement Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Patrick Ray; Reid, Robert Stowers; Poston, David Irvin

    This is a PentaChart on reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles. Currently AUVs use batteries or combinations of batteries and fuel cells for power. Battery/fuel cell technology is limited by duration. Batteries and cell fuels are a good match for some missions, but other missions could benefit greatly by a longer duration. The goal is the following: to design nuclear systems to power an AUV and meet design constraints including non-proliferation issues, power level, size constraints, and power conversion limitations. The action plan is to continue development of a range of systems for terrestrial systems and focus onmore » a system for Titan Moon as alternative to Pu-238 for NASA.« less

  18. Controllable Bidirectional dc Power Sources For Large Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1995-01-01

    System redesigned for greater efficiency, durability, and controllability. Modern electronically controlled dc power sources proposed to supply currents to six electromagnets used to position aerodynamic test model in wind tunnel. Six-phase bridge rectifier supplies load with large current at voltage of commanded magnitude and polarity. Current-feedback circuit includes current-limiting feature giving some protection against overload.

  19. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  20. Power suppression at large scales in string inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: sddownes@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: dutta@physics.tamu.edu

    2013-12-01

    We study a possible origin of the anomalous suppression of the power spectrum at large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background within the framework of explicit string inflationary models where inflation is driven by a closed string modulus parameterizing the size of the extra dimensions. In this class of models the apparent power loss at large scales is caused by the background dynamics which involves a sharp transition from a fast-roll power law phase to a period of Starobinsky-like slow-roll inflation. An interesting feature of this class of string inflationary models is that the number of e-foldings of inflationmore » is inversely proportional to the string coupling to a positive power. Therefore once the string coupling is tuned to small values in order to trust string perturbation theory, enough e-foldings of inflation are automatically obtained without the need of extra tuning. Moreover, in the less tuned cases the sharp transition responsible for the power loss takes place just before the last 50-60 e-foldings of inflation. We illustrate these general claims in the case of Fibre Inflation where we study the strength of this transition in terms of the attractor dynamics, finding that it induces a pivot from a blue to a redshifted power spectrum which can explain the apparent large scale power loss. We compute the effects of this pivot for example cases and demonstrate how magnitude and duration of this effect depend on model parameters.« less

  1. Closing in on the large-scale CMB power asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, D.; Hutchinson, J.; Moss, A.; Scott, D.; Zibin, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have revealed a dipolar asymmetry in power at the largest scales, in apparent contradiction with the statistical isotropy of standard cosmological models. The significance of the effect is not very high, and is dependent on a posteriori choices. Nevertheless, a number of models have been proposed that produce a scale-dependent asymmetry. We confront several such models for a physical, position-space modulation with CMB temperature observations. We find that, while some models that maintain the standard isotropic power spectrum are allowed, others, such as those with modulated tensor or uncorrelated isocurvature modes, can be ruled out on the basis of the overproduction of isotropic power. This remains the case even when an extra isocurvature mode fully anticorrelated with the adiabatic perturbations is added to suppress power on large scales.

  2. Environmentally-induced voltage limitations in large space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    Large power systems proposed for future space missions imply higher operating voltage requirements which, in turn, will interact with the space plasma environment. The effects of these interactions can only be inferred because of the limited data base of ground simulations, small test samples, and two space flight experiments. This report evaluates floating potentials for a 100 kW power system operating at 300, 500, 750, and 1000 volts in relation to this data base. Of primary concern is the possibility of discharging to space. The implications of such discharges were studied at the 500 volt operational setting. It was found that discharging can shut down the power system if the discharge current exceeds the array short circuit current. Otherwise, a power oscillation can result that ranges from 2 to 20 percent, depending upon the solar array area involved in the discharge. Means of reducing the effect are discussed.

  3. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  4. Large space systems technology electronics: Data and power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, W. G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of hardware technology and manufacturing techniques required to meet space platform and antenna system needs in the 1980s is discussed. Preliminary designs for manned and automatically assembled space power system cables, connectors, and grounding and bonding materials and techniques are reviewed. Connector concepts, grounding design requirements, and bonding requirements are discussed. The problem of particulate debris contamination for large structure spacecraft is addressed.

  5. Just enough inflation: power spectrum modifications at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2014-12-01

    We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50- 60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic analytic analysis in the limit of a sudden transition between any possible non-slow-roll background evolution and the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at themore » beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low ℓ, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at ℓ∼< 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.« less

  6. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  7. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  8. Large-Scale Multiantenna Multisine Wireless Power Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yang; Clerckx, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is expected to be a technology reshaping the landscape of low-power applications such as the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency identification (RFID) networks, etc. Although there has been some progress towards multi-antenna multi-sine WPT design, the large-scale design of WPT, reminiscent of massive MIMO in communications, remains an open challenge. In this paper, we derive efficient multiuser algorithms based on a generalizable optimization framework, in order to design transmit sinewaves that maximize the weighted-sum/minimum rectenna output DC voltage. The study highlights the significant effect of the nonlinearity introduced by the rectification process on the design of waveforms in multiuser systems. Interestingly, in the single-user case, the optimal spatial domain beamforming, obtained prior to the frequency domain power allocation optimization, turns out to be Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT). In contrast, in the general weighted sum criterion maximization problem, the spatial domain beamforming optimization and the frequency domain power allocation optimization are coupled. Assuming channel hardening, low-complexity algorithms are proposed based on asymptotic analysis, to maximize the two criteria. The structure of the asymptotically optimal spatial domain precoder can be found prior to the optimization. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated. Numerical results confirm the inefficiency of the linear model-based design for the single and multi-user scenarios. It is also shown that as nonlinear model-based designs, the proposed algorithms can benefit from an increasing number of sinewaves.

  9. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  10. Concept for a power system controller for large space electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, L. F.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The development of technology for a fail-operatonal power system controller (PSC) utilizing microprocessor technology for managing the distribution and power processor subsystems of a large multi-kW space electrical power system is discussed. The specific functions which must be performed by the PSC, the best microprocessor available to do the job, and the feasibility, cost savings, and applications of a PSC were determined. A limited function breadboard version of a PSC was developed to demonstrate the concept and potential cost savings.

  11. Small vulnerable sets determine large network cascades in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. By using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set. These results elucidate aspects of the origins and causesmore » of cascading failures relevant for grid design and operation and demonstrate vulnerability analysis methods that are applicable to a wider class of cascade-prone networks.« less

  12. Small vulnerable sets determine large network cascades in power grids

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yang; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-11-17

    The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. By using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set. These results elucidate aspects of the origins and causesmore » of cascading failures relevant for grid design and operation and demonstrate vulnerability analysis methods that are applicable to a wider class of cascade-prone networks.« less

  13. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power transmitting antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A dual reference SPS system with pseudoisotropic graphite composite as a representative dimensionally stable composite was studied. The loads, accelerations, thermal environments, temperatures and distortions were calculated for a variety of operational SPS conditions along with statistical considerations of material properties, manufacturing tolerances, measurement accuracy and the resulting loss of sight (LOS) and local slope distributions. A LOS error and a subarray rms slope error of two arc minutes can be achieved with a passive system. Results show that existing materials measurement, manufacturing, assembly and alignment techniques can be used to build the microwave power transmission system antenna structure. Manufacturing tolerance can be critical to rms slope error. The slope error budget can be met with a passive system. Structural joints without free play are essential in the assembly of the large truss structure. Variations in material properties, particularly for coefficient of thermal expansion from part to part, is more significant than actual value.

  14. Power Spectral Density Specification and Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2009-01-01

    The 2-dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) can be used to characterize the mid- and the high-spatial frequency components of the surface height errors of an optical surface. We found it necessary to have a complete, easy-to-use approach for specifying and evaluating the PSD characteristics of large optical surfaces, an approach that allows one to specify the surface quality of a large optical surface based on simulated results using a PSD function and to evaluate the measured surface profile data of the same optic in comparison with those predicted by the simulations during the specification-derivation process. This paper provides a complete mathematical description of PSD error, and proposes a new approach in which a 2-dimentional (2D) PSD is converted into a 1-dimentional (1D) one by azimuthally averaging the 2D-PSD. The 1D-PSD calculated this way has the same unit and the same profile as the original PSD function, thus allows one to compare the two with each other directly.

  15. High-power picosecond laser with 400W average power for large scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Keming; Brüning, Stephan; Gillner, Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Laser processing is generally known for low thermal influence, precise energy processing and the possibility to ablate every type of material independent on hardness and vaporisation temperature. The use of ultra-short pulsed lasers offers new possibilities in the manufacturing of high end products with extra high processing qualities. For achieving a sufficient and economical processing speed, high average power is needed. To scale the power for industrial uses the picosecond laser system has been developed, which consists of a seeder, a preamplifier and an end amplifier. With the oscillator/amplifier system more than 400W average power and maximum pulse energy 1mJ was obtained. For study of high speed processing of large embossing metal roller two different ps laser systems have been integrated into a cylinder engraving machine. One of the ps lasers has an average power of 80W while the other has 300W. With this high power ps laser fluencies of up to 30 J/cm2 at pulse repetition rates in the multi MHz range have been achieved. Different materials (Cu, Ni, Al, steel) have been explored for parameters like ablation rate per pulse, ablation geometry, surface roughness, influence of pulse overlap and number of loops. An enhanced ablation quality and an effective ablation rate of 4mm3/min have been achieved by using different scanning systems and an optimized processing strategy. The max. achieved volume rate is 20mm3/min.

  16. Research on trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase considering consumption of clean energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guojun, He; Lin, Guo; Zhicheng, Yu; Xiaojun, Zhu; Lei, Wang; Zhiqiang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    In order to reduce the stochastic volatility of supply and demand, and maintain the electric power system's stability after large scale stochastic renewable energy sources connected to grid, the development and consumption should be promoted by marketing means. Bilateral contract transaction model of large users' direct power purchase conforms to the actual situation of our country. Trading pattern of large users' direct power purchase is analyzed in this paper, characteristics of each power generation are summed up, and centralized matching mode is mainly introduced. Through the establishment of power generation enterprises' priority evaluation index system and the analysis of power generation enterprises' priority based on fuzzy clustering, the sorting method of power generation enterprises' priority in trading patterns of large users' direct power purchase is put forward. Suggestions for trading mechanism of large users' direct power purchase are offered by this method, which is good for expand the promotion of large users' direct power purchase further.

  17. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight, allowing..., under an approved procedure, operate a reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane at...

  18. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on the... operators may select an airport as an alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large transport... and terrain. (c) A program manager or other person flying a turbine engine powered large transport...

  20. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on the... operators may select an airport as an alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport...

  1. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take off... this section, no person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large transport... and terrain. (c) A program manager or other person flying a turbine engine powered large transport...

  3. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take off... this section, no person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take...

  4. Security, protection, and control of power systems with large-scale wind power penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Naresh

    As the number of wind generation facilities in the utility system is fast increasing, many issues associated with their integration into the power system are beginning to emerge. Of the various issues, this dissertation deals with the development of new concepts and computational methods to handle the transmission issues and voltage issues caused by large-scale integration of wind turbines. This dissertation also formulates a probabilistic framework for the steady-state security assessment of wind power incorporating the forecast uncertainty and correlation. Transmission issues are mainly related to the overloading of transmission lines, when all the wind power generated cannot be delivered in full due to prior outage conditions. To deal with this problem, a method to curtail the wind turbine outputs through Energy Management System facilities in the on-line operational environment is proposed. The proposed method, which is based on linear optimization, sends the calculated control signals via the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system to wind farm controllers. The necessary ramping of the wind farm outputs is implemented either by the appropriate blade pitch angle control at the turbine level or by switching a certain number of turbines. The curtailment strategy is tested with an equivalent system model of MidAmerican Energy Company. The results show that the line overload in high wind areas can be alleviated by controlling the outputs of the wind farms step-by-step over an allowable period of time. A low voltage event during a system fault can cause a large number of wind turbines to trip, depending on voltages at the wind turbine terminals during the fault and the under-voltage protection setting of wind turbines. As a result, an N-1 contingency may evolve into an N-(K+1) contingency, where K is the number of wind farms tripped due to low voltage conditions. Losing a large amount of wind power following a line contingency might lead to system

  5. Design considerations for large space electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.; Finke, R. C.; Stevens, N. J.; Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    As power levels of spacecraft rise to the 50 to 100 kW range, it becomes apparent that low voltage (28 V) dc power distribution and management systems will not operate efficiently at these higher power levels. The concept of transforming a solar array voltage at 150 V dc into a 1000 V ac distribution system operating at 20 kHz is examined. The transformation is accomplished with series-resonant inverter by using a rotary transformer to isolate the solar array from the spacecraft. The power can then be distributed in any desired method such as three phase delta to delta. The distribution voltage can be easily transformed to any desired load voltage and operating frequency. The reasons for the voltage limitations on the solar array due to plasma interactions and the many advantages of a high voltage, high frequency at distribution system are discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large transport...

  7. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on the...

  8. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take off...

  9. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take off...

  10. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on the...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large transport...

  12. 14 CFR 135.387 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....387 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... alternate airport for a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane unless (based on the...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1037 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....1037 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered; Limitations; Destination and alternate airports. (a) No program manager or any other person may permit a turbine engine powered large transport...

  14. 14 CFR 135.385 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine....385 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane may take off...

  15. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failuremore » in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.« less

  16. High voltage-high power components for large space power distribution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    Space power components including a family of bipolar power switching transistors, fast switching power diodes, heat pipe cooled high frequency transformers and inductors, high frequency conduction cooled transformers, high power-high frequency capacitors, remote power controllers and rotary power transfer devices were developed. Many of these components such as the power switching transistors, power diodes and the high frequency capacitor are commercially available. All the other components were developed to the prototype level. The dc/dc series resonant converters were built to the 25 kW level.

  17. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Achievable flatness for the microwave power transmission system antenna array was determined. Two configurations were analyzed in detail and evaluated as to their net potential misalignment. Manufacturing, joint slack, assembly, alignment and environmental aspects were considered. Approaches to each aspect were analyzed to minimize their contributions to distortions.

  18. Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons Power Divider with large Isolation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiyan; Lin, Jing-Yu; Wong, Sai-Wai; Deng, Fei; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yang; He, Yejun; Tu, Zhi-Hong

    2018-04-13

    Periodic corrugated metal structure is designed to support and propagate spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) wave in the microwave frequencies. In this paper, firstly a plasmonic waveguide consisting of oval-ring shaped cells is proposed with the performance of high transmission efficiency in a wide frequency range. The coplanar waveguides (CPWs) with 50 Ω impedance are adopted to feed the energies or extract signals at both ends of the plasmonic waveguide. Then a well-isolated power divider is constructed based on the SSPPs waveguides aiming to equally split the energy of the SSPPs wave into two equal parts. The stepped-impedances are co-designed with the three input/output ports of the power divider to achieve the impedance-matching between the SSPPs waveguides and the coplanar waveguides. Besides, a single resistor is placed in the middle of two symmetrical half oval-rings to realize the isolation between the two output ports over the spectrum of 4.5-7.5 GHz. Finally, both plasmonic waveguide and the power divider are fabricated and tested to verify the predicted characteristics.

  19. Large-scale Eucalyptus energy farms and power cogeneration

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Noroña

    1983-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of all factors possibly affecting a large-scale planting of eucalyptus is foremost in determining the cost effectiveness of the planned operation. Seven basic areas of concern must be analyzed:1. Species Selection 2. Site Preparation 3. Planting 4. Weed Control 5....

  20. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  1. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  2. Contribution of large scale coherence to wind turbine power: A large eddy simulation study in periodic wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Tanmoy; Peet, Yulia T.

    2018-03-01

    Length scales of eddies involved in the power generation of infinite wind farms are studied by analyzing the spectra of the turbulent flux of mean kinetic energy (MKE) from large eddy simulations (LES). Large-scale structures with an order of magnitude bigger than the turbine rotor diameter (D ) are shown to have substantial contribution to wind power. Varying dynamics in the intermediate scales (D -10 D ) are also observed from a parametric study involving interturbine distances and hub height of the turbines. Further insight about the eddies responsible for the power generation have been provided from the scaling analysis of two-dimensional premultiplied spectra of MKE flux. The LES code is developed in a high Reynolds number near-wall modeling framework, using an open-source spectral element code Nek5000, and the wind turbines have been modelled using a state-of-the-art actuator line model. The LES of infinite wind farms have been validated against the statistical results from the previous literature. The study is expected to improve our understanding of the complex multiscale dynamics in the domain of large wind farms and identify the length scales that contribute to the power. This information can be useful for design of wind farm layout and turbine placement that take advantage of the large-scale structures contributing to wind turbine power.

  3. Optimization of hybrid power system composed of SMES and flywheel MG for large pulsed load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, K.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2008-09-01

    A superconducting magnetic storage system (SMES) has some advantages such as rapid large power response and high storage efficiency which are superior to other energy storage systems. A flywheel motor generator (FWMG) has large scaled capacity and high reliability, and hence is broadly utilized for a large pulsed load, while it has comparatively low storage efficiency due to high mechanical loss compared with SMES. A fusion power plant such as International Thermo-Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires a large and long pulsed load which causes a frequency deviation in a utility power system. In order to keep the frequency within an allowable deviation, we propose a hybrid power system for the pulsed load, which equips the SMES and the FWMG with the utility power system. We evaluate installation cost and frequency control performance of three power systems combined with energy storage devices; (i) SMES with the utility power, (ii) FWMG with the utility power, (iii) both SMES and FWMG with the utility power. The first power system has excellent frequency power control performance but its installation cost is high. The second system has inferior frequency control performance but its installation cost is the lowest. The third system has good frequency control performance and its installation cost is attained lower than the first power system by adjusting the ratio between SMES and FWMG.

  4. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine powered: Takeoff limitations. 135.379 Section 135.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane...

  5. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine powered: Takeoff limitations. 135.379 Section 135.379 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine... existing at take- off. (b) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane...

  6. Implicit Particle Filter for Power System State Estimation with Large Scale Renewable Power Integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoglu, B.; Hussaini, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Implicit Particle Filter is a sequential Monte Carlo method for data assimilation that guides the particles to the high-probability by an implicit step . It optimizes a nonlinear cost function which can be inherited from legacy assimilation routines . Dynamic state estimation for almost real-time applications in power systems are becomingly increasingly more important with integration of variable wind and solar power generation. New advanced state estimation tools that will replace the old generation state estimation in addition to having a general framework of complexities should be able to address the legacy software and able to integrate the old software in a mathematical framework while allowing the power industry need for a cautious and evolutionary change in comparison to a complete revolutionary approach while addressing nonlinearity and non-normal behaviour. This work implements implicit particle filter as a state estimation tool for the estimation of the states of a power system and presents the first implicit particle filter application study on a power system state estimation. The implicit particle filter is introduced into power systems and the simulations are presented for a three-node benchmark power system . The performance of the filter on the presented problem is analyzed and the results are presented.

  7. Large-Scale Power Production Potential on U.S. Department of Energy Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, Alicen J.; Elgqvist, Emma M.; Gagne, Douglas A.

    This report summarizes the potential for independent power producers to generate large-scale power on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and export that power into a larger power market, rather than serving on-site DOE loads. The report focuses primarily on the analysis of renewable energy (RE) technologies that are commercially viable at utility scale, including photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), wind, biomass, landfill gas (LFG), waste to energy (WTE), and geothermal technologies. The report also summarizes the availability of fossil fuel, uranium, or thorium resources at 55 DOE sites.

  8. The influence of large-scale wind power on global climate.

    PubMed

    Keith, David W; Decarolis, Joseph F; Denkenberger, David C; Lenschow, Donald H; Malyshev, Sergey L; Pacala, Stephen; Rasch, Philip J

    2004-11-16

    Large-scale use of wind power can alter local and global climate by extracting kinetic energy and altering turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. We report climate-model simulations that address the possible climatic impacts of wind power at regional to global scales by using two general circulation models and several parameterizations of the interaction of wind turbines with the boundary layer. We find that very large amounts of wind power can produce nonnegligible climatic change at continental scales. Although large-scale effects are observed, wind power has a negligible effect on global-mean surface temperature, and it would deliver enormous global benefits by reducing emissions of CO(2) and air pollutants. Our results may enable a comparison between the climate impacts due to wind power and the reduction in climatic impacts achieved by the substitution of wind for fossil fuels.

  9. Output Control Technologies for a Large-scale PV System Considering Impacts on a Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Akira

    The mega-solar demonstration project named “Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale PV Power Generation systems” had been completed in March 2011 at Wakkanai, the northernmost city of Japan. The major objectives of this project were to evaluate adverse impacts of large-scale PV power generation systems connected to the power grid and develop output control technologies with integrated battery storage system. This paper describes the outline and results of this project. These results show the effectiveness of battery storage system and also proposed output control methods for a large-scale PV system to ensure stable operation of power grids. NEDO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan conducted this project and HEPCO, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc managed the overall project.

  10. Effects of biasing on the galaxy power spectrum at large scales

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid; Durrer, Ruth

    2011-05-15

    In this paper we study the effect of biasing on the power spectrum at large scales. We show that even though nonlinear biasing does introduce a white noise contribution on large scales, the P(k){proportional_to}k{sup n} behavior of the matter power spectrum on large scales may still be visible and above the white noise for about one decade. We show, that the Kaiser biasing scheme which leads to linear bias of the correlation function on large scales, also generates a linear bias of the power spectrum on rather small scales. This is a consequence of the divergence on small scales ofmore » the pure Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum. However, biasing becomes k dependent if we damp the underlying power spectrum on small scales. We also discuss the effect of biasing on the baryon acoustic oscillations.« less

  11. A novel photovoltaic power system which uses a large area concentrator mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrison, Anne; Fatemi, Navid

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been made of a novel photovoltaic power system concept. The system is composed of a small area, dense photovoltaic array, a large area solar concentrator, and a battery system for energy storage. The feasibility of such a system is assessed for space power applications. The orbital efficiency, specific power, mass, and area of the system are calculated under various conditions and compared with those for the organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic system proposed for Space Station. Near term and advanced large area concentrator photovoltaic systems not only compare favorably to solar dynamic systems in terms of performance but offer other benefits as well.

  12. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No...

  13. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a...

  14. 14 CFR 135.377 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... Limitations § 135.377 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

  15. 14 CFR 135.369 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: All...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... Limitations § 135.369 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations...

  16. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No...

  17. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.379 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine...

  18. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.379 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine...

  19. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.379 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine engine...

  20. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No...

  1. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No...

  2. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a...

  3. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No...

  4. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a...

  5. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a...

  6. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a...

  7. A new framework to increase the efficiency of large-scale solar power plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Shahrouz; Kleissl, Jan P.

    2015-11-01

    A new framework to estimate the spatio-temporal behavior of solar power is introduced, which predicts the statistical behavior of power output at utility scale Photo-Voltaic (PV) power plants. The framework is based on spatio-temporal Gaussian Processes Regression (Kriging) models, which incorporates satellite data with the UCSD version of the Weather and Research Forecasting model. This framework is designed to improve the efficiency of the large-scale solar power plants. The results are also validated from measurements of the local pyranometer sensors, and some improvements in different scenarios are observed. Solar energy.

  8. Development of an automated electrical power subsystem testbed for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed two autonomous electrical power system breadboards. The first breadboard, the autonomously managed power system (AMPS), is a two power channel system featuring energy generation and storage and 24-kW of switchable loads, all under computer control. The second breadboard, the space station module/power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed, is a two-bus 120-Vdc model of the Space Station power subsystem featuring smart switchgear and multiple knowledge-based control systems. NASA/MSFC is combining these two breadboards to form a complete autonomous source-to-load power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS). LASEPS is a high-power, intelligent, physical electrical power system testbed which can be used to derive and test new power system control techniques, new power switching components, and new energy storage elements in a more accurate and realistic fashion. LASEPS has the potential to be interfaced with other spacecraft subsystem breadboards in order to simulate an entire space vehicle. The two individual systems, the combined systems (hardware and software), and the current and future uses of LASEPS are described.

  9. Power monitoring and control for large scale projects: SKA, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. Paulo; Maia, Dalmiro; Carvalho, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Swart, Paul; Le Roux, Gerhard; Natarajan, Swaminathan; van Ardenne, Arnold; Seca, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Large sensor-based science infrastructures for radio astronomy like the SKA will be among the most intensive datadriven projects in the world, facing very high demanding computation, storage, management, and above all power demands. The geographically wide distribution of the SKA and its associated processing requirements in the form of tailored High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, require a Greener approach towards the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) adopted for the data processing to enable operational compliance to potentially strict power budgets. Addressing the reduction of electricity costs, improve system power monitoring and the generation and management of electricity at system level is paramount to avoid future inefficiencies and higher costs and enable fulfillments of Key Science Cases. Here we outline major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science and Smart power monitoring and control.

  10. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-05

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs.

  11. Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.

  12. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an intended..., 1958, but before August 30, 1959 (SR422A). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large...

  13. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an intended..., 1958, but before August 30, 1959 (SR422A). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large...

  14. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  15. Direct heuristic dynamic programming for damping oscillations in a large power system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Si, Jennie; Xie, Xiaorong

    2008-08-01

    This paper applies a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming method, namely, the direct heuristic dynamic programming (direct HDP), to a large power system stability control problem. The direct HDP is a learning- and approximation-based approach to addressing nonlinear coordinated control under uncertainty. One of the major design parameters, the controller learning objective function, is formulated to directly account for network-wide low-frequency oscillation with the presence of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and coupling effect among system components. Results include a novel learning control structure based on the direct HDP with applications to two power system problems. The first case involves static var compensator supplementary damping control, which is used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the learning control performance. The second case aims at addressing a difficult complex system challenge by providing a new solution to a large interconnected power network oscillation damping control problem that frequently occurs in the China Southern Power Grid.

  16. Large- and small-scale constraints on power spectra in Omega = 1 universes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1993-01-01

    The CDM model of structure formation, normalized on large scales, leads to excessive pairwise velocity dispersions on small scales. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we study three scenarios (all with Omega = 1) with more large-scale and less small-scale power than the standard CDM model: (1) cold dark matter with significantly reduced small-scale power (inspired by models with an admixture of cold and hot dark matter); (2) cold dark matter with a non-scale-invariant power spectrum; and (3) cold dark matter with coupling of dark matter to a long-range vector field. When normalized to COBE on large scales, such models do lead to reduced velocities on small scales and they produce fewer halos compared with CDM. However, models with sufficiently low small-scale velocities apparently fail to produce an adequate number of halos.

  17. A large-eddy simulation based power estimation capability for wind farms over complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senocak, I.; Sandusky, M.; Deleon, R.

    2017-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in predicting wind fields over complex terrain at the micro-scale for resource assessment, turbine siting, and power forecasting. These capabilities are made possible by advancements in computational speed from a new generation of computing hardware, numerical methods and physics modelling. The micro-scale wind prediction model presented in this work is based on the large-eddy simulation paradigm with surface-stress parameterization. The complex terrain is represented using an immersed-boundary method that takes into account the parameterization of the surface stresses. Governing equations of incompressible fluid flow are solved using a projection method with second-order accurate schemes in space and time. We use actuator disk models with rotation to simulate the influence of turbines on the wind field. Data regarding power production from individual turbines are mostly restricted because of proprietary nature of the wind energy business. Most studies report percentage drop of power relative to power from the first row. There have been different approaches to predict power production. Some studies simply report available wind power in the upstream, some studies estimate power production using power curves available from turbine manufacturers, and some studies estimate power as torque multiplied by rotational speed. In the present work, we propose a black-box approach that considers a control volume around a turbine and estimate the power extracted from the turbine based on the conservation of energy principle. We applied our wind power prediction capability to wind farms over flat terrain such as the wind farm over Mower County, Minnesota and the Horns Rev offshore wind farm in Denmark. The results from these simulations are in good agreement with published data. We also estimate power production from a hypothetical wind farm in complex terrain region and identify potential zones suitable for wind power production.

  18. Overview of Small and Large-Scale Space Solar Power Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Howell, Joe; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2006-01-01

    An overview of space solar power studies performed at the Boeing Company under contract with NASA will be presented. The major concepts to be presented are: 1. Power Plug in Orbit: this is a spacecraft that collects solar energy and distributes it to users in space using directed radio frequency or optical energy. Our concept uses solar arrays having the same dimensions as ISS arrays, but are assumed to be more efficient. If radiofrequency wavelengths are used, it will necessitate that the receiving satellite be equipped with a rectifying antenna (rectenna). For optical wavelengths, the solar arrays on the receiving satellite will collect the power. 2. Mars Clipper I Power Explorer: this is a solar electric Mars transfer vehicle to support human missions. A near-term precursor could be a high-power radar mapping spacecraft with self-transport capability. Advanced solar electric power systems and electric propulsion technology constitute viable elements for conducting human Mars missions that are roughly comparable in performance to similar missions utilizing alternative high thrust systems, with the one exception being their inability to achieve short Earth-Mars trip times. 3. Alternative Architectures: this task involves investigating alternatives to the traditional solar power satellite (SPS) to supply commercial power from space for use on Earth. Four concepts were studied: two using photovoltaic power generation, and two using solar dynamic power generation, with microwave and laser power transmission alternatives considered for each. All four architectures use geostationary orbit. 4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot in Earth Orbit: this concept uses large solar arrays (producing perhaps 600 kW) to electrolyze water launched from Earth, liquefy the resulting hydrogen and oxygen gases, and store them until needed by spacecraft. 5. Beam-Powered Lunar Polar Rover: a lunar rover powered by a microwave or laser beam can explore permanently shadowed craters near the lunar

  19. Large-scale terrestrial solar cell power generation cost: A preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spakowski, A. E.; Shure, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    A cost study was made to assess the potential of the large-scale use of solar cell power for terrestrial applications. The incentive is the attraction of a zero-pollution source of power for wide-scale use. Unlike many other concepts for low-pollution power generation, even thermal pollution is avoided since only the incident solar flux is utilized. To provide a basis for comparison and a perspective for evaluation, the pertinent technology was treated in two categories: current and optimistic. Factors considered were solar cells, array assembly, power conditioning, site preparation, buildings, maintenance, and operation. The capital investment was assumed to be amortized over 30 years. The useful life of the solar cell array was assumed to be 10 years, and the cases of zero and 50-percent performance deg-radation were considered. Land costs, taxes, and profits were not included in this study because it was found too difficult to provide good generalized estimates of these items. On the basis of the factors considered, it is shown that even for optimistic projections of technology, electric power from large-sclae terrestrial use of solar cells is approximately two to three orders of magnitude more costly than current electric power generation from either fossil or nuclear fuel powerplants. For solar cell power generation to be a viable competitor on a cost basis, technological breakthroughs would be required in both solar cell and array fabrication and in site preparation.

  20. Large-scale data analysis of power grid resilience across multiple US service regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chuanyi; Wei, Yun; Mei, Henry; Calzada, Jorge; Carey, Matthew; Church, Steve; Hayes, Timothy; Nugent, Brian; Stella, Gregory; Wallace, Matthew; White, Joe; Wilcox, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Severe weather events frequently result in large-scale power failures, affecting millions of people for extended durations. However, the lack of comprehensive, detailed failure and recovery data has impeded large-scale resilience studies. Here, we analyse data from four major service regions representing Upstate New York during Super Storm Sandy and daily operations. Using non-stationary spatiotemporal random processes that relate infrastructural failures to recoveries and cost, our data analysis shows that local power failures have a disproportionally large non-local impact on people (that is, the top 20% of failures interrupted 84% of services to customers). A large number (89%) of small failures, represented by the bottom 34% of customers and commonplace devices, resulted in 56% of the total cost of 28 million customer interruption hours. Our study shows that extreme weather does not cause, but rather exacerbates, existing vulnerabilities, which are obscured in daily operations.

  1. Nonlinear modulation of the HI power spectrum on ultra-large scales. I

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com, E-mail: mgrsantos@uwc.ac.za

    2016-03-01

    Intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen brightness temperature promises to provide a three-dimensional view of the universe on very large scales. Nonlinear effects are typically thought to alter only the small-scale power, but we show how they may bias the extraction of cosmological information contained in the power spectrum on ultra-large scales. For linear perturbations to remain valid on large scales, we need to renormalize perturbations at higher order. In the case of intensity mapping, the second-order contribution to clustering from weak lensing dominates the nonlinear contribution at high redshift. Renormalization modifies the mean brightness temperature and therefore the evolutionmore » bias. It also introduces a term that mimics white noise. These effects may influence forecasting analysis on ultra-large scales.« less

  2. Large-area measurements of CIB power spectra with Planck HFI maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, D. S. Y.; Challinor, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Lagache, G.

    We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission HFI data at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 20 000 square degrees. Unlike previous Planck measurements of the CIB power spectra, we do not rely on external HI data to remove Galactic dust emission from the Planck maps. Instead, we model the Galactic emission at the level of the power spectra, using templates constructed directly from the Planck data by exploiting the statistical isotropy of all extragalactic emission components. This allows us to work at the full resolution of Planck over large sky areas. We construct a likelihood based on the measured spectra (for multipoles 50 <= l <= 2500) using analytic covariance matrices that account for masking and the realistic instrumental noise properties. The results of an MCMC exploration of this likelihood are presented, based on simple parameterised models of the CIB power that arises from clustering of infrared galaxies. We explore simultaneously the parameters describing the clustered power, the Poisson power levels, and the amplitudes of the Galactic power spectrum templates across the six frequency (cross-)spectra. The best-fit model provides a good fit to all spectra. As an example, Fig. 1 compares the measured auto spectra at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 40% of the sky to the power in the best-fit model. We find that the power in the CIB anisotropies from galaxy clustering is roughly equal to the Poisson power at multipoles l =2000 (the clustered power dominates on larger scales), and that our dust-cleaned CIB spectra are in good agreement with previous Planck and Herschel measurements. A key feature of our analysis is that it allows one to make many internal consistency tests. We show that our results are stable to data selection and choice of survey area, demonstrating both our ability to remove Galactic dust power to high accuracy and the statistical isotropy of the CIB signal.

  3. Power Scaling Fiber Amplifiers Using Very-Large-Mode-Area Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-23

    fiber lasers are limited to below 1kW due to limited mode size and thermal issues, particularly thermal mode instability (TMI). Two comprehensive models...accurately modeling very- large-mode-area fiber amplifiers while simultaneously including thermal lensing and TMI. This model was applied to investigate...expected resilience to TMI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fiber amplifier, high power laser, thermal mode instability, large-mode-area fiber, ytterbium-doped

  4. Active power control of solar PV generation for large interconnection frequency regulation and oscillation damping

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Zhan, Lingwei; ...

    2015-06-23

    Because of zero greenhouse gas emission and decreased manufacture cost, solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is expected to account for a significant portion of future power grid generation portfolio. Because it is indirectly connected to the power grid via power electronic devices, solar PV generation system is fully decoupled from the power grid, which will influence the interconnected power grid dynamic characteristics as a result. In this study, the impact of solar PV penetration on large interconnected power system frequency response and inter-area oscillation is evaluated, taking the United States Eastern Interconnection (EI) as an example. Furthermore, based on the constructedmore » solar PV electrical control model with additional active power control loops, the potential contributions of solar PV generation to power system frequency regulation and oscillation damping are examined. The advantages of solar PV frequency support over that of wind generator are also discussed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that solar PV generations can effectively work as ‘actuators’ in alleviating the negative impacts they bring about.« less

  5. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  6. Detectability of large-scale power suppression in the galaxy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibelyou, Cameron; Huterer, Dragan; Fang, Wenjuan

    2010-12-01

    Suppression in primordial power on the Universe’s largest observable scales has been invoked as a possible explanation for large-angle observations in the cosmic microwave background, and is allowed or predicted by some inflationary models. Here we investigate the extent to which such a suppression could be confirmed by the upcoming large-volume redshift surveys. For definiteness, we study a simple parametric model of suppression that improves the fit of the vanilla ΛCDM model to the angular correlation function measured by WMAP in cut-sky maps, and at the same time improves the fit to the angular power spectrum inferred from the maximum likelihood analysis presented by the WMAP team. We find that the missing power at large scales, favored by WMAP observations within the context of this model, will be difficult but not impossible to rule out with a galaxy redshift survey with large-volume (˜100Gpc3). A key requirement for success in ruling out power suppression will be having redshifts of most galaxies detected in the imaging survey.

  7. Sandia Laboratories in-house activities in support of solar thermal large power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, R. W.

    1980-03-01

    The development of thermal energy storage subsystems for solar thermal large power applications is described. The emphasis is on characterizing the behavior of molten nitrate salts with regard to thermal decomposition, environmental interactions, and corrosion. Electrochemical techniques to determine the ionic species in the melt and for use in real time studies of corrosion are also briefly discussed.

  8. Sandia Laboratories in-house activities in support of solar thermal large power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mar, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of thermal energy storage subsystems for solar thermal large power applications is described. The emphasis is on characterizing the behavior of molten nitrate salts with regard to thermal decomposition, environmental interactions, and corrosion. Electrochemical techniques to determine the ionic species in the melt and for use in real time studies of corrosion are also briefly discussed.

  9. Large aspheric optics for high-power, high-energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyl, Roland; Houbre, Francois

    2001-12-01

    SAGEM, within its REOSC high performance optics product line, has developed through the years a specific knowledge in large plano, spherical and aspherical optics for high energy or high power laser. This paper is aimed to illustrate the application of aspheric optics for such laser application with several examples of increasing optical surface complexity.

  10. Efficient Bayesian mixed model analysis increases association power in large cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Po-Ru; Tucker, George; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Finucane, Hilary K; Salem, Rany M; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Neale, Benjamin M; Berger, Bonnie; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed models are a powerful statistical tool for identifying genetic associations and avoiding confounding. However, existing methods are computationally intractable in large cohorts, and may not optimize power. All existing methods require time cost O(MN2) (where N = #samples and M = #SNPs) and implicitly assume an infinitesimal genetic architecture in which effect sizes are normally distributed, which can limit power. Here, we present a far more efficient mixed model association method, BOLT-LMM, which requires only a small number of O(MN)-time iterations and increases power by modeling more realistic, non-infinitesimal genetic architectures via a Bayesian mixture prior on marker effect sizes. We applied BOLT-LMM to nine quantitative traits in 23,294 samples from the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS) and observed significant increases in power, consistent with simulations. Theory and simulations show that the boost in power increases with cohort size, making BOLT-LMM appealing for GWAS in large cohorts. PMID:25642633

  11. Feasibility of large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping

    2014-12-01

    Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and enormous on the Earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs for electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects that utilize heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal resources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power generators based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have the advantages of the scalability, renewability, and free supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on the Earth.

  12. Large eddy simulation of the tidal power plant deep green using the actuator line method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Broström, G.; Jansson, M.; Nilsson, H.; Bergqvist, B.

    2017-12-01

    Tidal energy has the potential to provide a substantial part of the sustainable electric power generation. The tidal power plant developed by Minesto, called Deep Green, is a novel technology using a ‘flying’ kite with an attached turbine, moving at a speed several times higher than the mean flow. Multiple Deep Green power plants will eventually form arrays, which require knowledge of both flow interactions between individual devices and how the array influences the surrounding environment. The present study uses large eddy simulations (LES) and an actuator line model (ALM) to analyze the oscillating turbulent boundary layer flow in tidal currents without and with a Deep Green power plant. We present the modeling technique and preliminary results so far.

  13. Interactions between large space power systems and low-Earth-orbit plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    There is a growing tendency to plan space missions that will incorporate very large space power systems. These space power systems must function in the space plasma environment, which can impose operational limitations. As the power output increases, the operating voltage also must increase and this voltage, exposed at solar array interconnects, interacts with the local plasma. The implications of such interactions are considered. The available laboratory data for biased array segment tests are reviewed to demonstrate the basic interactions considered. A data set for a floating high voltage array test was used to generate approximate relationships for positive and negative current collection from plasmas. These relationships were applied to a hypothetical 100 kW power system operating in a 400 km, near equatorial orbit. It was found that discharges from the negative regions of the array are the most probable limiting factor in array operation.

  14. Large-stroke convex micromirror actuated by electromagnetic force for optical power control.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Mahabub; Bin, Wu; Kong, Seong Ho

    2015-11-02

    This paper contributes a novel design and the corresponding fabrication process to research on the unique topic of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable convex micromirror used for focusing-power control. In this design, the shape of a thin planar metal-coated polymer-membrane mirror is controlled electromagnetically by using the repulsive force between two magnets, a permanent magnet and a coil solenoid, installed in an actuator system. The 5 mm effective aperture of a large-stroke micromirror showed a maximum center displacement of 30.08 µm, which enabled control of optical power across a wide range that could extend up to around 20 diopters. Specifically, utilizing the maximum optical power of 20 diopter by applying a maximum controlling current of 0.8 A yielded consumption of at most 2 W of electrical power. It was also demonstrated that this micromirror could easily be integrated in miniature tunable optical imaging systems.

  15. High-power hybrid plasma spraying of large yttria-stabilized zirconia powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Heji; Eguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2006-03-01

    To testify to the advantage of large ceramic powder spraying, numerical simulations and experimental studies on the behavior of large yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder in a high-power hybrid plasma spraying process have been carried out. Numeric predictions and experimental results showed that, with the high radio frequency (RF) input power of 100 kW, the most refractory YSZ powder with particle sizes as large as 88 μm could be fully melted and well-flattened splats could be formed. A large degree of flattening (ξ) of 4.7 has been achieved. The improved adhesive strength between the large splat and the substrate was confirmed based on the measurement of the crack density inside of the splats. A thick YSZ coating >300 μm was successfully deposited on a large CoNiCrAlY-coated Inconel substrate (50×50×4 mm in size). The ultradense microstructure without clear boundaries between the splats and the clean and crack-free interface between the top-coat and the bond-coat also indicate the good adhesion. These results showed that highpower hybrid plasma spraying of large ceramic powder is a very promising process for deposition of highquality coatings, especially in the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

  16. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  17. 77 FR 16559 - Large Power Transformers From Korea: Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers... transformers, provided for in subheading 8504.23.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.\\1... merchandise as ``large liquid dielectric power transformers (LPTs) having a top power handling capacity...

  18. The Large Local Hole in the Galaxy Distribution: The 2MASS Galaxy Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, W. J.; Outram, P. J.; Shanks, T.

    2005-06-01

    We present new evidence for a large deficiency in the local galaxy distribution situated in the ˜4000 deg2 APM survey area. We use models guided by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) n(z) as a probe of the underlying large-scale structure. We first check the usefulness of this technique by comparing the 2dFGRS n(z) model prediction with the K-band and B-band number counts extracted from the 2MASS and 2dFGRS parent catalogues over the 2dFGRS Northern and Southern declination strips, before turning to a comparison with the APM counts. We find that the APM counts in both the B and K-bands indicate a deficiency in the local galaxy distribution of ˜30% to z ≈ 0.1 over the entire APM survey area. We examine the implied significance of such a large local hole, considering several possible forms for the real-space correlation function. We find that such a deficiency in the APM survey area indicates an excess of power at large scales over what is expected from the correlation function observed in 2dFGRS correlation function or predicted from ΛCDM Hubble Volume mock catalogues. In order to check further the clustering at large scales in the 2MASS data, we have calculated the angular power spectrum for 2MASS galaxies. Although in the linear regime (l<30), ΛCDM models can give a good fit to the 2MASS angular power spectrum, over a wider range (l<100) the power spectrum from Hubble Volume mock catalogues suggests that scale-dependent bias may be needed for ΛCDM to fit. However, the modest increase in large-scale power observed in the 2MASS angular power spectrum is still not enough to explain the local hole. If the APM survey area really is 25% deficient in galaxies out to z≈0.1, explanations for the disagreement with observed galaxy clustering statistics include the possibilities that the galaxy clustering is non-Gaussian on large scales or that the 2MASS volume is still too small to represent a `fair sample' of the Universe. Extending the 2dFGRS redshift survey

  19. The cost of large numbers of hypothesis tests on power, effect size and sample size.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, L C; Ray, A

    2012-01-01

    Advances in high-throughput biology and computer science are driving an exponential increase in the number of hypothesis tests in genomics and other scientific disciplines. Studies using current genotyping platforms frequently include a million or more tests. In addition to the monetary cost, this increase imposes a statistical cost owing to the multiple testing corrections needed to avoid large numbers of false-positive results. To safeguard against the resulting loss of power, some have suggested sample sizes on the order of tens of thousands that can be impractical for many diseases or may lower the quality of phenotypic measurements. This study examines the relationship between the number of tests on the one hand and power, detectable effect size or required sample size on the other. We show that once the number of tests is large, power can be maintained at a constant level, with comparatively small increases in the effect size or sample size. For example at the 0.05 significance level, a 13% increase in sample size is needed to maintain 80% power for ten million tests compared with one million tests, whereas a 70% increase in sample size is needed for 10 tests compared with a single test. Relative costs are less when measured by increases in the detectable effect size. We provide an interactive Excel calculator to compute power, effect size or sample size when comparing study designs or genome platforms involving different numbers of hypothesis tests. The results are reassuring in an era of extreme multiple testing.

  20. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  1. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine...

  2. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine...

  3. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane...

  5. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an intended...

  6. 14 CFR 135.381 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.381 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane...

  7. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an intended...

  8. 14 CFR 135.383 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... Limitations § 135.383 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered large transport category airplane along an intended...

  9. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  10. A simple orbit-attitude coupled modelling method for large solar power satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingjun; Wang, Bo; Deng, Zichen; Ouyang, Huajiang; Wei, Yi

    2018-04-01

    A simple modelling method is proposed to study the orbit-attitude coupled dynamics of large solar power satellites based on natural coordinate formulation. The generalized coordinates are composed of Cartesian coordinates of two points and Cartesian components of two unitary vectors instead of Euler angles and angular velocities, which is the reason for its simplicity. Firstly, in order to develop natural coordinate formulation to take gravitational force and gravity gradient torque of a rigid body into account, Taylor series expansion is adopted to approximate the gravitational potential energy. The equations of motion are constructed through constrained Hamilton's equations. Then, an energy- and constraint-conserving algorithm is presented to solve the differential-algebraic equations. Finally, the proposed method is applied to simulate the orbit-attitude coupled dynamics and control of a large solar power satellite considering gravity gradient torque and solar radiation pressure. This method is also applicable to dynamic modelling of other rigid multibody aerospace systems.

  11. Theoretical and experimental power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A method for calculating the output power from large horizontal-axis wind turbines is presented. Modifications to the airfoil characteristics and the momentum portion of classical blade element-momentum theory are given that improve correlation with measured data. Improvement is particularly evident at low tip-speed ratios where aerodynamic stall can occur as the blade experiences high angles of attack. Output power calculated using the modified theory is compared with measured data for several large wind turbines. These wind turbines range in size from the DOE/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 (38 m rotor diameter) to the 2000 kW Mod-1 (61 m rotor diameter). The calculated results are in good agreement with measured data from these machines.

  12. Application of CFB technology for large power generating units and CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, G. A., E-mail: georgy.ryabov@gmail.com; Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.

    2010-07-15

    Data on the development of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology for combustion of fuels in large power generating units are examined. The problems with raising the steam parameters and unit power of boilers with a circulating fluidized bed are examined. With the boiler system at the 460 MW unit at Lagisza (Poland) as an example, the feasibility of raising the efficiency of units with CFB boilers through deep recovery of the heat of the effluent gases and reducing expenditure for in-house needs is demonstrated. Comparative estimates of the capital and operating costs of 225 and 330 MW units aremore » used to determine the conditions for optimum use of CFB boilers in the engineering renovation of thermal power plants in Russia. New areas for the application of CFB technology in CO{sub 2} capture are analyzed in connection with the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.« less

  13. Research on the impacts of large-scale electric vehicles integration into power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuankun; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Because of its special energy driving mode, electric vehicles can improve the efficiency of energy utilization and reduce the pollution to the environment, which is being paid more and more attention. But the charging behavior of electric vehicles is random and intermittent. If the electric vehicle is disordered charging in a large scale, it causes great pressure on the structure and operation of the power grid and affects the safety and economic operation of the power grid. With the development of V2G technology in electric vehicle, the study of the charging and discharging characteristics of electric vehicles is of great significance for improving the safe operation of the power grid and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  14. Comprehensive benefit evaluation of direct power-purchase for large consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. N.; Li, Z. H.; Zhou, H. M.; Zhao, Q.; Xu, X. F.

    2017-06-01

    Based on "several opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on further deepening the reform of electric power system" in 2015, this paper analyses the influence of direct power-purchase for large consumers on operation benefit of power grid. In three aspects, such as economic benefit, cleaning benefit and social benefit, the index system is proposed. In which, the profit of saving coal energy consumption, reducing carbon emissions and reducing pollutant emissions is quantitative calculated. Then the subjective and objective weights and index scores are figured out through the analytic hierarchy process, entropy weight method and interval number method. Finally, the comprehensive benefit is evaluated combined with the actual study, and some suggestions are made.

  15. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  16. Maximal Aerobic and Anaerobic Power Generation in Large Crocodiles versus Mammals: Implications for Dinosaur Gigantothermy

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Roger S.

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus , weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic. PMID:23861968

  17. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, T., E-mail: mutoh@nifs.ac.jp; Seki, T.; Saito, K.

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAITmore » antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.« less

  18. The impact of a large-scale power outage on hemodialysis center operations.

    PubMed

    Abir, Mahshid; Jan, Sophia; Jubelt, Lindsay; Merchant, Raina M; Lurie, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    On June 29, 2012, mid-Atlantic storms resulted in a large-scale power outage affecting up to three million people across multiple (US) states. Hemodialysis centers are dependent on electricity to provide dialysis care to end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine how the power outage impacted operations in a sample of hemodialysis centers in the impacted regions. The sample consisted of all hemodialysis centers located in the District of Columbia and a total of five counties with the largest power losses in West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and the charge nurse or supervisor in each facility was interviewed. The survey questions addressed whether their centers lost power, if so, for how long, where their patients received dialysis, whether their centers had backup generators, and if so, whether they had any problems operating them, and whether their center received patients from other centers if they had power. Calls were placed to 90 dialysis centers in the sampled areas and a 90% response rate was achieved. Overall, hemodialysis operations at approximately 30% (n = 24) of the centers queried were impacted by the power outage. Of the 36 centers that lost power, 31% (n = 11) referred their patients to other dialysis centers, 22% (n = 8) accommodated their patients during a later shift or on a different day; the rest of the centers either experienced brief power outages that did not affect operations or experienced a power outage on days that the center is usually closed. Some centers in the study cohort reported receiving patients from other centers for dialysis 33% (n = 27). Thirty-two percent (n = 26) of the centers queried had backup generators on site. Eleven percent (n = 4) of the centers experiencing power outages reported that backup generators were brought in by their parent companies. Comprehensive emergency planning for dialysis centers should include provisions for

  19. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects, and (6) limits and overloads.

  20. Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Koh, J.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency-domain analyses of R-R intervals are used widely to estimate levels of autonomic neural traffic to the human heart. Because respiration modulates autonomic activity, we determined for nine healthy subjects the influence of breathing frequency and tidal volume on R-R interval power spectra (fast-Fourier transform method). We also surveyed published literature to determine current practices in this burgeoning field of scientific inquiry. Supine subjects breathed at rates of 6, 7.5, 10, 15, 17.1, 20, and 24 breaths/min and with nominal tidal volumes of 1,000 and 1,500 ml. R-R interval power at respiratory and low (0.06-0.14 Hz) frequencies declined significantly as breathing frequency increased. R-R interval power at respiratory frequencies was significantly greater at a tidal volume of 1,500 than 1,000 ml. Neither breathing frequency nor tidal volume influenced average R-R intervals significantly. Our review of studies reporting human R-R interval power spectra showed that 51% of the studies controlled respiratory rate, 11% controlled tidal volume, and 11% controlled both respiratory rate and tidal volume. The major implications of our analyses are that breathing parameters strongly influence low-frequency as well as respiratory frequency R-R interval power spectra and that this influence is largely ignored in published research.

  1. A power management circuit with 50% efficiency and large load capacity for triboelectric nanogenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Dechun; Luo, Lichuan; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-09-01

    Recently, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), as a collection technology with characteristics of high reliability, high energy density and low cost, has attracted more and more attention. However, the energy coming from TENGs needs to be stored in a storage unit effectively due to its unstable ac output. The traditional energy storage circuit has an extremely low energy storage efficiency for TENGs because of their high internal impedance. This paper presents a new power management circuit used to optimize the energy using efficiency of TENGs, and realize large load capacity. The power management circuit mainly includes rectification storage circuit and DC-DC management circuit. A rotating TENG with maximal energy output of 106 mW at 170 rpm based on PCB is used for the experimental verification. Experimental results show that the power energy transforming to the storage capacitor reach up to 53 mW and the energy using efficiency is calculated as 50%. When different loading resistances range from 0.82 to 34.5 k {{Ω }} are connected to the storage capacitor in parallel, the power energy stored in the storage capacitor is all about 52.5 mW. Getting through the circuit, the power energy coming from the TENGs can be used to drive numerous conventional electronics, such as wearable watches.

  2. Quantifying the Impacts of Large Scale Integration of Renewables in Indian Power Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Mishra, T.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-12-01

    India's power sector is responsible for nearly 37 percent of India's greenhouse gas emissions. For a fast emerging economy like India whose population and energy consumption are poised to rise rapidly in the coming decades, renewable energy can play a vital role in decarbonizing power sector. In this context, India has targeted 33-35 percent emission intensity reduction (with respect to 2005 levels) along with large scale renewable energy targets (100GW solar, 60GW wind, and 10GW biomass energy by 2022) in INDCs submitted at Paris agreement. But large scale integration of renewable energy is a complex process which faces a number of problems like capital intensiveness, matching intermittent loads with least storage capacity and reliability. In this context, this study attempts to assess the technical feasibility of integrating renewables into Indian electricity mix by 2022 and analyze its implications on power sector operations. This study uses TIMES, a bottom up energy optimization model with unit commitment and dispatch features. We model coal and gas fired units discretely with region-wise representation of wind and solar resources. The dispatch features are used for operational analysis of power plant units under ramp rate and minimum generation constraints. The study analyzes India's electricity sector transition for the year 2022 with three scenarios. The base case scenario (no RE addition) along with INDC scenario (with 100GW solar, 60GW wind, 10GW biomass) and low RE scenario (50GW solar, 30GW wind) have been created to analyze the implications of large scale integration of variable renewable energy. The results provide us insights on trade-offs involved in achieving mitigation targets and investment decisions involved. The study also examines operational reliability and flexibility requirements of the system for integrating renewables.

  3. Feasibility of Large High-Powered Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles: Issues and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capadona, Lynn A.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Manzella, David H.; Christie, Robert J.; Hickman, Tyler A.; Schneidegger, Robert J.; Hoffman, David J.; Klem, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require the use of enabling technologies that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as an option to achieve human exploration missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) because of its favorable mass efficiency as compared to traditional chemical systems. This paper describes the unique challenges and technology hurdles associated with developing a large high-power SEP vehicle. A subsystem level breakdown of factors contributing to the feasibility of SEP as a platform for future exploration missions to NEOs is presented including overall mission feasibility, trip time variables, propellant management issues, solar array power generation, array structure issues, and other areas that warrant investment in additional technology or engineering development.

  4. Research on simulation of supercritical steam turbine system in large thermal power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiongyang

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the stability and safety of supercritical steam turbine system operation in large thermal power station, the body of the steam turbine is modeled in this paper. And in accordance with the hierarchical modeling idea, the steam turbine body model, condensing system model, deaeration system model and regenerative system model are combined to build a simulation model of steam turbine system according to the connection relationship of each subsystem of steam turbine. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by design and operation data of the 600MW supercritical unit. The results show that the maximum simulation error of the model is 2.15%, which meets the requirements of the engineering. This research provides a platform for the research on the variable operating conditions of the turbine system, and lays a foundation for the construction of the whole plant model of the thermal power plant.

  5. Dark matter statistics for large galaxy catalogs: power spectra and covariance matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Prada, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale surveys of galaxies require accurate theoretical predictions of the dark matter clustering for thousands of mock galaxy catalogs. We demonstrate that this goal can be achieve with the new Parallel Particle-Mesh (PM) N-body code GLAM at a very low computational cost. We run ˜22, 000 simulations with ˜2 billion particles that provide ˜1% accuracy of the dark matter power spectra P(k) for wave-numbers up to k ˜ 1hMpc-1. Using this large data-set we study the power spectrum covariance matrix. In contrast to many previous analytical and numerical results, we find that the covariance matrix normalised to the power spectrum C(k, k΄)/P(k)P(k΄) has a complex structure of non-diagonal components: an upturn at small k, followed by a minimum at k ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 hMpc-1, and a maximum at k ≈ 0.5 - 0.6 hMpc-1. The normalised covariance matrix strongly evolves with redshift: C(k, k΄)∝δα(t)P(k)P(k΄), where δ is the linear growth factor and α ≈ 1 - 1.25, which indicates that the covariance matrix depends on cosmological parameters. We also show that waves longer than 1h-1Gpc have very little impact on the power spectrum and covariance matrix. This significantly reduces the computational costs and complexity of theoretical predictions: relatively small volume ˜(1h-1Gpc)3 simulations capture the necessary properties of dark matter clustering statistics. As our results also indicate, achieving ˜1% errors in the covariance matrix for k < 0.50 hMpc-1 requires a resolution better than ɛ ˜ 0.5h-1Mpc.

  6. The economics and environmental impacts of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarolis, Joseph Frank

    Serious climate change mitigation aimed at stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will require a radical shift to a decarbonized energy supply. The electric power sector will be a primary target for deep reductions in CO2 emissions because electric power plants are among the largest and most manageable point sources of emissions. With respect to new capacity, wind power is currently one of the most inexpensive ways to produce electricity without CO2 emissions and it may have a significant role to play in a carbon constrained world. Yet most research in the wind industry remains focused on near term issues, while energy system models that focus on century-long time horizons undervalue wind by imposing exogenous limits on growth. This thesis fills a critical gap in the literature by taking a closer look at the cost and environmental impacts of large-scale wind. Estimates of the average cost of wind generation---now roughly 4¢/kWh---do not address the cons arising from the spatial distribution and intermittency of wind. This thesis develops a theoretical framework for assessing the intermittency cost of wind. In addition, an economic characterization of a wind system is provided in which long-distance electricity transmission, storage, and gas turbines are used to supplement variable wind power output to meet a time-varying load. With somewhat optimistic assumptions about the cost of wind turbines, the use of wind to serve 50% of demand adds ˜1--2¢/kWh to the cost of electricity, a cost comparable to that of other large-scale low carbon technologies. This thesis also explores the environmental impacts posed by large-scale wind. Though avian mortality and noise caused controversy in the early years of wind development, improved technology and exhaustive siting assessments have minimized their impact. The aesthetic valuation of wind farms can be improved significantly with better design, siting, construction, and maintenance procedures, but opposition may

  7. The impact of a large penetration of intermittent sources on the power system operation and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausin, Juan Carlos

    This research investigated the impact on the power system of a large penetration of intermittent renewable sources, mainly wind and photovoltaic generation. Currently, electrical utilities deal with wind and PV plants as if they were sources of negative demand, that is to say, they have no control over the power output produced. In this way, the grid absorbs all the power fluctuation as if it were coming from a common load. With the level of wind penetration growing so quickly, there is growing concern amongst the utilities and the grid operators, as they will have to deal with a much higher level of fluctuation. In the same way, the potential cost reduction of PV technologies suggests that a similar development may be expected for solar production in the mid term. The first part of the research was focused on the issues that affect utility planning and reinforcement decision making. Although DG is located mainly on the distribution network, a large penetration may alter the flows, not only on the distribution lines, but also on the transmission system and through the transmission - distribution interfaces. The optimal capacity and production costs for the UK transmission network have been calculated for several combinations of load profiles and typical wind/PV output scenarios. A full economic analysis is developed, showing the benefits and disadvantages that a large penetration of these distributed generators may have on transmission system operator reinforcement strategies. Closely related to planning factors are institutional, revelatory, and economic considerations, such as transmission pricing, which may hamper the integration of renewable energy technologies into the electric utility industry. The second part of the research related to the impact of intermittent renewable energy technologies on the second by second, minute by minute, and half-hour by half-hour operations of power systems. If a large integration of these new generators partially replaces the

  8. Power-law scaling in Bénard-Marangoni convection at large Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Thomas; Thess, André

    2001-08-01

    Bénard-Marangoni convection at large Prandtl numbers is found to exhibit steady (nonturbulent) behavior in numerical experiments over a very wide range of Marangoni numbers Ma far away from the primary instability threshold. A phenomenological theory, taking into account the different character of thermal boundary layers at the bottom and at the free surface, is developed. It predicts a power-law scaling for the nondimensional velocity (Peclet number) and heat flux (Nusselt number) of the form Pe~Ma2/3, Nu~Ma2/9. This prediction is in good agreement with two-dimensional direct numerical simulations up to Ma=3.2×105.

  9. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light

  10. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  11. Self-Powered Neutron Detector Calibration Using a Large Vertical Irradiation Hole of HANARO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Byung-Gun; Kang, Gi-Doo

    2018-01-01

    A calibration technology of the self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) using a large vertical irradiation hole of HANARO is developed. The 40 Rh-SPNDs are installed on the polycarbonate plastic support, and the gold wires with the same length as the effective length of the rhodium emitter of the SPND are also installed to measure the neutron flux on the SPND. They are irradiated at a low reactor power, and the SPND current is measured using the pico-ammeter. The external gamma-rays which affect the SPND current response are analyzed using the Monte Carlo simulation for various irradiation conditions in HANARO. It is confirmed that the effect of the external gamma-rays to the SPND current is dependent on the reactor characteristics, and that it is affected by materials around the detector. The current signals due to the external gamma-rays can be either positive or negative, in that the net flow of the current may be either in the same or the opposite direction as the neutron-induced current by the rhodium emitter. From the above procedure, the effective calibration methodology of multiple SPNDs using the large hole of HANARO is developed. It could be useful for the calibration experiment of the neutron detectors in the research reactors.

  12. Benzothienobenzothiophene-Based Molecular Conductors: High Conductivity, Large Thermoelectric Power Factor, and One-Dimensional Instability.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Yasuhiro; Kadoya, Tomofumi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Iijima, Kodai; Higashino, Toshiki; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Takimiya, Kazuo; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-03-23

    On the basis of an excellent transistor material, [1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT), a series of highly conductive organic metals with the composition of (BTBT)2XF6 (X = P, As, Sb, and Ta) are prepared and the structural and physical properties are investigated. The room-temperature conductivity amounts to 4100 S cm(-1) in the AsF6 salt, corresponding to the drift mobility of 16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Owing to the high conductivity, this salt shows a thermoelectric power factor of 55-88 μW K(-2) m(-1), which is a large value when this compound is regarded as an organic thermoelectric material. The thermoelectric power and the reflectance spectrum indicate a large bandwidth of 1.4 eV. These salts exhibit an abrupt resistivity jump under 200 K, which turns to an insulating state below 60 K. The paramagnetic spin susceptibility, and the Raman and the IR spectra suggest 4kF charge-density waves as an origin of the low-temperature insulating state.

  13. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lee M.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Mechem, David B.; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W.; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 105 km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m−2, whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m−2, with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way. PMID:26305925

  14. Generation Expansion Planning With Large Amounts of Wind Power via Decision-Dependent Stochastic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Yiduo; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Wang, Jianhui

    Power generation expansion planning needs to deal with future uncertainties carefully, given that the invested generation assets will be in operation for a long time. Many stochastic programming models have been proposed to tackle this challenge. However, most previous works assume predetermined future uncertainties (i.e., fixed random outcomes with given probabilities). In several recent studies of generation assets' planning (e.g., thermal versus renewable), new findings show that the investment decisions could affect the future uncertainties as well. To this end, this paper proposes a multistage decision-dependent stochastic optimization model for long-term large-scale generation expansion planning, where large amounts of windmore » power are involved. In the decision-dependent model, the future uncertainties are not only affecting but also affected by the current decisions. In particular, the probability distribution function is determined by not only input parameters but also decision variables. To deal with the nonlinear constraints in our model, a quasi-exact solution approach is then introduced to reformulate the multistage stochastic investment model to a mixed-integer linear programming model. The wind penetration, investment decisions, and the optimality of the decision-dependent model are evaluated in a series of multistage case studies. The results show that the proposed decision-dependent model provides effective optimization solutions for long-term generation expansion planning.« less

  15. Low-order black-box models for control system design in large power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamwa, I.; Trudel, G.; Gerin-Lajoie, L.

    1996-02-01

    The paper studies two multi-input multi-output (MIMO) procedures for the identification of low-order state-space models of power systems, by probing the network in open loop with low-energy pulses or random signals. Although such data may result from actual measurements, the development assumes simulated responses from a transient stability program, hence benefiting from the existing large base of stability models. While pulse data is processed using the eigensystem realization algorithm, the analysis of random responses is done by means of subspace identification methods. On a prototype Hydro-Quebec power system, including SVCs, DC lines, series compensation, and more than 1,100 buses, itmore » is verified that the two approaches are equivalent only when strict requirements are imposed on the pulse length and magnitude. The 10th-order equivalent models derived by random-signal probing allow for effective tuning of decentralized power system stabilizers (PSSs) able to damp both local and very slow inter-area modes.« less

  16. Low-order black-box models for control system design in large power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kamwa, I.; Trudel, G.; Gerin-Lajoie, L.

    1995-12-31

    The paper studies two multi-input multi-output (MIMO) procedures for the identification of low-order state-space models of power systems, by probing the network in open loop with low-energy pulses or random signals. Although such data may result from actual measurements, the development assumes simulated responses from a transient stability program, hence benefiting form the existing large base of stability models. While pulse data is processed using the eigensystem realization algorithm, the analysis of random responses is done by means of subspace identification methods. On a prototype Hydro-Quebec power system, including SVCs, DC lines, series compensation, and more than 1,100 buses, itmore » is verified that the two approaches are equivalent only when strict requirements are imposed on the pulse length and magnitude. The 10th-order equivalent models derived by random-signal probing allow for effective tuning of decentralized power system stabilizers (PSSs) able to damp both local and very slow inter-area modes.« less

  17. Wearable Large-Scale Perovskite Solar-Power Source via Nanocellular Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaotian; Huang, Zengqi; Zhou, Xue; Li, Pengwei; Wang, Yang; Huang, Zhandong; Su, Meng; Ren, Wanjie; Li, Fengyu; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Yiwang; Song, Yanlin

    2017-11-01

    Dramatic advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and the blossoming of wearable electronics have triggered tremendous demands for flexible solar-power sources. However, the fracturing of functional crystalline films and transmittance wastage from flexible substrates are critical challenges to approaching the high-performance PSCs with flexural endurance. In this work, a nanocellular scaffold is introduced to architect a mechanics buffer layer and optics resonant cavity. The nanocellular scaffold releases mechanical stresses during flexural experiences and significantly improves the crystalline quality of the perovskite films. The nanocellular optics resonant cavity optimizes light harvesting and charge transportation of devices. More importantly, these flexible PSCs, which demonstrate excellent performance and mechanical stability, are practically fabricated in modules as a wearable solar-power source. A power conversion efficiency of 12.32% for a flexible large-scale device (polyethylene terephthalate substrate, indium tin oxide-free, 1.01 cm 2 ) is achieved. This ingenious flexible structure will enable a new approach for development of wearable electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Benefits of an ultra large and multiresolution ensemble for estimating available wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Jonas; Hoppe, Charlotte; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigate the benefits of an ultra large ensemble with up to 1000 members including multiple nesting with a target horizontal resolution of 1 km. The ensemble shall be used as a basis to detect events of extreme errors in wind power forecasting. Forecast value is the wind vector at wind turbine hub height (~ 100 m) in the short range (1 to 24 hour). Current wind power forecast systems rest already on NWP ensemble models. However, only calibrated ensembles from meteorological institutions serve as input so far, with limited spatial resolution (˜10 - 80 km) and member number (˜ 50). Perturbations related to the specific merits of wind power production are yet missing. Thus, single extreme error events which are not detected by such ensemble power forecasts occur infrequently. The numerical forecast model used in this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Model uncertainties are represented by stochastic parametrization of sub-grid processes via stochastically perturbed parametrization tendencies and in conjunction via the complementary stochastic kinetic-energy backscatter scheme already provided by WRF. We perform continuous ensemble updates by comparing each ensemble member with available observations using a sequential importance resampling filter to improve the model accuracy while maintaining ensemble spread. Additionally, we use different ensemble systems from global models (ECMWF and GFS) as input and boundary conditions to capture different synoptic conditions. Critical weather situations which are connected to extreme error events are located and corresponding perturbation techniques are applied. The demanding computational effort is overcome by utilising the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Forschungszentrum Juelich.

  19. Pushing the boundaries of high power lasers: low loss, large area CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickham, Benjamin; Schoofs, Frank; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Bennett, Andrew; Balmer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic CVD diamond has exceptional properties, including broad spectral transmission, physical and chemical robustness, and the highest thermal conductivity of any known material, making diamond an attractive material for medium to high power optical and laser applications, minimizing the detrimental effects of thermal lensing and radiation damage. Example applications include ATR prisms, Raman laser crystals, extra- and intra-cavity laser cooling. In each case the demands on the fundamental material properties and fabrication routes are slightly different. In recent years, there has been good progress in the development of low-loss, single crystal diamond, suitable for higher power densities, higher pulse rates and more demanding intra- and extra-cavity thermal management. The adoption of single crystal diamond in this area has however, been hindered by the availability of large area, low birefringence plates. To address this, we report a combination of CVD growth and processing methods that have enabled the manufacture of large, low defect substrates. A final homoepitaxial, low absorption synthesis stage has produced plates with large area (up to 16 mm edge length), low absorption (α<0.005 cm-1 at 1064 nm), and low birefringence (Δn <10-5), suitable for double-sided intra-cavity cooling. We demonstrate the practical advances in synthesis, including increasing the size while reducing in-use losses compared to previous generations of single crystal material, and practical developments in processing and implementation of the single crystal diamond parts, optimizing them for use in a state-of-the-art femto-second pulsed Ti:Sa thin disk gain module, all made in collaboration with the wider European FP7 funded Ti:Sa TD consortium.

  20. Large-Scale Distributed Computational Fluid Dynamics on the Information Power Grid Using Globus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Stephen; Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash; VanderWijngaart, Robertus; Yarrow, Maurice; Zechtzer, Lou; Foster, Ian; Larsson, Olle

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which a large-scale scientific application development for tightly-coupled parallel machines is adapted to the distributed execution environment of the Information Power Grid (IPG). A brief overview of the IPG and a description of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) algorithm are given. The Globus metacomputing toolkit is used as the enabling device for the geographically-distributed computation. Modifications related to latency hiding and Load balancing were required for an efficient implementation of the CFD application in the IPG environment. Performance results on a pair of SGI Origin 2000 machines indicate that real scientific applications can be effectively implemented on the IPG; however, a significant amount of continued effort is required to make such an environment useful and accessible to scientists and engineers.

  1. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2013-11-01

    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  2. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  3. La-doped SrTiO3 films with large cryogenic thermoelectric power factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, Tyler A.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    The thermoelectric properties at temperatures between 10 K and 300 K of La-doped SrTiO3 thin films grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on undoped SrTiO3 substrates are reported. Below 50 K, the Seebeck coefficients exhibit very large magnitudes due to the influence of phonon drag. Combined with high carrier mobilities, exceeding 50 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 2 K for the films with the lowest carrier densities, this leads to thermoelectric power factors as high as 470 μWcm-1 K-2. The results are compared with other promising low temperature thermoelectric materials and discussed in the context of coupling with phonons in the undoped substrate.

  4. Circadian analysis of large human populations: inferences from the power grid.

    PubMed

    Stowie, Adam C; Amicarelli, Mario J; Crosier, Caitlin J; Mymko, Ryan; Glass, J David

    2015-03-01

    Few, if any studies have focused on the daily rhythmic nature of modern industrialized populations. The present study utilized real-time load data from the U.S. Pacific Northwest electrical power grid as a reflection of human operative household activity. This approach involved actigraphic analyses of continuously streaming internet data (provided in 5 min bins) from a human subject pool of approximately 43 million primarily residential users. Rhythm analyses reveal striking seasonal and intra-week differences in human activity patterns, largely devoid of manufacturing and automated load interference. Length of the diurnal activity period (alpha) is longer during the spring than the summer (16.64 h versus 15.98 h, respectively; p < 0.01). As expected, significantly more activity occurs in the solar dark phase during the winter than during the summer (6.29 h versus 2.03 h, respectively; p < 0.01). Interestingly, throughout the year a "weekend effect" is evident, where morning activity onset occurs approximately 1 h later than during the work week (5:54 am versus 6:52 am, respectively; p < 0.01). This indicates a general phase-delaying response to the absence of job-related or other weekday morning arousal cues, substantiating a preference or need to sleep longer on weekends. Finally, a shift in onset time can be seen during the transition to Day Light Saving Time, but not the transition back to Standard Time. The use of grid power load as a means for human actimetry assessment thus offers new insights into the collective diurnal activity patterns of large human populations.

  5. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  6. Unexpected low thermal conductivity and large power factor in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Sihang, Liang; Junzhi, Cao; Xiang, Yuan; Yanwen, Liu; Yao, Shen; Qisi, Wang; Jun, Zhao; Zhongqin, Yang; Faxian, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics has long been considered as a promising way of power generation for the next decades. So far, extensive efforts have been devoted to the search of ideal thermoelectric materials, which require both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Recently, the emerging Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, a three-dimensional analogue of graphene, has been reported to host ultra-high mobility and good electrical conductivity as metals. Here, we report the observation of unexpected low thermal conductivity in Cd3As2, one order of magnitude lower than the conventional metals or semimetals with a similar electrical conductivity, despite the semimetal band structure and high electron mobility. The power factor also reaches a large value of 1.58 mW·m-1·K-2 at room temperature and remains non-saturated up to 400 K. Corroborating with the first-principles calculations, we find that the thermoelectric performance can be well-modulated by the carrier concentration in a wide range. This work demonstrates the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 as a potential candidate of thermoelectric materials. Project supported by the National Young 1000 Talent Plan China, the Pujiang Talent Plan in Shanghai, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322407 and 11474058), the Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Science of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. J1103204), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803).

  7. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool.

  8. Nested high-resolution large-eddy simulations in WRF to support wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, J.; Kirkil, G.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    The WRF model’s grid nesting capability provides a potentially powerful framework for simulating flow over a wide range of scales. One such application is computation of realistic inflow boundary conditions for large eddy simulations (LES) by nesting LES domains within mesoscale domains. While nesting has been widely and successfully applied at GCM to mesoscale resolutions, the WRF model’s nesting behavior at the high-resolution (Δx < 1000m) end of the spectrum is less well understood. Nesting LES within msoscale domains can significantly improve turbulent flow prediction at the scale of a wind park, providing a basis for superior site characterization, or for improved simulation of turbulent inflows encountered by turbines. We investigate WRF’s grid nesting capability at high mesh resolutions using nested mesoscale and large-eddy simulations. We examine the spatial scales required for flow structures to equilibrate to the finer mesh as flow enters a nest, and how the process depends on several parameters, including grid resolution, turbulence subfilter stress models, relaxation zones at nest interfaces, flow velocities, surface roughnesses, terrain complexity and atmospheric stability. Guidance on appropriate domain sizes and turbulence models for LES in light of these results is provided This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 LLNL-ABS-416482

  9. Tank Investigation of a Powered Dynamic Model of a Large Long-Range Flying Boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, John B; Olson, Roland E; Harr, Marvin I

    1947-01-01

    Principles for designing the optimum hull for a large long-range flying boat to meet the requirements of seaworthiness, minimum drag, and ability to take off and land at all operational gross loads were incorporated in a 1/12-size powered dynamic model of a four-engine transport flying boat having a design gross load of 165,000 pounds. These design principles included the selection of a moderate beam loading, ample forebody length, sufficient depth of step, and close adherence to the form of a streamline body. The aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of the model were investigated in Langley tank no. 1. Tests were made to determine the minimum allowable depth of step for adequate landing stability, the suitability of the fore-and-aft location of the step, the take-off performance, the spray characteristics, and the effects of simple spray-control devices. The application of the design criterions used and test results should be useful in the preliminary design of similar large flying boats.

  10. Root causes and impacts of severe accidents at large nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    The root causes and impacts of three severe accidents at large civilian nuclear power plants are reviewed: the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl accident in 1986, and the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Impacts include health effects, evacuation of contaminated areas as well as cost estimates and impacts on energy policies and nuclear safety work in various countries. It is concluded that essential objectives for reactor safety work must be: (1) to prevent accidents from developing into severe core damage, even if they are initiated by very unlikely natural or man-made events, and, recognizing that accidents with severe core damage may nevertheless occur; (2) to prevent large-scale and long-lived ground contamination by limiting releases of radioactive nuclides such as cesium to less than about 100 TBq. To achieve these objectives the importance of maintaining high global standards of safety management and safety culture cannot be emphasized enough. All three severe accidents discussed in this paper had their root causes in system deficiencies indicative of poor safety management and poor safety culture in both the nuclear industry and government authorities.

  11. Solution for testing large high-power laser lenses having long focal length (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fappani, Denis; IDE, Monique

    2017-05-01

    Many high power laser facilities are in operation all around the world and include various tight optical components such as large focussing lenses. Such lenses exhibit generally long focal lengths which induces some issues for their optical testing during manufacturing and inspection. Indeed, their transmitted wave fronts need to be very accurate and interferometric testing is the baseline to achieve that. But, it is always a problem to manage simultaneously long testing distances and fine accuracies in such interferometry testing. Taking example of the large focusing lenses produced for the Orion experimentation at AWE (UK), the presentation will describe which kind of testing method has been developed to demonstrate simultaneously good performances with sufficiently good repeatability and absolute accuracy. Special emphasis will be made onto the optical manufacturing issues and interferometric testing solutions. Some ZEMAX results presenting the test set-up and the calibration method will be presented as well. The presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the existing "state of the art" at Thales SESO for these technologies.

  12. Semiconducting large bandgap oxides as potential thermoelectric materials for high-temperature power generation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus-Ricoult, M.; Rustad, J.; Moore, L.; Smith, C.; Brown, J.

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting large bandgap oxides are considered as interesting candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric power generation (700-1,200 °C) due to their stability, lack of toxicity and low cost, but so far they have not reached sufficient performance for extended application. In this review, we summarize recent progress on thermoelectric oxides, analyze concepts for tuning semiconductor thermoelectric properties with view of their applicability to oxides and determine key drivers and limitations for electrical and thermal transport properties in oxides based on our own experimental work and literature results. For our experimental assessment, we have selected representative multicomponent oxides that range from materials with highly symmetric crystal structure (SrTiO3 perovskite) over oxides with large densities of planar crystallographic defects (Ti n O2 n-1 Magnéli phases with a single type of shear plane, NbO x block structures with intersecting shear planes and WO3- x with more defective block and channel structures) to layered superstructures (Ca3Co4O9 and double perovskites) and also include a wide range of their composites with a variety of second phases. Crystallographic or microstructural features of these oxides are in 0.3-2 nm size range, so that oxide phonons can efficiently interact with them. We explore in our experiments the effects of doping, grain size, crystallographic defects, superstructures, second phases, texturing and (to a limited extend) processing on electric conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and figure of merit. Jonker and lattice-versus-electrical conductivity plots are used to compare specific materials and material families and extract levers for future improvement of oxide thermoelectrics. We show in our work that oxygen vacancy doping (reduction) is a more powerful driver for improving the power factor for SrTiO3, TiO2 and NbO x than heterovalent doping. Based on our Seebeck-conductivity plots, we derived

  13. The research progress of large-aperture fused silica for high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhufeng; Wang, Yufen; Xiang, Zaikui; Rao, Chuandong

    2016-03-01

    Because of its excellent optical performance, the fused silica is widely used in laser industry. In addition, the fused silica can withstand high power laser, due to its pure component, and the performance is most outstanding within all types of glasses. So fused silica can be used for optical lens in high power laser field. From the manufacturing process stand point, the fused silica can be categorized to four types: type Ⅰ, type Ⅱ, type Ⅲ, and type Ⅳ. The fused silica of type Ⅰand type Ⅱ is made through melting silica sand in graphite furnace or oxyhydrogen flame. There are many defects in these types of fused silica, for example, the air bubbles, inclusions and metallic impurity. The other two types are made by synthetic reaction of SiCl4 with water in oxyhydrogen or plasma flame. Both type Ⅲ and Ⅳ have excellent performance in transmittance and internal quality. However, type Ⅳof fused silica has disadvantage in small aperture and overall high manufacturing cost. Take the transmittance and internal quality into consideration, the type Ⅲ fused silica is the most suitable for large-aperture lens, and can withstand high power laser. The systemic studies of manufacturing process were done to improve the performance of type Ⅲ fused silica in various areas, for instance, the optical homogeneity, the stress birefringence, the absorption coefficient and the damage threshold. There are four steps in manufacturing process of type Ⅲ fused silica, ingot production, reshaping, annealing and cold-working. The critical factors of ingot production, like the flame of burner and the structure of furnace, were deeply studied in this paper to improve the performance of fused silica. On the basis of the above research, the performance and quality of the fused silica measured up to advanced world levels. For instance, the result of optical homogeneity can be controlled to 2-5 ppm, the stress birefringence is better than 4 nm/cm, the absorption coefficient is

  14. Pyroelectric energy conversion with large energy and power density in relaxor ferroelectric thin films.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Shishir; Wilbur, Joshua; Kim, Jieun; Gao, Ran; Dasgupta, Arvind; Dames, Chris; Martin, Lane W

    2018-05-01

    The need for efficient energy utilization is driving research into ways to harvest ubiquitous waste heat. Here, we explore pyroelectric energy conversion from low-grade thermal sources that exploits strong field- and temperature-induced polarization susceptibilities in the relaxor ferroelectric 0.68Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.32PbTiO 3 . Electric-field-driven enhancement of the pyroelectric response (as large as -550 μC m -2  K -1 ) and suppression of the dielectric response (by 72%) yield substantial figures of merit for pyroelectric energy conversion. Field- and temperature-dependent pyroelectric measurements highlight the role of polarization rotation and field-induced polarization in mediating these effects. Solid-state, thin-film devices that convert low-grade heat into electrical energy are demonstrated using pyroelectric Ericsson cycles, and optimized to yield maximum energy density, power density and efficiency of 1.06 J cm -3 , 526 W cm -3 and 19% of Carnot, respectively; the highest values reported to date and equivalent to the performance of a thermoelectric with an effective ZT ≈ 1.16 for a temperature change of 10 K. Our findings suggest that pyroelectric devices may be competitive with thermoelectric devices for low-grade thermal harvesting.

  15. Requirements for Large Eddy Simulation Computations of Variable-Speed Power Turbine Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Variable-speed power turbines (VSPTs) operate at low Reynolds numbers and with a wide range of incidence angles. Transition, separation, and the relevant physics leading to them are important to VSPT flow. Higher fidelity tools such as large eddy simulation (LES) may be needed to resolve the flow features necessary for accurate predictive capability and design of such turbines. A survey conducted for this report explores the requirements for such computations. The survey is limited to the simulation of two-dimensional flow cases and endwalls are not included. It suggests that a grid resolution necessary for this type of simulation to accurately represent the physics may be of the order of Delta(x)+=45, Delta(x)+ =2 and Delta(z)+=17. Various subgrid-scale (SGS) models have been used and except for the Smagorinsky model, all seem to perform well and in some instances the simulations worked well without SGS modeling. A method of specifying the inlet conditions such as synthetic eddy modeling (SEM) is necessary to correctly represent the inlet conditions.

  16. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    PubMed

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game.

  17. Pyroelectric energy conversion with large energy and power density in relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, Shishir; Wilbur, Joshua; Kim, Jieun; Gao, Ran; Dasgupta, Arvind; Dames, Chris; Martin, Lane W.

    2018-05-01

    The need for efficient energy utilization is driving research into ways to harvest ubiquitous waste heat. Here, we explore pyroelectric energy conversion from low-grade thermal sources that exploits strong field- and temperature-induced polarization susceptibilities in the relaxor ferroelectric 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3. Electric-field-driven enhancement of the pyroelectric response (as large as -550 μC m-2 K-1) and suppression of the dielectric response (by 72%) yield substantial figures of merit for pyroelectric energy conversion. Field- and temperature-dependent pyroelectric measurements highlight the role of polarization rotation and field-induced polarization in mediating these effects. Solid-state, thin-film devices that convert low-grade heat into electrical energy are demonstrated using pyroelectric Ericsson cycles, and optimized to yield maximum energy density, power density and efficiency of 1.06 J cm-3, 526 W cm-3 and 19% of Carnot, respectively; the highest values reported to date and equivalent to the performance of a thermoelectric with an effective ZT ≈ 1.16 for a temperature change of 10 K. Our findings suggest that pyroelectric devices may be competitive with thermoelectric devices for low-grade thermal harvesting.

  18. Common solutions for power, communication and robustness in operations of large measurement networks within Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert; Beranzoli, Laura; Fiebig, Markus; Gilbert, Olivier; Laj, Paolo; Mazzola, Mauro; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pedersen, Helle; Stocker, Markus; Vitale, Vito; Waldmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    European Environmental Research Infrastructures (RI) frequently comprise in situ observatories from large-scale networks of platforms or sites to local networks of various sensors. Network operation is usually a cumbersome aspect of these RIs facing specific technological problems related to operations in remote areas, maintenance of the network, transmission of observation values, etc.. Robust inter-connection within and across these networks is still at infancy level and the burden increases with remoteness of the station, harshness of environmental conditions, and unavailability of classic communication systems, which is a common feature here. Despite existing RIs having developed ad-hoc solutions to overcome specific problems and innovative technologies becoming available, no common approach yet exists. Within the European project ENVRIplus, a dedicated work package aims to stimulate common network operation technologies and approaches in terms of power supply and storage, robustness, and data transmission. Major objectives of this task are to review existing technologies and RI requirements, propose innovative solutions and evaluate the standardization potential prior to wider deployment across networks. Focus areas within these efforts are: improving energy production and storage units, testing robustness of RI equipment towards extreme conditions as well as methodologies for robust data transmission. We will introduce current project activities which are coordinated at various levels including the engineering as well as the data management perspective, and explain how environmental RIs can benefit from the developments.

  19. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

    PubMed Central

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G.; Nowak, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples’ actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability’s power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company’s previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game. PMID:23754399

  20. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].

    PubMed

    Iakimova, L D

    1997-01-01

    The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations.

  1. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  2. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J., E-mail: andrea.ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidencemore » for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.« less

  3. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  4. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P K; Singh, S K; Sanyasi, A K; Awasthi, L M; Mattoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  5. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltagemore » protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.« less

  6. Investigation of a large power water-cooled microwave resonance window for application with the ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guo; Guo, Junwei; Niu, Xinjian; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Hui; Wei, Yanyu

    2017-06-01

    A large power water-cooled microwave resonance window used for the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is investigated in this paper. The microwave characteristic simulation, thermal analysis, and structure design are deeply and successively carried out before fabrication. After the machining and welding of the components, the window is cold and hot tested. The application results demonstrate that when the input power is 2000 W, the reflected power is only 5 W. The vacuum is below 10-10 Pa, and the high power microwave operation can last 30 h continuously and reliably, which indicates that the design and assembling can achieve the high efficiency of the microwave transmission. Finally, the performance of the ECR ion source is enhanced by the improvement of the injected microwave power to the ECR plasma.

  7. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    DOE PAGES

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; ...

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation methodmore » can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.« less

  8. Probability density function characterization for aggregated large-scale wind power based on Weibull mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Bueso, Maria C.; Kessler, Mathieu; ...

    2016-02-02

    Here, the Weibull probability distribution has been widely applied to characterize wind speeds for wind energy resources. Wind power generation modeling is different, however, due in particular to power curve limitations, wind turbine control methods, and transmission system operation requirements. These differences are even greater for aggregated wind power generation in power systems with high wind penetration. Consequently, models based on one-Weibull component can provide poor characterizations for aggregated wind power generation. With this aim, the present paper focuses on discussing Weibull mixtures to characterize the probability density function (PDF) for aggregated wind power generation. PDFs of wind power datamore » are firstly classified attending to hourly and seasonal patterns. The selection of the number of components in the mixture is analyzed through two well-known different criteria: the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Finally, the optimal number of Weibull components for maximum likelihood is explored for the defined patterns, including the estimated weight, scale, and shape parameters. Results show that multi-Weibull models are more suitable to characterize aggregated wind power data due to the impact of distributed generation, variety of wind speed values and wind power curtailment.« less

  9. Experimental investigation of the transverse modal instabilities onset in high power fully-aperiodic-large-pitch fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malleville, Marie-Alicia; Benoît, Aurélien; Dauliat, Romain; Leconte, Baptiste; Darwich, Dia; du Jeu, Rémi; Jamier, Raphaël.; Schwuchow, Anka; Schuster, Kay; Roy, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Over the last decade, significant work has been carried out in order to increase the energy/peak power provided by fiber lasers. Indeed, new microstructured fibers with large (or very large) mode area cores (LMA) such as Distributed Mode Filtering (DMF) fibers and Large-Pitch Fibers (LPF) have been developed to address this concern. These technologies have allowed diffraction-limited emission with core diameters higher than 80 μm, and have state-of-the-art performances in terms of pulse energy or peak power while keeping an excellent spatial beam quality. Although these fibers were designed to reach high power levels while maintaining a single transverse mode propagation, power scaling becomes quickly limited by the onset of transverse modal instabilities (TMI). This effect suddenly arises when a certain average power threshold is exceeded, drastically degrading the emitted beam quality. In this work, we investigate the influence of the core dimensions and the refractive index mismatch between the active core and the background cladding material, on the TMI power threshold in rod-type Fully-Aperiodic-LPF. This fiber structure was specifically designed to enhance the higher-order modes (HOMs) delocalization out of the gain region and thus push further the onset of modal instabilities. Using a 400W pump diode at 976 nm, the power scaling, as well as the spatial beam quality and its temporal behavior were investigated in laser configuration, which theoretically provides a lower TMI power threshold than the amplifier one due to the lack of selective excitation of the fundamental mode.

  10. Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, alternating current (AC) power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can become a serious problem. It can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and, during distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. To address the harmonic distortion issue, work was begun under the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Software, originally developed by EPRI, called HARMFLO, a power flow program capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The modelling was also started under the same fellowship work period. Details of the modifications and models completed during the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program can be found in a project report. As a continuation of the work to develop a complete package necessary for the full analysis of spacecraft AC power system behavior, deployment work has continued through NASA Grant NAG3-1254. This report details the work covered by the above mentioned grant.

  11. Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, AC power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and during extreme distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. HARMFLO, a power flow computer program, which was capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz, AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The results are that (1) the harmonic power now has a model of a single phase, voltage controlled, full wave rectifier; and (2) HARMFLO was ported to the SUN workstation platform.

  12. Rotordynamic Feasibility of a Conceptual Variable-Speed Power Turbine Propulsion System for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    A variable-speed power turbine concept is analyzed for rotordynamic feasibility in a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR) class engine. Implementation of a variable-speed power turbine in a rotorcraft engine would enable high efficiency propulsion at the high forward velocities anticipated of large tilt-rotor vehicles. Therefore, rotordynamics is a critical issue for this engine concept. A preliminary feasibility study is presented herein to address this concern and identify if variable-speed is possible in a conceptual engine sized for the LCTR. The analysis considers critical speed placement in the operating speed envelope, stability analysis up to the maximum anticipated operating speed, and potential unbalance response amplitudes to determine that a variable-speed power turbine is likely to be challenging, but not impossible to achieve in a tilt-rotor propulsion engine.

  13. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Babaei, Hasan, E-mail: babaei@illinois.edu, E-mail: babaei@auburn.edu; Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341; Khodadadi, J. M.

    2014-11-10

    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltiermore » coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.« less

  14. Large thermoelectric power factor from crystal symmetry-protected non-bonding orbital in half-Heuslers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Zhu, Hangtian; Liu, Te-Huan; Song, Qichen; He, Ran; Mao, Jun; Liu, Zihang; Ren, Wuyang; Liao, Bolin; Singh, David J; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2018-04-30

    Modern society relies on high charge mobility for efficient energy production and fast information technologies. The power factor of a material-the combination of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient-measures its ability to extract electrical power from temperature differences. Recent advancements in thermoelectric materials have achieved enhanced Seebeck coefficient by manipulating the electronic band structure. However, this approach generally applies at relatively low conductivities, preventing the realization of exceptionally high-power factors. In contrast, half-Heusler semiconductors have been shown to break through that barrier in a way that could not be explained. Here, we show that symmetry-protected orbital interactions can steer electron-acoustic phonon interactions towards high mobility. This high-mobility regime enables large power factors in half-Heuslers, well above the maximum measured values. We anticipate that our understanding will spark new routes to search for better thermoelectric materials, and to discover high electron mobility semiconductors for electronic and photonic applications.

  15. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  17. Design, construction, and measurement of a large solar powered thermoacoustic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Reh-Lin

    2001-07-01

    A device based on harnessing concentrated solar power in combination with using thermoacoustic principles has been built, instrumented, and tested. Its acoustic power is generated by solar radiation and is subsequently used to pump heat from external loads. The direct conversion between thermal and mechanical energy without going through any electronic stage makes the mechanism simple. Construction of the solar collector is also rather unsophisticated. It was converted from a 10-ft satellite dish with aluminized Mylar glued on the surface. The thermoacoustic device was mounted on the dish with its engine's hot side positioned near the focus of the parabolic dish, about 1 meter above the center of the dish. A 2-dimensional solar tracking system was built, using two servo motors to position the dish at pre-calculated coordinates. The solar powered thermoacoustic cooler is intended to be used where solar power is abundant and electricity may not be available or reliable. The cooler provides cooling during solar availability. Cooling can be maintained by the latent heat of ice when solar power is unattainable. The device has achieved cooling although compromised by gas leakage and thermal losses and was not able to provide temperatures low enough to freeze water. Improvements of the device are expected through modifications suggested herein.

  18. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  19. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  20. Ultra-large core birefringent Yb-doped tapered double clad fiber for high power amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, Andrey; Noronen, Teppo; Gumenyuk, Regina; Ustimchik, Vasiliy; Chamorovskii, Yuri; Golant, Konstantin; Odnoblyudov, Maxim; Rissanen, Joona; Niemi, Tapio; Filippov, Valery

    2018-03-19

    We present a birefringent Yb-doped tapered double-clad fiber with a record core diameter of 96 µm. An impressive gain of over 38 dB was demonstrated for linearly polarized CW and pulsed sources at a wavelength of 1040 nm. For the CW regime the output power was70 W. For a mode-locked fiber laser a pulse energy of 28 µJ with 292 kW peak power was reached at an average output power of 28 W for a 1 MHz repetition rate. The tapered double-clad fiber has a high value of polarization extinction ratio at 30 dB and is capable of delivering the linearly polarized diffraction-limited beam (M 2 = 1.09).

  1. Large signal design - Performance and simulation of a 3 W C-band GaAs power MMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Paul M.; Hendrickson, Mary A.; Chang, Wayne H.; Curtice, Walter R.

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a C-band GaAs power MMIC amplifier that achieved a gain of 17 dB and 1 dB compressed CW power output of 34 dBm across a 4.5-6.25-GHz frequency range, without design iteration. The first-pass design success was achieved due to the application of a harmonic balance simulator to define the optimum output load, using a large-signal FET model determined statistically on a well controlled foundry-ready process line. The measured performance was close to that predicted by a full harmonic balance circuit analysis.

  2. Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Daisy Suet Ying; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, George; Lagache, Guilaine

    2017-04-01

    We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission High frequency instrument data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz over 20 000 deg2. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50 per cent of the sky. These spectra agree well with H I-cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz, our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at ℓ ≳ 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index γcib = 0.53 ± 0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by the CIB fluctuations at multipoles ℓ ≳ 300.

  3. Control of electromagnetic stirring by power focusing in large induction crucible furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizen, V. E.; Sarapulov, F. N.

    2011-12-01

    An approach is proposed for the calculation of the operating conditions of an induction crucible furnace at the final stage of melting with the power focused in various regions of melted metal. The calculation is performed using a model based on the method of detailed magnetic equivalent circuits. The combination of the furnace and a thyristor frequency converter is taken into account in modeling.

  4. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  5. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  6. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minutemore » irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.« less

  7. High Power Microwave Emission of Large and Small Orbit Gyrotron Devices in Rectangular Interaction Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochman, J. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Jaynes, R. L.; Rintamaki, J. I.; Luginsland, J. W.; Lau, Y. Y.; Spencer, T. A.

    1996-11-01

    Experiments utilize large and small orbit e-beam gyrotron devices in a rectangular-cross-section (RCS) gyrotron. This device is being explored to examine polarization control. Other research issues include pulse shortening, and mode competition. MELBA generates electron beams with parameters of: -800kV, 1-10kA diode current, and 0.5-1.0 μ sec pulselengths. The small orbit gyrotron device is converted to a large orbit experiment by running MELBA's annular electron beam through a magnetic cusp. Initial experiments showed an increase in beam alpha (V_perp/V_par) of a factor of ~ 4 between small and large orbit devices. Experimental results from the RCS gyrotron will be compared for large-orbit and small-orbit electron beams. Beam transport data and frequency measurements will be presented. Computer modeling utilizing the MAGIC and E-gun codes will be shown.

  8. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  9. Fragmentation and dusting of large kidney stones using compact, air-cooled, high peak power, 1940-nm, Thulium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Gonzalez, David A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    Previous Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy (TFL) studies were limited to a peak power of 70 W (35 mJ / 500 μs), requiring operation in dusting mode with low pulse energy (35 mJ) and high pulse rate (300 Hz). In this study, a novel, compact, air-cooled, TFL capable of operating at up to 500 W peak power, 50 W average power, and 2000 Hz, was tested. The 1940-nm TFL was used with pulse duration (500 μs), average power (10 W), and fiber (270- μm-core) fixed, while pulse energy and pulse rate were changed. A total of 23 large uric acid (UA) stones and 16 large calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones were each separated into 3 modes (Group 1-"Dusting"- 33mJ/300Hz; Group 2-"Fragmentation"-200mJ/50Hz; Group 3-"Dual mode"-Fragmentation then Dusting). The fiber was held manually in contact with stone on a 2-mm-mesh sieve submerged in a flowing saline bath. UA ablation rates were 2.3+/-0.8, 2.3+/-0.2, and 4.4+/-0.8 mg/s and COM ablation rates were 0.4+/-0.1, 1.0+/-0.1, and 0.9+/-0.4 mg/s, for Groups 1, 2, and 3. Dual mode provided 2x higher UA ablation rates than other modes. COM ablation threshold is 3x higher than UA, so dusting provided lower COM ablation rates than other modes. Future studies will explore higher average laser power than 10 W for rapid TFL ablation of large stones.

  10. Magnetic shielding of large high-power-satellite solar arrays using internal currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. W.; Oran, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Present concepts for solar power satellites involve dimensions up to tens of kilometers and operating internal currents up to hundreds of kiloamperes. A question addressed is whether the local magnetic fields generated by these strong currents during normal operation can shield the array against impacts by plasma ions and electrons (and from thruster plasmas) which can cause possible losses such as power leakage and surface erosion. One of several prototype concepts was modeled by a long narrow rectangular panel 2 km wide and 20 km long. The currents flow in a parallel across the narrow dimension (sheet current) and along the edge (wire currents). The wire currents accumulate from zero to 100 kiloamp and are the dominant sources. The magnetic field is approximated analytically. The equations of motion for charged particles in this magnetic field are analyzed. The ion and electron fluxes at points on the surface are represented analytically for monoenergetic distributions and are evaluated.

  11. High-power piezo drive amplifier for large stack and PFC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clingman, Dan J.; Gamble, Mike

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of Boeing High Power Piezo Drive Amplifiers. Described is the development and testing of a 1500 Vpp, 8 amp switching amplifier. This amplifier is used to drive a piezo stack driven rotor blade trailing edge flap on a full size helicopter. Also discuss is a switching amplifier designed to drive a Piezo Fiber Composite (PFC) active twist rotor blade. This amplifier was designed to drive the PFC material at 2000 Vpp and 0.5 amps. These amplifiers recycle reactive energy, allowing for a power and weight efficient amplifier design. This work was done in conjunction with the DARPA sponsored Phase II Smart Rotor Blade program and the NASA Langley Research Center sponsored Active Twist Rotor (ATR) blade program.

  12. Adenosine deaminase polymorphism affects sleep EEG spectral power in a large epidemiological sample.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Guindalini, Camila; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Sato, João Ricardo; Santos-Silva, Rogério; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Tufik, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Slow wave oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep may reflect both sleep need and intensity, which are implied in homeostatic regulation. Adenosine is strongly implicated in sleep homeostasis, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the adenosine deaminase gene (ADA G22A) has been associated with deeper and more efficient sleep. The present study verified the association between the ADA G22A polymorphism and changes in sleep EEG spectral power (from C3-A2, C4-A1, O1-A2, and O2-A1 derivations) in the Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO) sample from São Paulo, Brazil. Eight-hundred individuals were subjected to full-night polysomnography and ADA G22A genotyping. Spectral analysis of the EEG was carried out in all individuals using fast Fourier transformation of the signals from each EEG electrode. The genotype groups were compared in the whole sample and in a subsample of 120 individuals matched according to ADA genotype for age, gender, body mass index, caffeine intake status, presence of sleep disturbance, and sleep-disturbing medication. When compared with homozygous GG genotype carriers, A allele carriers showed higher delta spectral power in Stage 1 and Stages 3+4 of sleep, and increased theta spectral power in Stages 1, 2 and REM sleep. These changes were seen both in the whole sample and in the matched subset. The higher EEG spectral power indicates that the sleep of individuals carrying the A allele may be more intense. Therefore, this polymorphism may be an important source of variation in sleep homeostasis in humans, through modulation of specific components of the sleep EEG.

  13. Very low noise AC/DC power supply systems for large detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Arnaboldi, C; Baù, A; Carniti, P; Cassina, L; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Maino, M; Passerini, A; Pessina, G

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present the first part of the power supply system for the CUORE and LUCIFER arrays of bolometric detectors. For CUORE, it consists of AC/DC commercial power supplies (0-60 V output) followed by custom DC/DC modules (48 V input, ±5 V to ±13.5 V outputs). Each module has 3 floating and independently configurable output voltages. In LUCIFER, the AC/DC + DC/DC stages are combined into a commercial medium-power AC/DC source. At the outputs of both setups, we introduced filters with the aim of lowering the noise and to protect the following stages from high voltage spikes that can be generated by the energy stored in the cables after the release of accidental short circuits. Output noise is very low, as required: in the 100 MHz bandwidth the RMS level is about 37 μV(RMS) (CUORE setup) and 90 μV(RMS) (LUCIFER setup) at a load of 7 A, with a negligible dependence on the load current. Even more importantly, high frequency switching disturbances are almost completely suppressed. The efficiency of both systems is above 85%. Both systems are completely programmable and monitored via CAN bus (optically coupled).

  14. Flux harmonics in large SFR cores in relation with core characteristics such as power peaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpault, G.; Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.

    2013-07-01

    Designing future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) requires enhancing their operational performance and reducing the probability to go into core disruption. As a consequence of these constraints, these novel reactors exhibit rather unusual features compared to past designs. The cores are much larger with rather flat shape. The consequences of that shape on the core characteristics deserve to be studied. The approach taken in this paper is to calculate the eigenvalue associated to the first harmonic and its associated flux. It is demonstrated that these values are linked to some core features, in particular, those sensitive to spatial effects such asmore » power peaks induced by the movement of control rods. The uncertainty associated to these characteristics is being tentatively studied and guidelines for further studied are being identified. In the development strategy of these new SFR designs, a first demonstration plant of limited installed power (around 1500 MWth) will have to be built first. Identifying the possibility of going later to higher power plants (around 3600 MWth) without facing new challenges is an important criterion for designing such a plant. That strategy is being studied, in this paper, focusing on some rather frequent initiator such as the inadvertent control rod withdrawal for different core sizes with the help of the perturbation theory and the flux harmonics. (authors)« less

  15. Developments on GM-Type Pulse Tube Cryorefrigerators with Large Cooling Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köttig, T.; Waldauf, A.; Thürk, M.; Seidel, P.

    2004-06-01

    Over the past several years the authors have participated in basic and prototype developments of four valve pulse tube refrigerators (FVPTR). Systematic studies have been carried out to characterize the basics of energy transport mechanisms, the flow distribution and loss mechanisms of this type of pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) with its active type of phase shifting. Based on the comprehension of these phenomena, several prototypes have been built and optimized for various applications. Recently a single-stage PTR in coaxial arrangement has been designed for maximum refrigeration power in the temperature range between 20 and 80 K limited by an available electrical input power of 7 kW. To reach this goal we used lead screens in the coldest part of the regenerator instead of spheres in order to decrease the pressure drop. The improvement of the regenerator prevents the reported fact that at higher temperatures the performance of a pulse tube with a regenerator partially filled with lead spheres can even be worse than a regenerator totally made of stainless steel. At the moment the cooler provides a cooling power of 120 W@74 K and 40 W@34 K. The minimum no-load temperature achieved is 18.6 K.

  16. Research on Fault Characteristics and Line Protections Within a Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Zeng, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Guobin; Xu, Qi; Luo, Pandian; Gu, Chenjie; Liu, Bohan

    2017-05-01

    Centralized photovoltaic (PV) systems have different fault characteristics from distributed PV systems due to the different system structures and controls. This makes the fault analysis and protection methods used in distribution networks with distributed PV not suitable for a centralized PV power plant. Therefore, a consolidated expression for the fault current within a PV power plant under different controls was calculated considering the fault response of the PV array. Then, supported by the fault current analysis and the on-site testing data, the overcurrent relay (OCR) performance was evaluated in the collection system of an 850 MW PV power plant. It reveals that the OCRs at downstream side on overhead lines may malfunction. In this case, a new relay scheme was proposed using directional distance elements. In the PSCAD/EMTDC, a detailed PV system model was built and verified using the on-site testing data. Simulation results indicate that the proposed relay scheme could effectively solve the problems under variant fault scenarios and PV plant output levels.

  17. Economic optimization of the energy transport component of a large distributed solar power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A solar thermal power plant with a field of collectors, each locally heating some transport fluid, requires a pipe network system for eventual delivery of energy power generation equipment. For a given collector distribution and pipe network geometry, a technique is herein developed which manipulates basic cost information and physical data in order to design an energy transport system consistent with minimized cost constrained by a calculated technical performance. For a given transport fluid and collector conditions, the method determines the network pipe diameter and pipe thickness distribution and also insulation thickness distribution associated with minimum system cost; these relative distributions are unique. Transport losses, including pump work and heat leak, are calculated operating expenses and impact the total system cost. The minimum cost system is readily selected. The technique is demonstrated on six candidate transport fluids to emphasize which parameters dominate the system cost and to provide basic decision data. Three different power plant output sizes are evaluated in each case to determine severity of diseconomy of scale.

  18. Large Scale Triboelectric Nanogenerator and Self-Powered Pressure Sensor Array Using Low Cost Roll-to-Roll UV Embossing

    PubMed Central

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Gudla, Sudeep; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have emerged as a potential solution for mechanical energy harvesting over conventional mechanisms such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic, due to easy fabrication, high efficiency and wider choice of materials. Traditional fabrication techniques used to realize TENGs involve plasma etching, soft lithography and nanoparticle deposition for higher performance. But lack of truly scalable fabrication processes still remains a critical challenge and bottleneck in the path of bringing TENGs to commercial production. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of large scale triboelectric nanogenerator (LS-TENG) using roll-to-roll ultraviolet embossing to pattern polyethylene terephthalate sheets. These LS-TENGs can be used to harvest energy from human motion and vehicle motion from embedded devices in floors and roads, respectively. LS-TENG generated a power density of 62.5 mW m−2. Using roll-to-roll processing technique, we also demonstrate a large scale triboelectric pressure sensor array with pressure detection sensitivity of 1.33 V kPa−1. The large scale pressure sensor array has applications in self-powered motion tracking, posture monitoring and electronic skin applications. This work demonstrates scalable fabrication of TENGs and self-powered pressure sensor arrays, which will lead to extremely low cost and bring them closer to commercial production. PMID:26905285

  19. Optimal Load Shedding and Generation Rescheduling for Overload Suppression in Large Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Hyun

    Ever-increasing size, complexity and operation costs in modern power systems have stimulated the intensive study of an optimal Load Shedding and Generator Rescheduling (LSGR) strategy in the sense of a secure and economic system operation. The conventional approach to LSGR has been based on the application of LP (Linear Programming) with the use of an approximately linearized model, and the LP algorithm is currently considered to be the most powerful tool for solving the LSGR problem. However, all of the LP algorithms presented in the literature essentially lead to the following disadvantages: (i) piecewise linearization involved in the LP algorithms requires the introduction of a number of new inequalities and slack variables, which creates significant burden to the computing facilities, and (ii) objective functions are not formulated in terms of the state variables of the adopted models, resulting in considerable numerical inefficiency in the process of computing the optimal solution. A new approach is presented, based on the development of a new linearized model and on the application of QP (Quadratic Programming). The changes in line flows as a result of changes to bus injection power are taken into account in the proposed model by the introduction of sensitivity coefficients, which avoids the mentioned second disadvantages. A precise method to calculate these sensitivity coefficients is given. A comprehensive review of the theory of optimization is included, in which results of the development of QP algorithms for LSGR as based on Wolfe's method and Kuhn -Tucker theory are evaluated in detail. The validity of the proposed model and QP algorithms has been verified and tested on practical power systems, showing the significant reduction of both computation time and memory requirements as well as the expected lower generation costs of the optimal solution as compared with those obtained from computing the optimal solution with LP. Finally, it is noted that an

  20. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Willett; Tomić, Jasna

    Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

  1. Assessment of Aerodynamic Challenges of a Variable-Speed Power Turbine for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerand E.

    2010-01-01

    The main rotors of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor notional vehicle operate over a wide speed-range (100% at take-off to 54% at cruise). The variable-speed power turbine, when coupled to a fixed-gear-ratio transmission, offers one approach to accomplish this speed variation. The key aero-challenges of the variable-speed power turbine are related to high work factors at cruise, where the power turbine operates at 54% of take-off speed, wide incidence variations into the vane, blade, and exit-guide-vane rows associated with the power-turbine speed change, and the impact of low aft-stage Reynolds number (transitional flow) at 28 kft cruise. Meanline and 2-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes analyses are used to characterize the variable-speed power-turbine aerodynamic challenges and to outline a conceptual design approach that accounts for multi-point operation. Identified technical challenges associated with the aerodynamics of high work factor, incidence-tolerant blading, and low Reynolds numbers pose research needs outlined in the paper

  2. Unification of small and large time scales for biological evolution: deviations from power law.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2003-02-14

    We develop a unified model that describes both "micro" and "macro" evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the "microevolution" over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the "macroevolution" over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

  3. Large refractive index variations induced by accumulating triplet excitons under photoexcitation at low power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Tomoe; Totani, Kenro; Hirata, Shuzo; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2018-07-01

    Herein, we present a method for the modification of the refractive index (n), based on employing an organic molecule with a long triplet excited-state lifetime. A host-guest material composed of a cyclic aromatic as the guest and an amorphous steroidal compound as the host was used to modulate n. The guest material exhibited a triplet lifetime longer than 1 s, and a high-density triplet excited-state population was obtained upon excitation with blue-violet light. The refractive index could be changed by 0.002, even when using a relatively low excitation power level of 100 mW cm-2.

  4. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, andmore » Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.« less

  5. Decentralized Fuzzy MPC on Spatial Power Control of a Large PHWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangjie; Jiang, Di; Lee, Kwang Y.

    2016-08-01

    Reliable power control for stabilizing the spatial oscillations is quite important for ensuring the safe operation of a modern pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), since these spatial oscillations can cause “flux tilting” in the reactor core. In this paper, a decentralized fuzzy model predictive control (DFMPC) is proposed for spatial control of PHWR. Due to the load dependent dynamics of the nuclear power plant, fuzzy modeling is used to approximate the nonlinear process. A fuzzy Lyapunov function and “quasi-min-max” strategy is utilized in designing the DFMPC, to reduce the conservatism. The plant-wide stability is achieved by the asymptotically positive realness constraint (APRC) for this decentralized MPC. The solving optimization problem is based on a receding horizon scheme involving the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique. Through dynamic simulations, it is demonstrated that the designed DFMPC can effectively suppress spatial oscillations developed in PHWR, and further, shows the advantages over the typical parallel distributed compensation (PDC) control scheme.

  6. Dynamics of large-diameter water pipes in hydroelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavić, G.; Chevillotte, F.; Heraud, J.

    2017-04-01

    An outline is made of physical behaviour of water - filled large pipes. The fluid-wall coupling, the key factor governing the pipe dynamics, is discussed in some detail. Different circumferential pipe modes and the associated cut-on frequencies are addressed from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Major attention is paid to the breathing mode in view of its importance regarding main dynamic phenomena, such as water hammer. Selected measurement results done at EDF are presented to demonstrate how an external, non-intrusive sensor can detect pressure pulsations of the breathing mode in a pressure pipe. Differences in the pressure measurement using intrusive and non-intrusive sensors reveal the full complexity of large-diameter pipe dynamics.

  7. NASA's Information Power Grid: Large Scale Distributed Computing and Data Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Vaziri, Arsi; Hinke, Tom; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Feiereisen, William J.; Thigpen, William; Tang, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale science and engineering are done through the interaction of people, heterogeneous computing resources, information systems, and instruments, all of which are geographically and organizationally dispersed. The overall motivation for Grids is to facilitate the routine interactions of these resources in order to support large-scale science and engineering. Multi-disciplinary simulations provide a good example of a class of applications that are very likely to require aggregation of widely distributed computing, data, and intellectual resources. Such simulations - e.g. whole system aircraft simulation and whole system living cell simulation - require integrating applications and data that are developed by different teams of researchers frequently in different locations. The research team's are the only ones that have the expertise to maintain and improve the simulation code and/or the body of experimental data that drives the simulations. This results in an inherently distributed computing and data management environment.

  8. Variable-Speed Power-Turbine for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchezky, Mark; Cruzen, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Turbine design concepts were studied for application to a large civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The concepts addressed the need for high turbine efficiency across the broad 2:1 turbine operating speed range representative of the notional mission for the aircraft. The study focused on tailoring basic turbine aerodynamic design design parameters to avoid the need for complex, heavy, and expensive variable geometry features. The results of the study showed that good turbine performance can be achieved across the design speed range if the design focuses on tailoring the aerodynamics for good tolerance to large swings in incidence, as opposed to optimizing for best performance at the long range cruise design point. A rig design configuration and program plan are suggested for a dedicated experiment to validate the proposed approach.

  9. Solar powered oxygen systems in remote health centers in Papua New Guinea: a large scale implementation effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Kaupa, Magdalynn; Karubi, Jonah; Panauwe, Doreen; Sa'avu, Martin; Pulsan, Francis; Prasad, Peter; Maru, Freddy; Tenambo, Henry; Kwaramb, Ambrose; Neal, Eleanor; Graham, Hamish; Izadnegahdar, Rasa

    2017-06-01

    Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses. These hospitals are hampered by lack of reliable power, staff training and other basic services. We report the methodology of a large implementation effectiveness trial involving sustainable and renewable oxygen and power systems in 36 health facilities in remote rural areas of PNG. The methodology is a before-and after evaluation involving continuous quality improvement, and a health systems approach. We describe this model of implementation as the considerations and steps involved have wider implications in health systems in other countries. The implementation steps include: defining the criteria for where such an intervention is appropriate, assessment of power supplies and power requirements, the optimal design of a solar power system, specifications for oxygen concentrators and other oxygen equipment that will function in remote environments, installation logistics in remote settings, the role of oxygen analyzers in monitoring oxygen concentrator performance, the engineering capacity required to sustain a program at scale, clinical guidelines and training on oxygen equipment and the treatment of children with severe respiratory infection and other critical illnesses, program costs, and measurement of processes and

  10. Solar powered oxygen systems in remote health centers in Papua New Guinea: a large scale implementation effectiveness trial

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Trevor; Hwaihwanje, Ilomo; Kaupa, Magdalynn; Karubi, Jonah; Panauwe, Doreen; Sa’avu, Martin; Pulsan, Francis; Prasad, Peter; Maru, Freddy; Tenambo, Henry; Kwaramb, Ambrose; Neal, Eleanor; Graham, Hamish; Izadnegahdar, Rasa

    2017-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the largest cause of child deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and hypoxaemia is the major complication causing death in childhood pneumonia, and hypoxaemia is a major factor in deaths from many other common conditions, including bronchiolitis, asthma, sepsis, malaria, trauma, perinatal problems, and obstetric emergencies. A reliable source of oxygen therapy can reduce mortality from pneumonia by up to 35%. However, in low and middle income countries throughout the world, improved oxygen systems have not been implemented at large scale in remote, difficult to access health care settings, and oxygen is often unavailable at smaller rural hospitals or district health centers which serve as the first point of referral for childhood illnesses. These hospitals are hampered by lack of reliable power, staff training and other basic services. Methods We report the methodology of a large implementation effectiveness trial involving sustainable and renewable oxygen and power systems in 36 health facilities in remote rural areas of PNG. The methodology is a before–and after evaluation involving continuous quality improvement, and a health systems approach. We describe this model of implementation as the considerations and steps involved have wider implications in health systems in other countries. Results The implementation steps include: defining the criteria for where such an intervention is appropriate, assessment of power supplies and power requirements, the optimal design of a solar power system, specifications for oxygen concentrators and other oxygen equipment that will function in remote environments, installation logistics in remote settings, the role of oxygen analyzers in monitoring oxygen concentrator performance, the engineering capacity required to sustain a program at scale, clinical guidelines and training on oxygen equipment and the treatment of children with severe respiratory infection and other critical illnesses, program costs, and

  11. Power-law versus log-law in wall-bounded turbulence: A large-eddy simulation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    The debate whether the mean streamwise velocity in wall-bounded turbulent flows obeys a log-law or a power-law scaling originated over two decades ago, and continues to ferment in recent years. As experiments and direct numerical simulation can not provide sufficient clues, in this study we present an insight into this debate from a large-eddy simulation (LES) viewpoint. The LES organically combines state-of-the-art models (the stretched-vortex model and inflow rescaling method) with a virtual-wall model derived under different scaling law assumptions (the log-law or the power-law by George and Castillo ["Zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer," Appl. Mech. Rev. 50, 689 (1997)]). Comparison of LES results for Reθ ranging from 105 to 1011 for zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flows are carried out for the mean streamwise velocity, its gradient and its scaled gradient. Our results provide strong evidence that for both sets of modeling assumption (log law or power law), the turbulence gravitates naturally towards the log-law scaling at extremely large Reynolds numbers.

  12. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  13. Tank Investigation of a Powered Dynamic Model of a Large Long-Range Flying Boat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    gravity=0.8066o’ Ma* W 82.1740 ftZsec* Moment of inDrtiaosfNi1. ( ludicate axis of . radius of gyration k by proper subscript.) Coefficient of...8217". ^Velocities ,3* Designation Sym-- bol . Positive ,.- direction Designa- £" tion « lOJs’ ., ,f._.’y. r.. jSpf •Linear . (compo- nent along aria...Principles for designing the optimum hull for a large long- range flying boat to meet the requirements of seaworthiness, mini- mum drag, and ability

  14. Environmental aspects of large-scale wind-power systems in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A.

    1984-11-01

    Environmental issues relating to the introduction of large, MW-scale wind turbines at land-based sites in the UK are discussed. Noise, television interference, hazards to bird life, and visual effects are considered. Areas of uncertainty are identified, but enough is known from experience elsewhere in the world to enable the first UK machines to be introduced in a safe and environementally acceptable manner. Research to establish siting criteria more clearly, and significantly increase the potential wind-energy resource is mentioned. Studies of the comparative risk of energy systems are shown to be overpessimistic for UK wind turbines.

  15. Development of large-aperture electro-optical switch for high power laser at CAEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongjun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Donghui; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing

    2015-02-01

    Large-aperture electro-optical switch based on plasma Pockels cell (PPC) is one of important components for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laser facility. We have demonstrated a single-pulse driven 4×1 PPC with 400mm×400mm aperture for SGIII laser facility. And four 2×1 PPCs modules with 350mm×350mm aperture have been operated in SGII update laser facility. It is different to the PPC of NIF and LMJ for its simple operation to perform Pockels effect. With optimized operation parameters, the PPCs meet the SGII-U laser requirement of four-pass amplification control. Only driven by one high voltage pulser, the simplified PPC system would be provided with less associated diagnostics, and higher reliability. To farther reduce the insert loss of the PPC, research on the large-aperture PPC based on DKDP crystal driven by one pulse is developed. And several single-pulse driven PPCs with 80mm×80mm DKDP crystal have been manufactured and operated in laser facilities.

  16. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ``fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ``transfer function'' for initial conditions Script Tα(k), Script Pα(k) = PBDα(k)Script Tα(k), implying a modification of the ``consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k0: r(k0) = -8nT(k0) [Script TT(k0)/Script TScript R(k0)]. We obtain Script Tα(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields Script Tα(k) = 1+Aαk-pcos [2πωk/Hsr+varphiα], with 1.5lesssimplesssim2, ω simeq 1 and Hsr the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation, where curvature and tensor perturbations feature the same p,ω for a wide range of initial conditions. These corrections lead to both a suppression of the quadrupole and oscillatory features in both PR(k) and r(k0) with a period of the order of the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation. The results are quite general and independent of the specific inflationary potentials, depending solely on the ratio of kinetic to potential energy κ and the slow roll parameters epsilonV, ηV to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of κ and the values of epsilonV ηV corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and the oscillations in r(k0) as a function of k0 could

  17. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  18. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  19. Thermal analysis of large-capacity LiFePO4 power batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Li, Zhao; Li, Bin; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-10-01

    Excellent design of a thermal management system requires good understanding of the thermal behaviors of power batteries. In this study, the electrochemical and heat performances of a prismatic 40 Ah C/LiFePO4 battery are investigated with a focus on the influence of temperature on cell capacity in a mixed charge-discharge cycle. In addition, the heat generation and energy efficiency of a battery are determined during charge and discharge at different current rates. The experimental results indicate that in certain temperature ranges, both the charging and discharging capacities increase significantly as the temperature increases. In addition, the energy efficiency reaches more than 95% when the battery runs at a current rate of 0.33 C-2 C and temperature of 25-45 °C. A thermal mathematical model based on experimentally obtained internal resistances and entropy coefficients is developed. Using this model, the increase in the battery temperature is simulated based on specific heat values that are measured experimentally and calculated theoretically. The results from the simulation indicate that the temperature increase agrees well with the experimental values, the measured specific heat provides better results than the calculated specific heat and the heat generated decreases as the temperature increases.

  20. Astrophysics. The exceptionally powerful TeV γ-ray emitters in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    PubMed

    2015-01-23

    The Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, has been observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) above an energy of 100 billion electron volts for a deep exposure of 210 hours. Three sources of different types were detected: the pulsar wind nebula of the most energetic pulsar known, N 157B; the radio-loud supernova remnant N 132D; and the largest nonthermal x-ray shell, the superbubble 30 Dor C. The unique object SN 1987A is, unexpectedly, not detected, which constrains the theoretical framework of particle acceleration in very young supernova remnants. These detections reveal the most energetic tip of a γ-ray source population in an external galaxy and provide via 30 Dor C the unambiguous detection of γ-ray emission from a superbubble. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Environmental aspects of large-scale wind-power systems in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A.

    1983-12-01

    Environmental issues relating to the introduction of large, MW-scale wind turbines at land-based sites in the U.K. are discussed. Areas of interest include noise, television interference, hazards to bird life and visual effects. A number of areas of uncertainty are identified, but enough is known from experience elsewhere in the world to enable the first U.K. machines to be introduced in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. Research currently under way will serve to establish siting criteria more clearly, and could significantly increase the potential wind-energy resource. Certain studies of the comparative risk of energy systems are shown to be overpessimistic for U.K. wind turbines.

  2. The Design of Large Geothermally Powered Air-Conditioning Systems Using an Optimal Control Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, F. G.; O'Bryan, L.

    2010-12-01

    The direct use of geothermal energy from Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) systems for large scale air-conditioning projects involves many tradeoffs. Aspects contributing towards making design decisions for such systems include: the inadequately known permeability and thermal distributions underground; the combinatorial complexity of selecting pumping and chiller systems to match the underground conditions to the air-conditioning requirements; the future price variations of the electricity market; any uncertainties in future Carbon pricing; and the applicable discount rate for evaluating the financial worth of the project. Expanding upon the previous work of Horowitz and Hornby (2007), we take an optimal control approach to the design of such systems. By building a model of the HSA system, the drilling process, the pumping process, and the chilling operations, along with a specified objective function, we can write a Hamiltonian for the system. Using the standard techniques of optimal control, we use gradients of the Hamiltonian to find the optimal design for any given set of permeabilities, thermal distributions, and the other engineering and financial parameters. By using this approach, optimal system designs could potentially evolve in response to the actual conditions encountered during drilling. Because the granularity of some current models is so coarse, we will be able to compare our optimal control approach to an exhaustive search of parameter space. We will present examples from the conditions appropriate for the Perth Basin of Western Australia, where the WA Geothermal Centre of Excellence is involved with two large air-conditioning projects using geothermal water from deep aquifers at 75 to 95 degrees C.

  3. Multiblock High Order Large Eddy Simulation of Powered Fontan Hemodynamics: Towards Computational Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Yann T.; Rodefeld, Mark D.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Children born with only one functional ventricle must typically undergo a series of three surgeries to obtain the so-called Fontan circulation in which the blood coming from the body passively flows from the Vena Cavae (VCs) to the Pulmonary Arteries (PAs) through the Total Cavopulmonary Connection (TCPC). The circulation is inherently inefficient due to the lack of a subpulmonary ventricle. Survivors face the risk of circulatory sequelae and eventual failure for the duration of their lives. Current efforts are focused on improving the outcomes of Fontan palliation, either passively by optimizing the TCPC, or actively by using mechanical support. We are working on a chronic implant that would be placed at the junction of the TCPC, and would provide the necessary pressure augmentation to re-establish a circulation that recapitulates a normal two-ventricle circulation. This implant is based on the Von Karman viscous pump and consists of a vaned impeller that rotates inside the TCPC. To evaluate the performance of such a device, and to study the flow features induced by the presence of the pump, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used. CFD has become an important tool to understand hemodynamics owing to the possibility of simulating quickly a large number of designs and flow conditions without any harm for patients. The transitional and unsteady nature of the flow can make accurate simulations challenging. We developed and in-house high order Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver coupled to a recent Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) to handle complex geometries. Multiblock capability is added to the solver to allow for efficient simulations of complex patient specific geometries. Blood simulations are performed in a complex patient specific TCPC geometry. In this study, simulations without mechanical assist are performed, as well as after virtual implantation of the temporary and chronic implants being developed. Instantaneous flow structures, hepatic factor distribution

  4. Seasonal evolution of suspended particles around a large coal-fired power station: Chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, A´s.; Puicercus, J´A.; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Plana, Felicia`; Juan, Roberto

    The present work focuses on the seasonal evolution of total suspended particles (TSP) around the Teruel power station in Northeastern Spain. The results show a marked seasonal trend, along the sampling period (July 1995-July 1996), which is characterized by levels of the elements studied in TSP that were higher (up to one order of magnitude) in spring-summer and decreased progressively towards winter. This trend contrasts with the seasonal evolution reported by most of the studies carried out in industrial and urban areas in Central and Northern Europe. The origin of this seasonal TSP trend may be related to: (a) higher summer oxidation which increased levels of secondary TSP; (b) higher convective circulation in summer which raised levels of soil-related particles and primary anthropogenic particles; (c) higher frequency of intrusion episodes of Sahara air masses in summer and spring; and (d) lower aerosol scavenging potential in summer. A clear grain-size fractionation was observed for the different ions determined. SO 42- and NH 4+ were concentrated in the finest grain-size fraction (0.3-0.6 μm); NO 3-, Cl -, K +, Mg 2+, Na + and minor amounts of NH 4+ were concentrated in the 1.2-5.0 μm fractions; and Ca 2+ increased with the particle diameter. S-bearing species were (NH 4) 2SO 4 (mascagnite), (NH 4) 2Ca(SO 4) 2 · H 2O (koktaite) and CaSO 4 · 2H 2O (gypsum). Mascagnite was the dominant species in the finest grain size fraction (0.3-0.6 μm), whereas koktaite was also present in the 0.6-1.2 μm fraction, and gypsum predominated in the other fractions.

  5. Thermal tests of large recirculation cooling installations for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balunov, B. F.; Lychakov, V. D.; Il'in, V. A.; Shcheglov, A. A.; Maslov, O. P.; Rasskazova, N. A.; Rakhimov, R. Z.; Boyarov, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results from thermal tests of some recirculation installations for cooling air in nuclear power plant premises, including the volume under the containment. The cooling effect in such installations is produced by pumping water through their heat-transfer tubes. Air from the cooled room is blown by a fan through a bundle of transversely finned tubes and is removed to the same room after having been cooled. The finning of tubes used in the tested installations was made of Grade 08Kh18N10T and Grade 08Kh18N10 stainless steels or Grade AD1 aluminum. Steel fins were attached to the tube over their entire length by means of high-frequency welding. Aluminum fins were extruded on a lathe from the external tube sheath into which a steel tube had preliminarily been placed. Although the fin extrusion operation was accompanied by pressing the sheath inner part to the steel tube, tight contact between them over the entire surface was not fully achieved. In view of this, the air gap's thermal resistance coefficient was introduced in calculating the heat transfer between the heat-transferring media. The air gap average thickness was determined from the test results taking into account the gap variation with temperature due to different linear expansion coefficients of steel and aluminum. These tests, which are part of the acceptance tests of the considered installations, were carried out at the NPO TsKTI test facility and were mainly aimed at checking if the obtained thermal characteristics were consistent with the values calculated according to the standard recommendations with introduction, if necessary, of modifications to those recommendations.

  6. The power of event-driven analytics in Large Scale Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiao, Nuno; Marques, Paulo

    2011-02-24

    FeedZai is a software company specialized in creating high-­‐throughput low-­‐latency data processing solutions. FeedZai develops a product called "FeedZai Pulse" for continuous event-­‐driven analytics that makes application development easier for end users. It automatically calculates key performance indicators and baselines, showing how current performance differ from previous history, creating timely business intelligence updated to the second. The tool does predictive analytics and trend analysis, displaying data on real-­‐time web-­‐based graphics. In 2010 FeedZai won the European EBN Smart Entrepreneurship Competition, in the Digital Models category, being considered one of the "top-­‐20 smart companies in Europe". The main objective of thismore » seminar/workshop is to explore the topic for large-­‐scale data processing using Complex Event Processing and, in particular, the possible uses of Pulse in the scope of the data processing needs of CERN. Pulse is available as open-­‐source and can be licensed both for non-­‐commercial and commercial applications. FeedZai is interested in exploring possible synergies with CERN in high-­‐volume low-­‐latency data processing applications. The seminar will be structured in two sessions, the first one being aimed to expose the general scope of FeedZai's activities, and the second focused on Pulse itself: 10:00-11:00 FeedZai and Large Scale Data Processing; Introduction to FeedZai; FeedZai Pulse and Complex Event Processing; Demonstration; Use-Cases and Applications; Conclusion and Q&A. 11:00-11:15 Coffee break 11:15-12:30 FeedZai Pulse Under the Hood; A First FeedZai Pulse Application; PulseQL overview; Defining KPIs and Baselines; Conclusion and Q&A. About the speakers Nuno Sebastião is the CEO of FeedZai. Having worked for many years for the European Space Agency (ESA), he was responsible the overall design and development of Satellite Simulation Infrastructure of the agency. Having

  7. The power of event-driven analytics in Large Scale Data Processing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-12-09

    FeedZai is a software company specialized in creating high-­-throughput low-­-latency data processing solutions. FeedZai develops a product called "FeedZai Pulse" for continuous event-­-driven analytics that makes application development easier for end users. It automatically calculates key performance indicators and baselines, showing how current performance differ from previous history, creating timely business intelligence updated to the second. The tool does predictive analytics and trend analysis, displaying data on real-­-time web-­-based graphics. In 2010 FeedZai won the European EBN Smart Entrepreneurship Competition, in the Digital Models category, being considered one of the "top-­-20 smart companies in Europe". The main objective of this seminar/workshop is to explore the topic for large-­-scale data processing using Complex Event Processing and, in particular, the possible uses of Pulse in the scope of the data processing needs of CERN. Pulse is available as open-­-source and can be licensed both for non-­-commercial and commercial applications. FeedZai is interested in exploring possible synergies with CERN in high-­-volume low-­-latency data processing applications. The seminar will be structured in two sessions, the first one being aimed to expose the general scope of FeedZai's activities, and the second focused on Pulse itself: 10:00-11:00 FeedZai and Large Scale Data Processing Introduction to FeedZai FeedZai Pulse and Complex Event Processing Demonstration Use-Cases and Applications Conclusion and Q&A 11:00-11:15 Coffee break 11:15-12:30 FeedZai Pulse Under the Hood A First FeedZai Pulse Application PulseQL overview Defining KPIs and Baselines Conclusion and Q&A About the speakers Nuno Sebastião is the CEO of FeedZai. Having worked for many years for the European Space Agency (ESA), he was responsible the overall design and development of Satellite Simulation Infrastructure of the agency. Having left ESA to found FeedZai, Nuno is

  8. Large-scale tidal effect on redshift-space power spectrum in a finite-volume survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro; Li, Yin

    2017-04-01

    Long-wavelength matter inhomogeneities contain cleaner information on the nature of primordial perturbations as well as the physics of the early Universe. The large-scale coherent overdensity and tidal force, not directly observable for a finite-volume galaxy survey, are both related to the Hessian of large-scale gravitational potential and therefore are of equal importance. We show that the coherent tidal force causes a homogeneous anisotropic distortion of the observed distribution of galaxies in all three directions, perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight direction. This effect mimics the redshift-space distortion signal of galaxy peculiar velocities, as well as a distortion by the Alcock-Paczynski effect. We quantify its impact on the redshift-space power spectrum to the leading order, and discuss its importance for ongoing and upcoming galaxy surveys.

  9. Large Alfvén wave power in the plasma sheet boundary layer during the expansion phase of substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiling, A.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C.; Temerin, M.; Mozer, F. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Scudder, J.; Russell, C. T.; Lotko, W.; Streltsov, A. V.

    2000-10-01

    Observations by the Polar satellite of large Poynting flux in the plasma sheet boundary layer at geocentric distances of 4 to 6 RE and between 22 and 3 hrs magnetic local time were correlated with H-bay signatures from ground magnetometer records. We provide evidence that large Poynting fluxes occur during the substorm expansion phase. The Poynting fluxes exceeded 1 ergs/cm²s (125 ergs/cm²s when mapped to 100 km), were dominantly directed toward the ionosphere, and were associated with Alfvén waves. These observations demonstrate the importance of Alfvén wave power as a means of energy transport from the distant magnetotail to the ionosphere during the most dynamic phase of substorms.

  10. Soil erosion and sediment delivery issues in a large hydro-electric power reservoir catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebiyu, Amsalu; Dume, Bayu; Bode, Samuel; Ram, Hari; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    restoration and reduction of sediment flux are considered. The long term sustainability of HEP power generation in Ethiopia is evaluated in this context.

  11. CALCLENS: Weak lensing simulations for large-area sky surveys and second-order effects in cosmic shear power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthew Rand

    I present a new algorithm, CALCLENS, for efficiently computing weak gravitational lensing shear signals from large N-body light cone simulations over a curved sky. This new algorithm properly accounts for the sky curvature and boundary conditions, is able to produce redshift- dependent shear signals including corrections to the Born approximation by using multiple- plane ray tracing, and properly computes the lensed images of source galaxies in the light cone. The key feature of this algorithm is a new, computationally efficient Poisson solver for the sphere that combines spherical harmonic transform and multigrid methods. As a result, large areas of sky (~10,000 square degrees) can be ray traced efficiently at high-resolution using only a few hundred cores. Using this new algorithm and curved-sky calculations that only use a slower but more accurate spherical harmonic transform Poisson solver, I study the convergence, shear E-mode, shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra. Employing full-sky E/B-mode decompositions, I confirm that the numerically computed shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra are equal at high accuracy ( ≲ 1%) as expected from perturbation theory up to second order. Coupled with realistic galaxy populations placed in large N-body light cone simulations, this new algorithm is ideally suited for the construction of synthetic weak lensing shear catalogs to be used to test for systematic effects in data analysis procedures for upcoming large-area sky surveys. The implementation presented in this work, written in C and employing widely available software libraries to maintain portability, is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/calclens.

  12. CALCLENS: weak lensing simulations for large-area sky surveys and second-order effects in cosmic shear power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthew R.

    2013-10-01

    I present a new algorithm, Curved-sky grAvitational Lensing for Cosmological Light conE simulatioNS (CALCLENS), for efficiently computing weak gravitational lensing shear signals from large N-body light cone simulations over a curved sky. This new algorithm properly accounts for the sky curvature and boundary conditions, is able to produce redshift-dependent shear signals including corrections to the Born approximation by using multiple-plane ray tracing and properly computes the lensed images of source galaxies in the light cone. The key feature of this algorithm is a new, computationally efficient Poisson solver for the sphere that combines spherical harmonic transform and multigrid methods. As a result, large areas of sky (˜10 000 square degrees) can be ray traced efficiently at high resolution using only a few hundred cores. Using this new algorithm and curved-sky calculations that only use a slower but more accurate spherical harmonic transform Poisson solver, I study the convergence, shear E-mode, shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra. Employing full-sky E/B-mode decompositions, I confirm that the numerically computed shear B-mode and rotation mode power spectra are equal at high accuracy (≲1 per cent) as expected from perturbation theory up to second order. Coupled with realistic galaxy populations placed in large N-body light cone simulations, this new algorithm is ideally suited for the construction of synthetic weak lensing shear catalogues to be used to test for systematic effects in data analysis procedures for upcoming large-area sky surveys. The implementation presented in this work, written in C and employing widely available software libraries to maintain portability, is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/calclens.

  13. Linked Scatter Plots, A Powerful Exploration Tool For Very Large Sets of Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane Francis; Henze, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We present a new tool, based on linked scatter plots, that is designed to efficiently explore very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, APOGEE, LAMOST, GAIA, and RAVE data sets.The tool works in two stages: the first uses batch processing and the second runs interactively. In the batch stage, spectra are processed through our data pipeline which computes the depths relative to the local continuum at preselected feature wavelengths. These depths, and any additional available variables such as local S/N level, magnitudes, colors, positions, and radial velocities, are the basic measured quantities used in the interactive stage.The interactive stage employs the NASA hyperwall, a configuration of 128 workstation displays (8x16 array) controlled by a parallelized software suite running on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer. Each hyperwall panel is used to display a fully linked 2-D scatter plot showing the depth of feature A vs the depth of feature B for all of the spectra. A and B change from panel to panel. The relationships between the various (A,B) strengths and any distinctive clustering, as well as unique outlier groupings, are visually apparent when examining and inter-comparing the different panels on the hyperwall. In addition, the data links between the scatter plots allow the user to apply a logical algebra to the measurements. By graphically selecting the objects in any interesting region of any 2-D plot on the hyperwall, the tool immediately and clearly shows how the selected objects are distributed in all the other 2-D plots. The selection process may be repeated multiple times and, at each step, the selections can represent a sequence of logical constraints on the measurements, revealing those objects which satisfy all the constraints thus far. The spectra of the selected objects may be examined at any time on a connected workstation display.Using over 945,000,000 depth measurements from 569,738 SDSS DR10 stellar spectra, we illustrate how to quickly

  14. Computational Assessment of the Aerodynamic Performance of a Variable-Speed Power Turbine for Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    2011-01-01

    The main rotors of the NASA Large Civil Tilt-Rotor notional vehicle operate over a wide speed-range, from 100% at take-off to 54% at cruise. The variable-speed power turbine offers one approach by which to effect this speed variation. Key aero-challenges include high work factors at cruise and wide (40 to 60 deg.) incidence variations in blade and vane rows over the speed range. The turbine design approach must optimize cruise efficiency and minimize off-design penalties at take-off. The accuracy of the off-design incidence loss model is therefore critical to the turbine design. In this effort, 3-D computational analyses are used to assess the variation of turbine efficiency with speed change. The conceptual design of a 4-stage variable-speed power turbine for the Large Civil Tilt-Rotor application is first established at the meanline level. The design of 2-D airfoil sections and resulting 3-D blade and vane rows is documented. Three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computations are used to assess the design and off-design performance of an embedded 1.5-stage portion-Rotor 1, Stator 2, and Rotor 2-of the turbine. The 3-D computational results yield the same efficiency versus speed trends predicted by meanline analyses, supporting the design choice to execute the turbine design at the cruise operating speed.

  15. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  16. Resiliency of the Nation's Power Grid: Assessing Risks of Premature Failure of Large Power Transformers Under Climate Warming and Increased Heat Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Gao, X.; Morgan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aging pieces of our nation's power grid - the largest machine ever built - are at a critical time. Key assets in the transmission system, including large power transformers (LPTs), are approaching their originally designed lifetimes. Moreover, extreme weather and climate events upon which these design lifetimes are partially based are expected to change. In particular, more frequent and intense heat waves can accelerate the degradation of LPTs' insulation/cooling system. Thus, there are likely thousands of LPTs across the United States under increasing risk of premature failure - yet this risk has not been assessed. In this study, we investigate the impact of climate warming and corresponding shifts in heat waves for critical LPTs located in the Northeast corridor of the United States to assess: To what extent do changes in heat waves/events present a rising threat to the transformer network over the Northeast U.S. and to what extent can climate mitigation reduce this risk? This study focuses on a collection of LPTs with a high degree of "betweenness" - while recognizing other factors such as: connectivity, voltage rating, MVA rating, approximate price, weight, location/proximity to major transportation routes, and age. To assess the risk of future change in heat wave occurrence we use an analogue method, which detects the occurrence of heat waves based on associated large-scale atmospheric conditions. This method is compared to the more conventional approach that uses model-simulated daily maximum temperature. Under future climate warming scenarios, multi-model medians of both methods indicate strong increases in heat wave frequency during the latter half of this century. Under weak climate mitigation - the risks imposed from heat wave occurrence could quadruple, but a modest mitigation scenario cuts the increasing threat in half. As important, the analogue method substantially improves the model consensus through reduction of the interquartile range by a

  17. Study of water-oil emulsion combustion in large pilot power plants for fine particle matter emission reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; L'Insalata, A.

    2007-04-15

    The combustion of heavy fuel oil for power generation is a great source of carbonaceous and inorganic particle emissions, even though the combustion technologies and their efficiency are improving. The information about the size distribution function of the particles originated by trace metals present into the fuels is not adequate. In this paper, we focused our attention the influence of emulsion oil-water on the larger distribution mode of both the carbonaceous and metallic particles. Isokinetic sampling was performed at the exhausts of flames of a low-sulphur content heavy oil and its emulsion with water produced in two large pilot plants.more » The samples were size-segregated by mean of an 8-stages Andersen impactor. Further investigation performed on the samples using electronic microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray analysis (EDX) evidenced the presence of solid spherical particles, plerosphere, with typical dimensions ranging between 200 nm and 2-3 {mu}m, whose atomic composition contains a large amount of the trace metals present in the parent oils (Fe, V, Ni, etc.). EDX analyses revealed that the metal concentration increases as the plerosphere dimension decreases. We also observed that the use of emulsion slightly reduce the emission of fine particles (D{sub 50} < 8 {mu}m) in the large scale plant. (author)« less

  18. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  19. Reducing the two-loop large-scale structure power spectrum to low-dimensional, radial integrals

    DOE PAGES

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir

    2016-11-28

    Modeling the large-scale structure of the universe on nonlinear scales has the potential to substantially increase the science return of upcoming surveys by increasing the number of modes available for model comparisons. One way to achieve this is to model nonlinear scales perturbatively. Unfortunately, this involves high-dimensional loop integrals that are cumbersome to evaluate. Here, trying to simplify this, we show how two-loop (next-to-next-to-leading order) corrections to the density power spectrum can be reduced to low-dimensional, radial integrals. Many of those can be evaluated with a one-dimensional fast Fourier transform, which is significantly faster than the five-dimensional Monte-Carlo integrals thatmore » are needed otherwise. The general idea of this fast fourier transform perturbation theory method is to switch between Fourier and position space to avoid convolutions and integrate over orientations, leaving only radial integrals. This reformulation is independent of the underlying shape of the initial linear density power spectrum and should easily accommodate features such as those from baryonic acoustic oscillations. We also discuss how to account for halo bias and redshift space distortions.« less

  20. A Simple but Powerful Heuristic Method for Accelerating k-Means Clustering of Large-Scale Data in Life Science.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    K-means clustering has been widely used to gain insight into biological systems from large-scale life science data. To quantify the similarities among biological data sets, Pearson correlation distance and standardized Euclidean distance are used most frequently; however, optimization methods have been largely unexplored. These two distance measurements are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same k-means clustering result for identical sets of k initial centroids. Thus, an efficient algorithm used for one is applicable to the other. Several optimization methods are available for the Euclidean distance and can be used for processing the standardized Euclidean distance; however, they are not customized for this context. We instead approached the problem by studying the properties of the Pearson correlation distance, and we invented a simple but powerful heuristic method for markedly pruning unnecessary computation while retaining the final solution. Tests using real biological data sets with 50-60K vectors of dimensions 10-2001 (~400 MB in size) demonstrated marked reduction in computation time for k = 10-500 in comparison with other state-of-the-art pruning methods such as Elkan's and Hamerly's algorithms. The BoostKCP software is available at http://mlab.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ichikawa/boostKCP/.

  1. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  2. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materialsmore » or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.« less

  3. Development of a low-power, low-cost front end electronics module for large scale distributed neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Beatty

    2008-03-08

    A number of concepts have been presented for distributed neutrino detectors formed of large numbers of autonomous detectors. Examples include the Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) [Barwick 2006], as well as proposed radio extensions to the IceCube detector at South Pole Station such as AURA and IceRay. [Besson 2008]. We have focused on key enabling technical developments required by this class of experiments. The radio Cherenkov signal, generated by the Askaryan mechanism [Askaryan 1962, 1965], is impulsive and coherent up to above 1 GHz. In the frequency domain, the impulsive character of the emission results in simultaneousmore » increase of the power detected in multiple frequency bands. This multiband triggering approach has proven fruitful, especially as anthropogenic interference often results from narrowband communications signals. A typical distributed experiment of this type consists of a station responsible for the readout of a cluster of antennas either near the surface of the ice or deployed in boreholes. Each antenna is instrumented with a broadband low-noise amplifier, followed by an array of filters to facilitate multi-band coincidence trigger schemes at the antenna level. The power in each band is detected at the output of each band filter, using either square-law diode detectors or log-power detectors developed for the cellular telephone market. The use of multiple antennas per station allows a local coincidence among antennas to be used as the next stage of the trigger. Station triggers can then be combined into an array trigger by comparing timestamps of triggers among stations and identifying space-time clusters of station triggers. Data from each station is buffered and can be requested from the individual stations when a multi-station coincidence occurs. This approach has been successfully used in distributed experiments such as the Pierre Auger Observatory. [Abraham et al. 2004] We identified the filters as being

  4. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to series compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of linear programs (LP) that are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes, including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically sized network.

  5. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill; Feiereisen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The term "Grid" refers to distributed, high performance computing and data handling infrastructure that incorporates geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. The vision for NASN's Information Power Grid - a computing and data Grid - is that it will provide significant new capabilities to scientists and engineers by facilitating routine construction of information based problem solving environments / frameworks that will knit together widely distributed computing, data, instrument, and human resources into just-in-time systems that can address complex and large-scale computing and data analysis problems. IPG development and deployment is addressing requirements obtained by analyzing a number of different application areas, in particular from the NASA Aero-Space Technology Enterprise. This analysis has focussed primarily on two types of users: The scientist / design engineer whose primary interest is problem solving (e.g., determining wing aerodynamic characteristics in many different operating environments), and whose primary interface to IPG will be through various sorts of problem solving frameworks. The second type of user if the tool designer: The computational scientists who convert physics and mathematics into code that can simulate the physical world. These are the two primary users of IPG, and they have rather different requirements. This paper describes the current state of IPG (the operational testbed), the set of capabilities being put into place for the operational prototype IPG, as well as some of the longer term R&D tasks.

  6. A large-eddy simulation study of wake propagation and power production in an array of tidal-current turbines.

    PubMed

    Churchfield, Matthew J; Li, Ye; Moriarty, Patrick J

    2013-02-28

    This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then those data are used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modelled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. We found that staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement. For example, using a larger precursor domain would better capture elongated turbulent structures, and including salinity and temperature equations would account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence. Additionally, the wall shear stress modelling could be improved, and more array configurations could be examined.

  7. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Final Summary Report, IEA WIND Task 25, Phase Three 2012-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Forcione, Alain

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes recent findings on wind integration from the 16 countries participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind collaboration research Task 25 in 2012-2014. Both real experience and studies are reported. The national case studies address several impacts of wind power on electric power systems. In this report, they are grouped under long-term planning issues and short-term operational impacts. Long-term planning issues include grid planning and capacity adequacy. Short-term operational impacts include reliability, stability, reserves, and maximizing the value in operational timescales (balancing related issues). The first section presents variability and uncertainty of power system-wide wind power, andmore » the last section presents recent wind integration studies for higher shares of wind power. Appendix 1 provides a summary of ongoing research in the national projects contributing to Task 25 in 2015-2017.« less

  8. Development of Quality Assessment Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Propulsion and Power Systems in Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy hasmore » become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.« less

  9. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A large-area wireless power-transmission sheet using printed organic transistors and plastic MEMS switches.

    PubMed

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Takamiya, Makoto; Noguchi, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Shintaro; Kato, Yusaku; Sakurai, Takayasu; Someya, Takao

    2007-06-01

    The electronics fields face serious problems associated with electric power; these include the development of ecologically friendly power-generation systems and ultralow-power-consuming circuits. Moreover, there is a demand for developing new power-transmission methods in the imminent era of ambient electronics, in which a multitude of electronic devices such as sensor networks will be used in our daily life to enhance security, safety and convenience. We constructed a sheet-type wireless power-transmission system by using state-of-the-art printing technologies using advanced electronic functional inks. This became possible owing to recent progress in organic semiconductor technologies; the diversity of chemical syntheses and processes on organic materials has led to a new class of organic semiconductors, dielectric layers and metals with excellent electronic functionalities. The new system directly drives electronic devices by transmitting power of the order of tens of watts without connectors, thereby providing an easy-to-use and reliable power source. As all of the components are manufactured on plastic films, it is easy to place the wireless power-transmission sheet over desks, floors, walls and any other location imaginable.

  11. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill

    2000-01-01

    We use the term "Grid" to refer to distributed, high performance computing and data handling infrastructure that incorporates geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. This infrastructure includes: (1) Tools for constructing collaborative, application oriented Problem Solving Environments / Frameworks (the primary user interfaces for Grids); (2) Programming environments, tools, and services providing various approaches for building applications that use aggregated computing and storage resources, and federated data sources; (3) Comprehensive and consistent set of location independent tools and services for accessing and managing dynamic collections of widely distributed resources: heterogeneous computing systems, storage systems, real-time data sources and instruments, human collaborators, and communications systems; (4) Operational infrastructure including management tools for distributed systems and distributed resources, user services, accounting and auditing, strong and location independent user authentication and authorization, and overall system security services The vision for NASA's Information Power Grid - a computing and data Grid - is that it will provide significant new capabilities to scientists and engineers by facilitating routine construction of information based problem solving environments / frameworks. Such Grids will knit together widely distributed computing, data, instrument, and human resources into just-in-time systems that can address complex and large-scale computing and data analysis problems. Examples of these problems include: (1) Coupled, multidisciplinary simulations too large for single systems (e.g., multi-component NPSS turbomachine simulation); (2) Use of widely distributed, federated data archives (e.g., simultaneous access to metrological, topological, aircraft performance, and flight path scheduling databases supporting a National Air Space Simulation systems}; (3

  12. Effect of power history on the shape and the thermal stress of a large sapphire crystal during the Kyropoulos process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tran Phu; Chuang, Hsiao-Tsun; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Hu, Chieh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the power history on the shape of a sapphire crystal and the thermal stress during the Kyropoulos process are numerically investigated. The simulation results show that the thermal stress is strongly dependent on the power history. The thermal stress distributions in the crystal for all growth stages produced with different power histories are also studied. The results show that high von Mises stress regions are found close to the seed of the crystal, the highly curved crystal surface and the crystal-melt interface. The maximum thermal stress, which occurs at the crystal-melt interface, increases significantly in value as the crystal expands at the crown. After this, there is reduction in the maximum thermal stress as the crystal lengthens. There is a remarkable enhancement in the maximum von Mises stress when the crystal-melt interface is close to the bottom of the crucible. There are two obvious peaks in the maximum Von Mises stress, at the end of the crown stage and in the final stage, when cracking defects can form. To alleviate this problem, different power histories are considered in order to optimize the process to produce the lowest thermal stress in the crystal. The optimal power history is found to produce a significant reduction in the thermal stress in the crown stage.

  13. Predicting the performance of a power amplifier using large-signal circuit simulations of an AlGaN/GaN HFET model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbro, Griff L.; Hou, Danqiong; Yin, Hong; Trew, Robert J.

    2009-02-01

    We have quantitatively modeled the conduction current and charge storage of an HFET in terms its physical dimensions and material properties. For DC or small-signal RF operation, no adjustable parameters are necessary to predict the terminal characteristics of the device. Linear performance measures such as small-signal gain and input admittance can be predicted directly from the geometric structure and material properties assumed for the device design. We have validated our model at low-frequency against experimental I-V measurements and against two-dimensional device simulations. We discuss our recent extension of our model to include a larger class of electron velocity-field curves. We also discuss the recent reformulation of our model to facilitate its implementation in commercial large-signal high-frequency circuit simulators. Large signal RF operation is more complex. First, the highest CW microwave power is fundamentally bounded by a brief, reversible channel breakdown in each RF cycle. Second, the highest experimental measurements of efficiency, power, or linearity always require harmonic load pull and possibly also harmonic source pull. Presently, our model accounts for these facts with an adjustable breakdown voltage and with adjustable load impedances and source impedances for the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. This has allowed us to validate our model for large signal RF conditions by simultaneously fitting experimental measurements of output power, gain, and power added efficiency of real devices. We show that the resulting model can be used to compare alternative device designs in terms of their large signal performance, such as their output power at 1dB gain compression or their third order intercept points. In addition, the model provides insight into new device physics features enabled by the unprecedented current and voltage levels of AlGaN/GaN HFETs, including non-ohmic resistance in the source access regions and partial depletion of

  14. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  15. Alpha power indexes task-related networks on large and small scales: A multimodal ECoG study in humans and a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    de Pesters, A; Coon, W G; Brunner, P; Gunduz, A; Ritaccio, A L; Brunet, N M; de Weerd, P; Roberts, M J; Oostenveld, R; Fries, P; Schalk, G

    2016-07-01

    Performing different tasks, such as generating motor movements or processing sensory input, requires the recruitment of specific networks of neuronal populations. Previous studies suggested that power variations in the alpha band (8-12Hz) may implement such recruitment of task-specific populations by increasing cortical excitability in task-related areas while inhibiting population-level cortical activity in task-unrelated areas (Klimesch et al., 2007; Jensen and Mazaheri, 2010). However, the precise temporal and spatial relationships between the modulatory function implemented by alpha oscillations and population-level cortical activity remained undefined. Furthermore, while several studies suggested that alpha power indexes task-related populations across large and spatially separated cortical areas, it was largely unclear whether alpha power also differentially indexes smaller networks of task-related neuronal populations. Here we addressed these questions by investigating the temporal and spatial relationships of electrocorticographic (ECoG) power modulations in the alpha band and in the broadband gamma range (70-170Hz, indexing population-level activity) during auditory and motor tasks in five human subjects and one macaque monkey. In line with previous research, our results confirm that broadband gamma power accurately tracks task-related behavior and that alpha power decreases in task-related areas. More importantly, they demonstrate that alpha power suppression lags population-level activity in auditory areas during the auditory task, but precedes it in motor areas during the motor task. This suppression of alpha power in task-related areas was accompanied by an increase in areas not related to the task. In addition, we show for the first time that these differential modulations of alpha power could be observed not only across widely distributed systems (e.g., motor vs. auditory system), but also within the auditory system. Specifically, alpha power was

  16. Performance and Power Optimization for Cognitive Processor Design Using Deep-Submicron Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2008 – October 2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE PERFORMANCE AND POWER OPTIMIZATION FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSOR DESIGN USING...Computations 2  2.2  Cognitive Models and Algorithms for Intelligent Text Recognition 4   2.2.1 Brain-State-in-a-Box Neural Network Model. 4   2.2.2...The ASIC-style design and synthesis flow for FPU 8  Figure 4 : Screen shots of the final layouts 10  Figure 5: Projected performance and power roadmap

  17. Power Conversion and Energy Storage System for a Fusion Reactor 3. Performance of Large Electric Power Equipment and Future View 3.1 Large Capacity Battery System -Sodium-Sulfur Battery-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakabayashi, Takashi

    The Ford Motor Company proposed the principle of the sodium-sulfur battery based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte in 1967. Accordingly, sodium-sulfur battery technology was initially developed primarily for electric vehicle applications. Later, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) selected the sodium-sulfur battery technology as the preferred system for a dispersed utility energy storage system to substitute for the pumped hydro energy storage system. NGK Insulators, Ltd. (NGK) and TEPCO have jointly carried out the development of the sodium-sulfur battery since 1984. In April 2002, TEPCO and NGK made the sodium-sulfur battery for use as an energy storage system commercially available.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Natural-Circulation Flow Behavior Under Low-Power/Low-Pressure Conditions in the Large-Scale PANDA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Auban, Olivier; Paladino, Domenico; Zboray, Robert

    2004-12-15

    Twenty-five tests have been carried out in the large-scale thermal-hydraulic facility PANDA to investigate natural-circulation and stability behavior under low-pressure/low-power conditions, when void flashing might play an important role. This work, which extends the current experimental database to a large geometric scale, is of interest notably with regard to the start-up procedures in natural-circulation-cooled boiling water reactors. It should help the understanding of the physical phenomena that may cause flow instability in such conditions and can be used for validation of thermal-hydraulics system codes. The tests were performed at a constant power, balanced by a specific condenser heat removal capacity.more » The test matrix allowed the reactor pressure vessel power and pressure to be varied, as well as other parameters influencing the natural-circulation flow. The power spectra of flow oscillations showed in a few tests a major and unique resonance peak, and decay ratios between 0.5 and 0.9 have been found. The remainder of the tests showed an even more pronounced stable behavior. A classification of the tests is presented according to the circulation modes (from single-phase to two-phase flow) that could be assumed and particularly to the importance and the localization of the flashing phenomenon.« less

  19. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Razouk, R; Beaumont, O; Failleau, G; Hay, B; Plumeri, S

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m 3 ) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  20. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razouk, R.; Beaumont, O.; Failleau, G.; Hay, B.; Plumeri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m3) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  1. Origin of Large and Highly Variable Changes in the Apparent Spin Frequencies of Accretion-Powered Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Dorris, D.; Clare, A.; Van Wassenhove, S.; Yu, W.; Miller, M. C.

    2006-09-01

    The spin-frequency behavior of accretion-powered millisecond pulsars is usually inferred by power spectral analysis of their X-ray waveforms. The reported behavior of the spin frequencies of several accretion-powered millisecond pulsars is puzzling in two respects. First, analysis of the waveforms of these pulsars indicates that their spin frequencies are changing faster than predicted by the standard model of accretion torques. Second, there are wild swings of both signs in their apparent spin frequencies that are not correlated with the mass accretion rates inferred from their X-ray fluxes. We have computed the expected X-ray waveforms of pulsars like these, including special and general relativistic effects, and find that the changes in their waveforms produced by physically plausible changes in the flow of accreting matter onto their surfaces can explain their apparently anomalous spin-frequency behavior. This research was supported in part by NASA grant NAG 5-12030, NSF grant AST 0098399, and funds of the Fortner Endowed Chair at Illinois, and NSF grant AST 0098436 at Maryland.

  2. Evaluation of pressure and thermal data from a wind tunnel test of a large-scale, powered, STOL fighter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, G. A.; Crosthwait, E. L.; Witte, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A STOL fighter model employing the vectored-engine-over wing concept was tested at low speeds in the NASA/Ames 40 by 80-foot wind tunnel. The model, approximately 0.75 scale of an operational fighter, was powered by two General Electric J-97 turbojet engines. Limited pressure and thermal instrumentation were provided to measure power effects (chordwise and spanwise blowing) and control-surface-deflection effects. An indepth study of the pressure and temperature data revealed many flow field features - the foremost being wing and canard leading-edge vortices. These vortices delineated regions of attached and separated flow, and their movements were often keys to an understanding of flow field changes caused by power and control-surface variations. Chordwise blowing increased wing lift and caused a modest aft shift in the center of pressure. The induced effects of chordwise blowing extended forward to the canard and significantly increased the canard lift when the surface was stalled. Spanwise blowing effectively enhanced the wing leading-edge vortex, thereby increasing lift and causing a forward shift in the center of pressure.

  3. The Power of Inquiry as a Way of Learning in Undergraduate Education at a Large Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Debra A.; Matthews, Pamela R.; Schielack, Jane F.; Webb, Robert C.; Wu, X. Ben

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-guided learning (IGL) is not new to Texas A&M University, a large research-extensive institution. The ideas of asking questions and seeking answers have always been associated at this university with both learning and discovery. In this article the authors present how, as a natural extension, Texas A&M University infuses IGL more…

  4. High-efficiency high-reliability optical components for a large, high-average-power visible laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John R.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    1993-08-01

    Laser system performance and reliability depends on the related performance and reliability of the optical components which define the cavity and transport subsystems. High-average-power and long transport lengths impose specific requirements on component performance. The complexity of the manufacturing process for optical components requires a high degree of process control and verification. Qualification has proven effective in ensuring confidence in the procurement process for these optical components. Issues related to component reliability have been studied and provide useful information to better understand the long term performance and reliability of the laser system.

  5. High-efficiency high-reliability optical components for a large, high-average-power visible laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Stolz, C. J.

    1992-12-01

    Laser system performance and reliability depends on the related performance and reliability of the optical components which define the cavity and transport subsystems. High-average-power and long transport lengths impose specific requirements on component performance. The complexity of the manufacturing process for optical components requires a high degree of process control and verification. Qualification has proven effective in ensuring confidence in the procurement process for these optical components. Issues related to component reliability have been studied and provide useful information to better understand the long term performance and reliability of the laser system.

  6. Tabulated pressure measurements on a large subsonic transport model airplane with high bypass ratio, powered, fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flechner, S. G.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental wind-tunnel investigation to determine the aerodynamic interference and the jet-wake interference associated with the wing, pylon, and high-bypass-ratio, powered, fan-jet model engines has been conducted on a typical high-wing logistics transport airplane configuration. Pressures were measured on the wing and pylons and on the surfaces of the engine fan cowl, turbine cowl, and plug. Combinations of wing, pylons, engines, and flow-through nacelles were tested, and the pressure coefficients are presented in tabular form. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.700 to 0.825 and angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg.

  7. Low-dimensional transport and large thermoelectric power factors in bulk semiconductors by band engineering of highly directional electronic states.

    PubMed

    Bilc, Daniel I; Hautier, Geoffroy; Waroquiers, David; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Ghosez, Philippe

    2015-04-03

    Thermoelectrics are promising for addressing energy issues but their exploitation is still hampered by low efficiencies. So far, much improvement has been achieved by reducing the thermal conductivity but less by maximizing the power factor. The latter imposes apparently conflicting requirements on the band structure: a narrow energy distribution and a low effective mass. Quantum confinement in nanostructures and the introduction of resonant states were suggested as possible solutions to this paradox, but with limited success. Here, we propose an original approach to fulfill both requirements in bulk semiconductors. It exploits the highly directional character of some orbitals to engineer the band structure and produce a type of low-dimensional transport similar to that targeted in nanostructures, while retaining isotropic properties. Using first-principle calculations, the theoretical concept is demonstrated in Fe2YZ Heusler compounds, yielding power factors 4 to 5 times larger than in classical thermoelectrics at room temperature. Our findings are totally generic and rationalize the search of alternative compounds with similar behavior. Beyond thermoelectricity, these might be relevant also in the context of electronic, superconducting, or photovoltaic applications.

  8. Study on Power Loss Reduction Considering Load Variation with Large Penetration of Distributed Generation in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Lv, Xiangyu; Guo, Li; Cai, Lixia; Jie, Jinxing; Su, Kuo

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing of penetration of distributed in the smart grid, the problems that the power loss increasing and short circuit capacity beyond the rated capicity of circuit breaker will become more serious. In this paper, a methodology (Modified BPSO) is presented for network reconfiguration which is based on hybrid approach of Tabu Search and BPSO algorithms to prevent the local convergence and to decrease the calculation time using double fitnesses to consider the constraints. Moreover, an average load simulated method (ALS method) load variation considered is proposed that the average load value is used to instead of the actual load to calculation. Finally, from a case study, the results of simulation certify the approaches will decrease drastically the losses and improve the voltage profiles obviously, at the same time, the short circuit capacity is also decreased into less the shut-off capacity of circuit breaker. The power losses won’t be increased too much even if the short circuit capacity constraint is considered; voltage profiles are better with the constraint of short circuit capacity considering. The ALS method is simple and calculated time is speed.

  9. Role of high microwave power on growth and microstructure of thick nanocrystalline diamond films: A comparison with large grain polycrystalline diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Girão, A. V.; Pereira, S.; Shi, Fa-Nian; Soares, M. R.; Costa, F.; Neves, A. J.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we study the growth habit of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by exploring the very high power regime, up to 4 kW, in a 5 kW microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) reactor, through addition of a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen (0.24%) into 4% CH4 in H2 plasma. The coupled effect of high microwave power and substrate temperature on NCD growth behaviour is systematically investigated by varying only power, while fixing the remaining operating parameters. When the power increases from 2 kW to 4 kW, resulting also in rise of the Si substrate temperature higher than 150 °C, the diamond films obtained maintain the NCD habit, while the growth rate increases significantly. The highest growth rate of 4.6 μm/h is achieved for the film grown at 4 kW, which represents a growth rate enhancement of about 15 times compared with that obtained when using 2 kW power. Possible factors responsible for such remarkable growth rate enhancement of the NCD films are discussed. The evolution of NCD growth characteristics such as morphology, microstructure and texture is studied by growing thick films and comparing it with that of large grain polycrystalline (PCD) films. One important characteristic of the NCD films obtained, in contrast to PCD films, is that irrespective of deposition time (i.e. film thickness), their grain size and surface roughness remain in the nanometer range throughout the growth. Finally, based on our present and previous experimental results, a potential parameter window is established for fast growth of NCD films under high power conditions.

  10. Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

    2005-11-01

    Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than $100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. Themore » IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.« less

  11. Faster than Real-Time Dynamic Simulation for Large-Size Power System with Detailed Dynamic Models using High-Performance Computing Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Renke; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu

    This paper presents a faster-than-real-time dynamic simulation software package that is designed for large-size power system dynamic simulation. It was developed on the GridPACKTM high-performance computing (HPC) framework. The key features of the developed software package include (1) faster-than-real-time dynamic simulation for a WECC system (17,000 buses) with different types of detailed generator, controller, and relay dynamic models, (2) a decoupled parallel dynamic simulation algorithm with optimized computation architecture to better leverage HPC resources and technologies, (3) options for HPC-based linear and iterative solvers, (4) hidden HPC details, such as data communication and distribution, to enable development centered on mathematicalmore » models and algorithms rather than on computational details for power system researchers, and (5) easy integration of new dynamic models and related algorithms into the software package.« less

  12. Large n- and p-type thermoelectric power factors from doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube thin films

    DOE PAGES

    MacLeod, Bradley A.; Stanton, Noah J.; Gould, Isaac E.; ...

    2017-09-08

    Lightweight, robust, and flexible single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) materials can be processed inexpensively using solution-based techniques, similar to other organic semiconductors. In contrast to many semiconducting polymers, semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) represent unique one-dimensional organic semiconductors with chemical and physical properties that facilitate equivalent transport of electrons and holes. These factors have driven increasing attention to employing s-SWCNTs for electronic and energy harvesting applications, including thermoelectric (TE) generators. Here we demonstrate a combination of ink chemistry, solid-state polymer removal, and charge-transfer doping strategies that enable unprecedented n-type and p-type TE power factors, in the range of 700 μW m –1 Kmore » –2 at 298 K for the same solution-processed highly enriched thin films containing 100% s-SWCNTs. We also demonstrate that the thermal conductivity appears to decrease with decreasing s-SWCNT diameter, leading to a peak material zT ≈ 0.12 for s-SWCNTs with diameters in the range of 1.0 nm. Here, our results indicate that the TE performance of s-SWCNT-only material systems is approaching that of traditional inorganic semiconductors, paving the way for these materials to be used as the primary components for efficient, all-organic TE generators.« less

  13. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polishmore » grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.« less

  14. Narrowband, tunable, 2 µm optical parametric master-oscillator power amplifier with large-aperture periodically poled Rb:KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, R. S.; Zheng, X.; Fregnani, L.; Laurell, F.; Pasiskevicius, V.

    2018-06-01

    A high-energy, ns, narrow-linewidth optical parametric oscillator and amplifier system based on large-aperture periodically poled Rb:KTP is presented. The 2 µm seed source is a singly resonant OPO locked with a transversely chirped volume Bragg grating, allowing a wavelength tuning of 21 nm and output linewidth of 0.56 nm. A maximum output energy of 52 mJ and conversion efficiency of 36% was obtained from the amplifier for a pump energy of 140 mJ. The high-energy and the robust and narrow dual-wavelength spectra obtained make this system an ideal pump source for difference frequency generation-based THz generation schemes.

  15. Railway transport of low temperature heat from large power stations by means of alternative heat carriers and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchtman, G.; Bracke, T.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of railway transport of liquid and solid heat carriers in tank cars so as to replace pipeline transport of small to medium large heat loads was investigated. The typical characteristics of railway transport were analyzed and all essential technical and economical variables were integrated in a transport model. Over 1000 complex chemical compounds were evaluated for their suitability as heat carriers. Of these, three ammonia compounds are considered as promising. Considering, however, that complicated and expensive facilities are needed for heat transfer to and from ammonia, water is identified as the better choice. Results, based on 1975 transport prices, show that railway heat transport becomes competitive for heat loads above 50 to 100 MW and transport distances over 20 km.

  16. Limited change in dune mobility in response to a large decrease in wind power in semi-arid northern China since the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Lu, H.; Miao, X.; Cha, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climatic controls on dune mobility, especially the relative importance of wind strength, remain incompletely understood. This is a key research problem in semi-arid northern China, both for interpreting past dune activity as evidence of paleoclimate and for predicting future environmental change. Potential eolian sand transport, which is approximately proportional to wind power above the threshold for sand entrainment, has decreased across much of northern China since the 1970s. Over the same period, effective moisture (ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) has not changed significantly. This "natural experiment" provides insight on the relative importance of wind power as a control on dune mobility in three dunefields of northern China (Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin), although poorly understood and potentially large effects of human land use complicate interpretation. Dune forms in these three regions are consistent with sand transport vectors inferred from weather station data, suggesting that wind directions have remained stable and the stations adequately represent winds that shaped the dunes. The predicted effect of weaker winds since the 1970s would be dune stabilization, with lower sand transport rates allowing vegetation cover to expand. Large portions of all three dunefields remained stabilized by vegetation in the 1970s despite high wind power. Since the 1970s, trends in remotely sensed vegetation greenness and change in mobile dune area inferred from sequential Landsat images do indicate widespread dune stabilization in the eastern Mu Us region. On the other hand, expansion of active dunes took place farther west in the Mu Us dunefield and especially in the central Otindag dunefield, with little overall change in two parts of the Horqin dunes. Better ground truth is needed to validate the remote sensing analyses, but results presented here place limits on the relative importance of wind strength as a control on dune mobility in the

  17. Terraced-heterostructure large-optical-cavity AlGaAs diode laser - A new type of high-power CW single-mode device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botez, D.; Connolly, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A new terraced lateral wave confining structure is obtained by liquid phase epitaxy over channeled substrates misoriented perpendicular to the channels' direction. Single spatial and longitudinal mode CW operation is achieved to 50 mW from one facet, in large spot sizes (2 x 7.5 micron, 1/e squared points in intensity) and narrow beams (6 deg x 23 deg), full width half-power). At 70 C ambient temperature CW lasing is obtained to 15 mW from one facet. Weak mode confinement in an asymmetric lateral waveguides provides discrimination against high-order mode oscillation.

  18. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-24

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l 1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPowermore » Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.« less

  19. High-accuracy power series solutions with arbitrarily large radius of convergence for the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, U. Al; Al-Refai, M.; Shchedrin, Gavriil; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-06-01

    Fractional nonlinear differential equations present an interplay between two common and important effective descriptions used to simplify high dimensional or more complicated theories: nonlinearity and fractional derivatives. These effective descriptions thus appear commonly in physical and mathematical modeling. We present a new series method providing systematic controlled accuracy for solutions of fractional nonlinear differential equations, including the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation. The method relies on spatially iterative use of power series expansions. Our approach permits an arbitrarily large radius of convergence and thus solves the typical divergence problem endemic to power series approaches. In the specific case of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation we find fractional generalizations of cnoidal waves of Jacobi elliptic functions as well as a fractional bright soliton. For the fractional nonlinear diffusion equation we find the combination of fractional and nonlinear effects results in a more strongly localized solution which nevertheless still exhibits power law tails, albeit at a much lower density.

  20. A Revised Method of Presenting Wavenumber-Frequency Power Spectrum Diagrams That Reveals the Asymmetric Nature of Tropical Large-scale Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2007-01-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called "convectively-coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves" are presented as existing only in the symmetric (antisymmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves," which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" do show anti-symmetric components, and "convectively-coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)" do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves be called "chimeric Kelvin waves," "chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves," etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers a more rigorous means of comparing the General Circulation Models (GCM) output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs in correctly simulating the asymmetric characteristics of the equatorial waves.

  1. A revised method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams that reveals the asymmetric nature of tropical large-scale waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2009-11-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called “convectively coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves” are presented as existing only in the symmetric (anti-symmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of “convectively coupled Kelvin waves,” which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, “convectively coupled Kelvin waves” do show anti-symmetric components, and “convectively coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)” do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves should be called “chimeric Kelvin waves,” “chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves,” etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers an additional means of comparing the GCM output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs to correctly simulate the asymmetric characteristics of equatorial waves.

  2. Systematic evaluation of a secondary method for measuring diagnostic-level medical ultrasound transducer output power based on a large-area pyroelectric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeqiri, B.; Žauhar, G.; Rajagopal, S.; Pounder, A.

    2012-06-01

    A systematic study of the application of a novel pyroelectric technique to the measurement of diagnostic-level medical ultrasound output power is described. The method exploits the pyroelectric properties of a 0.028 mm thick membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), backed by an acoustic absorber whose ultrasonic absorption coefficient approaches 1000 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz. When exposed to an ultrasonic field, absorption of ultrasound adjacent to the PVDF-absorber interface results in heating and the generation of a pyroelectric output voltage across gold electrodes deposited on the membrane. For a sensor large enough to intercept the whole of the acoustic beam, the output voltage can be calibrated for the measurement of acoustic output power. A number of key performance properties of the method have been investigated. The technique is very sensitive, with a power to voltage conversion factor of typically 0.23 V W-1. The frequency response of a particular embodiment of the sensor in which acoustic power reflected at the absorber-PVDF interface is subsequently returned to the pyroelectric membrane to be absorbed, has been evaluated over the frequency range 1.5 MHz to 10 MHz. This has shown the frequency response to be flat to within ±4%, above 2.5 MHz. Below this frequency, the sensitivity falls by 20% at 1.5 MHz. Linearity of the technique has been demonstrated to within ±1.6% for applied acoustic power levels from 1 mW up to 120 mW. A number of other studies targeted at assessing the achievable measurement uncertainties are presented. These involve: the effects of soaking, the influence of the angle of incidence of the acoustic beam, measurement repeatability and sensitivity to transducer positioning. Additionally, over the range 20 °C to 30 °C, the rate of change in sensitivity with ambient temperature has been shown to be +0.5% °C-1. Implications of the work for the development of a sensitive, traceable, portable, secondary method of ultrasound output power

  3. The X-ray emission mechanism of large scale powerful quasar jets: Fermi rules out IC/CMB for 3C 273.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.

    2013-12-01

    The process responsible for the Chandra-detected X-ray emission from the large-scale jets of powerful quasars is not clear yet. The two main models are inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) and synchrotron emission from a population of electrons separate from those producing the radio-IR emission. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. Georganopoulos et al. (2006) proposed a diagnostic based on a fundamental difference between these two models: the production of synchrotron X-rays requires multi-TeV electrons, while the EC/CMB model requires a cutoff in the electron energy distribution below TeV energies. This has significant implications for the γ-ray emission predicted by these two models. Here we present new Fermi observations that put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 that clearly violates the flux expected from the IC/CMB X-ray interpretation found by extrapolation of the UV to X-ray spectrum of knot A, thus ruling out the IC/CMB interpretation entirely for this source. Further, the upper limit from Fermi puts a limit on the Doppler beaming factor of at least δ <9, assuming equipartition fields, and possibly as low as δ <5 assuming no major deceleration of the jet from knots A through D1.

  4. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of Type 1 atrial flutter using a large-tip electrode catheter and high-power radiofrequency energy generator.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gregory K

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high degree of efficacy of 8 mm electrode-tipped or saline-irrigated-tip catheters for ablation of atrial flutter (AFL). These catheters have a theoretical advantage as they produce a large ablation lesion. However, large-tip ablation catheters have a larger surface area and require a higher power radiofrequency (RF) generator with up to 100 W capacity to produce adequate ablation temperatures (50-60 degrees C). The potential advantages of a large-tip ablation catheter and high-power RF generator include the need for fewer energy applications, shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times, and greater efficacy. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of AFL ablation using 8 or 10 mm electrode catheters and a 100-W RF generator was studied using the Boston Scientific, Inc., EPT-1000 XP cardiac ablation system. There were 169 patients, aged 61 +/- 12 years involved. Acute end points were bidirectional isthmus block and no inducible AFL. Following ablation, patients were seen at 1, 3 and 6 months, with event monitoring performed weekly and for any symptoms. Three quality of life surveys were completed during follow-up. Acute success was achieved in 158 patients (93%), with 12 +/- 11 RF energy applications. The efficacy of 8 and 10 mm electrodes did not differ significantly. The number of RF energy applications (10 +/- 8 vs. 14 +/- 8) and ablation time (0.5 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.6 h) were less with 10 mm compared with 8 mm electrodes (p < 0.01). Of 158 patients with acute success, 42 were not evaluated at 6 months due to study exclusions. Of the 116 patients evaluated at 6 months, 112 (97%) had no AFL recurrence. Of those without AFL recurrence at 6 months, 95 and 93% were free of symptoms at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Ablation of AFL improved quality of life scores (p < 0.05) and reduced anti-arrhythmic and rate control drug use (p < 0.05). Complications occurred in six out of 169 patients (3.6%) but there were no deaths. It was concluded

  5. ACVR1B rs2854464 Is Associated with Sprint/Power Athletic Status in a Large Cohort of Europeans but Not Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Sarah; Guilherme, João Paulo F L; Yan, Xu; Pushkarev, Vladimir P; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Massidda, Myosotis; Calò, Carla M; Dyatlov, Dmitry A; Kolupaev, Vitaliy A; Pushkareva, Yuliya E; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Lancha, Antonio H; Artioli, Guilherme G; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle strength and mass, major contributors to sprint/power athletic performance, are influenced by genetics. However, to date, only a handful of genetic variants have been associated with sprint/power performance. The ACVR1B A allele (rs rs2854464) has previously been associated with increased muscle-strength in non-athletic cohort. However, no follow-up and/or replications studies have since been conducted. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the genotype distribution of ACVR1B rs2854464 between endurance athletes (E), sprint/power (S/P) athletes, mixed athletes (M), and non-athletic control participants in 1672 athletes (endurance athletes, n = 482; sprint/power athletes, n = 578; mixed athletes, n = 498) and 1089 controls (C) of both European Caucasians (Italian, Polish and Russians) and Brazilians. We have also compared the genotype distribution according to the athlete's level of competition (elite vs. sub-elite). DNA extraction and genotyping were performed using various methods. Fisher's exact test (adjusted for multiple comparisons) was used to test whether the genotype distribution of rs2854464 (AA, AG and GG) differs between groups. The A allele was overrepresented in S/P athletes compared with C in the Caucasian sample (adjusted p = 0.048), whereas there were no differences in genotype distribution between E athletes and C, in neither the Brazilian nor the Caucasian samples (adjusted p > 0.05). When comparing all Caucasian athletes regardless of their sporting discipline to C, we found that the A allele was overrepresented in athletes compared to C (adjusted p = 0.024). This association was even more pronounced when only elite-level athletes were considered (adjusted p = 0.00017). In conclusion, in a relatively large cohort of athletes from Europe and South America we have shown that the ACVR1B rs2854464 A allele is associated with sprint/power performance in Caucasians but not in Brazilian athletes. This reinforces the

  6. Angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray emission as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and constraints on its dark matter interpretation

    DOE PAGES

    Fornasa, Mattia; Cuoco, Alessandro; Zavala, Jesús; ...

    2016-12-09

    The isotropic gamma-ray background arises from the contribution of unresolved sources, including members of confirmed source classes and proposed gamma-ray emitters such as the radiation induced by dark matter annihilation and decay. Clues about the properties of the contributing sources are imprinted in the anisotropy characteristics of the gamma-ray background. We use 81 months of Pass 7 Reprocessed data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to perform a measurement of the anisotropy angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here, we analyze energies between 0.5 and 500 GeV, extending the range considered in the previous measurement based on 22 monthsmore » of data. We also compute, for the first time, the cross-correlation angular power spectrum between different energy bins. The derived angular spectra are compatible with being Poissonian, i.e. constant in multipole. Furthermore, the energy dependence of the anisotropy suggests that the signal is due to two populations of sources, contributing, respectively, below and above ~ 2 GeV . Finally, using data from state-of-the-art numerical simulations to model the dark matter distribution, we constrain the contribution from dark matter annihilation and decay in Galactic and extra-Galactic structures to the measured anisotropy. These constraints are competitive with those that can be derived from the average intensity of the isotropic gamma-ray background.« less

  7. Relationship between frequency power spectra and intermittent, large-amplitude bursts in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O. E.; Kube, R.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Fluctuations in the boundary region of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data from a set of Ohmically heated plasma density scan experiments. It is found that the relative fluctuation amplitudes are modest and close to normally distributed at the separatrix but become increasingly larger and skewed towards the main chamber wall. The frequency power spectra are nevertheless similar for all radial positions and line-averaged densities. Predictions of a stochastic model, describing the plasma fluctuations as a super-position of uncorrelated pulses, are shown to be in excellent agreement with the measurements. This implies that the pulse duration is the same, while the degree of pulse overlap decreases radially outwards in the scrape-off layer. The universal frequency power spectral density is thus determined by the shape and duration of the large-amplitude bursts associated with blob-like structures. The model also describes the rate of threshold level crossings, for which the exponential tails underline the intermittency of the fluctuations in the far scarpe-off layer.

  8. Schottky solar cell using few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides toward large-scale fabrication of semitransparent and flexible power generator.

    PubMed

    Akama, Toshiki; Okita, Wakana; Nagai, Reito; Li, Chao; Kaneko, Toshiro; Kato, Toshiaki

    2017-09-20

    Few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are known as true two-dimensional materials, with excellent semiconducting properties and strong light-matter interaction. Thus, TMDs are attractive materials for semitransparent and flexible solar cells for use in various applications. Hoewver, despite the recent progress, the development of a scalable method to fabricate semitransparent and flexible solar cells with mono- or few-layered TMDs remains a crucial challenge. Here, we show easy and scalable fabrication of a few-layered TMD solar cell using a Schottky-type configuration to obtain a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of approximately 0.7%, which is the highest value reported with few-layered TMDs. Clear power generation was also observed for a device fabricated on a large SiO 2 and flexible substrate, demonstrating that our method has high potential for scalable production. In addition, systematic investigation revealed that the PCE and external quantum efficiency (EQE) strongly depended on the type of photogenerated excitons (A, B, and C) because of different carrier dynamics. Because high solar cell performance along with excellent scalability can be achieved through the proposed process, our fabrication method will contribute to accelerating the industrial use of TMDs as semitransparent and flexible solar cells.

  9. Large Pilot Scale Testing of Linde/BASF Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Technology at the Abbott Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Kevin C.

    The work summarized in this report is the first step towards a project that will re-train and create jobs for personnel in the coal industry and continue regional economic development to benefit regions impacted by previous downturns. The larger project is aimed at capturing ~300 tons/day (272 metric tonnes/day) CO 2 at a 90% capture rate from existing coal- fired boilers at the Abbott Power Plant on the campus of University of Illinois (UI). It will employ the Linde-BASF novel amine-based advanced CO 2 capture technology, which has already shown the potential to be cost-effective, energy efficient and compact atmore » the 0.5-1.5 MWe pilot scales. The overall objective of the project is to design and install a scaled-up system of nominal 15 MWe size, integrate it with the Abbott Power Plant flue gas, steam and other utility systems, and demonstrate the viability of continuous operation under realistic conditions with high efficiency and capacity. The project will also begin to build a workforce that understands how to operate and maintain the capture plants by including students from regional community colleges and universities in the operation and evaluation of the capture system. This project will also lay the groundwork for follow-on projects that pilot utilization of the captured CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The net impact will be to demonstrate a replicable means to (1) use a standardized procedure to evaluate power plants for their ability to be retrofitted with a pilot capture unit; (2) design and construct reliable capture systems based on the Linde-BASF technology; (3) operate and maintain these systems; (4) implement training programs with local community colleges and universities to establish a workforce to operate and maintain the systems; and (5) prepare to evaluate at the large pilot scale level various methods to utilize the resulting captured CO 2. Towards the larger project goal, the UI-led team, together with Linde, has completed a

  10. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A., E-mail: ashiva@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Paunska, Ts.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations formore » electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.« less

  11. VEGA: A low-power front-end ASIC for large area multi-linear X-ray silicon drift detectors: Design and experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Macera, Daniele; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Malcovati, Piero; Grassi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the first experimental characterization of VEGA, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed to read out large area monolithic linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD's). VEGA consists of an analog and a digital/mixed-signal section to accomplish all the functionalities and specifications required for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 500 eV and 50 keV. The analog section includes a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper with 3-bit digitally selectable shaping times from 1.6 μs to 6.6 μs and a peak stretcher/sample-and-hold stage. The digital/mixed-signal section includes an amplitude discriminator with coarse and fine threshold level setting, a peak discriminator and a logic circuit to fulfill pile-up rejection, signal sampling, trigger generation, channel reset and the preamplifier and discriminators disabling functionalities. A Serial Peripherical Interface (SPI) is integrated in VEGA for loading and storing all configuration parameters in an internal register within few microseconds. The VEGA ASIC has been designed and manufactured in 0.35 μm CMOS mixed-signal technology in single and 32 channel versions with dimensions of 200 μm×500 μm per channel. A minimum intrinsic Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 12 electrons r.m.s. at 3.6 μs peaking time and room temperature is measured and the linearity error is between -0.9% and +0.6% in the whole input energy range. The total power consumption is 481 μW and 420 μW per channel for the single and 32 channels version, respectively. A comparison with other ASICs for X-ray SDD's shows that VEGA has a suitable low noise and offers high functionality as ADC-ready signal processing but at a power consumption that is a factor of four lower than other similar existing ASICs.

  12. Examples of the Influence of Turbine Wakes on Downwind Power Output, Surface Wind Speed, Turbulence and Flow Convergence in Large Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Doorenbos, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    We have analyzed turbine power and concurrent wind speed, direction and turbulence data from surface 10-m flux towers in a large wind farm for experiments during four summer periods as part of the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX). We use these data to analyze surface differences for a near-wake (within 2.5 D of the turbine line), far wake (17 D downwind of the turbine line), and double wake (impacted by two lines of turbines about 34 D downwind of the first turbine line) locations. Composites are categorized by10 degree directional intervals and three ambient stability categories as defined by Rajewski et al. (2013): neutral (|z/L|<0.05), stable (z/L>0.05) and unstable (z/L<-0.05), where z is the height of the measurement and L is the Monin-Obhukov length. The dominant influence of the turbines is under stably stratified conditions (i. e., mostly at night). A 25% to 40% increase in mean wind speed occurs when turbine wakes are moving over the downwind station at a distance of 2.8 D and 5.4 D (D = fan diameter). For the double wake condition (flux station leeward of two lines of turbines) we find a daytime (unstable conditions) speed reduction of 20% for southerly wind, but for nighttime (stable conditions) the surface speeds are enhancedby 40-60% for SSW-SW winds. The speedup is reduced as wind directions shift to the west. We interpret these speed variations as due to the rotation of the wake and interaction (or not) with higher speed air above the rotor layer in highly sheared nocturnal low-level jet conditions. From a cluster of flux stations and three profiling lidars deployed within and around a cluster of turbines in 2013 (CWEX-13) we found evidence of mesoscale influences. In particular, surface convergence (wind direction deflection of 10-20 degrees) was observed during periods of low nighttime winds (hub-height winds of 4-6 m/s) with power reduction of 50-75%. This is consistent with a similar range of deflection observed from a line of turbines in CWEX

  13. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  15. Imitating intrinsic alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-10-01

    Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.

  16. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  17. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  18. ANEMOS: Development of a next generation wind power forecasting system for the large-scale integration of onshore and offshore wind farms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariniotakis, G.; Anemos Team

    2003-04-01

    Objectives: Accurate forecasting of the wind energy production up to two days ahead is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Especially, in a liberalized electricity market, prediction tools enhance the position of wind energy compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. ANEMOS, is a new 3.5 years R&D project supported by the European Commission, that resembles research organizations and end-users with an important experience on the domain. The project aims to develop advanced forecasting models that will substantially outperform current methods. Emphasis is given to situations like complex terrain, extreme weather conditions, as well as to offshore prediction for which no specific tools currently exist. The prediction models will be implemented in a software platform and installed for online operation at onshore and offshore wind farms by the end-users participating in the project. Approach: The paper presents the methodology of the project. Initially, the prediction requirements are identified according to the profiles of the end-users. The project develops prediction models based on both a physical and an alternative statistical approach. Research on physical models gives emphasis to techniques for use in complex terrain and the development of prediction tools based on CFD techniques, advanced model output statistics or high-resolution meteorological information. Statistical models (i.e. based on artificial intelligence) are developed for downscaling, power curve representation, upscaling for prediction at regional or national level, etc. A benchmarking process is set-up to evaluate the performance of the developed models and to compare them with existing ones using a number of case studies. The synergy between statistical and physical approaches is examined to identify promising areas for further improvement of forecasting accuracy. Appropriate physical and statistical prediction models are also developed for

  19. High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells with Thicker Active Layer and Large Area Exceeding 11% Power Conversion Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qunping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Maojie; Wu, Bo; Guo, Xia; Jiang, Yufeng; Li, Wanbin; Guo, Bing; Ye, Chennan; Su, Wenyan; Fang, Jin; Ou, Xuemei; Liu, Feng; Wei, Zhixiang; Sum, Tze Chien; Russell, Thomas P; Li, Yongfang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a nonfullerene polymer solar cell (PSC) based on a wide bandgap polymer donor PM6 containing fluorinated thienyl benzodithiophene (BDT-2F) unit and a narrow bandgap small molecule acceptor 2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((4,4,9,9-tetrahexyl-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(methanylylidene))bis(3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile (IDIC) is developed. In addition to matched energy levels and complementary absorption spectrum with IDIC, PM6 possesses high crystallinity and strong π-π stacking alignment, which are favorable to charge carrier transport and hence suppress recombination in devices. As a result, the PM6:IDIC-based PSCs without extra treatments show an outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.9%, which is the record value for the as-cast PSC devices reported in the literature to date. Moreover, the device performances are insensitive to the active layer thickness (≈95-255 nm) and device area (0.20-0.81 cm 2 ) with PCEs of over 11%. Besides, the PM6:IDIC-based flexible PSCs with a large device area of 1.25 cm 2 exhibit a high PCE of 6.54%. These results indicate that the PM6:IDIC blend is a promising candidate for future roll-to-roll mass manufacturing and practical application of highly efficient PSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microparticle impact calibration of the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space (ALADDIN) onboard the solar power sail demonstrator IKAROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Takayuki; Cole, Michael J.; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Iwai, Takeo; Kobayashi, Masanori; Srama, Ralf; Yano, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    The Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space (ALADDIN) is an array of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based dust detectors aboard the solar power sail demonstrator named IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun). The total sensor area of ALADDIN (0.54 m2) is the world's largest among the past PVDF-based dust detectors. IKAROS was launched in May 2010 and then ALADDIN measured cosmic dust impacts for 16 months while orbiting around between 0.7 and 1.1 AU. The main scientific objective of ALADDIN is to reveal number density of ≥10-μm-sized dust in the zodiacal cloud with much higher time-space resolution than that achieved by any past in-situ measurements. The distribution of ≥10-μm-sized dust can be also observed mainly with the light scattering by optical instruments. This paper gives the scientific objectives, the instrumental description, and the results of microparticle impact calibration of ALADDIN conducted in ground laboratories. For the calibration tests we used Van de Graaf accelerators (VdG), two-stage light gas guns (LGG), and a nano-second pulsed Nd:YAG laser (nsPL). Through these experiments, we obtained depolarization charge signal caused by hypervelocity impacts or laser irradiation using the flight spare of 20-μm-thick PVDF sensor and the electronics box of ALADDIN. In the VdG experiment we accelerated iron, carbon, and silver microparticles at 1-30 km/s, while in the LGG experiment we performed to shoot 100's-μm-sized particles of soda-lime glass and stainless steel at 3-7 km/s as single projectile. For interpolation to ≥10-μm size, we irradiated infrared laser at the energy of 15-20 mJ directly onto the PVDF sensor. From the signal analysis, we developed a calibration law for estimation of masses of impacted dust particles. The dynamic range of ALADDIN corresponds from 9×10-14 kg to 2×10-10 kg (4-56 μm in diameter at density of 2.0 g/cm3) at the expected impact velocity of 10 km/s at 1 AU

  1. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  2. The rewritable effects of bonded magnet for large starting torque and high efficiency in the small power single-phase written pole motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hak; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a single-phase written pole motor using a bonded ring magnet for the small power home application. The motor has an exciter pole structure inside the stator and hybrid characteristics of an induction motor and permanent magnet motor. The design parameters and operating characteristics of the hybrid concept motor are investigated to increase starting torque and efficiency, which is most important for the small power home application. Larger starting torque and higher efficiency than those of the conventional induction motor could be obtained by using the rewritable characteristics of bonded magnet on the starting and running conditions.

  3. Large power factor and anomalous Hall effect and their correlation with observed linear magneto resistance in Co-doped Bi2Se3 3D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul; Shukla, K. K.; Kumar, A.; Okram, G. S.; Singh, D.; Ganeshan, V.; Lakhani, Archana; Ghosh, A. K.; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2016-09-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR), thermo power, magnetization and Hall effect measurements have been performed on Co-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulators. The undoped sample shows that the maximum MR as a destructive interference due to a π-Berry phase leads to a decrease of MR. As the Co is doped, the linearity in MR is increased. The observed MR of Bi2Se3 can be explained with the classical model. The low temperature MR behavior of Co doped samples cannot be explained with the same model, but can be explained with the quantum linear MR model. Magnetization behavior indicates the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering with Co doping. Hall effect data also supports the establishment of ferromagnetic ordering in Co-doped Bi2Se3 samples by showing the anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, when spectral weight suppression is insignificant, Bi2Se3 behaves as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Moreover, the maximum power factor is observed when time reversal symmetry (TRS) is maintained. As the TRS is broken the power factor value is decreased, which indicates that with the rise of Dirac cone above the Fermi level the anomalous Hall effect and linearity in MR increase and the power factor decreases.

  4. A Comparison of Hybrid Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation (RANS/LES) and Unsteady RANS Predictions of Separated Flow for a Variable Speed Power Turbine Blade Operating with Low Inlet Turbulence Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    Facility is a large-scale cascade that allows detailed flow field surveys and blade surface measurements.10–12 The facility has a continuous run ...structured grids at 2 flow conditions, cruise and takeoff, of the VSPT blade . Computations were run in parallel on a Department of Defense...RANS/LES) and Unsteady RANS Predictions of Separated Flow for a Variable-Speed Power- Turbine Blade Operating with Low Inlet Turbulence Levels

  5. Physiology and pathophysiology of heart rate and blood pressure variability in humans: is power spectral analysis largely an index of baroreflex gain?

    PubMed

    Sleight, P; La Rovere, M T; Mortara, A; Pinna, G; Maestri, R; Leuzzi, S; Bianchini, B; Tavazzi, L; Bernardi, L

    1995-01-01

    1. It is often assumed that the power in the low- (around 0.10 Hz) and high-frequency (around 0.25 Hz) bands obtained by power spectral analysis of cardiovascular variables reflects sympathetic and vagal tone [corrected] respectively. An alternative model attributes the low-frequency band to a resonance in the control system that is produced by the inefficiently slow time constant of the reflex response to beat-to-beat changes in blood pressure effected by the sympathetic (with or without the parasympathetic) arm(s) of the baroreflex (De Boer model). 2. We have applied the De Boer model of circulatory variability to patients with varying baroreflex sensitivity to patients with varying baroreflex sensitivity and one normal subject, and have shown that the main differences in spectral power (for both low and high frequency) between and within subjects are caused by changes in the arterial baroreflex gain, particularly for vagal control of heart rate (R-R interval) and left ventricular stroke output. We have computed the power spectrum at rest and during neck suction (to stimulate carotid baroreceptors). We stimulated the baroreceptors at two frequencies (0.1 and 0.2 Hz), which were both distinct from the controlled respiration rate (0.25 Hz), in both normal subjects and heart failure patients with either sensitive or poor baroreflex control. 3. The data broadly confirm the De Boer model. The low-frequency (0.1 Hz) peak in either R-R or blood pressure variability) was spontaneously generated only if the baroreflex control of the autonomic outflow was relatively intact.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  7. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko

    PubMed Central

    Saroka, Kevin S.; Vares, David E.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6–16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7–8 Hz), second (13–14 Hz) and third (19–20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the ‘best-of-fitness’ of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity. PMID:26785376

  8. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    PubMed

    Saroka, Kevin S; Vares, David E; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz), second (13-14 Hz) and third (19-20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity.

  9. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  10. Lens Systems Incorporating A Zero Power Corrector Principle Of The Design And Its Application In Large Aperture, Moderate Field Of View Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H. W.; McDowell, M. W.

    1986-02-01

    A new lens design concept, based on the use of a zero (or near zero) power corrector, will be described. The logical development of the design, based on the work of Schmidt', Houghton' and others will be discussed and examples will be given of moderate field of view lenses with apertures ranging from f/0.35 to f/2. It will also be shown that the lens configuration is relatively insensitive to the aperture stop location and that for less demanding applications only very basic optical glass types need be used.

  11. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Constraints on the power spectrum of the primordial density field from large-scale data - Microwave background and predictions of inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown here that, by using galaxy catalog correlation data as input, measurements of microwave background radiation (MBR) anisotropies should soon be able to test two of the inflationary scenario's most basic predictions: (1) that the primordial density fluctuations produced were scale-invariant and (2) that the universe is flat. They should also be able to detect anisotropies of large-scale structure formed by gravitational evolution of density fluctuations present at the last scattering epoch. Computations of MBR anisotropies corresponding to the minimum of the large-scale variance of the MBR anisotropy are presented which favor an open universe with P(k) significantly different from the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum predicted by most inflationary models.

  13. High-power Yb-fiber comb with feed-forward control of nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locking and large-mode-area fiber amplification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Kangwen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Xuling; Zhou, Qian; Ru, Qitian; Bai, Dongbi; Zeng, Heping

    2012-05-01

    We report on a simple scheme to precisely control carrier-envelope phase of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked self-started Yb-fiber laser system with an average output power of ∼7  W and a pulse width of 130 fs. The offset frequency was locked to the repetition rate of ∼64.5  MHz with a relative linewidth of ∼1.4  MHz by using a self-referenced feed-forward scheme based on an acousto-optic frequency shifter. The phase noise and timing jitter were calculated to be 370 mrad and 120 as, respectively.

  14. Radioactivity of Drinking-Water in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in China Based on a Large-Scale Monitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-01-01

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross α and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross α and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level. PMID:24322395

  15. Radioactivity of drinking-water in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in China based on a large-scale monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-12-06

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  16. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  17. Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results.

  18. Determination of copper in liquid and solid insulation for large electrical equipment by ICP-OES. Application to copper contamination assessment in power transformers.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Sarzanini, Corrado; Maina, Riccardo; Tumiatti, Vander

    2012-09-15

    Copper is one of the main constituents of the components in power transformers and its presence both in liquid (mineral oil) and in solid (Kraft paper) insulators can lead to enhanced dielectric losses and to the subsequent deterioration of their insulating properties. Recently the latter have been correlated to plant failures which in turn may have severe impact on the environment. This paper describes the direct analysis of copper in insulating mineral oil by ICP-OES and how it was first optimized compared to the official American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D7151 method. Detection and quantification limits of 8.8 μg kg(-1) and 29.3 μg kg(-1) were obtained. Secondly, copper determination was improved by coupling a microwave assisted dissolution procedure of the mineral oil which avoided the problems, in the real samples, due to the presence of solid species of copper which cannot be nebulized following traditional methods described in literature. Sixteen mineral insulating oils sampled from transformers in service were analyzed before and after dissolution. In order to evaluate copper speciation, size fractionation was performed by filtration on PTFE filters (0.45, 1 and 5 μm). This test was performed on all the oil samples. Finally, because of the key role of the solid insulator in failed transformers, the Authors applied the developed method to study the copper deposition tendency onto the insulating Kraft paper tapes exerted by two unused oils (a corrosive and a non-corrosive one) under defined ageing conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term modelling of fly ash and radionuclide emissions as well as deposition fluxes due to the operation of large oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kaasik, Marko; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan H

    2017-11-01

    Two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants (PPs) in Estonia have been operational over 40 years, emitting various pollutants, such as fly ash, SO x , NO x , heavy metals, volatile organic compounds as well as radionuclides to the environment. The emissions from these PPs have varied significantly during this period, with the maximum during the 1970s and 1980s. The oil shale burned in the PPs contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th decay series as well as 40 K. These radionuclides become enriched in fly ash fractions (up to 10 times), especially in the fine fly ash escaping the purification system. Using a validated Gaussian-plume model, atmospheric dispersion modelling was carried out to determine the quantity and a real magnitude of fly ash and radionuclide deposition fluxes during different decades. The maximum deposition fluxes of volatile radionuclides ( 210 Pb and 210 Po) were around 70 mBq m -2 d -1 nearby the PPs during 1970s and 1980s. Due to the reduction of burned oil shale and significant renovations done on the PPs, the deposition fluxes were reduced to 10 mBq m -2 d -1 in the 2000s and down to 1.5 mBq m -2 d -1 in 2015. The maximum deposition occurs within couple of kilometers of the PPs, but the impacted area extends to over 50 km from the sources. For many radionuclides, including 210 Po, the PPs have been larger contributors of radionuclides to the environment via atmospheric pathway than natural sources. This is the first time that the emissions and deposition fluxes of radionuclides from the PPs have been quantified, providing the information about their radionuclide deposition load on the surrounding environment during various time periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and Large Eddy Simulations with Actuator Disk Model: predictions of wind farm power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cartagena, Edgardo Javier; Santoni, Christian; Ciri, Umberto; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Leonardi, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    A large-scale wind farm operating under realistic atmospheric conditions is studied by coupling a meso-scale and micro-scale models. For this purpose, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is coupled with an in-house LES solver for wind farms. The code is based on a finite difference scheme, with a Runge-Kutta, fractional step and the Actuator Disk Model. The WRF model has been configured using seven one-way nested domains where the child domain has a mesh size one third of its parent domain. A horizontal resolution of 70 m is used in the innermost domain. A section from the smallest and finest nested domain, 7.5 diameters upwind of the wind farm is used as inlet boundary condition for the LES code. The wind farm consists in six-turbines aligned with the mean wind direction and streamwise spacing of 10 rotor diameters, (D), and 2.75D in the spanwise direction. Three simulations were performed by varying the velocity fluctuations at the inlet: random perturbations, precursor simulation, and recycling perturbation method. Results are compared with a simulation on the same wind farm with an ideal uniform wind speed to assess the importance of the time varying incoming wind velocity. Numerical simulations were performed at TACC (Grant CTS070066). This work was supported by NSF, (Grant IIA-1243482 WINDINSPIRE).

  1. Assessment of the uncertainty and predictive power of large-scale predictors for nonlinear precipitation downscaling in the European Arctic (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, T.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the extensive research on downscaling methods there is still little consensus about the choice of useful atmospheric predictor variables. Besides the general decision of a proper statistical downscaling model, the selection of an informative predictor set is crucial for the accuracy and stability of the resulting downscaled time series. These requirements must be fullfilled by both the atmospheric variables and the predictor domains in terms of geographical location and spatial extend, to which in general not much attention is paid. However, only a limited number of studies is interested in the predictive capability of the predictor domain size or shape, and the question to what extent variability of neighboring grid points influence local-scale events. In this study we emphasized the spatial relationships between observed daily precipitation and selected number of atmospheric variables for the European Arctic. Several nonlinear regression models are used to link the large-scale predictors obtained from reanalysed Weather Research and Forecast model runs to the local-scale observed precipitation. Inferences on the sources of uncertainty are then drawn from variance based sensitivity measures, which also permit to capture interaction effects between individual predictors. The information is further used to develop more parsimonious downscaling models with only small decreases in accuracy. Individual predictors (without interactions) account for almost 2/3 of the total output variance, while the remaining fraction is solely due to interactions. Neglecting predictor interactions in the screening process will lead to some loss of information. Hence, linear screening methods are insufficient as they neither account for interactions nor for non-additivity as given by many nonlinear prediction algorithms.

  2. Analysis of the Effect of Chronic and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure on Spermatogenic Cells of Male Large Japanese Field Mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Takino, Sachio; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Sugano, Yukou; Fujishima, Yohei; Nakata, Akifumi; Kasai, Kosuke; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Miura, Tomisato; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2017-02-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi. In the Akogi group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells per seminiferous tubule were significantly higher compared to the Tanashio and Murohara groups, respectively. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells tended to be detected at a lower level in the Murohara and Akogi groups compared to the Tanashio group. These results suggest that enhanced spermatogenesis occurred in large Japanese field mice living in and around the FNPP ex-evacuation zone. It remains to be elucidated whether this phenomenon, attributed to chronic exposure to LDR radiation, will benefit or adversely affect large Japanese field mice.

  3. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  4. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  5. Meteoroid Measurements in the Deep Space Cruising and the Jupiter Trojan Rendezvous Phases of the Solar Power Sail Mission by the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary Space (ALADDIN)-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.; Hirai, T.; Arai, K.; Fujii, M.

    2017-12-01

    The PVDF thin films have been long, space-proven instruments for hypervelocity impact detection in the diverse regions of the Solar System from orbits of Venus by IKAROS and of Pluto by New Horizons. In particular, light weight but large area membranes of a solar sail spacecraft is an ideal location for such detectors to be deployed for detecting statistically enough nubers of so large micrometeoroids that are sensitive to mean motion resonances and other gravitational effects of flux enhancements and voids with planets. The IKAROS spacecraft first detected in situ dust flux enhancement and gap region within the Earth's circumsolar dust ring as well as those of Venus by 0.54 m^2 detection area of ALADDIN sensors on the slar sail membrane. Advancing this heritage, the Solar Power Sail membrane will carry 0.4+ m^2 ALADDIN-II PVDF sensors with improved impact signal prosessng units to detect both hyperveloity dust impacts in the interplanetary space cruising phase and slow dust impacts bound to the Jupiter Trojan region in its rendezvours phase.

  6. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  7. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  8. Solar Power in Space?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    orbit stupendously large orbital power plants—kilometers across—which collect the sun’s raw energy and beam it down to where it is needed on the earth...24-hour, large -scale power to the urban centers where the majority of humanity lives. A network of thousands of solar-power satellites (SPS) could...provide all the power required for an Earth-based population as large as 10 billion people, even for a fully developed “first world” lifestyle but

  9. SSP Power Management and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Thomas H.; Roth, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Solar Power is a NASA program sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center. The Paper presented here represents the architectural study of a large power management and distribution (PMAD) system. The PMAD supplies power to a microwave array for power beaming to an earth rectenna (Rectifier Antenna). The power is in the GW level.

  10. Evidence of universal inverse-third power law for the shielding-induced fractional decrease in apex field enhancement factor at large spacings: a response via accurate Laplace-type calculations.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Thiago A; Dall'Agnol, Fernando F

    2018-05-16

    Numerical simulations are important when assessing the many characteristics of field emission related phenomena. In small simulation domains, the electrostatic effect from the boundaries is known to influence the calculated apex field enhancement factor (FEF) of the emitter, but no established dependence has been reported at present. In this work, we report the dependence of the lateral size, L, and the height, H, of the simulation domain on the apex-FEF of a single conducting ellipsoidal emitter. Firstly, we analyze the error, ε, in the calculation of the apex-FEF as a function of H and L. Importantly, our results show that the effects of H and L on ε are scale invariant, allowing one to predict ε for ratios L/h and H/h, where h is the height of the emitter. Next, we analyze the fractional change of the apex-FEF, δ, from a single emitter, [Formula: see text], and a pair, [Formula: see text]. We show that small relative errors in [Formula: see text] (i.e. [Formula: see text]), due to the finite domain size, are sufficient to alter the functional dependence [Formula: see text], where c is the distance from the emitters in the pair. We show that [Formula: see text] obeys a recently proposed power law decay (Forbes 2016 J. Appl. Phys. 120 054302), at sufficiently large distances in the limit of infinite domain size ([Formula: see text], say), which is not observed when using a long time established exponential decay (Bonard et al 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 184) or a more sophisticated fitting formula proposed recently by Harris et al (2015 AIP Adv. 5 087182). We show that the inverse-third power law functional dependence is respected for various systems like infinity arrays and small clusters of emitters with different shapes. Thus, [Formula: see text], with m  =  3, is suggested to be a universal signature of the charge-blunting effect in small clusters or arrays, at sufficient large distances between emitters with any shape. These results improve the physical

  11. Evidence of universal inverse-third power law for the shielding-induced fractional decrease in apex field enhancement factor at large spacings: a response via accurate Laplace-type calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Dall’Agnol, Fernando F.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations are important when assessing the many characteristics of field emission related phenomena. In small simulation domains, the electrostatic effect from the boundaries is known to influence the calculated apex field enhancement factor (FEF) of the emitter, but no established dependence has been reported at present. In this work, we report the dependence of the lateral size, L, and the height, H, of the simulation domain on the apex-FEF of a single conducting ellipsoidal emitter. Firstly, we analyze the error, ε, in the calculation of the apex-FEF as a function of H and L. Importantly, our results show that the effects of H and L on ε are scale invariant, allowing one to predict ε for ratios L/h and H/h, where h is the height of the emitter. Next, we analyze the fractional change of the apex-FEF, δ, from a single emitter, , and a pair, . We show that small relative errors in (i.e. ), due to the finite domain size, are sufficient to alter the functional dependence , where c is the distance from the emitters in the pair. We show that obeys a recently proposed power law decay (Forbes 2016 J. Appl. Phys. 120 054302), at sufficiently large distances in the limit of infinite domain size (, say), which is not observed when using a long time established exponential decay (Bonard et al 2001 Adv. Mater. 13 184) or a more sophisticated fitting formula proposed recently by Harris et al (2015 AIP Adv. 5 087182). We show that the inverse-third power law functional dependence is respected for various systems like infinity arrays and small clusters of emitters with different shapes. Thus, , with m  =  3, is suggested to be a universal signature of the charge-blunting effect in small clusters or arrays, at sufficient large distances between emitters with any shape. These results improve the physical understanding of the field electron emission theory to accurately characterize emitters in small clusters or arrays.

  12. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  13. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most windmore » plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an

  14. Large area plasma source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  15. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  16. Can solar power deliver?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  17. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

  18. Large solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crabtree, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A spectrophotovoltaic converter, a thermophotovoltaic converter, a cassegrainian concentrator, a large silicon cell blanket, and a high flux approach are among the concepts being investigated as part of the multihundred kW solar array program for reducing the cost of photovoltaic energy in space. These concepts involve a range of technology risks, the highest risk being represented by the thermophotovoltaics and spectrophotovoltaics approaches which involve manipulation to of the incoming spectrum to enhance system efficiency. The planar array (solar blanket) has no technology risk and a moderate payback. The primary characteristics, components, and technology concerns of each of these concepts are summarized. An orbital power platform mission in the late 1980's is being used to allow a coherent technology advancement program in order to achieve a ten year life with maintenance at a capital recurring cost of $30/watt based on 1978 dollars.

  19. Power Outages

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the items you need that rely on electricity. Talk to your medical provider about a power outage plan for medical devices powered by electricity and refrigerated medicines. Find out how long medication ...

  20. Estimating large numbers.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-07-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  2. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  3. Biomass power in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.K.

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plantmore » market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.« less

  4. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  5. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  6. Satellite power system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, F. L.; Gordon, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A projection of the electrical energy demands over the next 30 to 50 years, coupled with reasonable assessments of known or developable energy sources, indicates that a shortage of electrical energy will occur about the turn of the century. Recognizing the criticality of such a shortage, the Department of Energy is currently evaluating alternative power generation concepts. One of these candidate concepts is the Satellite Power System. The power levels considered during the evaluation of the various satellite systems have ranged from 5 to 10 GW. It is apparent that, with this power level, both the satellite and the rectenna must be very large and encompass a large number of complex operational system activities. Major elements of the Satellite Power System (SPS) consist of a power satellite placed in a geosynchronous equatorial orbit, and a dedicated ground receiving station (GRS) located at a selected site within the continental United States. The nominal power output of the SPS is established at 5 gigawatts (5 million kilowatts) although, because of various system constraints or losses, it may actually produce between 4 and 5 gigawatts.

  7. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    . Adaptive power balancing efficiently predicts where critical paths are likely to occur and distributes power to those paths. Greater power, in turn, allows increased thread concurrency levels, CPU frequency/voltage, or both. We describe these techniques in detail and show that, compared to the state-of-the-art technique of using statically predetermined, per-node power caps, Conductor leads to a best-case performance improvement of up to 30%, and an average improvement of 19.1%. At the node level, an accurate power/performance model will aid in selecting the right configuration from a large set of available configurations. We present a novel approach to generate such a model offline using kernel clustering and multivariate linear regression. Our model requires only two iterations to select a configuration, which provides a significant advantage over exhaustive search-based strategies. We apply our model to predict power and performance for different applications using arbitrary configurations, and show that our model, when used with hardware frequency-limiting in a runtime system, selects configurations with significantly higher performance at a given power limit than those chosen by frequency-limiting alone. When applied to a set of 36 computational kernels from a range of applications, our model accurately predicts power and performance; our runtime system based on the model maintains 91% of optimal performance while meeting power constraints 88% of the time. When the runtime system violates a power constraint, it exceeds the constraint by only 6% in the average case, while simultaneously achieving 54% more performance than an oracle. Through the combination of the above contributions, we hope to provide guidance and inspiration to research practitioners working on runtime systems for power-constrained environments. We also hope this dissertation will draw attention to the need for software and runtime-controlled power management under power constraints at various levels

  8. Role of nuclear power in the Philippine power development program

    SciTech Connect

    Aleta, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The reintroduction of nuclear power in the Philippines is favored by several factors such as: the inclusion of nuclear energy in the energy sector of the science and technology agenda for national development (STAND); the Large gap between electricity demand and available local supply for the medium-term power development plan; the relatively lower health risks in nuclear power fuel cycle systems compared to the already acceptable power systems; the lower environmental impacts of nuclear power systems compared to fossil fuelled systems and the availability of a regulatory framework and trained personnel who could form a core for implementing a nuclearmore » power program. The electricity supply gap of 9600 MW for the period 1993-2005 could be partly supplied by nuclear power. The findings of a recent study are described, as well as the issues that have to be addressed in the reintroduction of nuclear power.« less

  9. Powerful Electromechanical Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John R.; Myers, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Powerful electromechanical linear actuator designed to replace hydraulic actuator that provides incremental linear movements to large object and holds its position against heavy loads. Electromechanical actuator cleaner and simpler, and needs less maintenance. Two principal innovative features that distinguish new actuator are use of shaft-angle resolver as source of position feedback to electronic control subsystem and antibacklash gearing arrangement.

  10. Decoupling energy and power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2018-01-01

    Biological photovoltaic devices (BPVs) use photosynthetic microorganisms to produce electricity, but low photocurrent generation impedes their application. Now, a micro-scale flow-based BPV system is reported with power density outputs similar to that of large-scale biofuels.

  11. Space Station laboratory module power loading analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. J.

    1994-07-01

    The electrical power system of Space Station Freedom is an isolated electrical power generation and distribution network designed to meet the demands of a large number of electrical loads. An algorithm is developed to determine the power bus loading status under normal operating conditions to ensure the supply meets demand. The probabilities of power availability for payload operations (experiments) are also derived.

  12. Thermal control requirements for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoff, M.

    1978-01-01

    Performance capabilities and weight requirements of large space structure systems will be significantly influenced by thermal response characteristics. Analyses have been performed to determine temperature levels and gradients for structural configurations and elemental concepts proposed for advanced system applications ranging from relatively small, low-power communication antennas to extremely large, high-power Satellite Power Systems (SPS). Results are presented for selected platform configurations, candidate strut elements, and potential mission environments. The analyses also incorporate material and surface optical property variation. The results illustrate many of the thermal problems which may be encountered in the development of three systems.

  13. Power subsystem automation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Veatch, M.

    1983-01-01

    Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.

  14. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  15. Measuring Leakage From Large, Complicated Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottemiller, S.

    1987-01-01

    Test chamber improvised from large bag. Cumulative sizes of leaks in large, complicated machinery measure with relatively simple variation of helium leak-checking technique. When used to check Space Shuttle main engine, new technique gave repeatable and correct results within 0.5 stdin.3/min (1.4 x 10 negative to the seventh power stdm3/s).

  16. Powerful Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Tett, Lyn, Ed.

    These 15 papers share a common theme: seeking to promote literacy as a powerful tool for challenging existing inequalities and dependencies. "Powerful Literacies" (Jim Crowther et al.) is an introduction. Section 1 establishes the theoretical and policy frameworks that underpin the book and shows how literacy is situated in different…

  17. Power Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research…

  18. Power Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooley, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Principals are powerful: They are the primary catalysts for creating a lasting foundation for learning, driving school and student performance, and shaping the long-term impact of school improvement efforts. Yet few principals would characterize themselves as powerful. Rather, they're self-effacing, adaptable, pragmatic, and quick to share credit…

  19. Power system

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  20. Standby Power

    Science.gov Websites

    being unplugged. These products draw power 24 hours a day, often without the knowledge of the consumer Define & Measure Data Reports & Links Archives Contact © Building Technology and Urban Systems

  1. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  2. The predictive power of airborne gamma ray survey data on the locations of domestic radon hazards in Norway: A strong case for utilizing airborne data in large-scale radon potential mapping.

    PubMed

    Smethurst, M A; Watson, R J; Baranwal, V C; Rudjord, A L; Finne, I

    2017-01-01

    It is estimated that exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is responsible for as many as 300 deaths a year due to lung cancer. To address this, the authorities in Norway have developed a national action plan that has the aim of reducing exposure to radon in Norway (Norwegian Ministries, 2010). The plan includes further investigation of the relationship between radon hazard and geological conditions, and development of map-based tools for assessing the large spatial variation in radon hazard levels across Norway. The main focus of the present contribution is to describe how we generate map predictions of radon potential (RP), a measure of radon hazard, from available airborne gamma ray spectrometry (AGRS) surveys in Norway, and what impact these map predictions can be expected to have on radon protection work including land-use planning and targeted surveying. We have compiled 11 contiguous AGRS surveys centred on the most populated part of Norway around Oslo to produce an equivalent uranium map measuring 180 km × 102 km that represents the relative concentrations of radon in the near surface of the ground with a spatial resolution in the 100 s of metres. We find that this map of radon in the ground offers a far more detailed and reliable picture of the distribution of radon in the sub-surface than can be deduced from the available digital geology maps. We tested the performances of digital geology and AGRS data as predictors of RP. We find that digital geology explains approximately 40% of the observed variance in ln RP nationally, while the AGRS data in the Oslo area split into 14 bands explains approximately 70% of the variance in the same parameter. We also notice that there are too few indoor data to characterise all geological settings in Norway which leaves areas in the geology-based RP map in the Oslo area, and elsewhere, unclassified. The AGRS RP map is derived from fewer classes, all characterised by more than 30 indoor measurements, and the

  3. Power combiner

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  4. Active large structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.

    1982-01-01

    Some performance requirements and development needs for the design of large space structures are described. Areas of study include: (1) dynamic response of large space structures; (2) structural control and systems integration; (3) attitude control; and (4) large optics and flexibility. Reference is made to a large space telescope.

  5. Instantons and Large N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Instantons: 1. Instantons in quantum mechanics; 2. Unstable vacua in quantum field theory; 3. Large order behavior and Borel summability; 4. Non-perturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theories; 5. Instantons and fermions; Part II. Large N: 6. Sigma models at large N; 7. The 1=N expansion in QCD; 8. Matrix models and matrix quantum mechanics at large N; 9. Large N QCD in two dimensions; 10. Instantons at large N; Appendix A. Harmonic analysis on S3; Appendix B. Heat kernel and zeta functions; Appendix C. Effective action for large N sigma models; References; Author index; Subject index.

  6. Large area pulsed solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruer, Mark A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An advanced solar simulator illuminates the surface a very large solar array, such as one twenty feet by twenty feet in area, from a distance of about twenty-six feet with an essentially uniform intensity field of pulsed light of an intensity of one AMO, enabling the solar array to be efficiently tested with light that emulates the sun. Light modifiers sculpt a portion of the light generated by an electrically powered high power Xenon lamp and together with direct light from the lamp provide uniform intensity illumination throughout the solar array, compensating for the square law and cosine law reduction in direct light intensity, particularly at the corner locations of the array. At any location within the array the sum of the direct light and reflected light is essentially constant.

  7. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  8. The Geography of Green Power

    SciTech Connect

    OShaughnessy, Eric J; Heeter, Jenny S; Volpi, Christina M

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  9. Aeroacoustics of large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews published information on aerodynamically generated noise from large horizontal axis wind turbines operated for electric power generation. Methods are presented for predicting both the discrete frequency rotational noise components and the broadband noise components, and results are compared with measurements. Refraction effects that result in the formation of high-frequency shadow zones in the upwind direction and channeling effects for the low frequencies in the downwind direction are illustrated. Special topics such as distributed source effects in prediction and the role of building dynamics in perception are also included.

  10. LHC: The Large Hadron Collider

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. It’s essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.

  11. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  12. Power inverters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA; Korich, Mark D [Chino Hills, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  13. Developing powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Three new reports commissioned by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examine the electric power sectors in Argentina, Brazil, and China, and the potential impact that energy use in each country has on climate change.In 1999, Argentina voluntarily agreed to lower its greenhouse gas emissions to 2 10% below projected emissions for 2012. The report looks at additional steps that could further reduce emissions, including adopting policies that favor renewable energy sources and nuclear power, and increasing energy efficiency by end-users.

  14. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation... transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...., Lynchburg, VA; and Pennsylvania Transformer Technology Inc., Canonsburg, PA, alleging that an industry in...

  15. Novel Concept for Flexible and Resilient Large Power Transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Parag; Englebretson, Steven; Ramanan, V. R. R.

    This feasibility study investigates a flexible and adaptable LPT design solution which can facilitate long-term replacement in the event of both catastrophic failures as well as scheduled replacements, thereby increasing grid resilience. The scope of this project has been defined based on an initial system study and identification of the transformer requirements from an overall system load flow perspective.

  16. Plasma sheath structure surrounding a large powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Jongeward, G. A.; Katz, I.

    1984-01-01

    Various factors determining the floating potential of a highly biased (about 4-kV) spacecraft in low earth orbit are discussed. While the common rule of thumb (90 percent negative; 10 percent positive) is usually a good guide, different biasing and grounding patterns can lead to high positive potentials. The NASCAP/LEO code can be used to predict spacecraft floating potential for complex three-dimensional spacecraft.

  17. Factory overload testing of a large power transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.H.; Lawrence, C.O.; Templeton, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    A factory overload test of up to 150% of the nameplate rating was run on a 224 MVA autotransformer. The results of this test were of great value and were used in identifying transformer overload limitations, in evaluating loading guide oil and winding equations, exponents and time constants, and in helping to perfect a factory overload test procedure.

  18. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  19. Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) senses shifts in the relationship between voltage and current, and matches them with a motor's need. This prevents waste as motors do not need a high voltage when they are not operating at full load conditions. PFC is manufactured by Nordic Controls Company, among others, and has proved extremely cost effective.

  20. Power Trains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukuk, Marvin; Mathis, Joe

    This curriculum guide is part of a series designed to teach students about diesel engines. The materials in this power trains guide apply to both on-road and off-road vehicles and include information about chain and belt drives used in tractors and combines. These instructional materials, containing nine units, are written in terms of student…

  1. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  2. Power, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2011-01-01

    Power is a core theoretical construct in the field with amazing utility across substantive areas, levels of analysis and methodologies. Yet, its use along with associated assumptions--assumptions surrounding constraint vs. action and specifically organizational structure and rationality--remain problematic. In this article, and following an…

  3. Power Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    California's "power struggle" will probably not be replicated in the other 23 states that have deregulated electricity, but costs are rising everywhere. The Environmental Protection Agency/Department of Energy's new Energy Star online rating system should help school officials measure their buildings' efficiency and remove barriers to…

  4. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  5. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  6. Large-Signal Code TESLA: Current Status and Recent Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    K.Eppley, J.J.Petillo, “ High - power four cavity S - band multiple- beam klystron design”, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. , vol. 32, pp. 1119-1135, June 2004. 4...advances in the development of the large-signal code TESLA, mainly used for the modeling of high - power single- beam and multiple-beam klystron ...amplifiers. Keywords: large-signal code; multiple-beam klystrons ; serial and parallel versions. Introduction The optimization and design of new high power

  7. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  8. Test facilities for high power electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Vetrone, Robert H.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Myers, Roger M.; Parkes, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Electric propulsion has applications for orbit raising, maneuvering of large space systems, and interplanetary missions. These missions involve propulsion power levels from tenths to tens of megawatts, depending upon the application. General facility requirements for testing high power electric propulsion at the component and thrust systems level are defined. The characteristics and pumping capabilities of many large vacuum chambers in the United States are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high power electric propulsion testing.

  9. PV large systems project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    Near term photovoltaic central-station markets are analyzed. Cost effectiveness of photovoltaic plants is determined in terms of reduction of oil consumption. The breakeven photovoltaic system cost vs oil-steam power generation is given. The value of photovoltaic power plants in Southern California and in Los Angelos is given in terms of fuel savings and capacity value. The potential value of third party financing, facilitated by Federal and state tax incentives is analyzed.

  10. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  11. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  12. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  13. Power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter employs four transistor switches in a bridge to chop dc power from a source, and a voltage multiplying diode rectifying ladder network to rectify and filter the chopped dc power for delivery to a load. The bridge switches are cross coupled in order for diagonally opposite pairs to turn on and off together using RC networks for the cross coupling to achieve the mode of operation of a free running multivibrator, and the diode rectifying ladder is configured to operate in a push-pull mode driven from opposite sides of the multivibrator outputs of the ridge switches. The four transistor switches provide a square-wave output voltage which as a peak-to-peak amplitude that is twice the input dc voltage, and is thus useful as a dc-to-ac inverter.

  14. Stigma Power

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo

    2015-01-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource “stigma power” and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987; 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or “misrecognized.” To explore the utility of the stigma power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed –precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

  15. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  16. Chapter 11: Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Generation and Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) power generation is a relatively new type of renewable generation. Predecessors such as wind power generation, hydropower plant generation, geothermal generation, photovoltaic generation, and solar thermal generation have gained a lot of attention because of their successful implementation. The successful integration of renewable generation into the electric power grid has energized the power system global communities to take the lessons learned, innovations, and market structure to focus on the large potential of MHK to also contribute to the pool of renewable energy generation. This chapter covers the broad spectrum of MHK generation. The state-of-the-art power takeoffmore » methods will be discussed. Types of electrical generators will be presented, and the options for implementation will be presented.« less

  17. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government . IRB protocol number ____N/A____. 12a...economic power status, since the country is also a member of the Group of 8 (G-8), a forum for the governments of the world’s eight most powerful economies...English. This may pose methodological problems since the author will be relying largely on data published by the Brazilian government . Even with this

  18. Mobile Centers For Secondary Power Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    Concept for distribution of 60-Hz ac power in large building devoted to assembly and testing of equipment improves safety, reduces number of outlets and lengthy cables, and readily accommodates frequent changes in operations and configuration. Power from floor recess fed via unobtrusive cable to portable power management center. A cart containing variety of outlets and circuit breakers, wheeled to convenient location near equipment to be assembled or tested. Power distribution system presents larger range of operational configurations than fixed location. Meets tighter standards to feed computers and delicate instruments. Industrial-grade power suitable for power tools and other hardware. Three-phase and single-phase outlets available from each.

  19. Potential converter for laser-power beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Williams, Michael D.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Iles, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions, such as those associated with the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), will require large amounts of power for operation of bases, rovers, and orbit transfer vehicles. One method for supplying this power is to beam power from a spaced based or Earth based laser power station to a receiver where laser photons can be converted to electricity. Previous research has described such laser power stations orbiting the Moon and beaming power to a receiver on the surface of the Moon by using arrays of diode lasers. Photovoltaic converters that can be efficiently used with these diode lasers are described.

  20. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  1. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless power transmission within a given working area is required or enabling for many NASA Exploration Systems. Fields of application include robotics, habitats, autonomous rendezvous and docking, life support, EVA, and many others. In robotics applications, for example, the robots must move in the working area without being hampered by power cables and, meanwhile, obtain a continuous and constant power from a power transmitter. The development of modern technology for transmitting electric power over free space has been studied for several decades, but its use in a system has been mainly limited to low power, 1-2 Vdc output voltage at a transmission distance of few meters for which relatively less than 0.5 mW/cm2 is required (e.g., Radio frequency identification RFID). Most of the rectenna conversion efficiency research to date has concentrated in low GHz frequency range of 2.45 to 10 GHz, with some work at 35 GHz. However, for space application, atmospheric adsorbtion is irrelevant and higher frequency systems with smaller transmit and receive apertures may be appropriate. For high power, most of the work on rectennas has concentrated on optimizing the conversion efficiency of the microwave rectifier element; the highest power demonstrated was 35 kW of power over a distance of 1.5 km. The objective of this paper is to establish the manner in which a very large number of very low power microwave devices can be synchronized to provide a beam of microwaves that can be used to efficiently and safely transport a significant amount of power to a remote location where it can be converted to dc (or ac) power by a ``rectenna.'' The proposed system is based on spatial power combining of the outputs of a large number of devices synchronized by mutual injection locking. We have demonstrated at JPL that such power could be achieved by combining 25 sources in a configuration that allows for convenient steering of the resulting beam of microwaves. Retrodirective beam

  2. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  3. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific ... the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) provide an example of very large scale closed cells, and can be contrasted with the  ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  4. Large Print Bibliography, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    This bibliography lists materials that are available in large print format from the South Dakota State Library. The annotated entries are printed in large print and include the title of the material and its author, call number, publication date, and type of story or subject area covered. Some recorded items are included in the list. The entries…

  5. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  6. Large bowel resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  7. Big power from walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illenberger, Patrin K.; Madawala, Udaya K.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Generators (DEG) offer an opportunity to capture the energy otherwise wasted from human motion. By integrating a DEG into the heel of standard footwear, it is possible to harness this energy to power portable devices. DEGs require substantial auxiliary systems which are commonly large, heavy and inefficient. A unique challenge for these low power generators is the combination of high voltage and low current. A void exists in the semiconductor market for devices that can meet these requirements. Until these become available, existing devices must be used in an innovative way to produce an effective DEG system. Existing systems such as the Bi-Directional Flyback (BDFB) and Self Priming Circuit (SPC) are an excellent example of this. The BDFB allows full charging and discharging of the DEG, improving power gained. The SPC allows fully passive voltage boosting, removing the priming source and simplifying the electronics. This paper outlines the drawbacks and benefits of active and passive electronic solutions for maximizing power from walking.

  8. Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) concept, under evaluation by NASA since 1974, is discussed. A typical system providing a total of 10,000 MW of electrical power to the ground receiving stations is considered. Energy conversion systems, including the photovoltaic device category using single-crystal silicon cells, are taken into account, as are the 2.45-GHz microwave power-transmission link and the ground receiver (or rectenna). Concepts involving space construction of the satellite's large structures (5 x 25 km) are described, noting that a process similar to the familiar roll-forming of light sheet metal parts has been adapted to the space environment. Transportation vehicles are discussed, including the Space Shuttle planned to reach 60 flights per year by the mid 1980's. Electrical power forecasts and advanced systems cost projections are analyzed, together with a description of costs estimates. The indirect economics of energy research and development, and the present NASA/DOE SPS program are noted.

  9. Learning to build large structures in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, T.; Patterson, H. G.; Nathan, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines some of the key technologies and forms of construction know-how that will have to be developed and tested for eventual application to building large structures in space. Construction of a shuttle-tended space construction/demonstration platform would comprehensively demonstrate large structure technology, develop construction capability, and furnish a construction platform for a variety of operational large structures. Completion of this platform would lead to demonstrations of the Satellite Power System (SPS) concept, including microwave transmission, fabrication of 20-m-deep beams, conductor installation, rotary joint installation, and solar blanket installation.

  10. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  11. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  12. Reinventing the Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Economy of scale is inherent in the microwave power transmission aperture/spot-size trade-off, resulting in a requirement for large space systems in the existing design concepts. Unfortunately, this large size means that the initial investment required before the first return, and the price of amortization of this initial investment, is a daunting (and perhaps insurmountable) barrier to economic viability. As the growth of ground-based solar power applications will fund the development of the PV technology required for space solar power and will also create the demand for space solar power by manufacturing a ready-made market, space power systems must be designed with an understanding that ground-based solar technologies will be implemented as a precursor to space-based solar. for low initial cost, (3) operation in synergy with ground solar systems, and (4) power production profile tailored to peak rates. A key to simplicity of design is to maximize the integration of the system components. Microwave, millimeter-wave, and laser systems are analyzed. A new solar power satellite design concept with no sun-tracking and no moving parts is proposed to reduce the required cost to initial operational capability.

  13. Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The device called the Power Factor Controller (PFC) offers exceptional energy conservation potential by virtue of its ability to sense shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow, and to match them with the motor's need. Originating from the solar heating/cooling program, the PFC senses a light load, it cuts the voltage level to the minimum needed which in turn reduces current flow and heat loss. Laboratory tests showed that the PFC could reduce power used by six to eight percent under normal motor loads, and as much as 65 percent when the motor was idling. Over 150 companies have been granted NASA licenses for commercial use of this technology. One system that utilizes this technology is the Vectrol Energy System, (VES) produced by Vectrol, Inc. a subsidiary of Westinghouse. The VES is being used at Woodward & Lothrop, on their escalators. Energy use is regulated according to how many people are on the escalator at any time. It is estimated that the energy savings are between 30 to 40 percent.

  14. Snaring large serrated polyps.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jennifer; Kalady, Matthew F; Church, James

    2013-05-01

    Serrated polyps of the large bowel are potentially premalignant, difficult to see, but important to remove. Few studies describe the technique or outcomes of serrated polypectomy. We sought to present outcomes of a series of polypectomies of large serrated polyps in comparison to a series of endoscopic resections of large adenomas. This retrospective, comparative, single endoscopist study was performed in an outpatient colonoscopy department of a tertiary referral medical center. Patients had outpatient colonoscopy where a large (≥2 cm) serrated polyp or adenoma was removed. Outcomes were completeness of excision and complications of polypectomy. A database of endoscopic polypectomies was reviewed. Polypectomy of large serrated polyps was compared with polypectomy of large adenomas. There were 132 large serrated polyps in 112 patients and 563 adenomas in 428 patients. More serrated polyps were right sided (120 of 130, 92.3 %, vs. 379 of 563, 67 %) (p < 0.0001). The serrated polyps were smaller than the adenomas (mean 25.5 ± 7.9 mm standard deviation) versus 36.8 ± 16.9 mm standard deviation (p < 0.001). There were four complications of serrated polypectomy in four patients (4 % of polyps, 5 % of patients): three postpolypectomy bleeds and one postpolypectomy syndrome. There were 33 complications of adenoma removal (31 postpolypectomy bleeding and two postpolypectomy syndrome) (6.9 % of polyps, p = 0.376, 8.4 % of patients, p = 0.371). On follow-up, 36 of 51 patients (71 %) with serrated polyps had metachronous lesions compared to 133 of 298 patients (45 %) with adenomas (p < 0.0001). There were fewer residual polyps in the serrated group (4 of 47 vs. 64 of 298, p = 0.001). Removal of large serrated colorectal polyps is no more complicated than polypectomy of similarly sized adenomas. However, large serrated polyps have a higher rate of metachronous polyps than similarly sized adenomas and surveillance should be adapted to reflect these findings.

  15. Model of large pool fires.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2006-08-21

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables.

  16. Solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the Sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  17. Environmental effects and large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  18. Generically large nongaussianity in small multifield inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bramante, Joseph

    If forthcoming measurements of cosmic photon polarization restrict the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio to r<0.01, small field inflation will be a principal candidate for the origin of the universe. Here we show that small multifield inflation, without the hybrid mechanism, typically results in large squeezed nongaussianity. Small multifield potentials contain multiple flat field directions, often identified with the gauge invariant field directions in supersymmetric potentials. We find that unless these field directions have equal slopes, large nongaussianity arises. After identifying relevant differences between large and small two-field potentials, we demonstrate that the latter naturally fulfill the Byrnes-Choi-Hall large nongaussianity conditions. Computationsmore » of the primordial power spectrum, spectral index, and squeezed bispectrum, reveal that small two-field models which otherwise match observed primordial perturbations, produce excludably large nongaussianity if the inflatons’ field directions have unequal slopes.« less

  19. Generically large nongaussianity in small multifield inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bramante, Joseph, E-mail: josephbramante@gmail.com

    If forthcoming measurements of cosmic photon polarization restrict the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio to r < 0.01, small field inflation will be a principal candidate for the origin of the universe. Here we show that small multifield inflation, without the hybrid mechanism, typically results in large squeezed nongaussianity. Small multifield potentials contain multiple flat field directions, often identified with the gauge invariant field directions in supersymmetric potentials. We find that unless these field directions have equal slopes, large nongaussianity arises. After identifying relevant differences between large and small two-field potentials, we demonstrate that the latter naturally fulfill the Byrnes-Choi-Hall large nongaussianity conditions. Computationsmore » of the primordial power spectrum, spectral index, and squeezed bispectrum, reveal that small two-field models which otherwise match observed primordial perturbations, produce excludably large nongaussianity if the inflatons' field directions have unequal slopes.« less

  20. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccot, Sila

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  1. Large native ungulates

    Treesearch

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter addresses the large native ungulates (American bison (Bos bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the grasslands. The information presented includes...

  2. Temporary large guide signs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    A common issue during phased highway construction projects is the need to temporarily relocate : large guide signs on the roadside or install new guide signs for temporary use. The conventional concrete : foundations used for these signs are costly a...

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov Websites

    Home Mission Instrument Institutions Publications NASA Pictures Internal lock The Fermi Large Area Monitor (GBM). Wikipedia Country Funding Agencies United States NASA; Department of Energy France

  4. Large Scale Magnetostrictive Valve Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A.; Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Valves, Actuators and Ducts Design and Development Branch developed a large scale magnetostrictive valve actuator. The potential advantages of this technology are faster, more efficient valve actuators that consume less power and provide precise position control and deliver higher flow rates than conventional solenoid valves. Magnetostrictive materials change dimensions when a magnetic field is applied; this property is referred to as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is caused by the alignment of the magnetic domains in the material s crystalline structure and the applied magnetic field lines. Typically, the material changes shape by elongating in the axial direction and constricting in the radial direction, resulting in no net change in volume. All hardware and testing is complete. This paper will discuss: the potential applications of the technology; overview of the as built actuator design; discuss problems that were uncovered during the development testing; review test data and evaluate weaknesses of the design; and discuss areas for improvement for future work. This actuator holds promises of a low power, high load, proportionally controlled actuator for valves requiring 440 to 1500 newtons load.

  5. Power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  6. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  7. Warm Dense Matter: Another Application for Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to...controlled than are similar high explosively powered hydrodynamic experiments. While the precision and controllability of gas- gun experiments is...well established, pulsed power techniques using imploding liner offer access to convergent conditions, difficult to obtain with guns – and essential

  8. Diode amplifier of modulated optical beam power

    SciTech Connect

    D'yachkov, N V; Bogatov, A P; Gushchik, T I

    2014-11-30

    Analytical relations are obtained between characteristics of modulated light at the output and input of an optical diode power amplifier operating in the highly saturated gain regime. It is shown that a diode amplifier may act as an amplitude-to-phase modulation converter with a rather large bandwidth (∼10 GHz). The low sensitivity of the output power of the amplifier to the input beam power and its high energy efficiency allow it to be used as a building block of a high-power multielement laser system with coherent summation of a large number of optical beams. (lasers)

  9. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  10. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  11. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  12. Synchronous orbit power technology needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifer, L. W., Jr.; Billerbeck, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The needs are defined for future geosynchronous orbit spacecraft power subsystem components, including power generation, energy storage, and power processing. A review of the rapid expansion of the satellite communications field provides a basis for projection into the future. Three projected models, a mission model, an orbit transfer vehicle model, and a mass model for power subsystem components are used to define power requirements and mass limitations for future spacecraft. Based upon these three models, the power subsystems for a 10 kw, 10 year life, dedicated spacecraft and for a 20 kw, 20 year life, multi-mission platform are analyzed in further detail to establish power density requirements for the generation, storage and processing components of power subsystems as related to orbit transfer vehicle capabilities. Comparison of these requirements to state of the art design values shows that major improvements, by a factor of 2 or more, are needed to accomplish the near term missions. However, with the advent of large transfer vehicles, these requirements are significantly reduced, leaving the long lifetime requirement, associated with reliability and/or refurbishment, as the primary development need. A few technology advances, currently under development, are noted with regard to their impacts on future capability.

  13. Control of large wind turbine generators connected to utility networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    This is an investigation of the control requirements for variable pitch wind turbine generators connected to electric power systems. The requirements include operation in very small as well as very large power systems. Control systems are developed for wind turbines with synchronous, induction, and doubly fed generators. Simulation results are presented. It is shown how wind turbines and power system controls can be integrated. A clear distinction is made between fast control of turbine torque, which is a peculiarity of wind turbines, and slow control of electric power, which is a traditional power system requirement.

  14. A programmable power processor for high power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.; Kapustka, R. E.; Bush, J. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A Programmable Power Processor (P3) has been developed for application in future large space power systems. The P3 is capable of operation over a wide range of input voltage (26 to 375 Vdc) and output voltage (24 to 180 Vdc). The peak output power capability is 18 kW (180 V at 100 A). The output characteristics of the P3 can be programmed to any voltage and/or current level within the limits of the processor and may be controlled as a function of internal or external parameters. Seven breadboard P3s and one 'flight-type' engineering model P3 have been built and tested both individually and in electrical power systems. The programmable feature allows the P3 to be used in a variety of applications by changing the output characteristics. Test results, including efficiency at various input/output combinations, transient response, and output impedance, are presented.

  15. Intelligent power management in a vehicular system with multiple power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Yi L.; Chen, ZhiHang; Kiliaris, Leonidas; Masrur, M. Abul

    This paper presents an optimal online power management strategy applied to a vehicular power system that contains multiple power sources and deals with largely fluctuated load requests. The optimal online power management strategy is developed using machine learning and fuzzy logic. A machine learning algorithm has been developed to learn the knowledge about minimizing power loss in a Multiple Power Sources and Loads (M_PS&LD) system. The algorithm exploits the fact that different power sources used to deliver a load request have different power losses under different vehicle states. The machine learning algorithm is developed to train an intelligent power controller, an online fuzzy power controller, FPC_MPS, that has the capability of finding combinations of power sources that minimize power losses while satisfying a given set of system and component constraints during a drive cycle. The FPC_MPS was implemented in two simulated systems, a power system of four power sources, and a vehicle system of three power sources. Experimental results show that the proposed machine learning approach combined with fuzzy control is a promising technology for intelligent vehicle power management in a M_PS&LD power system.

  16. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  17. On the Post Hoc Power in Testing Mean Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Maxwell, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective or post hoc power analysis is recommended by reviewers and editors of many journals. Little literature has been found that gave a serious study of the post hoc power. When the sample size is large, the observed effect size is a good estimator of the true power. This article studies whether such a power estimator provides valuable…

  18. The Ames Power Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osetinsky, Leonid; Wang, David

    2003-01-01

    The Ames Power Monitoring System (APMS) is a centralized system of power meters, computer hardware, and specialpurpose software that collects and stores electrical power data by various facilities at Ames Research Center (ARC). This system is needed because of the large and varying nature of the overall ARC power demand, which has been observed to range from 20 to 200 MW. Large portions of peak demand can be attributed to only three wind tunnels (60, 180, and 100 MW, respectively). The APMS helps ARC avoid or minimize costly demand charges by enabling wind-tunnel operators, test engineers, and the power manager to monitor total demand for center in real time. These persons receive the information they need to manage and schedule energy-intensive research in advance and to adjust loads in real time to ensure that the overall maximum allowable demand is not exceeded. The APMS (see figure) includes a server computer running the Windows NT operating system and can, in principle, include an unlimited number of power meters and client computers. As configured at the time of reporting the information for this article, the APMS includes more than 40 power meters monitoring all the major research facilities, plus 15 Windows-based client personal computers that display real-time and historical data to users via graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The power meters and client computers communicate with the server using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) on Ethernet networks, variously, through dedicated fiber-optic cables or through the pre-existing ARC local-area network (ARCLAN). The APMS has enabled ARC to achieve significant savings ($1.2 million in 2001) in the cost of power and electric energy by helping personnel to maintain total demand below monthly allowable levels, to manage the overall power factor to avoid low power factor penalties, and to use historical system data to identify opportunities for additional energy savings. The APMS also

  19. HISTOTRIPSY LIQUEFACTION OF LARGE HEMATOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Khlokhova, Tatiana D.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Haider, Yasser A.; Maxwell, Adam; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15–20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms—fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. PMID:27126244

  20. Large Prominence Eruption [video

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-07

    The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs. Credit: NASA/Goddard/STEREO The STEREO (Behind) spacecraft captured this large prominence and corona mass ejection as they erupted into space (Sept. 26, 2014). By combining images from three instruments, scientists can see the eruption itself (in extreme UV light) as well as follow its progression over the period of about 13 hours with its two coronagraphs.

  1. Power Management and Distribution System Developed for Thermionic Power Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, Anastacio N.

    1998-01-01

    A spacecraft solar, bimodal system combines propulsion and power generation into a single integrated system. An Integrated Solar Upper Stage (ISUS) provides orbital transfer capabilities, power generation for payloads, and onboard propulsion to the spacecraft. A key benefit of a bimodal system is a greater payload-to-spacecraft mass ratio resulting in lower launch vehicle requirements. Scaling down to smaller launch vehicles increases space access by reducing overall mission cost. NASA has joined efforts with the Air Force Phillips Laboratory to develop enabling technologies for such a system. The NASA/Air Force bimodal concept uses solar concentrators to focus energy into an integrated power plant. This power plant consists of a graphite core that stores thermal energy within a cavity. An array of thermionic converters encircles the graphite cavity and provides electrical energy conversion functions. During the power generation phase of the bimodal system, the thermionic converters are exposed to the heated cavity and convert the thermal energy to electricity. Near-term efforts of the ISUS bimodal program are focused on a ground demonstration of key technologies in order to proceed to a full space flight test. Thermionic power generation is one key technology of the bimodal concept. Thermionic power converters impose unique operating requirements upon a power management and distribution (PMAD) system design. Single thermionic converters supply large currents at very low voltages. Operating voltages can vary over a range of up to 3 to 1 as a function of operating temperature. Most spacecraft loads require regulated 28-volts direct-current (Vdc) power. A combination of series-connected converters and powerprocessing boosters is required to deliver power to the spacecraft's payloads at this level.

  2. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  3. Neutrino footprint in large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Carlos Peña; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2017-03-01

    Recent constrains on the sum of neutrino masses inferred by analyzing cosmological data, show that detecting a non-zero neutrino mass is within reach of forthcoming cosmological surveys. Such a measurement will imply a direct determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale. Physically, the measurement relies on constraining the shape of the matter power spectrum below the neutrino free streaming scale: massive neutrinos erase power at these scales. However, detection of a lack of small-scale power from cosmological data could also be due to a host of other effects. It is therefore of paramount importance to validate neutrinos as the source of power suppression at small scales. We show that, independent on hierarchy, neutrinos always show a footprint on large, linear scales; the exact location and properties are fully specified by the measured power suppression (an astrophysical measurement) and atmospheric neutrinos mass splitting (a neutrino oscillation experiment measurement). This feature cannot be easily mimicked by systematic uncertainties in the cosmological data analysis or modifications in the cosmological model. Therefore the measurement of such a feature, up to 1% relative change in the power spectrum for extreme differences in the mass eigenstates mass ratios, is a smoking gun for confirming the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale from cosmological observations. It also demonstrates the synergy between astrophysics and particle physics experiments.

  4. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  5. Risks of Large Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Shi, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The risk of a large portfolio is often estimated by substituting a good estimator of the volatility matrix. However, the accuracy of such a risk estimator is largely unknown. We study factor-based risk estimators under a large amount of assets, and introduce a high-confidence level upper bound (H-CLUB) to assess the estimation. The H-CLUB is constructed using the confidence interval of risk estimators with either known or unknown factors. We derive the limiting distribution of the estimated risks in high dimensionality. We find that when the dimension is large, the factor-based risk estimators have the same asymptotic variance no matter whether the factors are known or not, which is slightly smaller than that of the sample covariance-based estimator. Numerically, H-CLUB outperforms the traditional crude bounds, and provides an insightful risk assessment. In addition, our simulated results quantify the relative error in the risk estimation, which is usually negligible using 3-month daily data. PMID:26195851

  6. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  7. Large Brown Oval

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This large brown oval, photographed on Mar. 2, 1979 by NASA Voyager 1. Features of this sort are not rare on Jupiter and have an average lifetime of one to two years. Above the feature is the pale orange North Temperate Belt. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00015

  8. Large Scale Traffic Simulations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computation speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated "looping" between t...

  9. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  10. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  11. Space Shuttle power extension package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Craig, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    A modification kit for the Space Transportation System (STS) Orbiter is proposed to provide more power and mission duration for payloads. The power extension package (PEP), a flexible-substrate solar array deployed on the Space Shuttle Orbiter remote manipulator system, can provide as much as 29 kW total power for durations of 10 to 48 days. The kit is installed only for those flights which require enhanced power or duration. The PEP is made possible by development of the flexible-substrate array technology and, in itself, contributes to the technology base for the use of large area solar cells. Modifications to the Orbiter thermal control and life support systems to improve heat balance and to reduce consumables are proposed. The changes consist of repositioning the Orbiter forward radiators and replacing the lithium hydroxide scrubber with a regenerable solid amine.

  12. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  13. Solar thermal power generation. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Bibliographies and abstracts are cited under the following topics: (1) energy overviews; (2) solar overviews; (3) conservation; (4) economics, law; (5) thermal power; (6) thermionic, thermoelectric; (7) ocean; (8) wind power; (9) biomass and photochemical; and (10) large photovoltaics.

  14. Point-Focusing Solar-Power Distributed Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Two-volume annual report describes development work aimed at achieving large-scale production of modular, point-focusing distributed receivers (PFDR's) for solar-powered generation of electricity or thermal power for industrial use.

  15. Communication architecture for large geostationary platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Large platforms have been proposed for supporting multipurpose communication payloads to exploit economy of scale, reduce congestion in the geostationary orbit, provide interconnectivity between diverse earth stations, and obtain significant frequency reuse with large multibeam antennas. This paper addresses a specific system design, starting with traffic projections in the next two decades and discussing tradeoffs and design approaches for major components including: antennas, transponders, and switches. Other issues explored are selection of frequency bands, modulation, multiple access, switching methods, and techniques for servicing areas with nonuniform traffic demands. Three-major services are considered: a high-volume trunking system, a direct-to-user system, and a broadcast system for video distribution and similar functions. Estimates of payload weight and d.c. power requirements are presented. Other subjects treated are: considerations of equipment layout for servicing by an orbit transfer vehicle, mechanical stability requirements for the large antennas, and reliability aspects of the large number of transponders employed.

  16. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov Websites

    current processes. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL A photo of a researcher in safety glasses using a large focus in NREL's power electronics and electric machines labs. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Heat

  17. Power control and management of the grid containing largescale wind power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aula, Fadhil Toufick

    The ever increasing demand for electricity has driven many countries toward the installation of new generation facilities. However, concerns such as environmental pollution and global warming issues, clean energy sources, high costs associated with installation of new conventional power plants, and fossil fuels depletion have created many interests in finding alternatives to conventional fossil fuels for generating electricity. Wind energy is one of the most rapidly growing renewable power sources and wind power generations have been increasingly demanded as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed. Therefore, large-scale integration of wind energy conversion systems is a threat to the stability and reliability of utility grids containing these systems. They disturb the balance between power generation and consumption, affect the quality of the electricity, and complicate load sharing and load distribution managing and planning. Overall, wind power systems do not help in providing any services such as operating and regulating reserves to the power grid. In order to resolve these issues, research has been conducted in utilizing weather forecasting data to improve the performance of the wind power system, reduce the influence of the fluctuations, and plan power management of the grid containing large-scale wind power systems which consist of doubly-fed induction generator based energy conversion system. The aims of this research, my dissertation, are to provide new methods for: smoothing the output power of the wind power systems and reducing the influence of their fluctuations, power managing and planning of a grid containing these systems and other conventional power plants, and providing a new structure of implementing of latest microprocessor technology for controlling and managing the operation of the wind power system. In this research, in order to reduce and smooth the fluctuations, two

  18. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  19. Frequency control of wind turbine in power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huawei

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve the stability of the overall frequency of the power system, automatic power generation control and secondary frequency adjustment were applied. Automatic power generation control was introduced into power generation planning. A dual-fed wind generator power regulation model suitable for secondary frequency regulation was established. The results showed that this method satisfied the basic requirements of frequency regulation control of large-scale wind power access power systems and improved the stability and reliability of power system operation. Therefore, this system frequency control method and strategy is relatively simple. The effect is significant. The system frequency can quickly reach a steady state. It is worth applying and promoting.

  20. Large calcified subdural empyema.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S; Mazumder, U; Chowdhury, D; Dey, S K; Hossain, M; Nag, U K; Riaz, B K

    2012-04-01

    Subdural empyema is a known disease entity; however, calcified subdural empyema is uncommon. The authors present a case of an 11-year-old boy in whom there was diagnosed a chronic calcified subdural empyema 10 years after an attack of meningitis. The patient had suffered from generalized tonic clonic seizures occurring 2-6 times in a month. A large fronto-temporo-parietal craniotomy was carried out and the subdural empyema filled with numerous uncharacteristic tissue fragments with thick pus together with the partially calcified and ossified capsule was removed. The empyema mass was found to be sterile for bacteria. After the operation, no epileptic seizure occurred and the boy is on sodium valporate. We must emphasize the unusual occurrence of the chronic subdural empyema presenting with calcification-ossification and large size as observed in our case.

  1. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    PubMed

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  2. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    PubMed

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  3. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  4. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  5. Unusually Large Runup Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Medina, G.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Holman, R. A.; Ruggiero, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the primary hydrodynamic processes that cause extreme runup events is important for the prediction of dune erosion and coastal flooding. Large runups may be caused by a superposition of physical and environmental conditions, bore-bore capture, infragravity-short wave interaction, and/or swash-backwash interaction. To investigate the conditions leading to these events we combine optical remote sensing observations (Argus) and state-of-the-art phase resolving numerical modeling (primarily NHWAVE). We evaluate runup time series derived from across-shore transects of pixel intensities in two very different beaches: Agate (Oregon, USA) and Duck (North Carolina, USA). The former is a dissipative beach where the runup is dominated by infragravity energy, whereas the latter is a reflective beach where the runup is dominated by short surface gravity waves. Phase resolving numerical models are implemented to explore an expanded parameter set and identify the mechanisms that control these large runups. Model results are in good qualitative agreement with observations. We also distinguish unexpected runups, which are defined by having an unexpectedly large excursion distance in comparison to the hourly-to-daily local runup conditions and do not necessarily represent a statistical extrema. These events pose significant safety hazards. We evaluate the relative contribution of the dominating physics to extreme and unexpected runup events.

  6. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE PAGES

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; ...

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  7. Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

  8. Power in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-09-06

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people's natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants' affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power's effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power's effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power.

  9. Research on wind power grid-connected operation and dispatching strategies of Liaoning power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qiu; Qu, Zhi; Zhou, Zhi; He, Xiaoyang; Li, Tie; Jin, Xiaoming; Li, Jinze; Ling, Zhaowei

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of clean energy, wind power has gained rapid development in recent years. Liaoning Province has abundant wind resources and the total installed capacity of wind power is in the forefront. With the large-scale wind power grid-connected operation, the contradiction between wind power utilization and peak load regulation of power grid has been more prominent. To this point, starting with the power structure and power grid installation situation of Liaoning power grid, the distribution and the space-time output characteristics of wind farm, the prediction accuracy, the curtailment and the off-grid situation of wind power are analyzed. Based on the deep analysis of the seasonal characteristics of power network load, the composition and distribution of main load are presented. Aiming at the problem between the acceptance of wind power and power grid adjustment, the scheduling strategies are given, including unit maintenance scheduling, spinning reserve, energy storage equipment settings by the analysis of the operation characteristics and the response time of thermal power units and hydroelectric units, which can meet the demand of wind power acceptance and provide a solution to improve the level of power grid dispatching.

  10. Estimating the impacts of wind power on power systems—summary of IEA Wind collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holttinen, Hannele

    2008-04-01

    Adding wind power to power systems will have beneficial impacts by reducing the emissions of electricity production and reducing the operational costs of the power system as less fuel is consumed in conventional power plants. Wind power will also have a capacity value to a power system. However, possible negative impacts will have to be assessed to make sure that they will only offset a small part of the benefits and also to ensure the security of the power system operation. An international forum for the exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The Task 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' is analyzing existing case studies from different power systems. There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper describes the general issues of wind power impacts on power systems and presents a comparison of results from ten case studies on increased balancing needs due to wind power.

  11. Large, Windblown Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-447, 9 August 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the plethora of large, windblown ripples (or small dunes) among wind-sculpted sedimentary rocks in eastern Candor Chasma. Candor Chasma is one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris, a system of chasms that would stretch all the way across North America if it were on Earth. This picture is located near 7.9oS, 64.9oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  12. Large Ripples in Cerberus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 May 2004 Mars is a desert planet, upon which wind has a great influence on the expression of its surface materials. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large ripples (or small dunes) of windblown sediment among hills in the southeastern Cerberus region near 11.0oN, 199.5oW. Ripple orientations vary throughout the scene, indicating that dominant winds are influenced by the interplay of wind and local topographic features such as craters and hills. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  13. Large Windblown Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-519, 20 October 2003

    This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows a depression in the martian southern cratered highlands near 1.3oS, 244.3oW. The floor of the depression and some nearby craters are covered by large windblown ripples or small sand dunes. This image of ancient martian terrain covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  14. Large, Bright Wind Ripples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-397, 20 June 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, relatively bright ripples of windblown sediment in the Sinus Sabaeus region south of Schiaparelli Basin. The surrounding substrate is thickly mantled by very dark material, possibly windblown silt that settled out of the atmosphere. The picture is located near 7.1oS, 343.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  15. Large space structures testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, Henry; Worley, H. Eugene

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of testing concepts and facilities that accurately simulate the pathologies believed to exist in future spacecraft. Both the Government and Industry have participated in the development of facilities over the past several years. The progress and problems associated with the development of the Large Space Structure Test Facility at the Marshall Flight Center are presented. This facility was in existence for a number of years and its utilization has run the gamut from total in-house involvement, third party contractor testing, to the mutual participation of other goverment agencies in joint endeavors.

  16. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Majority of very large potential benefits of wide band gap semiconductor power electronics have NOT been realized due in large part to high cost and high defect density of commercial wafers. Despite 20 years of development, present SiC wafer growth approach is yet to deliver majority of SiC's inherent performance and cost benefits to power systems. Commercial SiC power devices are significantly de-rated in order to function reliably due to the adverse effects of SiC crystal dislocation defects (thousands per sq cm) in the SiC wafer.

  17. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  18. Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, Mike; Downie, Bruce

    2013-10-21

    Ocean wave power can be a significant source of large‐scale, renewable energy for the US electrical grid. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) conservatively estimated that 20% of all US electricity could be generated by wave energy. Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. (OPT), with funding from private sources and the US Navy, developed the PowerBuoy to generate renewable energy from the readily available power in ocean waves. OPT's PowerBuoy converts the energy in ocean waves to electricity using the rise and fall of waves to move the buoy up and down (mechanical stroking) which drives an electric generator. This electricity ismore » then conditioned and transmitted ashore as high‐voltage power via underwater cable. OPT's wave power generation system includes sophisticated techniques to automatically tune the system for efficient conversion of random wave energy into low cost green electricity, for disconnecting the system in large waves for hardware safety and protection, and for automatically restoring operation when wave conditions normalize. As the first utility scale wave power project in the US, the Wave Power Demonstration Project at Reedsport, OR, will consist of 10 PowerBuoys located 2.5 miles off the coast. This U.S. Department of Energy Grant funding along with funding from PNGC Power, an Oregon‐based electric power cooperative, was utilized for the design completion, fabrication, assembly and factory testing of the first PowerBuoy for the Reedsport project. At this time, the design and fabrication of this first PowerBuoy and factory testing of the power take‐off subsystem are complete; additionally the power take‐off subsystem has been successfully integrated into the spar.« less

  19. Wireless power delivery for retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ng, David C; Williams, Chris E; Allen, Penny J; Bai, Shun; Boyd, Clive S; Meffin, Hamish; Halpern, Mark E; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Delivering power to an implanted device located deep inside the body is not trivial. This problem is made more challenging if the implanted device is in constant motion. This paper describes two methods of transferring power wirelessly by means of magnetic induction coupling. In the first method, a pair of transmit and receive coils is used for power transfer over a large distance (compared to their diameter). In the second method, an intermediate pair of coils is inserted in between transmit and receive coils. Comparison between the power transfer efficiency with and without the intermediate coils shows power transfer efficiency to be 11.5 % and 8.8 %, respectively. The latter method is especially suitable for powering implanted devices in the eye due to immunity to movements of the eye and ease of surgery. Using this method, we have demonstrated wireless power delivery into an animal eye.

  20. Control of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gran, R.; Rossi, M.; Moyer, H. G.; Austin, F.

    1979-01-01

    The control of large space structures was studied to determine what, if any, limitations are imposed on the size of spacecraft which may be controlled using current control system design technology. Using a typical structure in the 35 to 70 meter size category, a control system design that used actuators that are currently available was designed. The amount of control power required to maintain the vehicle in a stabilized gravity gradient pointing orientation that also damped various structural motions was determined. The moment of inertia and mass properties of this structure were varied to verify that stability and performance were maintained. The study concludes that the structure's size is required to change by at least a factor of two before any stability problems arise. The stability margin that is lost is due to the scaling of the gravity gradient torques (the rigid body control) and as such can easily be corrected by changing the control gains associated with the rigid body control. A secondary conclusion from the study is that the control design that accommodates the structural motions (to damp them) is a little more sensitive than the design that works on attitude control of the rigid body only.